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pl e Sa m g in ew Vi Written by Dr Sheila Twine 0374窶的RE

Published by Prim-Ed Publishing


Foreword Comprehension Lifters is a set of copymasters designed to assist students who have experienced difficulties with reading and comprehension. Topics are of high interest to appeal to older students with low literacy skills. Comprehension activities are varied and include superficial and in-depth questions requiring students to interact with text at a range of levels. The four books of Comprehension Lifters can be used on their own or in conjunction with the four books of Literacy Lifters by the same author. Thus, students working at a basic level on Book 1 of Literacy Lifters would progress to Book 1 of Comprehension Lifters before moving on to Book 2 of Literacy Lifters.

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In both Literacy Lifters and Comprehension Lifters, the book numbers do not correspond to grade or class levels, but rather to the skill level of students. Books progress in level of difficulty. Thus, Book 1 is pitched at a basic reading level and would be suitable for students who had floundered with their start to literacy. Book 2 would be appropriate for students who require assistance with basic skills. Books 3 and 4 would suit students whose reading and understanding of text is at a low level.

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About the Author

Dr Sheila Twine is an educational consultant who has worked with parents, teachers and students with special needs in England, Scotland and Australia. She is the author of three books containing practical techniques for working with children who experience difficulties with reading and spelling. She holds a Masters Degree and a Doctorate in Education. Dr Twine has been president of various associations and foundations involved with underachieving children with a variety of disabilities from mild intellectual handicap to attention deficit disorder. She was principal of a residential remedial primary school and has been the director of an education consultancy for many years.

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Contents

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Teacher Information .... (ii) – (vi) Pinnipeds ......................................1 Seahorse ......................................2 Crabs ............................................3 Hydrofoil ......................................4 Polar Bears ..................................5 Pacific Ocean ..............................6 Ocean Trenches ..........................7 Dolphins .......................................8 Blue Whale ..................................9 Letter ......................................... 10 Submarine ................................. 11 Making a Submarine ............... 12 Hovercraft ................................ 13 Catamaran ................................ 14 Shore Fishing ............................ 15 Big Game Fishing ..................... 16 Ichthyosaurus ........................... 17 Pleurosaurus ............................ 18 Bluebottle ................................. 19 Prize Letter .............................. 20

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Comprehension Lifters

Clownfish .................................. 21 Ancient Egyptian Craft ........... 22 Endeavour ................................. 23 Victory ...................................... 24 Pollution .................................... 25 Exxon Valdez ............................ 26 Oil .............................................. 27 Oil Rigs...................................... 28 Sharks ........................................ 29 Red and White Muscles ........... 30 Fish Movement ........................ 31 Turtles ....................................... 32 Navigation ................................ 33 Making a Compass .................. 34 Weapons ................................... 35 Punishment at Sea .................. 36 Marie Celeste .......................... 37 Pirates ....................................... 38 Pirate’s Map .............................. 39 Bird Migration ......................... 40 i


Teacher Information GENERAL LAYOUT Comprehension Lifters are designed as a teaching tool to assist you in raising the literacy levels of your students who are experiencing difficulties with reading and comprehension. The page layout is similar throughout the books with text well separated by pictures to make discouraged readers feel more at ease. In each book there are 40 topic pages dealing with aspects of the same theme which are intended to be of interest to older students with low literacy skills. The font size is appropriate to the students’ ages and so is smaller than normal for the easier reading level; therefore, the pages do not look ‘babyish’.

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The Backing Sheet can be copied onto the back of any or all of the topic pages. It is general and designed to complement your teaching. It contains space for activities in word study, thought-webbing and writing. TOPIC PAGES Each topic page has a number of sections. There is a section for patterned words which are phonically regular (found, sound, round) and for sight words (the, said, enough) for instant recognition. Most pages also have longer words broken into ‘chunks’ to encourage your students to tackle unfamiliar words more easily (nav-i-gate).

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There are many comprehension sections. These include: Main idea – Students need to be able to group the main idea of the text. Selecting and creating a title assists with this and is featured on every topic page. Cloze activity – Each page also features a cloze activity which requires students to think as they read so a sensible word can be inserted into the blank spaces using clues from the text. Questions – Literal questions are included where the answer is clear from the story. There are also inferential questions where students are asked to think and provide a logical answer. (He put on his waterproof coat – What was the weather like?) Others – Some pages feature following directions or giving opinions. Some ask for students to make judgements and some ask for elements to be put in correct sequence.

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At the bottom of each topic page there is a section in smaller type. This can act as a challenge to the more able students in your group to read to the others. The section either asks a deeper level of comprehension question or gives more information about the topic.

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TEACHING TIPS Two teaching strategies which were used when the layout of the topic pages was being trialled concerned pre-reading and gap-filling. You may like to try them. Pre-reading – students were asked to glance at the pictures on their topic page then turn the page over (so no reading took place). They were then asked to volunteer snippets of information on the topic. (It’s all about ballooning, My Mum went up in a hot-air balloon, They have a fire machine to make the balloon go up, Some balloons go on races etc.) This serves to get your students’ brains tuned in to the topic. Three things then happen. First, the reading becomes easier (they’re expecting the words). Second, their comprehension is better, and third, recall is improved. Three good reasons for spending a few moments in a pre-reading activity. Gap filling – the topic pages are teaching tools for you so it’s a good idea not to let your students fill in the blanks while you are going through the various sections of the page with them. The ‘pencils down’ rule allows them to focus their whole attention on what you’re saying. Later comes their turn for practice and activity by filling in the blanks and answering the questions on their own. The Backing Sheet can be used while you’re teaching. For instance, ‘Let’s spell that word together. Now spell it silently, turn over and see if you can write it down’. Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

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Teacher Information Topic Pages The Topic Pages have been designed for students who are experiencing difficulties with literacy. They are all pitched to create a high level of interest which will appeal to students with low skill levels.

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The Topic Page layouts have been trialled in small remedial groups using an ACTIVE teaching mode which is outlined in the model below. Students were encouraged to fill in ‘gaps’ in the Topic Pages only after teaching had taken place. The Backing Sheet was used during the teaching for students to write patterned, chunked and sight words from memory. Topics are arranged in themes and each page contains scope for your active teaching as follows:

Word Study

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Reading

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• Discovering pre-existing knowledge through discussion, with students volunteering snippets of information after looking at illustrations.

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Pre-reading

• Oral, group, silent, paired or partner reading.

• Phonic word patterns of regular words or theme words. • Chunked words – words broken into chunks to assist blending and spelling rather than conventional syllables. • Silent letters have been identified by slipping the letter below the line of the whole word.

Comprehension • Predicting.

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• Cloze activity – to promote thinking and to reinforce word study items. • Questions – literal and inferential. • Main idea – creating or choosing titles.

Extension – Reading and Comprehension • Either a more difficult level of comprehension or more information on the topic. Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

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Backing Sheet The Backing Sheet is provided for you to copy on the back of any or all of the Topic Pages. You’ll notice that it is general and suitable for all Topic Pages. It is designed to complement your teaching and you may care to use or adapt the following suggestions as shown on the sample Backing Sheet.

Patterned Words

Topic Words

• Can be used while you’re teaching or for practice afterwards.

• Practice in reading, oral spelling and writing new topic words.

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Backing Sheet Your Turn Words with a pattern

Topic Words

nav-i-gate yacht ancient

power shower tower flower

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sailing railing nailing bailing

things I know about the topic

wind power sail boats wind mills

olden days cutters clippers

Main Topic

Sub-themes

Sailing

topic words

sails, reefs, sheets, ropes, mizzen, spinnaker

Sub-themes

other ideas

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modern yachts catamaran

Write an introduction sentence, then 2 paragraphs on the topic.

Title:

Wind in the Sails

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For thousands of years people have used sials to catch wind and drive boats along. Sub-theme 1 Olden days - In the olden days people made simple sails by weaving reeds into mats. The mats were fixed to masts made of tree branches and lashed to their rafts.

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Introduction

Modern Day - Nowadays, people enjoy racing yachts which are driven only by wind. Great skill is needed to use the wind to sail fast. Some people have sailed single-handed around the world. Conclusion When I’m an adult, I’d like to make an olden day raft with a rattan sail. Sub-theme 2

Writing

Thought Web

• Written (factual material) can assist students to write in a logical, thematic structure by giving them a standard format to formulate good habits.

• Integrating elements from text with pre-existing knowledge. • Practice in sorting out random thoughts into sub-themes, or lists or categories.

• Later, format can be extended as basic skill improves and is well founded. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Backing Sheet Your Turn Topic Words

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things I know about the topic

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Words with a pattern

Main Topic

Sub-themes

topic words

Sub-themes

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other ideas

Title:

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Write an introduction sentence, then 2 paragraphs on the topic. Introduction

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Sub-theme 1

Sub-theme 2

Conclusion

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Programme Overview

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Hydrofoil Polar Bears Pacific Ocean Ocean Trenches Dolphins Blue Whale Letter Submarine Making a Submarine Hovercraft Catamaran Shore Fishing Big Game Fishing Ichthyosaurus Pleurosaurus Bluebottle Prize Letter

ce ce, ci, cy ge, ce, ci theme words ph, ch ge, gi – sion, sure – sign cious synonyms exc suffixes theme words synonyms synonyms

experiment clues words in quotes main idea words in quotes true/false/doesn't say clues inference following directions inference inference inference inference poster heading comparisons odd title clues

50

Clownfish Ancient Egyptian Craft Endeavour Victory Pollution Exxon Valdez Oil Oil Rigs Sharks Red and White Muscles Fish Movement Turtles Navigation Making a Compass Weapons Punishment at Sea Marie Celeste Pirates

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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Word Count

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Pirate's Map Bird Migration

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4 5

Feature main idea listing deca, octo

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3

Word Study bi, tri, quad synonyms cient, cial

g

1 2

Subject Pinnipeds Seahorse Crabs

aqua cient, cious, cial tion ory, ary, ery tion, icide wor, zeroes suffixes word building ci, ce synonyms wr theme words tele, tion silent 'w' ea, silent 'w' dis, ful theme words, ies synonyms, cious

short/long titles listing pace out dimensions title/subtitle poster heading listing poster heading listing frightening title word in quotes inference true/false/doesn't say inference sequence headline inference mysterious title interesting titles

ough, ight word building

draw from directions opinion

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Page

Comprehension Lifters

53 49 47 52 55 51 53 58 63 N/A 50 60 61 60 60 60 61 56 52 53 60 61 60 60 60 69 68 70 67 65 72 70 74 78 74 72 85 83 N/A vi


The Sea

Title: sep ar ate

ped

separate

bi quadru pinni tripod

sea lion

People are bip

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pinniped

s which means they have two f

qu

s which means they ha

Seals and walruses don’t have separ They are called p Pi

f

t.

d feet with legs like we have.

s. Their feet are pinned together.

d actually means ‘fin foot’. Sea lions are also s.

g

p krill

in

1 – 3 cm long

All pin

t. Most animals are

s are mammals so they need to

ea

e air, and they suckle

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their young on rich milk. They eat small fish or krill and live mostly in the colder oceans.

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Think of two titles that give the main idea of the article.

True

Krill are like small prawns.

Write three types of pinniped.

False

, and

What does pinniped mean?

How can you remember the word?

• Write the best at the top of the page. Krill are eaten by many whales, sea birds, penguins and pinnipeds. Krill numbers are becoming less year by year. Scientists think global warming may be the reason. What do you think will happen if too many krill disappear?

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title:

nourish

different

feed and care for

unusual surprising extraordinary amazing strange

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curious

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prehensile tail grasping stalk of seaweed

The seahorse is quite dif

to other fish. For a start, it looks like a horse!

Then there’s its extr

ary tail which grasps things like a monkey does, so it can

hold onto seaweed and not be swept aw

by currents.

The most unu h

is that the male has a pouch into

g

s

Surprisingly, seahorse eyes don’t move together like our eyes do.

thing about a

which the female lays eg

. The male then fertilises

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them and nourishes the developing young until they are

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ready to swim off.

What does a seahorse look like?

Write some strange things about seahorses.

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Write some titles containing words from the top box.

• Write the one you like best at the top of the page. Amazingly, you can’t say what colour a seahorse is because it changes from grey to yellow to orange to plum to match its environment. Why do you think a seahorse does this?

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Comprehension Lifters

2


The Sea

Title:

legs/feet

c sounds like sh

pod/ped

cea

deca = 10

o

decapod = 10 legs

crusta

legs

tripod =

n n cient

octopod =

an

quadruped =

pl e

effi

biped =

cial

spe

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so

Crabs belong to the class called ‘crus

’. They live on the tidal flats of our

seas and o

s because they have

s. They are called deca

s. Their front legs are clawed and they use the cl Some spec

for feeding and fighting.

crabs are called ‘fiddler crabs’. In the male crab the front claw is

waved about to attract females or to menace and fight other males. The huge claw looks like

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a fiddle and the small one is like a bow.

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Four words are often sufficient for a title.

Which class do crabs belong to?

Crabs have Ten Legs and are called Decapods

How did the fiddler crab get its name?

What does the fiddler crab use its huge claws for?

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Crab Legs and Claws

Fiddler Crabs have a Huge Claw to Wave

Attracting Females • Pick the best title and write it at the top of the page. Crabs are a truly ancient class of animals. Crab-like creatures have lived on Earth for about 650 000 000 (650 million) years. The world’s largest crab is the giant spider crab off the coast of Japan. Its shell is 30 cm across and its legs can stretch over 2 metres! What do you think ‘truly’ means in this paragraph?

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Comprehension Lifters

3


The Sea

Title: ce

in ven tion

rtain

invention pri ra

s ntre s

pie pier

pl e

for

Hydrofoil type of boat

Ships have to for of travel.

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pri

their way through water. This slows them down and puts up the

A clever invention was the hy

fo

under the water. When the boat reaches a the hy

. This kind of boat has ‘wings’ rtain speed,

foils provide lift. Up comes the hull and the boat ra

s

above the water. Now there is much less drag. An aircraft gets lift in the

Circle the best title.

On Top of the Waves

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Wings Under Water

over them.

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same way. The shape of its wings provides lift as air rac

Hydrofoils travel above the water.

True

False

Why are hydrofoils able to travel faster than most normal boats?

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Speeding Along

How is a hydrofoil type of boat like an aircraft?

You can make a ‘wing’ with a piece of paper, a drinking straw and some string. Fold the paper in half and push the top half until it bulges, then glue or tape it down. Pierce a hole through both layers for the straw and string. A friend now blows on the curved edge. What happens?

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: ce distan poun crevi enfor

d ntury

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sin ci

cy

mer

rcumpolar

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The polar bear is the largest carnivore on land and can weigh up to 600 kg. It lives only in the i

y Arctic areas around the North Pole (

It is not found at the South P

circumpolar

Polar b

rcumpol

).

.

are strong swim

ers and can run as fast as

40 km/h, but only for short dist

s. Their diet consists mainly

g

of fish and seals. The seals are pounced on when they come up to brea

e. They will also eat

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through holes in the i

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vegetation during the short Arctic summ

.

Range of polar bear

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Circle the two best titles. Write one at the top of the page.

How heavy is a large polar bear?

Can polar bears run a long way? What was your clue?

• Seals for Lunch

• Circumpolar Carnivore • Arctic Summer

How do they catch their meals?

• Polar Bears • A Crevice in the Ice During this century, polar bear numbers dropped to around 5 000, but since new hunting regulations have been enforced, the numbers have now risen to around 40 000. However, pollution now may

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: soft ‘ge’ Pacific Ocean

ra avera lar

st

plun Equator Au st

submer

ral

dama

pl e

ia

d ing

soft ‘ce’ or ‘ci’

for

fic Ocean is the lar

one third of our planet’s surf oceans put together. The Pa greatest aver

st ocean on Ear

. It covers

fier

and is bigger than all the other

surfa

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The Pa

pea

c is also the ocean with the

depth. Ocean trenches plun

kilometres below the surf

to eleven

of the water.

It has many submer

g Though Pac fier

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Submerged Volcanoes

Pa

fic

en

rcling

fs

ling them.

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Choose two titles which give the main idea.

ful

volcanoes and many that

have ‘built’ islands which now have coral r enc

ly

means ‘peaceful’, occasionally

storms of great for

ocean, dama

can ra

over the

ships and shores.

Earth’s Largest Ocean

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Fierce Storms

Ocean Trenches

How much of the Earth’s surface does the Pacific Ocean cover?

The Pacific is not always peaceful. What sometimes happens?

Why is the word ‘built’ in quotation marks?

Ring of Fire

Pacific Ocean • Write one at the top of the page.

The Pacific rim is called ‘The Ring of Fire’ because of its many volcanoes and earthquakes. Cracks in the Earth’s crust around the edge of the Pacific plate allow molten rock and hot gases to escape. Do you think ‘Ring of Fire’ is a good name?

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Comprehension Lifters

Why?

6


The Sea

Title: trenches sulphur gases pressure submerged v

deep ocean

descended variety

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tr

In some parts of our oceans there are deep valleys or cracks called ‘trenches’. In the deepest tre

s, where the Earth’s crust is weak or cracked, hot sulphurous gas

escape

into the water. Sometimes the water actually boils. It’s pitch black, and water pressu

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these depths is crushing. Surely no life could exist.

However, in 1977, scientists desc

at

ed

two and a half kilometres and discovered a var

of life. There were giant tube

worms, blind crabs, sea anemones, fish and eels

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which glowed in the darkness.

What are ocean trenches?

Is there any light in the deepest parts of the ocean?

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Write a variety of titles giving the main idea.

Yes

No

If ‘no’ why not?

If you said ‘yes’ where does the light come from?

What does ‘descend’ mean?

Way back in 1960, the ‘Trieste’ was the first submersible with people aboard to descend 11 km to the deepest trench on Earth. The crew saw living creatures even there. These ate tiny creatures who lived on the gases and bacteria coming from the interior of the Earth. Have a try at describing conditions way down there.

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title:

c

school

ci spe

ph

echoes dol

whistles al

otogra

able

so spe

ins

ysical

es

geogra

y

telegra

Dol

one

pl e

tele

ins belong to the same order of animals as whales. The order is called ‘cetacea’

(set ay sea ah). There are a few spe

es of dol

s. The bottle-nosed dolphin

often leaping and rolling. Dolphins are soc People love to snap

otogr

. It’s a playful,

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seems happy to swim around people and close to sho

ysical animal,

animals and live in small sch

s.

s of these intelligent, friendly creatures.

Dol

telegr

messages

to each other in a series of clicks and whistles.

g

E

oes from whis

s bouncing back

in

from solid objects help d

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dolphin ‘aunts’ help at birth of a calf

find fish or squid to e

s .

Which is the best phrase for a title?

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Dolphins and Whales

What is the order that whales and dolphins belong to?

What do you think a dolphin ‘aunt’ is, and how do they help?

How do dolphins ‘talk’ to each other?

A Dolphin’s Life

Fish and Squid

Physical and Social

Clicks and Whistles The geographical range of dolphins is the warmer waters of the world. The chief threat to dolphins is the driftnet from fishing boats. Entanglement in these nets means that dolphins can’t surface and so they drown. Sharks and killer whales also prey on dolphins. On the back of the sheet, write your solution to the driftnet fishing danger.

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: ge ntle ran endan

person 1.8 m

red nerally

blue whale 25 m

hu lar

pl e

gi

The blue whale is the largest animal on land or sea. It makes an elephant look small. It is bigger than the lar A hu

st

tra

st dinosaur we have yet found.

adult can weigh 120 000 kg but are

c

ant

nerally between

gantic

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80 000 kg and 110 000 kg. What do you weigh?

The ran

of the blue whale is around the North

and South Poles (though it swims to warmer waters for the birth of a calf).

For such a

gant

animal, it eats tiny

g

marine creatures which it ‘sieves’ through the bristles of its ‘baleen’, after taking in a mouthful of

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baleen instead of teeth

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Write some titles using the words in the top box.

krill-laden water.

The blue whale is the largest creature on Earth.

True

False

Doesn't say

What is a baby whale called?

What do you think krill is?

How does this whale eat?

• Write your favourite at the top of the page. So many blue whales were killed that numbers dropped to a tragic 1 000 animals which made it one of the most endangered species. They have been given international protection since 1966. Apart from hunting, what could pose a danger to whale numbers?

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title:

Sa m

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Craggy Poin Dear Jim Coast S t , 16 May hire Just a 1998 note to say tha Friday t evening at Rock I’ll meet you h of ampton Bring y Junction f the 4.30 on our swim a round 6 fishing From this short letter we can find rod and togs and clim p.m. bing bo lots of clues to guide our thinking. eagles h that old o ts. I ave f low guitar f Have a go at these. still ha n and in the ve our frie or you to str bay so um. The your ndly po bring yo d ur snor baby of dolp You’ll b kel. hins is e please s t ill d to kn are layin ow that g! I’ve fou nd whe Jo Jo re the sends a hens lick and again. is lookin g forwa rd to s Love, eeing yo u Uncle A ndrew What sort of area does Uncle Andrew live in?

What season of the year is it? Clue:

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Clue:

How old do you think Jim is? ( 3 – 5 years, 6 – 9 years, 10 – 12 years, 13 – 15 years)

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Clue:

How is Jim travelling?

How long do you think he is staying?

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Clue:

Has he visited before?

Who is Jo Jo?

Does Uncle Andrew live alone? (apart from Jo Jo and the hens)

Clue:

Clue:

Clue:

What will be on the menu?

What will Jim and Uncle Andrew do during the day?

During the evening?

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Clue:

Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: sion deci suspen explo

s sure

torpedo

long

pres ly

Subm

pl e

elongated

s were developed as machines of war. They destroyed many ships in

both World Wars (1914–18 and 1939–45). Elong were fired, causing expl

bombs called tor

es

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s in the ships they hit.

Subm

have strong hulls to withstand

the great water pres

up periscope

a deci

in deep dives. When

is made to dive, sea water is

allowed to fill ballast tanks making the sub heavier. When

g

the deci

is made to surface, air is forced

under pres

in

s

into the t rine light

suspen

ks making the

. So, a sub stays in

at a chosen depth because of the

balance between ballast and air.

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Make a decision and write the best title at the top of the page.

Why were submarines developed?

What do you think ‘periscope depth’ means?

How is a submarine prepared for diving?

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Deep Dives

Both World Wars

Water Pressure

Submarines

Ballast Tanks Submersibles are tiny submarines which can take two or three people to ocean depths with cameras, viewing windows and claws to pick up objects from the ocean floor. On the back of the sheet, describe what you might see from a submersible.

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: You’ll need: • plastic soft drink bottle with lid

your submarine

straw with a bend

• small stones or marbles • a length of plastic tubing or a straw with a bend bottle top

plastic tube

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• scissors

Have a go at seeing how air pressure and ballast can raise or lower a submarine.

Cut two sections from the sides of the bottle near the base. Fill the base with stones or marbles.

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Put the bottle upright into a bucket of water. Then screw the lid on tight.

Now feed the tubing or straw into one of the holes you cut and blow air into the bottle. The air will replace some of the water and make your ‘submarine’ lighter so it will rise. To make your sub

and let some of the air esc

.

in

g

bottle t

sink again, simply unscrew the

What are you using as ballast?

What makes your ‘submarine ’lighter?

How do you make it sink again?

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Cartesian Diver – Draw some water into a medicine dropper until it floats in a glass of water. Now fill a soft drink bottle, put in your ‘diver’ and screw the lid on tightly. Squeeze the bottle. What happens?

Let it go. What happens? Why?

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: propeller

m

sign

knots

ove

ent vem o m tion mo

de de

ing

rede

rudder

re re

hovercraft floating at rest

. A h

flying forward

craft is a boat

so it must float. Or does it?

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When hovercraft are not moving or only moving . However,

slowly, they certainly do fl when they are in mot

they fly!

How does this happen? Hovercraft are de

g

cushion of air

ed with a rubber skirt. Powerful engines push air downwards.

The skirt traps most of the air and so lifts the craft up to three metres above the w d to provide forw

g

Propellers on deck are des

is now ‘flying’ over the w

v

t

.

thrust. s at speeds up to 70 knots.

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cr

ation

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float or fly? Planes fly and

boats fl

g

rubber skirt

Do hoverc

The hov

ed

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Decide on the best title. Rubber Skirts

Why is this craft called a ’hovercraft’?

What is the rubber skirt for?

When does the hovercraft float and when does it fly?

What does ‘in motion’ mean?

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Float or Fly

Hovercraft

Propellers

Forward Thrust

The hull of a boat causes a lot of ‘drag’ as it forces its way through the water. This slows the craft and uses a great deal of power. Inventors have tried many ways of raising hulls of boats out of the water. Hydrofoils, hovercrafts and catamarans are the results. What do you think are the benefits?

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Comprehension Lifters

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The Sea

Title: cious

passenger area

pre spa atro deli suspi

pl e

long, narrow hull of catamaran cargo level

Cata

s have two narrow hulls at each side of a spa

s are the size of a soccer pitch and so can carry

quantities of pre

Sa m

deck. Some cat

boat

us, weighty cargo such as lorries and machinery. Passengers s meals in

have plenty of space to stroll about and can eat deli spac

comfort.

Even with high waves and atro

weather,

g

catamarans are quite stable because of their narrow hulls spaced wide apart. Seasickness is rare on cats. The

in

narrow hu

s do not have to use as much force to

push through the water as normal wide hulls do, so cats can travel fa

er and use less engine power.

Vi

ew

front view

Write a couple of titles.

What is the name of the type of boat with two narrow hulls?

Why is seasickness rare on cats?

Why can cats travel faster than most boats of the same size?

In 1990, the British catamaran ‘Hoverspeed’ won a speed competition by crossing the Atlantic Ocean in under three and a half days. She travelled at an average speed of 36 knots with a top speed of over 42 knots. Trimarans have three narrow hulls. What are the benefits of ‘multi-hulled’ ships? Find out and write them on the back of this sheet.

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

14


The Sea

Title: ex

catch

cell

caught

ent jetty excellent piers wharf quay

pl e

groin breakwater

The shallow, sandy shores of our oceans give us exc

fishing.

breakfast for the family.

Sa m

You need a fishing rod for beach casting and you could cat Wha

s and jet

are great places from

which to drop a handline. Many types of fi

nose in

and out of the weedy p

and you

may ca

rs of the qu

enough for a hearty meal.

, break

g

Around groi

s or rocky coasts,

a wire pot can be baited with some old meat at low tide.

in

You might have cau

a crab or lobster when the

tide goes out again.

ew

Choose the best title.

What do you need for beach casting?

Why do you think wharfs and piers are good fishing

Jetties, Wharfs and Piers

Vi

Catching Seafood

Lobster and Crab

Write an excellent title of

spots?

What do you think a ‘hearty meal’ means?

Where do crabs like to live and hide?

your own.

In many countries you require a licence to catch seafood. Usually there’s one licence for commercial fishers and a limited licence for individuals. The limited licence normally specifies the upper limit of the catch in any one day. Do you think it is a good idea to have a fishing licence? Why?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

15


The Sea

Title: ex

equip

citement

ment

cess

photo

cellent

graphed

ercise tremely strapped in to harness at stern

pensive

pl e

aggerate

exp

of big game fishing. This is an

Sa m

Around the world, people enjoy the excit

ive hobby as it needs a boat with both comfort and modern equi

.

Game fishing is hard work and the fisher is strapped into a harness so that he or she is not pulled ov

bo

. Winches are used to land large, heavy fish. An excel

is needed to manage the boat and help with the fish

crew

tackle.

large fish and

Tuna and shark fishing produces extre

ed with their catch to

prove they did not exa

its size!

ew

in

g

people like to be photo

Vi

Write two titles. Choose the best for the top of the page.

What equipment is needed for game fishing?

Why do you think its called ‘big game fishing’?

Why do people have their photos taken with their catch?

People can enter ‘tag and release’ competitions for prizes for the weight of fish caught. They simply land their catch and weigh and measure it. They then fix a numbered tag onto the fish before returning it to the water. These competitions help researchers to find out how far fish swim, how long they live, etc. Each time a tagged fish is recaught it adds to our knowledge. What else can we learn from the tag?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

16


The Sea act

Title:

l u a

dorsal fin like shark

y al l u t ac

history

showing skeleton of ichthyosaurus

y ic pre

ic

extinct ion arms and fingers modified into a flipper

bony sockets for large eyes

fossil

pl e

ised

Ichthyosaurus (ik thee oh) means ‘fish lizard’ from Greek. This pre fish-like creature lived in the sea but it was act consisted of fish and squid-like creat

s which it crunched then swallowed in big chunks

complete foss

Sa m

without chewing, much like a modern dolphin does. We know a great deal about ich

y an air-breathing reptile. Its diet

because many almost

ed skeletons have been found in England and Germany.

We know: • It grew up to 2.5 m in length. • It was ext

before were.

g

the dinos

lived 200 million years ago

We think:

in

• It swam like a fish, waving its tail from side to side.

ew

• It weighed up to 150 kg.

• It didn’t hear very well. • It had live young.

Vi

Make a poster. Give it a heading. Write three headings here then choose the best one.

What did ichthyosaurus eat? and

How did it eat?

Did it lay eggs?

Yes

No

Not sure

What was your clue?

Why do we know a lot about ichthyosaurus?

The first fossils of ichthyosaurus were found in the late 1800s and it was first thought to be an extinct fish. As more perfect specimens were located, it was realised that it was actually an air-breathing reptile whose ancestors were land-based animals. Why was it thought to be a fish?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

17


The Sea

Title: hatchlings survival adulthood scurry

pl e

extinction

130 million years ago

Sa m

Pleurosaurus (Ploo roh) means ‘water lizard’ and it lived in shallow inland seas. It measured about 1.5 m and was an excellent swimmer. It looked like a small crocodile but with smoother skin. Its teeth sloped backward, like a shark’s, for catching and eating fish.

We know it laid about 40 eggs on land and then left its eggs to hatch on their own (like a modern turtle). The hatchlings would have to scurry down to the

g

water before being eaten. Once in the water they had to hide in the weeds to avoid being eaten, so

ew

in

only a few survived into adulthood.

saurus like.....

a turtle?

a crocodile?

✪ • Write the best title at the top of the page.

How was the pl a shark?

Vi

Write three titles each containing the main idea of the article.

Circle 130 million years ago. 130 000

130 000 000

1 300 000

13 000 000

Skeletons of pleurosaurus have only been found in Europe (as yet). The best preserved have come from France. We think it lived at the end of the Jurassic period and into the Cretaceous. Why do you think it became extinct?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

18


The Sea

Title: float blown up

curious queer

venomous

odd

poisonous

funny puzzling peculiar in hab it ants strange

stinging tentacles

Curi

pl e

inhabitants

inhab

ts of the ocean are a group of jellyfish named

‘Portuguese man of war’. One type are called ‘bluebottles’ because of their blue colour

like bo

habit of blowing themselves up to float on top of the waves looking les.

Another pecu

Sa m

and their od

thing is the

jackfish that swims amongst the pois tenta

ous

and seems to be

immune to the venom. When other small

st the waving

g

fish see the jackfish amo

in

fronds they think it’s safe. Then the small fish are

ew

stung and eaten and the jackfish gets the leftovers.

One sort of Portuguese man of war is called

Write a couple of strange things about this creature. 1.

Vi

Write an odd title.

Write a straightforward one.

2.

What reward does the jackfish receive?

• Write the one you like best at the top of the page. The Portuguese man of war live in large groups in the warm waters round the equator and the tropics. They drift along being directed by wind and currents like ocean wanderers. Do you think ‘ocean wanderer’ is a good name?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

Why?

19


The Sea

Title:

I. A. Thomas Peak Road Lowestoft Suffolk NR34 9RP

Chicken Roost PO Box 571 London NE4 8TQ Tel: 1800 321 444

voyage cruise journey tour

25 June 1998

trip Dear Mr Thomas entitles

I am writing to confirm your 1st prize win in our Chicken Roost meals draw.

brochure

pl e

Congratulations!

luxury

The prize ent

s you and a partner to a ten-day voy

aboard the lux

cruiser ‘Islander’. Your cru

ure gives details.

Sa m

and tours several islands. The enclosed br

starts at Malta

Mr Max Greenwood will contact you to arrange dates and flights to Malta where you will spend three nights in a five star hotel overlooking the bay. Your spending money of €1 000 will be sent to you three weeks before you leave. Yours sincerely

Mr Greenwood

Mr Thomas

The prize winner lives in North East London.

True

Mr Smith

False

What is the word in the letter, meaning ‘ship’? Why do you think the ship is called ‘Islander’?

Vi

in

Who won the prize?

ew

g

J C Smith J.C. Smith Promotions Manager

What do you think the ‘details’ in the brochure would be?

The prize consisted of lots of parts. Write them down. e.g. ten-day cruise with partner.

1.

2.

3.

There were two conditions regarding the prize. The first was that at least one of the travellers must be 21 years of age or older. The second was that the trip must be taken before September 1999. Do you think these are sensible? Why?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

20


The Sea

Title: anemone

aqua

6 cm, actual size

rium tic

le

a

m

an

l tha fata

ne

e

n mo

eous

e e

(Note: aqueous does not have an ‘a’ like other aqua words.)

l What are the black dots

The clownfish (one of the damsel fish) is bright red with brilliant white stripes. Its colours look a bit like a cl

’s painted face. People iums.

in the picture below?

Sa m

love to have them in their aq

pl e

de

y adl

on

In the ocean, the clownfish lives in an odd t

aq shall d

habitat. On the reefs, in warm w

s, are

dly anemones with their le

l

the tentacle is fa

g

stinging tentacles. For most small fish, touching , but the clownfish

in

darts in and out, and even lays its eggs amongst the dangerous ten

. The clownfish has a protective, slimy, aq

s

(watery) covering. Clownfish eat the leftovers from anemone meals keeping the es clean.

ew

an

Vi

Write three titles, two short ones and a longer one.

How did the clownfish get its name?

Why is the clownfish not killed by the deadly tentacles of the anemone?

Where does the anemone live?

• Write your favourite at the top of the page. Not only does the clownfish eat the leftover meals but it actually swims into the stomach part of the anemone to keep it clean. It also nibbles off dead tentacles and rids the anemone of all unwanted debris. What do you think ‘unwanted debris’ would consist of?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

21


The Sea

Title: sh sounds with c ancient effi

ly

suffi

t

precious deli ness

pl e

spa social spe

Nearly five thousand years ago in An ships were built to carry prec Medi

Sa m

offi

ly

Egypt,

cargo across the

Mediterranean Sea

nean Sea. The spa

craft were made of wooden blocks (like bricks) which were pinned together. Cross benches for oarsmen to sit on held

River Nile

g

the vessel together. We think only men sailed in those days.

Egypt

Notice the spe

‘bipod’ mast which could be lowered when the ves

in

was under oars. Also note the six oars at the stern which sailors used for effi steering. There would have been at least twelve oars on each side with an o

ew

each oar.

sman at

How old is the boat in the picture?

No-one knows how many crew was sufficient to sail

Write two special titles describing the main idea.

Vi

the vessel efficiently. What do you think? oars

sail

steering

officers

extras Total (cook, repairs, cargo, extra oarsmen)

What do you think ‘bipod’ means?

• Write the one you like best at the top of the page. A stone model of an earlier sailing craft was unearthed in Egypt. It is thought to be 11 000 years old and depicts a vessel made of reeds bound together, with a square sail of papyrus (early paper made of reeds). Do you think this craft was for the River Nile or for the sea? Why?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

22


The Sea

Title:

voyage ‘sh’ sounds journey

section

expedition

expedi officer’s cabins

condi

s

mo ac

s

pl e

special species vicious

crew mess room

Cook’s ‘great’ cabin

atrocious

of Captain James Cook in the Endeavour lasted three years,

Sa m

The first exped

from 1768 to 1771. The ship, with 94 sailors and officers, sailed from England, round the world. Coasts were chartered, animals sketched and new plant spe Condit atro

were collected.

s in the ‘mess’ rooms for the 39 crew were . The mess sect

was dark,

g

smelly and overcrowded. Hammocks were hung from hooks in the beams and the tables were slung by ropes. There was no

Endeavour Facts

Width:

10 m

Depth:

4 m

place to wash and no toilet so the crew used

a bucket. Vic

fights often broke out between

the sailors in the cramped condi

ew

35 m

in

spec

Length:

s.

Weight:

386 tonnes

What is a sea map called?

Masts:

3 Foremast

What animals do you think they would have sketched from

Main Mast

Australia?

Vi

Mizzen Mast

Height of main mast: 30 m Complete crew:

What does botany mean?

94 men

Pace out 35 m by 10 m. (large step = 1 m) and see the size of space 94 people lived in for 3 years.

They collected plants from a bay called ‘Botany Bay’.

Why do you think fights broke out among the crew?

A replica of the Endeavour was built in Western Australia in the 1990s. After a world voyage in 1997, visiting many ports in the UK, she returned to Sydney, Australia where people were able to board her and get the feel of how sailors and officers lived. Would you have liked to voyage on the Endeavour?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

Why?

23


The Sea

Title: succes succes

s

sful

ory Vict hist mem territ

gun ports on HMS Victory

ary

pl e

ordin Admiral Nelson’s ‘great’ cabin

milit

station

Admiral Nelson joined the British Navy at the age of twelve in 1970. Nelson

necess

Sa m

was a brave man. He lost an eye, then one of his arms in various battles. In 1805, at the suc

ful battle of Trafalgar, he was killed in action.

ery

discov batt

carried 102 stat

His flagship Vic

guns bolted on to the decks. Some guns shot ordin cannon b

s, but some shot sharp

splinters of metal to rip sails. Others had chain

cannon ball

g

shot to damage masts and rigging. Grape

for a wide spread.

The Vict

in

shot was necess ’s batt

grape shot in canvas bag

y of guns

ew

had a range of up to 3 km.

Vi

You’re an author. Write a primary title and two subtitles for chapters of your book.

chain shot

What was Nelson’s flag ship called?

In what year was Nelson born?

Why was it necessary to fire off grape shots?

What do you think a ‘battery of guns’ means?

Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson has a place in history. This is one of his famous quotes: ‘England expects every man to do his duty.’ Nelson covered much territory in fighting ships from Canada to Italy in the Mediterranean Sea. His ‘Victory’ is now open for visitors in Portsmouth, England. Have a go at writing a description of a sea battle.

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

24


The Sea

Title: tion pollu na

al

popula increases pe

des stici

industrialisa

increasing

habita

decreases

any more?

i

decr

Our vast oceans are being made more and more polluted. As world popula

pl e

fung

s

Sa m

s enlarge we are dumping huge

quantities of sewage into the oceans. Farmers and gardeners overuse fertilisers and pesti

which make their way via rivers to the sea.

Ships dump rubbish over the side and factories spew out all sorts of chemicals as incre

industrial

s.

Animals are becoming entangled in old f

ing

g

nets. Birds are being born with deformities. Shoals of fish

Vi

ew

in

are decrea

âœŞ

in numbers. Seaweeds are

dying. What are the solu

s? How can

we save this place of habita of sea creatures and pl

for millions s?

Name some different types of pollution which affect our oceans.

Design a poster about this page. Give it a title.

âœŞ

Think of solutions to save our seas.

Radioactivity is another pollutant. Some isolated Pacific Islands have been used to test nuclear bombs. For thousands of years they will remain so radioactive that they will be unsafe for human habitation. Do you think this is right?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Why?

Comprehension Lifters

25


The Sea

Title:

When oil spills on water, it spreads out and covers the surface. Try a drop of cooking oil on a bowl of water.

zeros 5 hundred

500

5 thousand

5 000

5 million

5 000 000 or

w

st

pl e

ld

w

ry

w

king

w

th

w

ds

Sa m

oil slick

One of the w

w

ld’s wo

st oil spills happened in March 1989.

s of litres of oil

The super tanker ‘Exxon Valdez’, carrying mill

ran aground off the South coast of Alaska. Over forty million (40

oil-clogged fur on sea otters

) litres of crude oil wor

mil

s of dollars spilled into the sea.

g

As the oil slick spread, animals, birds and fish died in thous

in

oil-soaked feathers

s. Fish suffocated as gills were blocked by

. Birds covered by oil could no longer fl

t or fly.

Sea otters with oil-clogged fur could not keep warm and died of

ew

cold. Many marine creatures died of poisoning as they licked or

Vi

Limit your titles to two or three words.

pecked at the o

.

What was the tanker’s name?

Why is oil such a worry to marine birds and animals?

Conservationists and scientists have estimated that around three million tonnes of oil ends up in our oceans each year. That’s about one tenth of world production. Apart from wrecked tankers spilling oil, much oil is discharged when tankers clean their tanks at sea. Do you have a solution to the problem?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

26


The Sea

Title: decay ing cover ed layers of bodies of marine creatures and plants

lubricate

designed

e ing trap

chemicals

pl e

ped

rock layers

Oil is often found in the rocky floor of our oceans. When tiny marine creatures die, they drift to floor. Over millions of years, the layers of dec

Sa m

the oc matter are cov

by sand and mud which form into r

ng plant and animal

k layers.

bodies form a dark, sticky substance between r

The trap This is oil.

lay

.

Oil is important to people. It keeps our

a

. It is used for

ing working parts of

in

lub

g

cars motoring. It keeps our planes in the

engines. Some heaters are des

oil layer

ed

rock layer

to use oil and oil helps us make electric power. rock layer

is also mixed with chem

ew

O

Vi

to make plastics.

Where is the sticky oil found?

Where does the oil come from originally? (What is it

Design a poster about oil. Give it a title.

made from?)

Write some uses for oil.

Oil is also found in the hot desert areas of the Middle East. This area was originally beneath the waves when the oil was formed. The ocean floor has been pushed up to form land and so now you can see oil rigs drilling through sand down to the bedrock and pools of oil. (Look in your atlas for Iraq, Iran and other countries in the Middle East.)

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

27


The Sea

Title: floating oil rig

built b

machinery engines winches

ding

mass

derrick mast

supply

m

supplies

helipad

ive

reserve re

crane

e oirs

individual ly

sleeping/eating sea level

pl e

stable s

ballast feet

Most oil is found deep in the ocean bedrock. Mass

jacked down notch by n

indiv

a level position. shallow water rig

lt to drill

rs. In shallow water the steel legs of the rig are

Sa m

through the rock to the oil res

oil rigs are b

ility

In deep water, the o wei

r

until the rig is standing in

floats and is

ed down by huge feet filled with sea water as

ballast to provide stab

g

of rig have plat

. Both these types

s above the waves on which

in

people work and live. They also have a heli so that crew and sup

Vi

ew

f

s can be flown to and

shore.

What is an oil rig mainly used for?

Why do they jack the legs down individually?

What supplies do you think would be needed?

Supply a couple of titles.

Drill bits are the cutting teeth at the end of the drill shaft. These are rotated at speed to drill through hard rock. Steel bits are studded with industrial diamonds so they stay sharp. Try to find out why diamonds are used.

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

28


The Sea

Title: ci like sh spe vi

al ous

deli

ous

effi

ent

spe

es

pl e

ce like sh o

The most feared creature in the oce

is the shark. There are several different spe

Sharks have several rows of sharp t grow

offer an easy meal to a hu

kg.)

th, which keep

. People swimming

g

y shark as they have no

al defence such as speed, stings, long teeth or p claws.

in

sh

cm.) The heaviest great white ever caught weighed over

all their lives. They eat almost anything from fish

to marine mammals such as dolph

spe

Sa m

1 500 kg. (How heavy are you?

es

t hunters is the great white, which grows to about

of shark and one of the most effi 6 metres. (How tall are you?

an

ew

Vi

Write a frightening title.

ever caught?

What is special about shark teeth?

An average great white grows to 6 metres. How many

Write a non-frightening one.

• Choose one to write at the top of the page.

What was the mass of the heaviest great white shark

times longer is it than you?

Does it matter if a shark damages or loses some teeth? Does it matter if you lose a tooth? Why?

The film ‘Jaws’ and its sequel show the fear of sharks and how we think of them as vicious killers. However, shark attacks are actually few and far between with more sharks being killed by human beings. Do you think the shark’s reputation is correct?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Why?

Comprehension Lifters

29


The Sea

Title:

ue

amazing

bl

astounding

contin

surp

cl

extraordinary

purs

ing

aston a cruising shark

resc

ing

mus l ce

val

nti s cie

tiss

pl e

arg

st

swimming their whole lives. It is surp becoming tired. To find cl

s about this aston

examined the muscle tiss The ‘red’ mus

ly, they conti

Sa m

Most fish swim day and night without stopping. Amaz

that they can keep this up without

feature of fish, sci

and have found two types of mus

sts have . red muscle

s are crisscrossed

g

with hundreds of blood vessels to supply continuous energy and oxygen. So the

The ‘white’ m

in

fish is able to keep on swimming.

tissue

does not have many bl

What does ‘fish swim day and night’ mean?

Why do you think some muscles are called

s and is used for short bursts

ew

vess

d

of speed to purs

dinner, or avoid

Vi

being dinner for another hungry mouth.

Keep your two titles to five words or less.

‘red’ muscles?

‘To avoid being dinner.’ What does this mean?

The reason that most fish must keep swimming is twofold. First, the gills must have water, with oxygen, flowing through them so that the fish can ‘breathe’. Second, the fish does not sink or float to the top of the water but maintains its comfortable level. Why is ‘breathe’ in quotes?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

30


The Sea

Title: wr ap

dorsal fins

ist dorsal fin

tuna

iggle

pectoral fin

ithing ecks

seahorse

pl e

ong sword

Sea creatures move in many different ways. The eel

movement like a snake. The seahorse ripples its dor

thrust it forward. The octopus can shipwr

fin to

ap its tentacles around seaweeds or bits of

Sa m

with a writh

iggles its way through the water

to pull it along or it can simply grip with its sucker pads. manta ray

It might be wro

to say that the huge manta ray

swims, as it seems to ‘fly’ through the water flapping its enlarged pect

fins like wings.

g

A swordfish can swim at speeds of 85 kilometres per hour. Sometimes they

in

collide with small boats and their

ew

‘sword’ can pierce wooden planking.

Vi

Write two titles describing the main idea of the page.

writhing eel

Which creature wriggles and writhes?

Why might it be wrong to say a manta ray swims?

Where is the dorsal fin?

Where is the pectoral fin?

Tails and bodies wave and provide a fish with forward thrust. Pectoral fins paddle and provide lift so the fish does not sink. Some fish, like the pike, have a gas bladder they can inflate or deflate. Some flat fish gulp water and eject it through their gills, like being jet-propelled. Why does a pike inflate its gas bladder?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

31


The Sea

Title: species incubate hatchling venture scurry reptiles

pl e

marine tasty morsels

aquatic morsels

Turtles are rept

that live most of their lives in the sea. They are

called marine reptiles. The female turtles vent

onto land to lay e

mounds. The turtle then leaves the eggs to inc

in sandy

Sa m

and hatch on their own.

To birds, hat tasty mors

g turtles are tender,

so they scu

over

the sand and down to the water before hungry birds can snap them up.

Once in the water their troubles are not over as

g

larger fish enjoy a meal of baby turtle also. Turtles

in

eat fish, worms, prawns and some plants and

Choose the best title.

insects. Baby turtles eat the same, but tiny species.

ew

Marine Reptiles

Turtles are called marine reptiles.

Turtles

Vi

Tasty Morsels

True

False

Doesn't say

There are two main dangers for baby turtles. What are they?

What do baby turtles eat?

Baby Turtles

What Turtles Eat • Write it at the top of the page.

Terrapin is the usual name given to the aquatic freshwater turtle. Tortoise is the usual name for the terrestrial (land-based) species. The shell has two sections. The hard upper shell is called the carapace and the softer undershell is called the plastron. The two shells are joined at the sides. Why?

Prim-Ed Publishing

Comprehension Lifters

32


The Sea

Title: North Star

tele = far off, at a distance

tion

latitude scale on central rod

telegraph

naviga phone

destina horizon

vision

calcula

scope

posi

s

inven cross-staff in use

navig

direc

phones or satellites to help

. Charts were inexact or non-existent.

But captains still had to know their posi

at .

equator

lines of latitude

Sa m

sea to reach their destin

al

pl e

Early sailors had no radio-t

na

By the 12th century many ships carried a compass with its magnetised needle that always pointed north. In the 16th

N

cent

NE

NW

W

was pointed at the North Star and the horizon. This gave ‘latitude’.

E SW

, navigators had the benefit of a cross-staff which

SE

t

scope which helped identify headlands or islands.

in

compass

most ships had a

g

By the 17th c

S

In the 18th century the inven

ew

(early clocks) helped in their calcul

Choose the best title which tells the main idea.

of ‘chronometers’

lines of longitude

n of longitude.

What helped navigators find the right direction in the 12th century?

Vi

16th and 17th Centuries

How did a telescope help?

Why do you think maps were inexact in the old days?

Telescopes

Early Navigation Instruments

Sailors of Long Ago The invention of the sextant in the mid-eighteenth century made navigation much easier and more accurate. The sextant consisted of a series of mirrors which the navigator lined up with the Sun and the horizon. The latitude could then be read off the scale. What do you think would be a disadvantage about the use of the sextant?

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The Sea magn mag

Title:

et

You’ll need:

sticky tape

two

d netise

whole

• a needle

write

• a magnet • a cork • sticky tape • round plastic ice-cream container

pl e

slice of cork

needle

You can make your own instruments for navig easy to make. First, stroke a ne backwards and for

Sa m

Print compass points on to the sides of your plastic

NE

W

cont

E compass

SE

S

er. (If you’re using a good bowl, you

can print comp

poi

s onto a ring

g

of cardboard.)

Now, float your new com

s on the water in your

. When it comes to rest, gently

in

bowl or contai

ed. Tape it to a

floats flatter than a whole cork.)

N

SW

is

le with a magnet. (Always go the same way, not .) Now your needle is magn

cork slice. (A sl

NW

. A working comp

move the bowl around until the n

.

Write two titles.

ew

points to N

After collecting all the things you need, what would you

Vi

do first?

What is the next step?

Then what?

shortest shadow at noon

You can also find out when local noon occurs. Stick a post in the ground and mark the end of the shadow. After a while mark the end again. The shadow will shorten until noon and then lengthen again. (Note that local noon – where you are now – may not be the same as 12 o’clock on your watch.)

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34


The Sea

Title:

sword

ea

cutlass

h

d

d

dly

w

pons rlier

inst

flint lock

d vy

pl e

h l

Around 200 years ago the ‘Men of War’ fighting ships had many h

rnings

vy cannons to sink and destroy enemy vessels. But when

pirates boarded their ships, sailors needed other w

pons, such as

was a curved s

It was d

Sa m

pistols and cutlasses. A cut

rd with razor-sharp edg

dly and could slice off an arm or even a h

.

d.

years ago)

Around the 1680s (about the flint lock pistol was inven

. It had

a safety lock which was a great advance on

hollow mould for making round shot

g

rlier pistols. People made their own bullets (round shot) by heating l

d

d until it melted

in

and pouring it into a hollow mould.

What were the hand weapons sailors used?

Why was the flint lock pistol better than earlier pistols?

How did people make bullets?

ew

Choose the best headline. Razor Sharp

Vi

Men of War

New Weapon at Sea

Hollow Moulds

It took time to load a flint lock pistol. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Set the safety lock to ‘half cock’. Pour gunpowder down the barrel. Ram a musket ball down the barrel with a ‘ramrod’. Pour a small amount of gun powder into the ‘priming pan’ and close cover. Set the safety lock to ‘full cock’ – then fire.

What does it mean when we say ‘Don’t go off half-cocked’?

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The Sea

Title:

variety

dis or ful

answered

honest

discipline

colour obedient pain

pl e

usual un

On crowded sailing ships there were discip hon

and stole things and some were

Sa m

each other. Some were

problems. Some sailors fought with

obed

and ans

ed back. A var

of punishments were

ordered by the captain or officers. The most usu

pun

t was

in

g

the ‘checked shirt’. An offender would be

leg irons punishment

lashes tore the skin, showing lines of blood in a crisscross pattern like a col

ful shirt.

that sailors often fainted. For a small offence sailors could

ew

The lashes were so pain

tied to the mast or rigging and lashed. The

Vi

be put in leg irons and left in the blazing Sun or lashing rain.

Write two titles.

What were some of the discipline problems?

What was a ‘checked shirt’?

How do you think ‘leg irons’ worked?

Keelhauling was very cruel. A sailor would be hauled underneath the ship and up the other side. Barnacles (sharp shells on the hull) tore at their skin and often men drowned. Keelhauling was outlawed on all naval vessels. Why?

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The Sea

Title: Marie Celeste under full sail

son daug

mystery

hter

mysteries abandoned deserted solved solution

Here is one of the great sea

craft

which has never

been sol

vessel

. What happened to

pl e

myst

struggle

the captain and crew of the Marie Celeste?

violence

C

was a two-masted American

cargo ves

with square sails. She set sail on 7 Nov

Sa m

The M

1872 from New York, bound for Genoa in Italy with a full cargo. She also carried a crew of seven, plus the captain, his wife and baby dau A month later she was found ab was des

.

oned off the coast of Portugal. The cra

ed. There was no sign of a strug

or viol

. The cargo

g

was intact and there was money still on board.

When did the vessel leave New York?

What do you think ‘double masted’ means?

in

Vi

ew

Write three mysterious titles.

What does ‘square rigged’ mean?

Did the crew leave because of a fight? What was your clue/s?

• Write the best one at the top of the page. The final entry in the captain’s log was just routine at 8 a.m. 25 November. The ship was seaworthy and there was a half-written letter left by one of the crew. Perhaps you have a theory of what might have happened.

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The Sea

Title: costly

n ow kn st one s h i d

precious valuable prized treasure dear

pl e

cious suspi pre

atro

Preci valuab

Sa m

large merchant ship pirate ships were small and fast

cargo was often carried from one country to another by sea. There were gold coins, silver plate and diamonds. Disho

this trea

sailors thought that all

could be theirs for the taking. They would attack and board ships known

to be carrying cos

cargo, fighting and kill

until the ship was theirs.

g

These were the pirates of the high seas. Pi

used the ships they captured to ships. By flying the

in

chase after other treas

normal flag they could sail quite close before the

ew

merchant ship became susp

us. Then up

went every piece of canvas and the race was on to capture the pri

cargo.

Vi

walking the plank

‘Pirates’ would be a good title – but dull. Think of some interesting titles.

Who were the dishonest raiders at sea?

What do you think these mean? ‘theirs for the taking’

‘every piece of canvas’

The skull and crossbones became the most feared flag on the high seas. Pirate raids were often carried out with atrocious cruelty. Sailors faced sharp cutlasses or they were made to ‘walk the plank’ with hands bound so they would drown. Sailing ships carried more and more sails so they could escape the raiders, but pirate ships were small and fast.

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The Sea

Title:

Draw the treasure map here.

ough r

ly

t en f

t ight

e

pl e

y

l

ly

we

y

Sa m

f

ing

anchor

One day Pirate Pete was captured. He quickly ate his map of where he had hidden ei

y pieces of gold. Later, he escaped. Help him redraw his map. treasure chest

He remem

equal to one kilometre. He recal widest from east to w

in

ed ber m me re red mbe e m re ed call e r lled reca

ly a 14 cm by 6 cm rectangle with each centimetre

g

rou

that the map of the island was

the wei

. He could see in his mind’s eye

the sandy bay to the north where he had an his ship, and the hi

ew

He rem

that the island was

ed the tou

ed

hill to the south-west.

time he had dragging

ty chest of gold 4 km to the cave on the east

Vi

side of the hill where he piled enou

rocks on the chest

to cover it.

This page ought to have a title. Think of three.

What was in Pirate Pete’s treasure chest?

What do you think ‘he could see it in his mind’s eye’ means?

Do you think he ever got his eighty pieces of gold back?

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Write a short story about it. 39


The Sea

Title: migra nt te Arctic tern with large wing

ting

span for long journeys

tion maybe Nor th er n

possibly

Arctic

South

pl e

perhaps

Ant arc ti c Ant

possibility

Sa m

a

One of the wonders of the bird world is the mig and breeds in the Ar

ion of the Arctic tern. It is a small bird

during the short no

grow shorter and colder the t

ern summer. Once the days

s start their long mi

land and over the oceans until they reach South Africa, S Antar

a for the brief s

America or

ern summer. The round trip for the tern

is 35 000 kilometres.

g

mig

n. They fly over

in

No-one really knows how birds find their way. Poss they learn from older birds. Ma

ew

by instinct. Per

Vi

Swans in V formation

Write two possible titles. Choose your best for the top of the page.

the stars. It’s a pos

y

they know the way

they can navigate by the Sun or ty they use all of

these methods.

How far does the Arctic tern fly in a year?

Where does this tern lay its eggs and raise its chicks?

Which method do you think birds use to find their way?

Why do you think that?

Heavy bird migrants such as geese and swans fly in ‘V’ formations. Each bird receives help from the wing-flap of the bird ahead. Wing-flaps move the air and so reduces ‘drag’ for the bird behind. The lead bird has no help so tires quickly. This is why the lead changes every few kilometres.

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0374 Comprehension Lifters - Book 4