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er del idw MLo by George Moore Prim-Ed Publishing


Contents

CLOZE IN ON LANGUAGE

Middle

Foreword This series of four books is a challenging language package, based on a cloze format, covering an approximate age range from 7 - 12 years. Each topic contains cloze text followed by comprehension activities based on the three levels of questioning and activity pages which follow modern educational trends.

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The cloze text contains a mixture of fiction and nonfiction information, with some topics reflecting the interest in schools and the wider community over subjects such as: endangered animals, ancient civilisations, pollution, courageous women, transport, inventions, health issues and literature. A teacher information page is included to demonstrate how to get the most benefit from the package and answers have been provided to save teachers valuable preparation time. About the Author

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George Moore has been a practising classroom teacher for over 30 years, with experience in primary and secondary areas. He has held promotional positions in England, New South Wales and Western Australia.

HEALTH

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Contents ANCIENT PEOPLE Early Cave-Dwellers ...................................... 25-27

SEASONS

DISCOVERING THE PAST

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Improving Our Health ....................................... 1-3

Tutankhamen .................................................. 28-30

DISASTERS

HARSH ENVIRONMENTS

Cyclones ........................................................... 7-9

Antarctica ....................................................... 31-33

TRANSPORT

ENDANGERED ANIMALS

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Winter - ............................................................ 4-6

Traffic Problems ............................................ 10-12

The Elephant ................................................... 34-36

LITERATURE

FAMOUS VOYAGES

Black Beauty ................................................. 13-15

Ships Through the Years ................................... 37-39

UNDER THE SEA

WOMEN OF COURAGE

Strange Sea Creatures .................................... 16-18

Mary MacKillop .............................................. 40-42

GREAT INVENTIONS

COMMUNICATION

Braille ........................................................... 19-21

Writing ........................................................... 43-45

SPECIAL DAYS

LEGENDARY HEROES

Christmas ...................................................... 22-24

King Arthur ..................................................... 46-48 Answers ..........................................................49-50

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Cloze in on Language


CLOZE IN ON LANGUAGE

Teacher Information

Middle

Teacher Information Cloze in on Language has been written to develop reading skills through Cloze procedures. This approach has been well-tried and proven. Cloze in on Language adds further dimensions by including detailed comprehension activities and a variety of language activities which include: • • • • •

Character rating; Main idea; Retrieval charts; Cause and effect; Semantic grids and much more.

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Cloze It is suggested that the Cloze sheet for each topic is completed first and corrected before the Comprehension sheets and Activities are attempted. This means that a complete and correct text is available for study in order to answer the Comprehension questions and Activities.

Communication

Writing

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The topics themselves are of perennial interest to children. They draw on subjects from literature and history and touch on concerns of importance to us all today, such as pollution and endangered animals. Comprehension

Comprehension

1.1 A writing system was invented because: (a) Humans wanted to communicate clearly. (b) Everyone had pens to write with. (c) The earliest humans couldn’t draw very well. 1.2 Which drawn sign in the passage means ‘king’? 1.3 Who invented the first writing system? 1.4 What is the second letter of the Greek alphabet? 1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree. (a) The Sumerians copied writing from the earliest humans. (b) The Greek alphabet was simpler than the Roman.

2.1 We get our word ‘alphabet’ from Roman letters. True

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(c) The earliest humans hadn’t developed enough to invent an alphabet.

or false

?

The Comprehension activities contain a balance of: literal; inferential; and evaluative questions. These encourage the use of reading skills such as cause and effect, main ideas, context clues and more.

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2.2 Give your own example of how we use hand signals to give messages.

Writing

Communication

Activities

2.3 Where have ancient drawings of animal hunts been found?

Letter Sort Sort the letters of the alphabet to fit into the Venn diagram below. Three are done for you.

2.4 What was the most important thing about having letter shapes?

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Curved Letters

Straight Letters

B

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List forms of communication which have helped us communicate through words.

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44

A

C

Rebus A rebus is a way of writing messages using diagrams, letter symbols and number symbols, as shown in this example.

Cloze in on Language

Evaluative Comprehension questions. Activities

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The Activities develop vocabulary and enable pupils to use research skills to seek further background information on the worksheet topics. They also give pupils the opportunity to use their imagination in exercises which delve into more creative aspects of the topics studied. Prim-Ed Publishing

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saw

two

flowers

in

a

vase

before

sunrise.

This is similar to some early forms of writing where diagrams stood for certain objects. Now draw your own rebus and see if your partner can read your message. If your partner can, then you have communicated with another person, which was a problem for the early humans.

Activity Look at the word pictures on the left. Talk about them with your teacher. Draw some of your own. king

war

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summer

night 45

Cloze in on Language

Cloze in on Language


Health

Improving our Health

Cloze (1)

Nowadays, with clean

,

expert doctors and wonderful drugs like penicillin, (2)

humans can

to be over seventy. (3)

Ancient Romans were

to live

beyond forty years. (4)

of operations done

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Patients used to die of shock from the

without an anaesthetic. Others died from blood poisoning because wounds were not (5)

kept

.

(6)

on

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Long ago, people didn’t realise

rats spread bubonic plague which killed millions. In cities (7)

in Europe, people once threw their

onto the streets. The rotting rubbish brought flies and more (8)

.

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Barbers, or blacksmiths, who (9)

,

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made

used to pull out teeth with pliers.

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There were no drugs to (10)

the pain.

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How lucky we are today!

clean pain

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reduce horseshoes

rubbish hospitals

1

live diseases

fleas lucky

Cloze in on Language


Health

Improving our Health

Comprehension

1.1 Which insects carried the bubonic plague? 1.2 Long ago, city people kept their rubbish in bins. True

or false

?

1.3 Who made horseshoes? 1.4 If wounds were not kept clean people died from which disease?

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1.5 Why is anaesthetic used in operations?

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2.1 Name one unhealthy thing done in the past that we don’t do now.

2.2 What is the name given to a drug which deadens pain? 2.3 Tick the statement that tells us the main idea of paragraph 3 (what the whole paragraph is about). (a) People’s ignorance of the causes of disease. (b) Fleas and rats.

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(c) The bubonic plague.

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2.4 Why was it much more painful in the past to have a tooth pulled out?

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2.5 Tick any sentences with which the author would agree. (a) Drugs are a great help to doctors today.

(b) Drugs should not be used to reduce pain.

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(c) In the past, people lived much longer. (d) Many years ago people didn’t know the cause of many diseases.

What does the author mean by ‘How lucky we are today!’?

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Health

Improving our Health

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6. tossed

2. illnesses

7. injuries

3. perished

8. fortunate

4. marvellous

9. lessen

5. rubbish

10. skilful

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1. decaying

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Retrieval Chart Complete the chart below after reading the passage again. Use brief notes as shown. Nowadays

Wounds often left dirty

Treatment of patients

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Use of drugs Hospital cleanliness

Long Ago

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Knowledge of disease The work of barbers

Cut hair

Read and Illustrate

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Read the statement below and draw some of the things or people helping to keep us healthy today.

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People didn’t have dentists’ drills, rubbish collectors, nurses, ambulances or sun cream hundreds of years ago.

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Seasons

Winter (1)

Winter is coming with

cover the dark, grey skies, (3)

A blanket of (4)

Each

that chill,

on the windowsill,

turns brown, falls and dies.

(5)

No butterflies seen, no busy (6)

,

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(2)

Rain

Cloze (Nouns)

shelter from the winter storm, (7)

Some

begin to cough and sneeze, (8)

(9)

In the cold of (10)

The

to keep warm.

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As we huddle by the

is Christmas Day,

, the laughter, gifts under the

(11)

,

(12)

, games to play,

Singing a

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A time to enjoy we all agree!

fire clouds

winds people

carol tree

bees snow

leaf winter

toys Animals

The rhyming words at the ends of the lines may help you! Prim-Ed Publishing

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Cloze in on Language


Seasons

Winter

Comprehension

1.1 What is it that changes colour in the first verse of the poem? 1.2 What do animals do in the winter storm? 1.3 Which kind of song is mentioned in the poem?

Sun

Snow

Bare trees Clouds

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1.4 Which insects are no longer seen? 1.5 Semantic grid. (Match the seasons in the left column with the words across the top of the grid as shown). Home fires

Swimming

Bees

Woollen sweaters

✓

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Summer

✓

Winter Summer and Winter

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2.1 What does the writer mean by huddle?

2.2 Why do people begin to cough and sneeze? or false

?

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2.3 Bees are busiest in winter. True

2.4 Which two things in the poem are found under a tree?

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2.5 What is a carol?

Write about a happy winter memory.

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Cloze in on Language


Seasons

Winter

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6. arriving

2. beneath

7. song

3. presents

8. energetic

4. approaching

9. start

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1. drops

5. place of safety

10. playthings

Language

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Find nouns in the poem which fit into these sentences. 1.

The pretty

2.

We huddled by the

3.

She looked at the

4.

We didn’t understand the rules of two

5.

He could hear

settled on the flower.

, as it was cold.

and saw the snow.

.

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from the birthday party.

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Narrative Many ancient peoples gave explanations of natural events through their myths. The Romans believed the god Apollo drew the sun across the sky each day behind his chariot. The Australian Aboriginal people believed rivers and lakes dried up because a giant frog drank the water. Now make up your own legend to explain why many trees lose their leaves in the winter.

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Use these guidelines.

1. 3.

When it happened . Who was involved .

2. 4.

Where it happened. Details of the story.

5.

A final comment about your myth.

Illustrate your legend in Art. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Cloze in on Language


Disasters

Cyclones

Cloze

Cyclones are very strong winds which can (1)

buildings. They can kill people (2)

who ignore

Cyclones get their power from air (3)

up over warm seas in the tropics. (4)

They often bring (5)

parts of the

and in different

they are called

hurricanes or typhoons.

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warnings.

and television

(6)

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These whirling masses of air sometimes cause tidal

, which

drown coastal villages in countries like Indonesia or Bangladesh. Other countries then (7)

send money or

supplies to help people in need. (8)

People who live in cyclone areas make their homes

(9)

protecting roofs and windows. They also

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through the air by

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the strong winds.

down loose objects in (10)

the garden. These could be very dangerous if

by

rain waves Prim-Ed Publishing

damage radio

hurled safer 7

heating world

food fasten Cloze in on Language


Disasters

Cyclones

Comprehension

1.1 Tick what the writer said in the passage. (a) Tidal waves are ten metres high. (b) Britain sends money to help cyclone victims. (c) Cyclones can have different names. 1.2 What is a cyclone?

1.4 Tidal waves cause cyclones. True

or false

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1.3 Name two countries which suffer damage from huge waves.

?

two?

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1.5 Why do you think Indonesia and Bangladesh were used as examples in paragraph

2.1 The main idea of the third paragraph (what the whole paragraph is about) is: (a) The garden.

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(b) Preparing for a cyclone.

(c) The windows in a house.

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2.2 How are people warned that a cyclone is coming?

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2.3 What do cyclones often bring which can be good for some farming areas?

2.4 Cyclones are dangerous because

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2.5 Tick what you think could be good reasons why people live in cyclone areas. (a) They like cyclones.

(b) Their jobs are there. (c) Their families have always lived there. (d) They want their houses to be damaged. What would you do in the event of a cyclone?

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Cloze in on Language


Disasters

Cyclones

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6.

assist

2. twisting

7.

take no notice of

3. regions

8.

near the coast

4. thrown

9.

not fastened

10.

do harm to

5. powerful

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1. dwellings

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Recount Imagine you are telling a friend about how you were caught in a cyclone. Make notes against these headings before you write your recount in full. Setting the scene. Who was involved: Where it happened:

Why it happened:

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When it happened:

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Events in time order (first to last). 1.

2.

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3. 4. Ending (how the story finished, happily/sadly).

On this map of the world, shade in the tropics where Tropic of Cancer

cyclones begin.

Equator

Tropic of Capricorn

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Cloze in on Language


Transport

Traffic Problems

Cloze (Nouns)

In many countries cars on the roads cause (1)

for people. Thousands of (2)

pedestrians and

are killed in

road accidents each year. Car exhausts also pour (3)

out dangerous (4)

we breathe. Lead is used

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into the

, containing lead,

in petrol to prevent the wearing away of (5)

(6)

. Some doctors believe a chemical

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New cars use unleaded

inside the engine.

(7)

called benzene used in this kind of petrol is also dangerous to our This is when this petrol is used in

(8)

not suitable for unleaded fuel.

At certain times of the day traffic jams are a problem on our main

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and governments have to think of ways to prevent them.

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One way is to ask drivers to leave their cars at (10)

and use public transport

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such as buses and trains.

roads problems

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parts cars

home air

10

.

drivers fumes

petrol health

Cloze in on Language

(9)


Transport

Traffic Problems

Comprehension

1.1 Name two kinds of public transport mentioned in the passage.

1.2 Unleaded petrol is mainly used in (big, old, new) cars. 1.3 What helps to prevent the inside parts of engines wearing away? 1.4 Fuel is another word for petrol. True

or false

?

(a) Cars cause different kinds of problems.

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1.5 Think carefully and tick the sentences with which the author would agree.

(b) Old cars using leaded petrol should be scrapped.

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(c) We should use cars less. (d) There are always traffic jams.

2.1 There are many cars on the road at 8.00 a.m. because

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2.2 Give the word from the passage which means people who walk.

2.3 Which chemical in unleaded fuel can be dangerous?

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2.4 Do cars cause problems or do people cause problems? Explain your answer.

2.5 Semantic grid. Tick off the pairs that match. Cause most accidents

Public transport

Provide exercise

Carry many passengers

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Pour out fumes

Cars

Buses

Bicycles Electric trains

Create a new strategy to prevent traffic jams in the future.

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Cloze in on Language


Transport

Traffic Problems

Activities

Language Circle the correct noun to complete each sentence. The use of unleaded (fumes, roads, petrol) means less lead in the air we breathe.

2.

Modern (roads, cars, pedestrians) have air-bags to protect passengers.

3.

Speed is a cause of (drivers, fuel, accidents) on our roads.

4.

Cars which belch out (wheels, fumes, jams) should not be on our roads.

5.

(Drivers, Wheels, Babies) should not drink if they are driving.

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1.

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Explanation Work with your teacher to describe the problems associated with petrol-driven cars. Use these headings. Title.

2.

The components (parts) which pollute the air.

3.

How the components work to produce pollution.

4.

The pollution caused and its effects.

5.

Steps so far taken to reduce the problem.

6.

Conclusion - your thoughts on the problem.

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1.

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Brainstorming - Set a purpose Discuss with your teacher possible ways of reducing road accidents (for example, more roadside speed cameras, licences at 25 years, heavier fines, better driving school training, etc.). Then select what you think are the three best suggestions.

2.

3.

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Cloze in on Language


Literature

Black Beauty

Cloze (Nouns) (1)

Anna Sewell was born in England in 1820. She wrote her famous Black Beauty in 1877 and it has been made into several films. (2)

,

She loved

and wrote it to show how she felt. The

horse

tells (3)

own

so it’s a kind of

One of Beauty’s

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autobiography.

its

(4)

was a Mr Gordon.

While working for him, Beauty met

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Ginger and Merrylegs at his owner’s (5)

and they became

friends. Later, Beauty saved his master’s

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life by refusing to cross a damaged

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climate than England’s. (9)

stable worker rode Beauty eight

(8)

for a doctor.

had to move to a warmer

Beauty was sold and after working hard for several

found a good home with a kind family. He was very happy, but still

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missed his

miles family Prim-Ed Publishing

during a storm.

When Mrs Gordon was seriously ill, a

(7)

As Mrs Gordon was very sick her

(6)

friend story

(10)

Ginger.

book owners 13

stable bridge

years horses Cloze in on Language


Literature

Black Beauty

Comprehension

1.1 Who was telling the story? 1.2 How far from Mr Gordon’s home was the doctor? 1.3 Which friend did Beauty miss most of all? 1.4 Mr Gordon rode Beauty to get the doctor when his wife was ill. True

or false

?

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2.1 Which owner did Merrylegs work for?

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1.5 How do you think Beauty knew the bridge was damaged?

2.2 How old was Anna Sewell when she wrote the book? 2.3 Why did Mr Gordon sell Beauty?

2.4 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

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(a) Anna Sewell loved all animals.

(b) Black Beauty always obeyed his master.

2.5 Sequencing

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(c) This story has been popular for many years.

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Use numbers 1 - 5 to place these events in the correct order in time. (a) Mr Gordon sold Black Beauty.

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(b) Black Beauty first met Ginger. (c) Black Beauty refused to cross the damaged bridge. (d) Mrs Gordon became ill. (e) Mr and Mrs Gordon left England. Why do you think Black Beauty is such a popular story?

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Cloze in on Language


Literature

Black Beauty

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6.

broken

2. tale

7.

pals

3. discovered

8.

contented

4. ill

9.

go over

5. building for horses

10.

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1. well known

liked very much

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Language Circle the correct noun to complete these sentences which contain more information about the book and its author. 1. Anna Sewell was born in the (road, house, town) of Yarmouth. 2. Beauty worked as a cab horse and carried (coal, passengers, bread). 3. Beauty finished his life in a good (city, bridge, home).

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4. Mrs Gordon’s family went to a warm (stable, country, hospital).

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5. Beauty liked Mr Gordon who was his (doctor, slave, master).

1. 2.

Who are you?

Where did you live?

When and how were you captured?

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Narrative In Black Beauty a horse tells the story. Imagine you are a bear, a tiger or a sea lion and you have been captured for a circus. Tell your story and use the guidelines below.

4.

Who were the people involved?

5.

What were the problems you faced?

6.

How did you overcome them?

7.

What happened at the end?

8.

Are you happy or sad? Why?

Illustrate a scene from your story in an Art lesson.

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Cloze in on Language


Under the Sea

Strange Sea Creatures

Cloze (Nouns)

Early sailors thought the oceans hid strange sea monsters which could swallow (1)

. They were wrong, but marine biologists have discovered some odd (2)

undersea

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.

Angler fish have a glowing green bulb attached to a thread leading from the dorsal (3)

. The remora is a fish with

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fin. The swaying light attracts potential

(4)

a sucker on top of its

. It attaches itself to large sea creatures like (5)

sharks or turtles and enjoys a free

! The seahorse lives in warm,

tropical seas and is a fish with a head like a tiny (7)

floating upright in the

. The manatee or

is a plant-eating mammal. Females nurse their young while (8)

. They are thought to be the reason for tales

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sea

(6)

(9)

about

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. The narwhal is a small Arctic whale with a long tusk, often

(10)

three

in length.

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These are only a few of the odd creatures under our seas.

ride head

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ships water

metres horse

16

cow mermaids

creatures prey

Cloze in on Language


Under the Sea

Strange Sea Creatures

Comprehension

1.1 What did early sailors worry about?

1.2 Give another name for the manatee. 1.3 The remora can attach itself to other creatures because

1.5 Tick the statement the author meant. (a) A seahorse is as large as a horse.

(c) Mermaids eat plants.

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(b) Early sailors were afraid of sea monsters.

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1.4 Which creature in the passage has a long tusk?

2.1 What do we call people who study sea creatures? 2.2 Give another name for a sucker fish.

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2.3 When does the female manatee look human?

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2.4 Seahorses were once thought to be mermaids. True

or false

?

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2.5 What is another name for a plant-eating mammal which lives under the sea?

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What other strange sea creatures do some people believe exist?

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Cloze in on Language


Under the Sea

Strange Sea Creatures

Activities

Language Circle the correct noun to complete these sentences which contain more information about sea creatures. The female seahorse lays her (stones, eggs, head) in the male’s pouch.

2.

Sucker fish also attach themselves to (trees, cars, whales).

3.

The narwhal swallows (fish, rocks, bees) and squid whole.

4.

Angler fish live in (tropical, deep, shallow) waters.

5.

The manatee is a mammal which eats (stones, bread, plants).

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1.

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Semantic Grid Complete the grid below. You will obtain some information from the passage, but will need to use the library for columns 3 and 4. Where found (Pacific Ocean etc.)

Unusual feature Narwhal

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Remora

Glowing green light

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Seahorse

Other fish

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Angler fish

Food eaten

Manatee

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Report Use the library and select your own unusual sea creature. Write a report on it using these guidelines. 1.

The kind of creature it is.

2.

What it looks like - shape, size, number of legs, colour, etc.

3.

Where it lives - near the surface, warm waters, etc.

4.

What it does - the food it seeks, moves in groups, mates for life, etc.

5. A final summarising comment. Now draw an accurate picture of your creature for a class undersea mural. Write a short sentence about it under your diagram. Prim-Ed Publishing

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Cloze in on Language


Great Inventions

Braille

Cloze (Verbs) (1)

Louis Braille was a Frenchman (2)

three. He

to read at a school for the blind by using books which (3)

had raised capital letters that he could (4)

and

in an accident when he was

. Later he became a teacher

at the school. When

he

was

fifteen

he

a method of reading for

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(5)

only

(6)

the blind in 1824. He

different patterns of raised dots which

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sightless people could feel with their (7)

fingertips. Each pattern

for a letter or number. Other patterns stood for common words like ‘and’ or punctuation marks like full stops. (8)

into a computer which then

the letters into the Braille alphabet. This alphabet is now used all

in

(9)

g

Book pages can now be

(10)

over the world. Sadly, it wasn’t used at his school until after he

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1852.

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Blind people also use talking books nowadays.

stood learnt

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changes used

blinded typed

19

feel invented

died taught

Cloze in on Language

in


Great Inventions

Braille

Comprehension

1.1 How old was Braille when he had his accident? 1.2 In which country was Braille born? 1.3 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree. (a) Blind people have always listened to talking books. (b) Braille’s alphabet only used letters.

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(c) His alphabet was not used at the school while Braille was there. 1.4 How old was Braille in 1824?

1.5 The main idea of the second paragraph (what the whole paragraph is about) is: (a) Ordinary words we use.

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(c) The Braille alphabet.

(b) People who are blind. (d) Symbols and Patterns.

2.1 Another word for ‘blind’ in the passage is

.

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2.2 Did Braille use his own method to learn to read?

2.3 How old was Braille when he died?

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2.4 What was unfortunate about the introduction of the Braille alphabet?

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2.5 Use the numbers 1 - 5 to place these sentences in the correct order in time. (a) The Braille alphabet was used at Braille’s school.

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(b) Braille became a teacher. (c) Braille was blinded in an accident. (d) Computers now produce Braille alphabets. (e) Braille learnt to read at a school for the blind. Braille is sometimes used at Cashpoint Machines. Where else in our society can it be used?

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Cloze in on Language


Great Inventions

Braille

Activities

Language Circle the correct verb in these sentences which contain more information about Louis Braille. To send messages at night a French soldier (dropped, invented, forgot) a method using twelve holes and not six dots like Braille.

2.

Braille was blinded while (hoping, singing, playing) with his father’s tools.

3. 4.

Braille also invented a method of (working, writing, turning) music using dots. Braille was a good pupil when he (played, smiled, studied) at school, even though he was blind.

5.

The Braille alphabet dots could be (arranged, closed, forgotten) in 63 different ways.

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1.

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Who you are. Why you decided to produce your invention. When you began. Where you started to work on it. The story of the problems you faced and the people who worked with you. The successful finish to your work.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Narrative Like Braille, many inventors have designed inventions which have benefited people all over the world (for example, Bell - the telephone, Marconi - radio, etc.). Imagine you are an inventor who has invented something which would benefit thousands of people. Use the guidelines below to help you.

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The Braille Alphabet Read the letters of the Braille alphabet in the box. Write a message to a friend in Braille. Use wood glue or plasticine to raise the appropriate letters. (The black dots need to be raised.)

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

t

u

v

w

x

y

z

of

with

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21

and for

Cloze in on Language


Special Days

Christmas

Cloze (Verbs)

Christmas is a Christian holiday which (1)

the birth of Jesus.

An old calendar showed the Ancient Romans (2)

also

Christmas on 25

December like us. Early Christians believed

pl e

holly was used in the crown of thorns Jesus (3)

on the cross.

Its red

berries were the drops of blood.

(4)

Sa m

We use many old Christmas customs. Decorating Christmas trees probably (5)

in Germany. Later, German migrants

to America. St. Nicholas is

(6)

the custom

to have been the first Santa Claus to

bring gifts. However, in Mexico and several South American countries the wise men (7)

(9)

g

Christmas cards in 1843. At first mince pies were (10)

the first

in the shape of a

round ones when we celebrate Christmas.

Vi

ew

in

manger. We now

(8)

the presents. British artist, John Horsely

began wore

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eat drew

held took

22

thought bring

celebrates baked

Cloze in on Language


Special Days

Christmas

Comprehension

1.1 How long have Chrismas cards been available? 1.2 What do we celebrate at Christmas?

1.3 On which plant are the red berries? 1.4 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

pl e

(a) Decoration of Christmas trees began in America. (b) Some Christmas customs spread to other countries. (c) Mince pies have always been round.

or false

?

Sa m

1.5 Many Christmas customs are very old. True

2.1 In which country do the wise men bring gifts?

2.2 Who introduced decorated Christmas trees to America? 2.3 Where were the first Christmas cards seen?

g

2.4 Why were the first mince pies shaped like a manger?

Vi

ew

in

2.5 How does your family celebrate Christmas and why?

Which Christmas activity do you think helps us in our relationships with other people?

Prim-Ed Publishing

23

Cloze in on Language


Special Days

Christmas

Activities

Language Circle the correct verb in these sentences which tells you more about Christmas. 1. Christmas trees became popular in Britain when a German prince married Queen Victoria and (stole, broke, erected) a tree in Windsor Castle. Many popular Christmas carols were (forgotten, written, drawn) in the 19th century.

3.

In France children (burn, sell, place) shoes in front of the fire so PĂŠre NoĂŤl can fill them with presents.

4.

Ancient Christians (helped, argued, hoped) about when Christmas should be held.

5.

Long ago it was believed that enemies who met under a mistletoe branch would (sharpen, drop, use) their weapons and embrace each other.

pl e

2.

Sa m

Ordering preferences Using the numbers 1 - 9, place these statements in order from most important (number 1) to least important (number 9). You cannot be wrong, as your answer is what you think is the correct order. (a) Remembering people in other countries

g

celebrate Christmas in different ways.

(b) Going to church to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

in

(c) Sending Christmas cards to people. (d) Being jealous of friends with more expensive presents.

ew

(e) Treating everyone in a friendly way with Christmas greetings. (f)

Forgetting Christmas is linked to the birth of Jesus.

(g) Spending a lot of money on Christmas presents.

Vi

(h) Helping the poor by donating toys or money. (i)

Leaving food and drink out for Santa Claus.

Recount Imagine you are John Horsley who drew the first Christmas cards. Tell how you think it happened using these guidelines. 1. Who you are. 2. When and where you thought of the idea. 3. Why you thought of such an idea. 4. The steps you went through in time order. 5. What everyone thought of sending cards to people. Prim-Ed Publishing

24

Cloze in on Language


Early Cave-Dwellers

Ancient People

Cloze (Nouns)

Thousands of years ago in the Ice Age, (1)

of hunters lived in

caves. These caves were often on the sunny (2)

of a valley. A fire would

be lit at the entrance for warmth or to keep away. We think

pl e

(3)

wild

they learnt to make fire by rubbing (4)

together or making

(5)

used

Sa m

sparks with stones. Before this they probably accidentally

caused by lightning to start their own.

(6)

These prehistoric people didn’t know how to grow

for food so

they ate wild plants and berries. They also hunted wild animals like bears, reindeer and

from flint. This was a kind of stone which split into sharp

in

(8)

and skins. They made simple tools and axe heads for

g

(7)

mammoths for

when struck with another rock or a hammer made from deer antlers. Drawings, whole skeletons and artefacts (10)

found in

tell us a lot

about these ancient hunters.

Vi

ew

(9)

animals side

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caves crops

fires meat

25

pieces sticks

tribes weapons

Cloze in on Language


Early Cave-Dwellers

Ancient People

Comprehension

1.1 What is the main idea of paragraph 2 (what the whole paragraph is about)? Tick the box which tells us. (a) The daily lives of the cave-dwellers. (b) How to make a hammer from deer antlers. (c) The different kinds of wild berries.

1.3 Where did these hunters build their fires?

pl e

1.2 What kind of stone was used to make tools?

Sa m

1.4 What is the name given to a very cold time in the history of the earth?

1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

(a) The cave-dwellers used lightning when they wanted a fire. (b) The cave-dwellers grew wheat and corn.

g

(c) The cave-dwellers chose caves in warm positions.

in

2.1 What do you think they would use wild animal fur skins for?

or false

?

ew

2.2 Objects made thousands of years ago are called artefacts. True 2.3 How do we think cave-dwellers made sparks to start fires?

Vi

2.4 Why didn’t these people eat bread made from wheat?

Discuss in small groups. Cave-dwellers sometimes moved because their caves became full of bones, rotting meat, etc. What other reason could you give for them leaving their cave?

On the back of the page draw a weapon made by a cave-dweller (after discussion with the teacher). Prim-Ed Publishing

26

Cloze in on Language


Early Cave-Dwellers

Ancient People

Activities

Language Circle the correct noun to complete these sentences which contain more information about cave-dwellers. Cave-dwellers used fire to harden the tips of hunting (trees, skins, spears).

2.

Cave (tools, drawings, furs) are the world’s oldest pictures.

3.

These hunters often dug graves for their dead in the (hospital, cave, river).

4.

Paints for cave paintings were made from substances in the (kitchen, garage, soil).

5.

These people buried tools with the dead to be used in the next (cave, valley, life).

pl e

1.

Sa m

Procedure Imagine you are the child of a cave-dweller. Tell us about a game you and your friends play in your cave on very cold, wet days. Use the guidelines below. The aim of the game - how you win.

2.

The number of players needed.

3.

The equipment needed (for example, animal bones, twigs etc.).

4.

The rules of the game.

5.

How to score.

6.

Why you and your friends enjoy

in

playing the game.

g

1.

Vi

ew

Small Group Discussion - Oral report Imagine you are prehistoric cave-dwellers. It is raining and twigs and grass are too wet to light a fire. How would you keep wild animals from your cave?

Prim-Ed Publishing

27

Cloze in on Language


Tutankhamen

Discovering the Past

Cloze (Adjectives) (1)

Tutankhamen was a boy king of (2)

when he became a

Egypt. He was about nine

pharaoh and only 18 when he died. Howard

Carter, an English archaeologist discovered his underground tomb in 1922 in the Valley (3)

of the Kings in

Egypt. (4)

possessions were buried with them. In this pharaoh’s tomb were

(5)

pl e

The Egyptians believed in life after death and many of their

valuable things which included necklaces, games, thrones, chariots, statues and a (6)

gold mask of the king. It was decorated with precious

Sa m

jewels. They even found a trumpet which could still be played after 3 000 years! The king’s preserved body, known as a mummy, was in a stone coffin called a sarcophagus.

(8)

Tutankhamen wasn’t a

(7)

coffin inside a

pharaoh but his

tomb had not been opened since ancient times and this was

It was the only royal tomb not spoilt by tomb robbers. It’s great that the

in

(9)

g

important.

tomb’s contents from the museum in Cairo, Egypt’s capital, (10)

ew

have been displayed to

people

Vi

in all parts of the world.

favourite many

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interested young

gold magnificent

28

southern great

greedy ancient

Cloze in on Language


Tutankhamen

Discovering the Past

Comprehension

1.1 Tutankhamen was king for about (5, 9, 18, 25) years. 1.2 Who found Tutankhamen’s tomb? 1.3 A sarcophagus is a stone coffin. True

or false

?

1.4 The main idea of paragraph 2 (what the whole paragraph is about) is: (a) Different kinds of coffins.

(c) The contents of a king’s tomb.

pl e

(b) Ancient musical instruments.

1.5 In which year was Tutankhamen’s tomb discovered?

Sa m

2.1 What is another name in the passage for a king?

2.2 Shade in the boxes which you think describe the character of the tomb robbers. Religious

Harmless

Greedy

g

Destructive

Proud of Egypt's history

in

2.3 Why were objects placed in the tombs of the pharaohs?

ew

2.4 Why is Tutankhamen’s tomb so important?

2.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree. (a) The tomb’s treasures should stay in Egypt.

Vi

(b) Tomb robbers were useful people in Egypt. (c) We are grateful that no robbers found Tutankhamen’s tomb.

If you were an Egyptian, what possessions would you want with you for your afterlife.

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29

Cloze in on Language


Discovering the Past

Tutankhamen

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6. found

2. grave

7. thieves

3. valuable

8. corpse

4. damaged

9. shown

pl e

1. face covering

5. wonderful

10. two-wheeled carts

Sa m

Language Circle the correct adjective to complete these sentences which contain more information about Tutankhamen. The Egyptians wrapped linen cloth around (stone, dead, smiling) bodies.

2.

Pharaohs were buried in (tiny, open, royal) tombs.

3.

Howard Carter was an (Indian, Arabian, English) archaeologist.

4.

The King’s gold coffin was inside a (stone, metal, rubber) coffin.

5.

Tutankhamen was very (happy, young, old) when he died.

g

1.

Vi

1.

ew

in

Small Group Discussion - Report If you were made the ruler of a country at the age of nine, write about the three best things you could do for your people. Discuss your possible choices with your group first.

2.

3.

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30

Cloze in on Language


Antarctica

Harsh Environments

(1)

Fossils of plants and

Cloze (Adjectives)

dinosaurs found in Antarctica show the

continent once had a warm climate. Trees and plants grew there before the land drifted (2)

towards the frozen

pole. This took millions of years. (3)

Now Antarctica is the world’s in parts. (5)

Some recorded wind speeds are over 300 km/h,

than most cyclones.

pl e

(4)

and coldest region with ice 5km

Thousands of

(6)

seals

and penguins feed in the oceans around

Sa m

Antarctica but no land animals live on the continent. We can see only tiny insects and not one

(8)

Only

(7)

tree.

and other workers live in this huge area of land. (9)

g

Each year thousands of tourists visit the

(10)

in

We hope they don’t spoil this

parts in planes or ships.

Vi

ew

part of the world.

large scientists

Prim-Ed Publishing

warmer windiest

ancient green

31

stronger thick

beautiful south

Cloze in on Language


Antarctica

Harsh Environments

Comprehension

1.1 Which huge animals once lived on land in Antarctica? 1.2 How deep is the ice in parts of the continent? 1.3 Tourists visit the coldest areas of Antarctica. True

or false

?

1.4 The continent drifted (north, west, south, east) to the pole.

pl e

1.5 Name two things which would make living in Antarctica unpleasant.

2.1 Tick the box which gives the main idea of paragraph 3 (what it’s all about).

(b) The life of a penguin.

Sa m

(a) Plant and animal life in and around Antarctica.

(c) Large land animals of Antarctica.

2.2 Which two living things once found on land in Antarctica are not there now?

g

2.3 Think carefully and tick the sentence with which the author would agree. (a) Antarctica is a pleasant place to live.

in

(b) Great numbers of visitors could harm Antarctica’s environment. (c) Dinosaurs could still be living in Antarctica.

ew

2.4 What do we call the remains of plants and animals which have hardened into rock over thousands of years?

2.5 Discuss in small groups and give an oral report.

Vi

How do you think tourists could harm Antarctica?

Make suggestions about what could be done to prevent damage by tourists.

Prim-Ed Publishing

32

Cloze in on Language


Antarctica

Harsh Environments

Activities

Retrieval Chart To complete the chart you may have to refer to reference books in your library, or discuss the problem with the teacher. Problem

In hot deserts

Where you live

In Antarctica

Where does drinking water come from?

pl e

How is food obtained? How are animals used for transport? What do people live in?

Sa m

How is food kept fresh? What special clothes are needed?

Small group discussion Discuss with other group members what the group would like and dislike about living in Antarctica, then record what you would dislike most and what you would like most.

ew

Dislike most

in

g

Like most

Vi

Read and Illustrate Read the passage again and draw your own picture of Antarctica and show some of these:

Prim-Ed Publishing

1. The two live volcanoes Mount Terror and Mount Erebus. 2. Penguins and seals from the ocean. 3. The huts of scientists. 4. The snow and ice which reflect all the sun’s heat.

33

Cloze in on Language


The Elephant

Endangered Animals

(1)

We have to learn to

Cloze (Verbs)

our world with all the other creatures in it. (2)

Caring people from over one hundred nations

in Florida in 1994.

They hoped to prevent profits being made from selling parts of wild animals like the elephant. (3)

Trading in elephant parts to make money has been

elephant numbers. Tourists have been (5)

horrified to see shops in Africa and elsewhere (6)

elephant feet. These have been

pl e

(4)

This is because poaching has

since 1989.

litter bins made from

off and then hollowed out. Their

Sa m

tusks have also been used for ivory products like rings, brooches, letter openers, etc. Many (7)

countries have now banned ivory imports and this has wicked trade.

down the

Elephant numbers in South Africa are (8)

because of its excellent

its herd of about 9 000

in

(9)

g

conservation programme. The Government

by killing 350 each year, usually the old or

ew

sick ones. This means the herd doesn’t (10)

too much vegetation

also needed by other wild animals.

Vi

We have to make sure that children in

schools today are able to see elephants in the wild in future.

rising controls

Prim-Ed Publishing

eat reduced

banned met

34

slowed selling

sawn share

Cloze in on Language


The Elephant

Endangered Animals

Comprehension

1.1 Shade in the boxes which describe the character of an elephant poacher. Animal lover

Cruel

Kind

Greedy for money

Careful

Gentle

Not caring about animals

Law-abiding

1.2 Selling elephant parts has been banned for five years. True

or false

?

pl e

1.3 Which parts of the elephant are ivory brooches made from? 1.4 In which country are elephant numbers growing?

1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

Sa m

(a) Tourists should buy rings made from ivory.

(b) The South African government plans to kill all its elephants. (c) We have to care for the world’s animal life.

g

2.1 Which elephants does the African Government kill each year?

in

2.2 What do elephants do which affects other wild animals?

ew

2.3 What did the people at the Florida meeting hope to do?

Vi

2.4 Which three words tell us the South African government is doing its best for its elephant population?

Why is it important for children in schools today to be able to see elephants in the wild?

Prim-Ed Publishing

35

Cloze in on Language


The Elephant

Endangered Animals

Activities

Language Circle the correct verb to complete these sentences which contain more information about elephants. Cruel poachers (feed, help, kill) many elephants.

2.

Elephants (eat, sell, grow) over 200 kg of leaves, fruit and bark each day.

3.

Many people (find, hope, know) elephants won’t become extinct.

4.

Hunters used to (lift, cuddle, shoot) African elephants.

5.

African park rangers (pay, capture, borrow) many elephant poachers.

pl e

1.

Sa m

Retrieval Chart To complete this chart on endangered animals you may need help from the teacher or reference books in your library.

Habitat

Food eaten

g

Elephant

Why hunted?

Whale

ew

Leopard

in

Tiger

Vi

Wolf

Activity These animals are all threatened with extinction. Complete the list. Missing letters are in brackets. Spelling must be correct. 1.

r

2.

p

3.

l

4. 5.

n

s

d o o

a l ge

Prim-Ed Publishing

s d

(i o h)

6.

e

(n a a)

7.

u

(s e p r)

8.

h

(a s k a)

9.

o

( r t i s)

10. 36

a

s

(a b r)

t

e

(r s t l)

e t t

(a w s l) s

o

s

(r e t i o)

s (l e n e p) Cloze in on Language


Famous Voyages

Ships Through the Years

Cloze (Adjectives)

The Egyptians invented sails about 5 000 years ago and used winds to explore the (1)

seas. Centuries later the

Vikings still used sails as well as oars in their (2)

longships on

voyages

pl e

to Britain. About 800 years ago shipbuilders in Europe invented the rudder. Ships could then (3)

be steered in

(5)

and wider, explorers like Columbus could carry

Sa m

(4)

directions more accurately. As ships became

cargoes from distant lands.

In 1807 American inventor Robert Fulton built

the

(6)

first

Propellers later replaced

g

steamboat. A steam engine turned its paddles. (7)

in

paddles and ships no longer depended completely on sails.

(8)

ew

In the 19th century

ships called submarines were built.

The USS Triton was the first to travel around the world under the sea. (9)

Vi

About 200 years ago British shipbuilders built stronger and safer

ships because suitable wood was becoming scarce in Britain. Nowadays thousands of (10)

different wooden

Prim-Ed Publishing

tourists travel in huge passenger vessels called liners.

lucky underwater

dangerous valuable

37

iron successful

bigger open

Cloze in on Language


Famous Voyages

Ships Through the Years

Comprehension

1.1 What were Viking ships called? 1.2 Who invented sails? 1.3 The first iron ships were built in Britain. True

or false

?

1.4 What name is given to large passenger ships? 1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

pl e

(a) Wooden ships are safer than iron ships. (b) The rudder was invented before sails.

Sa m

(c) The invention of steam engines meant sails were not so important.

2.1 Why did ship builders begin to build iron ships?

2.2 What replaced paddles on steamboats?

g

2.3 Iron ships were better than wooden ships because

2.4 Which country built the nuclear submarine, Triton ?

in

2.5 Semantic grid. (Tick off the pairs that match on this grid). Paddles

Oars

Engine

Sails

Funnels

ew

Yacht

Wind

Submarine Longship

Vi

Steamer Liner

The Americans called their submarine the USS Triton after the sea god. If you could name a submarine, what would you call it and why?

Prim-Ed Publishing

38

Cloze in on Language


Famous Voyages

Ships Through the Years

Activities

Language Circle the correct adjective to complete these sentences which contain more information about ships. The (last, first, plastic) steamboats had steam engines and sails.

2.

The submarine Nautilus was the first nuclear submarine to sail under the ice at the (south, west, north) pole.

3.

In Henry VIII’s reign a naval expert designed portholes on the sides of ships to fire (rubber, plastic, iron) cannonballs at the enemy.

4.

Centuries ago (happy, captured, rich) slaves pulled the oars on slave ships called galleys.

5.

Early small boats called coracles were made of animal skins stretched over a (steel, plastic, wooden) frame.

Sa m

pl e

1.

Report You have a yacht which you are selling. Write out a report on it for the people who might buy it. Use these guidelines.

in

g

Description - details of what it looks like. Where it is kept and why. How it performs at sea. The most important reasons why it is a good buy. The purchase price. When the money has to be paid.

ew

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Activity

Do a drawing of your yacht in an Art lesson.

Vi

Name and colour these ships from different ages.

Prim-Ed Publishing

39

Cloze in on Language


Mary MacKillop

Women of Courage

(1)

Mary MacKillop was

Cloze (Verbs)

in Melbourne, Australia in 1842. She was

the eldest child of migrants from Scotland. At 14 she became a governess looking after (2)

other people’s children to (3)

Later she

money for her own poor family.

a Roman

Catholic nun and was known as Mother Mary

(4)

of St. Joseph and

pl e

of the Cross. She helped to found the Sisters many

schools. She mixed with educated people in

(5)

to

Sa m

Italy, England and Australia and was very keen education for poor

children in remote country areas. Though her

health wasn’t good, she and her nuns (6)

hard to help the

in

Adelaide and Sydney.

g

Aboriginal people, orphans and the poor in

(7)

Mary had arguments with church leaders and was

from the

ew

church. She appealed to the Pope and was welcomed back. (8)

She died in 1909 and is

(9)

kind, intelligent woman who

Vi

Pope

(10)

in Sydney. We remember her as a her life helping others. In 1995, the

Australia to bless Mary and take another step towards making

her Australia’s first saint.

worked provide Prim-Ed Publishing

earn spent

visited banned 40

became started

born buried Cloze in on Language


Mary MacKillop

Women of Courage

Comprehension

1.1 At what young age was Mary paid to look after children? 1.2 Mary is buried in Scotland where she was born. True

or false

?

1.3 When did the Pope visit Australia to bless Mary? 1.4 Which church was Mary a member of? 1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

pl e

(a) Mary was a migrant. (b) Sometimes Mary didn’t agree with church leaders.

Sa m

(c) The Pope didn’t want Mary in the Roman Catholic church.

2.1 Why was Mary chosen to earn money for her poor family as a child?

2.2 Shade in the boxes which describe what Mary MacKillop was like. Kind

Healthy

g

Hardworking

Cruel

Clever

Sickly

Selfish

in

2.3 Mary was banned from the church because

ew

2.4 Because she mixed with educated people what did Mary want to do for poor children?

Vi

2.5 Mary worked hard even though she had a problem. What was this problem?

How could you help others in need?

Prim-Ed Publishing

41

Cloze in on Language


Mary MacKillop

Women of Courage

Activities

Sequencing Use the numbers 1 - 5 and number these sentences in the order they happened. (a) Mary died in 1909.

(b) Mary worked as a governess.

(c) Mary was born in Melbourne.

(d) Mary became a nun.

(e) The Pope visisted Australia to bless Mary.

pl e

Language Circle the correct verb to complete each sentence with more information about Mary MacKillop. Church leaders (praised, clapped, criticised) Mary.

2.

Mary (travelled, avoided, bought) many uncomfortable journeys doing her work.

3.

Pope John Paul II (migrated, visited, bought) Australia in 1995.

4.

Mary (hated, loved, forgot) Australia and the Aboriginal people.

5.

This kind woman (hit, helped, ignored) poor miners in Victoria and New South Wales.

g

Sa m

1.

in

Activity On this blank map of the world, colour in England (green), Italy (red), Australia (yellow), and Scotland (blue).

Vi

ew

Label Sydney and Adelaide which were important places in Mary MacKillop’s life.

Prim-Ed Publishing

42

Cloze in on Language


Writing

Communication

Cloze (1)

The first humans on earth did not have any alphabet or

which (2)

stood for words. They could only communicate by making

like (3)

animals or signs with their hands like the game charades. Later, (4)

used a kind of writing when they

The first real writing came when the Sumerians used pictures which (5)

mean ‘king’. next

step (7)

was

to

an alphabet where

, for example, could

Sa m

The

(6)

for words. A drawing of a

pl e

walls.

pictures of animal hunts on cave

shapes such as ‘B’, ‘D’ and ‘E’ stood for letters and

sounds.

They

could (8)

then

be

to make words

like ‘BED’. Our alphabet came from the (9)

g

Romans who used the

in

alphabet, but made it simpler. The first and (10)

letters of the Greek

ew

alphabet are ‘alpha’ and ‘beta’.

Vi

The shapes you now use in your words began thousands of years ago!

invent pictures Prim-Ed Publishing

second tribes

sounds arranged 43

stood drew

crown Greek Cloze in on Language


Writing

Communication

Comprehension

1.1 A writing system was invented because: (a) Humans wanted to communicate clearly. (b) Everyone had pens to write with. (c) The earliest humans couldn’t draw very well. 1.2 Which drawn sign in the passage means ‘king’?

1.4 What is the second letter of the Greek alphabet?

pl e

1.3 Who invented the first writing system?

1.5 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree.

Sa m

(a) The Sumerians copied writing from the earliest humans. (b) The Greek alphabet was simpler than the Roman.

(c) The earliest humans hadn’t developed enough to invent an alphabet.

2.1 We get our word ‘alphabet’ from Roman letters. True

or false

?

g

2.2 Give your own example of how we use hand signals to give messages.

in

2.3 Where have ancient drawings of animal hunts been found?

Vi

ew

2.4 What was the most important thing about having letter shapes?

List forms of communication which have helped us communicate through words.

Prim-Ed Publishing

44

Cloze in on Language


Writing

Communication

Activities

Letter Sort Sort the letters of the alphabet to fit into the Venn diagram below. Three are done for you.

Curved Letters

Straight Letters

B A

Sa m

pl e

C

I

saw

in

g

Rebus A rebus is a way of writing messages using diagrams, letter symbols and number symbols, as shown in this example.

two

flowers

in

a

vase

before

sunrise.

ew

This is similar to some early forms of writing where diagrams stood for certain objects.

Vi

Now draw your own rebus and see if your partner can read your message. If your partner can, then you have communicated with another person, which was a problem for the early humans.

Activity Look at the word pictures on the left. Talk about them with your teacher. Draw some of your own. king

war

Prim-Ed Publishing

summer

night 45

Cloze in on Language


King Arthur

Legendary Heroes

Cloze (Adjectives)

Books and films have told us about the (1)

legends of King

Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. Arthur fought the Saxons who came across (2)

the

Sea to invade

became

pl e

Britain centuries ago. One legend says he king

when (3)

he

pulled

the

sword, Excalibur, from

Sa m

a stone when no-one else had the strength. Another story tells how he was given Excalibur by the Lady of the Lake.

(4)

His (5)

knights, like Galahad and Lancelot, rode from the

castle at Camelot to help people in need. Later, Arthur fought the

Grail, Jesus’ cup at the last supper.

in

(6)

g

Romans and then returned to his kingdom. He and his knights then searched for the

(7)

While Arthur was away fighting Romans, the

knight Mordred (8)

ew

tried to steal his throne. Arthur fought and killed him but suffered (9)

wounds. Before he died Arthur asked a

knight to throw Excalibur

into a nearby lake. An arm rose from the lake to grab the sword and Arthur died peacefully. (10)

Vi

His body was carried away in a boat to the

island of Avalon

by three fairy queens.

wicked royal

Prim-Ed Publishing

magic North

wonderful brave

46

faithful terrible

mysterious Holy

Cloze in on Language


King Arthur

Legendary Heroes

Comprehension

1.1 Which knight fought against Arthur? 1.2 Where was Arthur’s castle situated? 1.3 Which people crossed the North Sea to Britain? 1.4 Tick the sentence with which the author would agree. (a) Mordred was a close friend to Arthur.

(c) Arthur’s knights only helped the rich.

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1.5 How was Arthur’s body taken to Avalon?

pl e

(b) Arthur was happy to return Excalibur to the Lady of the Lake.

2.1 The wicked knight Mordred made his attempt to seize the throne because

2.2 The writer thinks the legends of King Arthur and his knights are very good stories. True

or false

?

g

2.3 What did Arthur and his knights set out to find?

in

2.4 Why are they still making films and writing books about Arthur and his knights?

2.5 Tick the sentence which tells us the main idea of paragraph 3.

ew

(a) It is about the death of Arthur.

(b) It is about his enemies, the Romans.

Vi

(c) It is about a boat on a lake. What do you think would have happened if the knight had kept Excalibur instead of returning it to the lake?

Prim-Ed Publishing

47

Cloze in on Language


King Arthur

Legendary Heroes

Activities

Word Study Find words in the passage similar in meaning to: 6. injuries

2. myths

7. seize

3. horrible

8. strange

4. marvellous

9. circular

pl e

1. evil

5. quietly

10. power

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Language Circle the correct adjective to complete these sentences which contain more information about Arthur. What is thought to be the Round Table is displayed in the (lonely, empty, beautiful) city of Winchester.

2.

Arthur asked the (blind, brave, clumsy) knight Bedivere to throw his sword into the lake.

3.

Myths about Arthur said he had (normal, comical, magical) powers.

4.

Only the (bravest, worst, weakest) knights sat at the Round Table.

5.

Arthur’s castle is believed to be at Tintagel in the (Swiss, French, English) county of Cornwall.

in

g

1.

Who are the main characters (king, queen, knight, princess, bodyguard, etc.).

Vi

1.

ew

Narrative Write your own legend about a wicked knight who tried to tried to steal a king’s throne. Use these guidelines.

2.

When the attempt took place and where.

3.

Why the knight made the attempt.

4.

The steps he took to carry out his plan.

5.

The ending - what happened to the different characters - was the plan successful?

Prim-Ed Publishing

48

Cloze in on Language


Answers

Cloze in on Language

1. Improving our Health - Cloze

8. Cyclones - Comprehension

1. hospitals 2. live 3. lucky 4. pain 5. clean 6. fleas 7. rubbish 8. diseases 9. horseshoes 10. reduce

1.1 (c) 1.2 very strong winds 1.3 Indonesia & Bangladesh 1.4 false 1.5 they are poor countries 2.1 (b) 2.2 by radio and television 2.3 rain 2.4 answers vary - they can kill people/damage buildings badly/strong winds cause damage 2.5 (b) and (c)

3. Improving our Health Activities Word Study 1. rotting 2. diseases 3. died 4. wonderful 5. pull out 6.threw 7. wounds 8. lucky 9. reduce 10. expert Retrieval chart Nowadays

Long Ago

Cared for by nurses

Wounds often left dirty

Use of drugs

Common

Not available

Hospital cleanliness

Frequently treated with antiseptics

Often unclean

Knowledge of disease

Growing constantly

Lot of ignorance among people/doctors

The work of barbers

Cut hair

Pulled teeth

Treatment of patients

Word Study 1. homes 2. whirling 3. parts/areas 4. hurled 5. strong 6. help 7. ignore 8. coastal 9. loose 10. damage

10. Traffic Problems - Cloze (nouns)

18. Strange Sea Creatures Activities

1. problems 2. drivers 3. fumes 4. air 5. parts 6. petrol 7. health 8. cars 9. roads 10. home

11. Traffic Problems Comprehension

1.1 buses and trains 1.2 new 1.3 lead 1.4 true 1.5 (a) and (c) 2.1 people are travelling to work and school 2.2 pedestrians 2.3 benzene 2.4 answers vary 2.5 semantic grid:

Buses

Pour out fumes

Cause most accidents

Public transport

Provide exercise

Carry many passengers

g Electric trains

✔ ✔

Bicycles

12. Traffic Problems - Activities

in

1. winds 2. clouds 3. snow 4. leaf 5. bees 6. Animals 7. people 8. fire 9. winter 10. toys 11. tree 12. carol

5. Winter - Comprehension

ew

1.1 a leaf 1.2 shelter from it 1.3 a carol 1.4 butterflies, bees 1.5 semantic grid: Sun

Summer Winter Summer and Winter

Snow

Bare trees

Clouds Swimming

Home fires

Bees

Woollen Sweaters

Vi

2.1 to crowd closely together 2.2 because it's cold 2.3 false 2.4 dead leaves, gifts, 2.5 a Christmas song or hymn

6. Winter - Activities

Word Study 1. falls 2. under 3. gifts 4. coming 5. shelter 6. coming 7. carol 8. busy 9. begin 10. toys Language 1. butterflies 2. fire 3. windowsill 4. games 5. laughter

7. Cyclones - Cloze 1. damage 2. radio 3. heating 4. rain 5. world 6. waves 7. food 8. safer 9. fasten 10. hurled Prim-Ed Publishing

17. Strange Sea Creatures Comprehension 1.1 sea monsters swallowing their ships 1.2 sea cow 1.3 it has a sucker on top of its head 1.4 narwhal 1.5 (b) 2.1 marine biologists 2.2 remora 2.3 when it nurses its baby while floating upright 2.4 false 2.5 manatee

9. Cyclones - Activities

Cars

4. Winter - Cloze (nouns)

1. ships 2. creatures 3. prey 4. head 5. ride 6. horse 7. cow 8. water 9. mermaids 10. metres

pl e

1.1 fleas 1.2 false 1.3 blacksmiths 1.4 blood poisoning 1.5 to reduce pain 2.1 answers vary - throw rubbish into the streets, etc. 2.2 anaesthetic 2.3 (a) 2.4 there were no drugs to reduce the pain 2.5 (a) (d)

16. Strange Sea Creatures Cloze (nouns)

Language 1. eggs 2. whales 3. fish 4. deep 5. plants Semantic grid:

Sa m

2. Improving our Health Comprehension

Middle

Language 1. petrol 2. cars 3. accidents 4. fumes 5. drivers

13. Black Beauty - Cloze (nouns) 1. book 2. horses 3. story 4. owners 5. stable 6. bridge 7. miles 8. family 9. years 10. friend

14. Black Beauty Comprehension 1.1 Beauty 1.2 eight miles 1.3 Ginger 1.4 false 1.5 answers vary 2.1 Mr Gordon 2.2 57 2.3 because he had to take his wife to a warmer country for health reasons 2.4 (c) 2.5 Sequencing (b), (c), (a), (e), (d)

15. Black Beauty - Activities Word Study 1. famous 2. story 3. found 4. sick 5. stable 6. damaged 7. friends 8. happy 9. cross 10. loved Language 1. city 2. passengers 3. home 4. country 5. master 49

Unusual feature

Where found (Pacific Ocean etc.)

Food eaten

Narwhal

long tusk

Arctic

fish

Remora

sucker on head

Angler fish

Glowing green bulb

deep sea

other fish

Seahorse

head like horse

answers vary eg tropical areas

small animals

Manatee

float upright

tropical Atlantic

plants

answers vary eg tropical areas

19. Braille - Cloze (verbs) 1. blinded 2. learnt 3. feel 4. taught 5. invented 6. used 7. stood 8. typed 9. changes 10. died

20. Braille - Comprehension 1.1 3 years 1.2 France 1.3 (c) 1.4 15 years 1.5 (c) 2.1 sightless 2.2 no 2.3 43 years 2.4 it wasn't used in his school until after he died 2.5 (c), (e), (b), (a), (d)

21. Braille - Activities Language 1. invented 2. playing 3. writing 4. studied 5. arranged

22. Christmas - Cloze (verbs) 1. celebrates 2. held 3. wore 4. began 5. took 6. thought 7. bring 8. drew 9. baked 10. eat

23. Christmas - Comprehension 1.1 since 1843 1.2 the birth of Christ 1.3 holly 1.4 (b) 1.5 true 2.1 Mexico 2.2 German migrants 2.3 Britain 2.4 where Jesus was born 2.5 answers will vary

24. Christmas - Activities Language 1. erected 2. written 3. place 4. argued 5. drop Ordering preferences - answers vary Cloze in on Language


Answers

Cloze in on Language

Middle

25. Early Cave-Dwellers - Cloze

answers will vary

1. tribes 2. side 3. animals 4. sticks 5. fires 6. crops 7. meat 8.weapons 9. pieces 10. caves

34. The Elephant - Cloze (verbs)

41. Mary MacKillop Comprehension

1. share 2. met 3. banned 4. reduced 5. selling 6. sawn 7. slowed 8. rising 9. controls 10. eat

1.1 14 1.2 false 1.3 1995 1.4 Roman Catholic 1.5 (b) 2.1 She was the eldest 2.2

27. Early Cave-Dwellers Activities Language 1. spears 2. drawings 3. cave 4. soil 5. life

28. Tutankhamen - Cloze (Adjectives) 1. ancient 2. young 3. southern 4. favourite 5. many 6. magnificent 7. gold 8. great 9. greedy 10. interested

29. Tutankhamen Comprehension

Destructive

Proud of Egypt's History Harmless

Greedy

ew

2.3 so they could be used in an after life 2.4 it hadn't been plundered by robbers 2.5 (c)

30. Tutankhamen - Activities

Vi

Word Study 1. mask 2. tomb 3. precious 4. spoilt 5. magnificent 6. discovered 7. robbers 8. body 9. displayed 10. chariots Language 1. dead 2. royal 3. English 4. stone 5. young

31. Antarctica - Cloze (Adjectives)

1. ancient 2. south 3. windiest 4. thick 5. stronger 6. large 7. green 8. scientists 9. warmer 10. beautiful

32. Antarctica - Comprehension 1.1 dinosaurs 1.2 5 km 1.3 false 1.4 south 1.5 cold, strong winds 2.1 (a) 2.2 plants and dinosaurs 2.3 (b) 2.4 fossils

33. Antarctica - Activities Prim-Ed Publishing

Healthy

Hardworking

1.1 Animal lover

Cruel

Kind

Greedy for money

Careful

Gentle

Not caring about animals

Law-abiding

1.2 false 1.3 its tusks 1.4 South Africa 1.5 (c) 2.1 old and sick ones, 2.2 eat too much vegetation 2.3 prevent profit from selling wild animal parts 2.4 excellent conservation programme

36. The Elephant - Activities

Language 1. kill 2. eat 3. hope 4. shoot 5. capture Retrieval Chart - answers will vary Activity 1. rhinos 2. pandas 3. leopards 4. koalas 5. tigers 6. bears 7. turtles 8. whales 9. tortoises 10. antelopes

37. Ships Through the Years Cloze (Adjectives)

Cruel

Clever

Sickly

Selfish

2.3 because she argued with the church leaders 2.4 provide them with an education 2.5 her poor health

42. Mary MacKillop - Activities Sequencing (c), (b), (d), (a), (e) Language 1. criticised 2. travelled 3. visited 4. loved 5. helped

43. Writing - Cloze

1. pictures 2. sounds 3. tribes 4. drew 5. stood 6. crown 7. invent 8. arranged 9. Greek 10. second

1. open 2. dangerous 3. different 4. bigger 5. valuable 6. successful 7. wooden 8. underwater 9. iron 10. lucky

38. Ships Through the Years Comprehension

Paddles

Wind

Oars

Yacht

Sails

✔ ✔

Liner

Curved Letters

Straight Letters

B Q

C

Z

D P

B

F

A

L

U

R

O

K

X

S

E

N M V

I Y

T

W H

Funnels

46. King Arthur - Cloze (Adjectives) 1. wonderful 2. North 3. magic 4. faithful 5. royal 6. Holy 7. wicked 8. terrible 9. brave 10. mysterious

47. King Arthur - Comprehension

✔ ✔

39. Ships Through the Years Activities Language 1. first 2. north 3. iron 4. captured 5. wooden

40. Mary MacKillop - Cloze (Verbs)

1. born 2. earn 3. became 4. started 5. provide 6. worked 7. banned 8. buried 9. spent 10. visited 50

Letter Sort

J

Longship Steamer

Engine

1.1 (a) 1.2 crown 1.3 Sumerians 1.4 beta 1.5 (c) 2.1 false 2.2 answers vary (eg, traffic policeman, thumbs up sign, etc.) 2.3 on cave walls 2.4 they could be arranged into words

G

1.1 longships 1.2 Ancient Egyptians 1.3 true 1.4 liners 1.5 (c) 2.1 suitable wood was becoming scarce in Britain 2.2 propellers 2.3 they were stronger and safer 2.4 America/ USA 2.5 semantic grid: Submarine

44. Writing - Comprehension

45. Writing - Activities

in

Religious

Kind

g

1.1 9 years 1.2 Howard Carter 1.3 true 1.4 (c) 1.5 1922 2.1 pharaoh 2.2

35. The Elephant Comprehension

pl e

1.1 (a) 1.2 flint 1.3 at the entrance to the cave 1.4 Ice Age 1.5 (c) 2.1 blankets/clothes to keep warm 2. true 3. by striking stones together (they probably noticed sparks when making flint tools) 2.4 because they couldn't grow crops

Sa m

26. Early Cave-Dwellers Comprehension

1.1 Mordred 1.2 Camelot 1.3 Saxons 1.4 (b) 1.5 by boat 2.1 Arthur was away fighting Romans 2.2 true 2.3 the Holy Grail 2.4 answers vary (eg stories are still popular) 2.5 (a)

48. King Arthur - Activities Word Study 1. wicked 2. legends 3. terrible 4. wonderful 5. peacefully 6. wounds 7. grab/steal 8. mysterious 9. round 10. strength Language 1. beautiful 2. brave 3. magical 4. bravest 5. English Cloze in on Language


0252 Cloze in on Language - Middle