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AN URBAN SPACE

BY- PREYAN MEHTA ll GUIDED BY- AR. KAUSHIK PANCHAL

UNDERGROUND

ARCHITECTURAL THESIS(BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE)

DESIGNING OF


Underground Designing of an Urban Space Thesis,Bachelor of Architecture Internal Guide: Kaushik Panchal

Submitted by: Preyan Mehta

21/AR(CT)/10


About the author:

Name: Age: Sex: D.O.B.:

Preyan Mehta 22 Male 18.18.92

Permanent 463/1, Sector 6/A, Address: Gandhinagar, Gujarat. PIN: 382006 Father's Dr. K. V. Mehta Name: Mother's Kiran K. Mehta name Contact: email id/preyan0018@yahoo.com ll fb/preyan.mehta ll in/preyanmehta ll issuu/preyanmehta ll skype/Preyan Mehta ll pixoto/preyan.mehta ll Bē/Preyan_Mehta ll dribble/preyanmehta youtube/coming soon ll website/coming soon ll Phone no.: +91-9638144398 ll Education: A.I.S.S.C.E.(12th)- Hillwoods School, Gandhinagar- 75% B.Arch(Bachelor of Architecture)- I.O.A., Patan- 76%(B+) Profession: Architecture Occupation:Graphic Designing


Rookie skillful veteran Softwares: Adobe Photoshop ll Adobe Illustrator ll Adobe InDesign ll AutoCAD ll Sketchup ll Autodesk Sketchbook ll Rhino ll Adobe After Effects ll Adobe Premiere Pro ll Adobe Audtion ll Adobe Flash Pro ll Adobe Muse ll MS Office ll Hobbies/ Architecture ll Likes/Skills: Doodling ll Sketching ll Painting ll Pic0graphy ll Cooking ll Travelling ll Reading ll Gizmofreak ll Music Tuned ll Gaming ll Anime ll Logical Analysis ll Communication Skills ll Abstracts/Summary ll Writing/Blogging ll Learning new stuff ll Trying new stuff ll Leadership ll Teamwork ll Job Intern at Collage:Architecture Studio, Experience: Bangalore. (Architecture) Worked under Ar. Vibhuti Chaudhary. June 2013- Sept 2013. Skills required: Analytical Study of Issues ll Detailing ll Rendering ll Multiple Project Handling ll Client Handling ll On the Spot Competitions ll email: contact@collagestudio.co.in


Rookie skillful veteran Junior Architect under Ar. Harit. March 2015. Skills required: Analytical Study of Issues ll Landscape Desiging ll Multiple Project Handling ll (Graphic Desiging) Self Empoyed/Freelancing Work done: Presentations ll Wallpapers ll Photoediting ll Caricatures ll Visiting Cards ll Logos ll Theme Fonts ll Minimalism ll

©UUS. ©UndergroundDesigningOfAnUrbanSpace. ©PreyanMehta. ©InstituteOfArchitecture_Patan. The work can not be reused/copied without the permission of the author. In case of any requirement for the work to be used somewhere, the author must be asked through the contact mediums provided hereby. Rest, just enjoy the work put by the author. The copyrights of this document lies with the Author, Preyan Mehta and with I.O.A.,Patan, only.


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Abstract

The main objective of this thesis paper, is to shatter the paradigm of Human perception for an Underground Space. The Design challenges addresses to the Myths and Problems faced by an Underground Space, Architecturally. The radius of the Thesis enclosures the Architectural Challenges(planning of spaces, space distribution, element placing et al), Human Scale, Building Sustainibility and Contextual Influence of the Project. And on other hand, the Thesis wont be covering the Engineering(Technical) details and internal planning of spaces like shops/cafes. Though an attempt to try and resolve the Engineering fleats will be considered but will be only at a Conceptual Stage and not a Detailed stage. An understanding of Underground Public Spaces shall be attained and should serve a purpose for an awareness towards the most Neglected building typology. The thesis revolves around the concept of Utilising the land Efficiently by going Underground. The concept evolved with the increase in the demand for the land and the recent trends and solutions to utilising land. After studying the pattern of land use, and building typology it was oberserved that the most efficient way in today's context to utilise land, to increase the green cover on the land is by Going Underground.

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Recent typologies evolving for the need of efficient land usage 95% of the time talks about the Super Structures and not the Sub Structures. Especially, the Trending Skyscrapers, whose negative impacts on the environment are many as compared to the positive impacts/advantages. Few of the problems of a Skyscraper are, No Human Scale, No Respect for Mother Earth, false perception of an Iconic building. Trend studying leads to an Inference that in the year 2100, the height achieved by us, the Great Creators would be 3kms(Vertically). This was one factor, other factors leading to the Topic are, Population Increase, Commuting, Solitary Confinement, Sustainibility et al. The methodology leads from the Understanding of an Underground Space to understanding of it's function i.e. an Urban Space. After this establishment a solid and non-flexible Framework will be made based on the Understanding of the topics. Based on the framework, two major parts of thesis will be done for. First, Case Studies of Underground and Urban Spaces and Secondly, Site Selection from the identified sites. This will lead to the next stage of detailed Site Analysis, and then Program Formulation. Program Formulation is again an Important step towards the next few stages. Program therefore will evolve out of all of the stages above. Finalising tentatively the Program for the Designing, next stage deals with the Concept generation and the Philosophies behind it. Concept generation directly leads to the next stage of Design Solution. After completion of this stage, the Thesis comes to a climax and last stages involves a Vision Statement based on what learned and as an Architect a Future Perception, Conclusion of the Thesis, List of the refered mediums/material, and lastly the Process/ the Appendix.


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Acknowledgement

First and foremost, I would like to thank my internal guide Kaushik Panchal sir. Words can't express how much support and help he has given throughout the thesis. His constant presence, and guidance was the main reason the thesis is what it is right now. His precision, and the way he finds order even in chaos is one of the key elements which made this thesis possible. Then, I would like to show my gratitude towards Meera Chetwani ma'am. Even though she wasn't my internal guide, her constant appreciation, guidance and optimistic nature helped sail through some tough turns in thesis. This two faculty's or mentor's if I may say, presence throughout has acted as one of the main column of support. Then I would like to show my gratitude towards Hemantwala sir, a senior faculty whose crash-course sessions regarding Architecture and it's philosophies, and his way of teaching through constant criticism was indeed very eye opening. Even though his methods may have been time consuming and new for us, it was factual and straight forward. I would also like to thank all the commitee members Prof. Rajesh Mehta, Umang Goswami sir, Bhavesh Patel sir, Mayank Patel sir, Vikas Patel sir and Tapan Shah sir. Then I would like to thank the whole staff of Institute of Architecture, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan. Coming to thanking people, if I forget thanking friends and collegues how will I be able to submit this thesis? To those memorable times we had, be it while travelling to Patan with Shailee Dave, or critisizing and appreciating her work, be it the times where we argued for hours, or teamed up against someone else'e arguement. Thank You. Then, the journey of this 5 years of Graduation and college wouldn't have been possible without my idiot roommates and best friends Ragin Shah, Kevin Dalia and Tonoy Sarma. Kevin Dalia thank you for all the discussions we had while travelling to Palanpur when we used to go to discuss with Kaushik sir. Ragin for your honest and unfiltered reviews and Tonoy for your hilarious mimics. And collegues, thank you for constantly critisizing and supporting all the works throughout this 5 years. Last but not the least, this are the persons who were present not just for this 5 years but since my existence. My parents, thank you for the support throughout, thank you for all the scolding, criticisms, appreciations, hustle and bustles to Patan, and everything which you have done for me up untill now and will do for in the future. And can't forget the idiot brother without whose Engneering skills and knowledge on many technical and non techncial aspects, and brainstorming sessions for hours. Then I would like to thank Er. Pankaj Gandhi, for without whose support, guidance and insight regarding not just the thesis, but for life as well. Thank You to everyone who has supported, guided, appreciated, criticized and pushed me throught this 5 years Directly or Indirectly.

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Table of Contents

Abstract............................................................................................ 1 Acknowledgement...................................................................... 2 Table of Contents....................................................................... 3 Chapter 1- Introduction......................................................... 5 1.1 Thesis Statement 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Methodology 1.4 Scope and Parameters 1.5 Expected Results 1.6 Use of the Study

Chapter 2- Literature Review.............................................. 8 2.1 What is Underground Architecture, what are it's types and archtypes? 2.2 What is the difference between Underground and AboveGround architecture? 2.3 Why Underground Architecture and it's advantages and disadvantages? 2.4 What is an Urban Space and why do we need it, Underground?

Chapter 3- Case Studies...................................................... 17 3.1 Framework for Case Studies for Underground buildings and Urban Spaces. 3.2 Primary Casestudies of Underground architecture 3.3 Secondary Casestudies of Underground architecture 3.4 Primary Casestudies of Urban spaces 3.5 Secondary Casestudies of Urban spaces 3.6 Inferences

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Chapter 4- Site analysis and Programme.................... 30 4.1 Site identification 4.2 Site Selection 4.3 Site Anallysis 4.4 Programme formulation

Chapter 5- Design Solution................................................. 39 5.1 Concept Formulation 5.2 Site specific Design Framework 5.3 DrawingsDesign Solution 5.4 Design Case StudyPlan, Section analysis Landscape Elements Rain Water Harvesting System Lighting Techniques Possible Structural & Engineering Details Activity & Connectivity

Chapter 6- Observations and Conclusions.............. 63 6.1 Observational Notes/Architectural Narration 6.2 Conclusion/ Fulfillment of the Thesis Statement

Chapter 7- Design Appraisal............................................. 74 7.1 FAQs raised by the Jury Members 7.2 Avenues for further Exploration on the topic.

Architect's Vision........................................................................ 79 Works Cited................................................................................... 80 List of Figures................................................................................ 83 Appendix........................................................................................ 84

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INTRODUCTION


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Introduction

1.1 Thesis Statement There are always two sides of everything, including Architecture. Full/Empty, Light/Dark, God/Demons, Up/ Down et al. So, the focus is to make the Design Solution an Examplar Solution and hence shall become the Foundation for studying Underground Architecture futher. The focus is to Increase the Natural Open Land, and still give Justice to the precious piece of land by designing an Urban Oasis beneath us. The thesis shall sum up by Extraction of few Guidelines which could be helpful to study other Underground Spaces/Buildings & Make new ones.

1.2 Objectives The Main or Primary Objectives are: 1- To keep or maintain the Already existed Natural Land of the Site by minimum of 50% of the Total Area 2- To make an Urban Oasis Beneath us. 3- Extract Site Specific Guidelines and try and Generalise it.

1.3 Methodology 1234567-

Digging down the Roots of Underground Architecture, "Needs Then Needs Now.". Understand and Compare Underground Architecture with Aboveground Architecture. Understand Urban Spaces and It's need in society. Understand the Relationship Between Underground Spaces & Urban Spaces Establish a Framework for Case Studies for Underground Space & Urban Spaces Study the Cases, and Finally Draw Inferences from it. Different Sites will be Identified, Then One Site will be selected and Hence Site Analysis would be done. 8- Programme, general Programme for the Project shall be formed 9- Conceptual drawings and sketches should be produced 10- Site Specific Programme shall be made 11- Design options shall be explored based on the Concept and Programme. 12- Hence, a Design Solution for the Programme shall be Selected and Drawings of such be produced 13- After making Design Solution, Design Analysis shall be done 14- Finally, the Thesis Conclusion whereby the Objectives and or Thesis Statement must be fulfilled. 15- The Thesis will be Concluded by Showing the Future Vision of the Architect towards the Subject.

1.4 Scope and Parameters Guidelines Connection Human between Scale Underground & Open Aboveground Quality Land Mass-Void Detailed Form Light & Relationship Internal Exploration Ventillation Planning

Detailed Structural System

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

1.5 Expected Results Expected results include Fulfillment of Atleast 2/3 Primary Thesis Objectives, i.e. it will 1- Maintain the Already existed Natural Land of the SIte by minimum of 50% of the Total Area 2- Create an Urban Oasis Beneath us.

1.6 Use of Study The Thesis shall be use to General Body of Knowledge by1- Will act as a Data Collection for Underground Architecture, whereby references can be made to Understand the basics of Underground Architecture 2- The Design Solution will act as an Examplar/ or will act as a Foundation for Further Design explorations. and will be useful guide to make a working Underground Urban Space 3- Will help see Underground Architecture as the New Future for the Architecture.

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

LITERATURE REVIEW

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Literature Review

2.1 What is Underground Architecture? and it's Types and Archtypes? To begin the understanding with, I would like to start with this quote "You tend to Overestimate things, which you dont fully understand". Truelly said, We have a tendency of Overestimating things we dont see, feel or Understand. Which is usually the case with Underground Architecture. When we say Underground Architecture people relate it to the much obviously seen "Basements". Is it or is it not Underground the Basements are? Yes, they are Under-Ground. But is it Architecture? Is it a designed Space? If not what is a designed space? What is actually Underground Architecture? Quoting, "How underground must a building be, to be an underground building?"- www.subsurfacebuildings.com Requoting it for the Skyscrapers, "How aboveground must a building be, to be a Skyscraper?". To answer to this dillema I bring in the expert of Skyscrapers, T.J. Gottesdiener an architect and managing partner of the New York office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) says " I dont think how many floors you have, I think it is an attitude". So, putting a structure Under-ground simply doesnt mean it is Designed Underground Space. It simply means people are fighting for tight corners in a tight Urban fabric. Then, what is Underground Architecture or Underground Designing of a Space? It is an Attitude. Designing a space Underground is an Attitude. Attitude of going against all the present norms and montonous life. It is an Escapism, a way of running from the current Urban life, a cool place to be in harsh summers, shelter like caves, an attempt to save the nature land and so on so forth. Defining Underground Architecture is like Defining Nature. Words are not Suffice.

Caves

Earth Berrmed

Container

Pre-casted Conrete

Earth Sheltered

Submarines

Dugouts

Underground

Missile Sillos

Types of Underground Architecture 9

*Underground Building:More than meets the eye-Loretta Hall *http://www.underground-homes.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

ArchTypes of Underground Architecture Caves and Caverns "Caves, the earliest habitations of man, contain the origins of human kind. Man used them as temporary shelters, while they migrated with the seasons. Yet it wasn’t until the discovery of fire that the true potential of the Cave was fully exploited, as it provided shelter for cooking. The enclosure also offered a feeling of protection, where the strength of the structure and the single point of entry allowed the inhabitant to rest peacefully without fear from attack. It is these primitive inhabitations that are the basis of the rich connotations associated with the cave. Alongside these physical feelings, the Cave and more importantly its enveloped darkness present a metaphor for knowledge. In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, the Cave is a prison, in which matter and understanding are concealed in shadow. The Cave becomes both the “organiser and constraint of human functions, an active agency in the formation of experience and morality in a goal to reach utopia” (Plummer, 1987, p.24). Utopia is therefore considered to be when one is exposed to the natural light and has the ability to see, “for seeing is linked to knowing and knowing is linked to power” (Plummer, 1987, p.21). "- Ammie Wright, Underground Architecture, Master Thesis.

Caves and Caverns

Dungeons and Cellars

Dungeons and Cellars "Dungeons and Cellars developed in the Middle Ages were often cages constructed within the subterranean portions of fortresses, castles or public buildings. Many of these submerged Dungeons connected to a series of passageways that acted as a vast hidden underground network, connecting the main elements of the castle together. Dungeons and Cellars were often crude structures that were not initially built to house criminals (Johnston, A Brief History of Prison Architecture, 1973). Instead they were used for storage of perishable goods, where the earth’s constant temperature was utilised to create cool rooms. With the advent of many of these storage rooms converted to house prisoners, dungeons often lacked humane living conditions. The conditions within Dungeons and Cellars, along with histories of torture and torment, consequently saw them gain a sinister and disturbing reputation, leaving permanent marks on our memories. It is in these underground spaces that “darkness prevails both day and night” (Bachelard, 1994, p.19), exaggerating the inhabitants fears and letting their imagination run free with terrifying thoughts. The inhabitant experiences “buried madness” (Bachelard, 1994, p.20) knowing that “the walls of the Cellar are buried walls, that they are walls with a single casing, walls that have the entire earth behind them (Bachelard, 1994, p.20), creating a dramatic and volatile situation."Ammie Wright, Underground Architecture, Master Thesis.

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*Underground Architecture:Connections Between Ground-Level Public Space and BelowGround Buildings- Ammie Wright


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

ArchTypes of Underground Architecture Bunkers "The Bunker, designed to protect its inhabitant’s from incoming bombs, flying shrapnel and other attacks was extensively used in World War I and World War II. Its ‘aerostatic’ form was purely concerned with survival; it provided “shelter for man in a crucial period, the place where he buries himself to subsist” (Virilio, 1994, p.46). Its characteristics, a monolith shell constructed from heavily fortified concrete walls with only a narrow slit for the observer to spot the enemy were all adopted to ensure survival. It was partially submerged into the landscape allowing the earth to conceal the main portion of the structure while offering a sense of stability and assurance. The camouflage potential of the Bunker “nestles in the uninterrupted expanse of the landscape and disappears from our perception” (Virilio, 1994, p.44), the structure becomes linked to the surrounding earth providing the inhabitant with a sense of fortification and concealment. The powerful notions of War, and therefore the Bunker also reversed the associated connotations of light and shadow, for being in the path of light means that you could be seen and exposed to possible attack. It was not until you were concealed in shadow that you were protected and sheltered. However, shadow only protects the inhabitant to a certain degree. It only acts as a partial screen, for you were only screened from what you could not see, yet allowing sounds, feelings and images of the war raging outside to still affect the inhabitant taking refuge inside the Bunker."- Ammie Wright, Underground Architecture, Master Thesis. Bunkers

Grottoes Grottoes "The Romantic Movement emerged during the second half of the 18th century as a reaction to the industrial revolution. It saw a noticeable increase in primitive constructions that were not meant just for living, but for reconnecting the enlightened, wealthy classes to something they had a lost; “a civilisation of nature, or their own bodies” (Betsky, 2002, p.58) . The Grotto was a predominant type within these constructions. It was designed to integrate into its natural surroundings, becoming an embellishment in many parks and public places, where its form was dictated by the natural arrangement of the surrounding earth and rocks. Functionally, the Grotto provided an escape from the harsh rays of the summer sun. Exploiting the earth’s natural insulation to maintain lower temperatures along with the cooling affect from flowing water collected from the surrounding landscape, a shady retreat was created. This constant cool temperature of the Grotto and the subtleness of illumination and shadow entering from above allowed for the inhabitant to partake in “delight, mediation, rest, and relaxation” (Sullivan, Subterranean Rooms, 2002, p.11), as nature provided the backdrop for many sociable activities. "Ammie Wright, Underground Architecture, Master Thesis.

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*Underground Architecture:Connections Between Ground-Level Public Space and BelowGround Buildings- Ammie Wright


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

ArchTypes of Underground Architecture Cryptoporticus "The Cryptoporticus is a long, narrow, subterranean corridor that’s function is to connect and provide access between individual villas on a site. Its depth utilizes the earth’s natural cooling features while offering protection from the direct summer sun, providing a comfortable environment for circulation. Developed by the Romans purely for function purposes, it was a completely submerged underground space, often built as a network of corridors, mainly used by the family and their servants to move around the villa (Sullivan, Subterranean Rooms, 2002). However, its full potential was not fully harnessed until the Renaissance period, where it became subterranean and high vaulted ceilings, along with clerestory openings, were incorporated. These simple features created a microclimate through the stimulation of air movement (Sullivan, 2002), while also allowing natural light to subtly illuminate the interior, and provide views to the gardens above. The comfortable environment that was created saw the Cryptoporticus become “more than just a mere passage way, but discrete living places in their own right”. (Sullivan, 2002, p. 34). The original concepts of earth and exposed rock walls and ceiling, were now adorned by marble mosaics and paintings, transforming the Cryptoporticus into a gallery displaying the talents of the wealthy"- Ammie Wright, Underground Architecture, Master Thesis.

Cryptoporticus

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*Underground Architecture:Connections Between Ground-Level Public Space and BelowGround Buildings- Ammie Wright


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

2.2 What is the difference between Aboveground Architecture and Underground Architecture?

ABOVEGROUND ARCHITECTURE The Aboveground architecture, is the common and taken up 99% of the time by the Architects, Builders or even Clients. The major drawbacks includes, less Open Quality Urban Space, Unused Land Resources like Terraces, monotonous and repetetive architecture, and the most Important of all, Detoriation of the Natural Land.

UNDERGROUND ARCHITECTURE The Underground Architecture, is the least or last resort people take for designing spaces. The major advantages over aboveground are, Saving Natural Land, Retreat from the above Urban life, Commuting, creating an Open Quality Urban Space on the ground with the uses beneath it, and utilizing the Terrace spaces of the building by connecting them to the public transportation and many more. 13

*IA&B - May 2015


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

2.3 Why Underground Architecture and state it's advantages and disadvantages. Out of the total space on Earth, 29.2% is land and the rest Water i.e. 70.8%. In that 29.2% of land there are 6.5 million species living on it. But strangely, and factually out of that 6.5 million species, We Humans are just 0.00018%. But this isnt that strange or weird, what is more strange is even though we are just 0.00018% we use 20% of the land. 20% by 0.00018%. Just too hard to digest. But what does 0.00018% mean? nothing. The figures of number of humans is 7 billion. I frankly dont understand millions and billions. It just simplifies and eases the way we say it. Let me write in core number of digits., 7 Billion means7,000,000,000. And no, I'm not exxagerating, It is a fact. Last Fact is that, this ridiculous number is supposed to reach as high as 10.8 Billion by 2050. Now, i dont need to write 10.8 billions in digits because that is too big a number and will take "SPACE". Energy Efficiency Buildings, that is another reason why people opt for Underground Buildings. Thesis by Chris van Dronkelaar- Underground Buildings. His study revolves around how the Energy is consumed less in Underground buildings in comparison with Aboveground buildings. He concludes by comparing the worst example of an Underground Building and Best example of Aboveground building, and what he concluded is The undergound building consumes less energy even in this case by 53kW/h. He studies other factors as well, but it is not to be discussed in this section. Shelter, this is the most basic of all. Caves and Caverns the Archtype we discussed in the earlier section 2.2- Archtypes of Underground Architecture states the uses and reasoning. It is related to our ancestors. It leads to our conneciton with the advancement and evolution of Humans.

Meditation, because of it's properties of Isolation. This Underground buildings when isolated from the above surface helps people meditate and connect with themselves. It is simply the purpose why many Saints go into the Caves and just meditate there.

Commuting, it is the increased usage for Underground Buildings people have started to take for. More and more subways, metros and public transportation and infrastructure is going underground because of the first reason mentioned above. Land shortage, and pollution and other factors. Solitary Confinement, or simply putting Jails. This usage of Underground architecture. There are many advantages of doing so, as we are taking the criminals away from the normal public. We are cutting them down. It also has the principle of taking the bad elements down because the downside is considered as hell. 14

*Census of Marine Life *World Population- www.wikpedia.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Advantages:

Land Utilization

Temperature Variation

Energy Efficient

Less Carbon Footprint

Disaster Resistant

Sustainable Buidling

Less Maintainence

Privacy

Natural Light

Natural Ventillation

Views and Vistas

Flooding

Disadvantages:

Water drainage

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*http://www.underground-homes.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

2.4 What is an Urban Space and why do we need it, Underground? Urban Spaces, Open Quality Urban Space is a space where people gather around to socialise, interact, recreate themselves. It is that voids in Urban fabric which defines the people's lives, their culture, their social life. In the current scenario of High Density, High pollution, dynamic but static life, monotonous life, hectic life people need a Retreat, they need a a gateway and Urban Spaces provide just that. But that is possible aboveground only right? Well, we can but till what time? As the data stated in the section 2.3, land utilisation we cant say that for sure. So, taking the Urban space Underground will actually solve many problems. It will not only solve Urban Problems but also the land problems. Usually, urban spaces are two dimensional or many a times even one dimensional. But actually the real time Urban spaces, the spaces which we require now are three dimensional. They should react not just in one direction but in all the three dimensions making it connect at all the levels. This aspect can truelly be solved when we go Underground. Other aspects revolves around different elements.

FACT FILE: SKYSCRAPERS

1872-2004- i.e. 111 years, Increase in Height for Skyscrapers was 1530ft. 2004-2010- i.e. 6 years, increase in Height for Skyscrapers was 1046ft. Within next 105 years 2115, increase would be by 9500ft since 1872, roughly being 3kms upwards. Height of a Human 1700mm- 0.0017kms, i.e. the Ratio between Height of the Human : Height of the Skyscraper-- 1 : 1750; i.e. the

Skyscraper is 1750 times the Human.

RECENT TRENDS: TERRACES AS AN URBAN PUBIC SPACE

Terrace Alive Competition by Indian Architect & Builder and Dr. Fixit from Pidlite, invited the Architecture fraternity to select an URBAN ROOF STREETS BELOW is channelised in a VERTICAL fashion... This competition aimed at CREATING a SECOND REALM of PUBLIC SPACES, where the SKY was the ROOF. Terms like “RECLAIMED GROUND PLANES” by Le Corbusier are used. The

and trasnform it such that the spilling over to the

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*www.wikipedia.com * Google Images


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

CASE STUDIES

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Case Studies

3.1 Framework for Case Studies for Underground buildings and Urban Spaces Framework for Underground Spaces Tangible: - Section - Area - Typology - Function - Lighting - Ventillation - Materials - Land Above Usage

InTangible: - Views & Vistas - Ambience/Experience

Framework for Urban Spaces - Section - Area - Location - Context - Elements

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

3.2 Primary casestudies for Underground Architecture SECTION:

NAME: Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal.- Ar.Charles Corea AREA: 11,150 sqm TYPOLOGY: Public Building FUNCTION: Art Gallery, Exhibitions, Dance & Music shows LIGHTING: Skylighs- Singular and Edged. VENTILLATION: Courtyards- 20x20m, and AC ducts. MATERIALS: Brick Masonry, RCC frame, Fibre glass LAND ABOVE USAGE: Terrace Garden VIEWS & VISTAS: The Terrace garden showcases nice riverfront, city skyline AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience is very varying. Beginning from the start, the entrance doesnt give away what the building has to offer, slowly slowly when you descend into the Human Scaled spaces, and go towards the end, i.e. an amphitheatre where the horizon meets the river where the amphitheatre is the fine Line between them. Mesmerizing experience, where a person doesnt really observe being underground.

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*Live Case Study-Preyan Mehta


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION:

NAME: Science City, Ahmedabad- Govt. Initiative AREA: 1750 sqm TYPOLOGY: Public Building FUNCTION: Entrance, lounge to the Imax theatre, and exhibition space LIGHTING: Skylighs- Suntubes VENTILLATION: AC ducts MATERIALS: ACP cladding, concrete, steel LAND ABOVE USAGE: None VIEWS & VISTAS: None AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience is like being inside a tight closed basement, where natural light and air is not to be found. It is a suffocative experience with lots of humidity. The kind of spaces where people wont like speding time in.

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*Live Case Study-Preyan Mehta


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

3.3 Secondary casestudies for Underground Architecture SECTION:

NAME: Disco House, London- Ar. Ian Hogarth AREA: 241 sqm TYPOLOGY: Residence FUNCTION: A house for the whole family, underground being a retreat LIGHTING: One 3x3m courtyard cum water body & Artificial VENTILLATION: AC ducts MATERIALS: Brick Concrete, glass, steel LAND ABOVE USAGE: Garden, bedrooms, kitchen and living room VIEWS & VISTAS: The neighbourhood, garden AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience is good, but it is because of the fact that the underground space is not architecturally but technologically handled. The artificial lights, and Disco floor takes the breathe away. But nothing which connects it to the above ground.

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*Grand Design- Disco House: Series- www.youtube.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION:

NAME: Santa fe mall, Mexico- Santa fe Group AREA: 9232 sqm TYPOLOGY: Mall FUNCTION: A shopping retreat for the people in an Urban context LIGHTING: Glass Lightwells VENTILLATION: AC ducts MATERIALS: Concrete, glass, steel LAND ABOVE USAGE: Garden and Landscaping VIEWS & VISTAS: The tight Urban context AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience is classy, with all the glass and concrete. The shopping experience is really taking with all the natural lighting flushing in. But if the ventilation would have been natural as well then the whole experience would have been different.

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*Santa fe Mall- www.youtube.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION:

NAME: PATH system Toronto- Urban Planning initiative AREA: 371,600 sqm TYPOLOGY: Commuting and street shopping FUNCTION: A shopping retreat for the people in an Urban context LIGHTING: Entries and Exits VENTILLATION: AC ducts MATERIALS: LAND ABOVE USAGE: Existing City Infrastructure VIEWS & VISTAS: AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience is like walking inside a Mall, no difference. It doesnt feel as if people are walking underground, except that it is much warmer compared to the roads above. It has it's own color coding for navigation.

23

*PATH system-www.youtube.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION:

NAME: Earthscraper, Mexico-Estaban Suarez,BNKR arquitectura AREA: 775,000 sqm TYPOLOGY: Public building FUNCTION: An urban space, offices, museums LIGHTING: Central Glass Skylight VENTILLATION: AC ducts MATERIALS: LAND ABOVE USAGE: Public square VIEWS & VISTAS: Public square, sky AMBIENCE/EXPERIENCE: The experience would be something new, as this is a highly hypothetical design where architects have integrated nature with the building in an unique way. It is truelly a futuristic project. 24

* http://www.archdaily.com/156357/the-earthscraper-bnkr-arquitectura/


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

3.4 Primary casestudies for Urban Spaces SECTION:

NAME: Municipal Market AREA: 5,500 sqm LOCATION: Between Nehrunagar jn and Dr. Umashankar Joshi Marg Jn, CGRoad, Ahmedabad CONTEXT: Mixed Use- Eateries, Parking, Street Shopping URBAN ELEMENTS: Eateries, Parking, Street Shopping, Toilets, Street Furniture, Public Trasportation Connectivity

25

*Live Case Study-Preyan Mehta


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

3.5 Secondary casestudies for Urban Spaces SECTION:

NAME: La Rambla Street AREA: 34,800 sqm LOCATION: Between Barri Gòtic, to the east, and El Raval, to the west, Barcelona CONTEXT: Cafe’s, Shops, Museums, Pet Stores, Residential, Restaurants, City’s Opera House URBAN ELEMENTS: Cafe’s, Restaurants, Shops, Museums, Street Paving, Street Furniture, Pedestrian Friendly, Shaded with Trees, Mixed Use, Squares, Strong Connectivity, Equiped with many Services,

26

*www.barcelonatourisme.com *"Barcelona:harbor city of resistance,paths to the sea"-Tom Bosschaert


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION:

NAME: Superkilen AREA: 33,000 sqm LOCATION: Copenhagen, Denmark CONTEXT: Highly Diverse- 60 different culture’s Residencies URBAN ELEMENTS:

27

*www.big.dk


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

3.6 Inferences UNDERGROUND ARCHITECTURE:

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

URBAN SPACES:

ENCLOSURE

SHOPPING

CAFES

SELFIE BACKGROUND

GREENERY

LANDMARKS/SILHOUETTE

CONE OF VISION

VIBRANCY 29

SPORTS

OPEN WORK ENVIRONMENT

FRAMING *Bharat Bhavan-Live Case Study-Preyan Mehta *Urbanized-Documentary *google images


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SITE & PROGRAMME

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Site and Programme 4.1 Site Identification

SITE A: Sabarmati Riverfront

SITE B: Income tax Bus stop

SITE C: Municipal Market

SITE D: Shiv Theatre 31

*Google maps


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

4.2 Site Selection A

B

C

D

SABARMATI RIVERFRONT

INCOMETAX BUS STOP

MUNICIPAL MARKET

SHRI THEATRE, OPP. VALLABH SADAN

1 1 1 0 0.2 0.6 0.8 1 0.8 0.5 6.9/10(207)

1 1 0.9 0.8 1 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.3 6.3/10(189)

1 0.9 1 1 0.8 0.6 0.9 1 0.5 0.3 8/10(240)

1 0.5 1 0.8 0.5 0.5 0 0.7 0.6 0.3 5.9/10(177)

SHAPE (8)

7/10(56)

8/10(64)

7.5/10(60)

8/10(64)

SIZE (7)

4/10(24)

8/10(56)

8.5/10(59.5)

8/10(56)

3 4 7/10(105) 7/10(140)

5 4 9/10(135) 7/10(140)

5 4 9/10(135) 6/10(120)

4 5 9/10(135) 8/10(160)

LIMITATIONS (-20)

5/10(100)

6.5/10(130)

5.5/10(110)

3/10(60)

TOTAL

31.9/50 536/800

31.8/50 454/800

33.5/50 504.5/800

35.9/50 532/800

CONTEXT (30) -linkages/accessibility -landmarks -geographic location -land usage -activity -recreational spaces -utilities/services -nearest open space -open vs built -quality open vs built

POSSIBILITIES (15) -activity -design POTENTIAL (20)

SELECTION MATRIX:: The aspects, Context, Shape, Size, Possibilties, Potential, Limitations were given weightage out of 100 total. Then they were further divided into subcategories and each had marks respectively. The next weightages were given to the sites, and they had been given 10 for each aspect. Hence for sites aspects carry 10-10 marks each. Then whatever marks shall be awarded out of 10 will be multiplied by the weightage carried by the individual Aspect ouf ot 100. For example, Context carries 30/100, and in Site A it gets 6.9/10, hence the total would be 6.9 x 30= 207/300. After this all the aspects had to be totalled, out of 800.(1000-200(limitations)). Calculating the datum, Site A and D had the most marks out of 800. Hence,Personally selecting Site D 32


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

4.3 Site Analysis

Site location and Linkages with the City This Plan helps in studying the exact location of the site, and it's connections with the city and it's various places. It also shows the accessibility of the site from various points as well as pedestrian connectivity.

Site Plan/Contextual Plan This Plan helps in understanding the nearby landmarks and context. This helps in understanding the urban context present around the Site. And also the fact that the site has 3 side roads.

33

*google maps


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Sun Path Diagram- Locational The Site plan and this Sunpath diagram helps in understanding that because of the fact that we have three sides open i.e. roads, we can utilize Sunlight from East, South and West without any hindrance.

Activity pentagon This pentagon, helps understanding that the site lies in between 5 major activity producing structures and hence also shows potential. But it also shows that the Site right now is introvert. 34

*google maps


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

DYNAMIC STATIC

DYNAMIC STATIC

DYNAMIC STATIC

DYNAMIC STATIC

DYNAMIC STATIC

DYNAMIC STATIC

5-10am

SCALE: 1UNIT=1M SH : SV : DH : DV 0.5 : 0.5 : 1 : 2

10-3pm

SCALE: 1UNIT=1MT SH : SV : DH : DV 1:1:2:3

3-5pm

SCALE: 1UNIT=1M SH : SV : DH : DV 2 : 3 : 3.5 : 4

5-8pm

SCALE: 1UNIT=1M SH : SV : DH : DV 3 : 3 : 4.5 : 5

8-10pm

SCALE: 1UNIT=1M SH : SV : DH : DV 2 : 2.5 : 3 : 4

10-12am SCALE: 1UNIT=1M SH : SV : DH : DV 0.5 : 1 : 0.5 : 2

Activity Mapping/ Detailed Activity analysis This sections, which shows the contextual building and the site cut through Ashram road, studies the activity patterns. It suggests at what time the activity is maximum and what type of activity. Also shows the neglectance of the site from the road throughout the day.

35


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Soil Distribution This section shows how the soil has been distributed as we go down the area. It will help in further surveying of the soil, when the actual construction will begin.

36

Price Analysis This data or table shows which areas of Ahmedabad are the costliest and by how much. As visible, Ashram Road comes amongst the costliest lands. *ISR data *ICICI property services


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

VIEWS & VISTAS

View A

View C

View D

View E

View B G

A

F B E D

C

View G 37

Key Plan


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

4.4 Programme Formulation U - tilization of N - ot so D - eveloped E - cological R - egions by G - etting a R - oof O- f U - rban & N - ature’s D - ynamics

U - tilitarean & R - recreationally B - inded A - rcological N - est

UTILITIES:

- An Underground Space - The Roof should be an Urban & Natural Space of Dynamic nature - Equal or a proper ratio of Utities & Recreational spaces - An Arcological design Approach

QUANTITY:

Escalators 8x3 Elevators 6X4 Ladies Toilet 4X2 Gents Toilet 4X2 P.D. Toilet 2X2 Parking 1X1 Shops 25X2 Stairs 2X3 Wifi Server 2X1 Ducts Solar Heating System 1 Rain Water Harvesting System 1 Grey water purifier 1 TOTAL

CAPACITY:

AREA:

600-800persons 240-360persons 160-180persons 160-180persons 40-60persons 500cars

300sqm 200sqm 400sqm 400sqm 300sqm 8000sqm 3000sqm 100sqm 100sqm 2000sqm 6000sqm 100sqmx4=400m^3 100sqm 20,000sqm

300-400persons

0.75MW 4,00,000L

RECREATIONAL: Garden/OpenSpace Sculptures Open Work Environment Open Gym Children’s Play Area Vendors Cafes Indoor Gaming Basketball Court Tennis Court Cycling Track TOTAL

38

25 1 1 1

800sqm 100sqm 500sqm 500sqm 1000sqm 500sqm 1250sqm 500sqm 500sqm 300sqm 1000sqm 15,000sqm


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

DESIGN SOLUTION

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Design Solution 5.1 Concept Formulation

Connectivity of the City with the River The first section shows what already is the existing seciton. It shows the disrespect of the City for the River. And also that the land we have is a tremendous resource. The second section then Physically connects the City or The Urban Fabric with the River by getting a slope throughout from the Ashram Road to the Sabarmati River. But, just connecting the RIver with the Urban Fabric Physically isnt enough, hence the last section comes up with a solution of how the Place has to act as a Transition rather than a Destination. It also show the way, that by introducing Portals(Doors which helps connect two different spaces in an instant). This Portals shall help not just for the framing of the whole space, and dividing it in to segments but how the place becomes a transition because of that is important. The Portals are: Public, Semi-Public, Isolation, Ultimate Islolation, Relief and last but not the least Nature. This completes the transition from the Current Urban Fabric till the Natural Fabric of the City.

40


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Portals/Modules The part "Connectivity of the City with the RIver" above talks about how the Urban Fabric can be connected with the River through a Sloping path Towards River and Portals. Now, the portals shall be Public, Semi Public, Isolation, Ultimate Isolaiton, Relief and Nature. Public Spaces are the spaces where People are informally together in a tight space where the individual zones of their's are neglected. The next Portal, Semi Public spaces describes the spaces where People are amongst the Crowd but still their own individual/group's zones are preserved. A hint of Formality has been Introduced. The next portal, Isolation talks about people's individualness being very strong and are contemplating through activities. Here the formality has become Rigid. The next portal, Ultimate Isolation is where it is just the People and their ownself with the Rigidity and Formality at it's maximum level. It is just a space and the person. The next portal, Relief is a space where after such indulging spaces people got to just relax, they will just take breathe in with other people but now are connected with themselves, they are blank now. The last Portal, Nature comes after the Voidness of relief. Now people can actually grasp what is nature and what it is made up of. It feels how Majestic it is, how mesmerzing it can be and how freshning can it be. Because now they have seen the smallest spaces, the biggest spaces with people and now they will realise the Retreat and Importance of nature. 41


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Conceptual Section & Plan The two parts above this part talks about the whole space in words and sketches. But how this will transorm into a space, or in Architectural Drawings can be understood by this Section and Plan. Where, in the section it shows that how the sloping path will be connected with the Portals/modules i.e. Z axis and Plan shows how the modules and path will be in X-Y axis..

42


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

5.2 Site Specific Design Framework Public Spaces: 24 x 38m Informal Market- G-1 & G-2: walking market, street shopping, small eatries Informal Market- G-3 & G-4: small shops, cafes, sitouts Swimming Pool- G-4 Children's Play Area- GroundFloor Semi-Public Spaces: 24 x 21m Open Library- G-1 & G-2 Art Galleries- G-3 & G-4 Open Work Environment- GroundFloor Isolation: 24 x 38m Art Display- G-1 & G-2 Workshops- G-3 & G-4 Tennis/Badminton Open Court- GroundFloor Ultimate Isolation: 24 x 21m Meditation Chambers- G-1, G-2, G-3 & G-4 Semi Open Yoga Spaces- GroundFloor Relief: Tunnel- G-4 Nature: Dense Mountain- GroundFLoor Valley- G-4 Water Reservoir- G-4

GROUNDWORK: ACTIVITES AND URBAN SPACES ANALYSIS AHMEDABAD

ACTIVITY- TIME WISE OUT OF 26 NATIONAL

ACTIVITY- DAY WISE

ACTIVITY- MONTH WISE

HOLIDAYS, 18 ARE THE MOST ACTIVE IN AHMEDABAD.. ACTIVITIES PEAK:: MAY-JUNE; FRIDAY; 6-9PM :: MAY-JUNE; SATURDAY; 6-2AM; EATING, FORMAL SHOPPING, MOVIES, SPORTS, WALKING, GARDEN SITOUTS. ACTIVITIES LOWEST:: DECEMBER-JANUARY; TUESDAY-THURSDAY; 8PM-6AM; WALKING, EATING, SHOPPING, WORKING. ACTIVITIES AT FESTIVALS/HOLIDAY:: GATHERED CROWDS, COMMON SCREEN GAZING, EATING, SHOPPING, TRAVELLING SPACE REQUIREMENTS:

MULTIFUNCTIONAL/REUSABLE SPACES; PUBLIC SERVICES; TECHNOLOGICALLY APT SPACES, COMFORTABLE SPACES; NATURE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE; BIGGER AGE GROUP; BALANCED INERLOCKING OF DIFFERENT SPACES.

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

5.3 Drawings Design Solution

Design Exploration before the final Design is given in Appendix A: Design Explorations

Sabarmati Rd

City Gold

Sabarmati Riverfront upper pavilion

Shiv Theatre

View A

View C

View B

Sabarm Rd

ati

Sabarmati Riverfront lower pavilion

Ashram Rd

Sabarmati River

SP Rd

View D

SP Rd Gujarat Chamber of Commerce & Industry

View G

Sabarmati Riverfront upper pavilion ati

Vallabh Sadan

G

A

F

Sabarm Rd

Ashram Rd

B E D

R3S Mall

Jaldarshan flats

C

Key PLan

Contextual Plan Scale: NTS 44


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

10

1 3

SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 45


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

10

1 3

G-1 PLAN 46


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

10

1 3

G-2 PLAN 47


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

10

1 3

G-3 PLAN 48


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

10

1 3

G-4 PLAN 49


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Section (Ashram Rd-Entrance of the Site) Section (Public Spaces)

Section (Semi-Public Spaces)

Section (Nature)

SECTIONS 50

Section (Ultimate Isolation)


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

5.4 Design Case Study Plan, Section Analysis

SECTION- PHYSICAL FORM GROTTOE CRYPOPORTICUS

SECTION- SPATIAL IMAGE: GROTTOES & CRYPTOPORTICUS

SECTION- LIGHT LINES: LIGHT ENTRIES

SECTION- SIGHT LINES: HUMAN VISIBILITY

SECTION- ACCESSIBILITY: VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION EXPOSED CONCEALED

SECTION- CONCEALED AND EXPOSED: VISIBLE FROM THE GROUND & NOT VISIBLE

SECTION- EXTERIOR OF THE SPACE: ELEMENTS CONNECTING BOTH THE SPACES, NEEM TREE, GULMOHAR TREE, ASHOKA TREES, STREET LIGHTS, LIFTS; ABOVEGROUND UTILIZATION; ASHOKA TREES DEFINE THE EDGES OF THE SITE

51

*Underground Architecture- Ammie Wright


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

SECTION- SPACE ENTRANCES: HORIZONTAL AND SLOPED ENTRANCES

SECTION- INTERIOR CONFIGURATION: ATRIUM AND CENTRAL MEETING SPACES

SECTION- SCALE: HEIGHT VS WIDTH MASS VOID

SECTION- SCALE: MASS VS VOID

NATURE DYNAMIC STATIC

SECTION- VERTICAL LAYERS: NATURE>DYNAMIC HUMANS>STATIC HUMANS

SECTION- SPATIAL HIERARCHY: SMALLER SPACES>BIGGER SPACES

SECTION- Z AXIS RELATIONSHIP: SITE RESPONDING WITH THE CONTEXT IN Z AXIS

SECTION- THERMO-SCOPY: TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS, CONTEXT AND WITHIN SITE 52

*Underground Architecture- Ammie Wright


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

PLAN- EXTERIOR OF THE SPACE

PLAN- SPACE ENTRANCES

53

PLAN- SCALE


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

PLAN- X & Y AXIS RELATIONSHIP

PLAN- SPACE DISTRIBUTION: SEGREGATION OF SPACE TYPES

54

PLAN- SPATIAL ORIENTATION: ORANGE LINES SIDES ON WHICH ACTIVITIES ARE PLACED


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Landscape Elements

Ashoka tree: Function: Noise Reduction, Shade, Edge Demarcation, Reduce Air pollution, Clean air

Neem Tree: Function: Purity, Shade, Insect Repellant, Clean air, Large dense influence as a tree

Gulmohar tree: Function: Space Identification due to it's colors, Shade, Clean air, asthetic purposes

Jambu tree: Function: Vibrancy, violet color associated with meditative properties, Shade, Nutritional Fruits, Clean air

Working Module: Function: Solar charged tables with a shaded umbrella, the table incorporates latest charging technique of surface charging for the ever on the go working Men/Women. Street Light: Function: Light for aboveground as well as underground spaces. Solar powered.

Ulta Fulta Structure: Function: Act as a landmark, depicts the Concept Underground Architecture and about the space. 55

*www.wikipedia.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Rain Water Harvesting System

Water Realisation: The section, and the data besides shows FACT FILE: the Facts and Harsh realities about current scenario of the water table in WATER TABLE IN AHMEDABAD Ahmedabad. It shows the need for the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)concerns of Natural Water found inside the ground of Ahmedabad. It says “the groundwater level in the city was 63 meters in 1997. The level that, Water is available at as far as 100m down the ground level. This pose kept declining at fluctuating rates to touch 105 meters underground a major threat to current Urban schemes and strategies applied to improve the in 2006. In 2007, the water level rose to around 94 meters. quality of life of People. However, the level has dropped again to around 100 meters now.�

Rain Water Harvesting System(conceptual): The schematic section shows how the rain water will be collected. It is a simple system where Gravity plays a major role. When it will rain, the water will get accumulated inside the Portals/Modules. Making it an advantage, the system has small water storage tanks beneath all the Modules. This water storages will finally flow after overflowing into a bigger source of storage which will be beneathe the Mountains. The biggest storage beneathe the Mountains has 3 major roles: First, to accumulate the water from other storages as well as collect rain water on it's own; Second, it helps rejuvenate the natural water cycle of the nature by having the top side of the reservoir open to sky; Third major use of this reservoir is it instead of just showing the water to the people, it acts as a water body where people can enjoy themselves. it being a natural body, doesnt just show the water Like Sabarmati River does, but also lets people enjoy it. The Storage Tanks will be made of materials with Higher Porosity. This will ensure that the water stored inside it doesnt just stay there but also helps in renewing the water table of Ahmedabad given the facts above mentioned about the water table of Ahmedabad. Though doubts may rise about the cleanliness about the water as to people being allowed to use it, other doubts includes the facts or exact figues of how many storage capacity should the tanks have and what exactly should be the material. And few others. But the main moto behind this concept is to realise the importance of the existing scenario and try and help improving it. The system is still in conceptual stage and needs work on. 56

*Central Ground Water Board *www.dnaindia.com


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Lighting Technique

Lighting Technique: The plan, sections shows how Inserting Suntubes strategically improves lighting conditions inside the tunnels, i.e. Tight Spaces(tight scalewise) and complex spaces where direct sunlight would be not be either possible or prefferable. The tunnel like passages has a compact scale and hence integrating suntubes will be very Efficient and Impactfull. Other uses are, Street lights of the space are kept above the Suntubes hence even for the Nighttime, no extra lighting except small efficient lighting would be required. Even for the swimming pools, the Suntubes are Juxtapositioned efficiently. Talking about the modules, for Daylight large Courtyards are Sufficient and Efficient. Cryptoporticus & Grottoe efficiently use Suntubes. The other notable feature are the FibreGlassed Roofs of Passages. 57


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Possible Structural & Engineering Details

Typical Wall Section

Vertical Soil Layers 58


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Water Seapage Levels 59


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

STEP 1- Existing Ground

STEP 2- Cut and Dig Method

STEP 3- Digging the required Site Laying Supporting Framework

STEP 4- Laying R.C.C. Foot Slab

STEP 5- Making Base Retaining wall of R.C.C. fill between Polyesterene Reinforced Insulation And Filling the Earth till the level.

STEP 6- Using Rammed Earth, block will be constructed on the base of insulated R.C.C. Earth will be filled till the level.

STEP 7- Repeating Step 6 untill the roof. R.C.C. slab filled for the roof Steps 5 & 6 will be repeated for the Other retaining walls as well.

STEP 8- Spray on Waterproofing will be applied and allowed to dry Framework for the internal Structures will be made and constructed All the formwork will be removed, and cleaned up. Construction Method The Whole proccess of how the space will be built and made is shown in the Diagrams. Step wise procedure of how the work will be proceeded on the actual site. Though it is tentative, it is as accurate as it can get. The reason why it is tentative is becaue of the fact that Constructing Underground is very Localised and what problems or challenges will be faced in the realtime cant be expected by just understanding and analysing the site but requires actual Digging and Understanding.

STEP 9- The space is ready for utilisaton Light and ventillation’s main source is Open To Sky Courtyard Extra Lightubes will be provided as per the use required. 60


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Activity and Connectivity

Activity Pentagon: Refering to the "Activity Pentagon" from 4.3 Site Analysis, the site Before Intervention and or the Design showed an Introvert Nature and was lying between different activity generators. Whereas now, after the Design proposal the Site becomes Extrovert and it becomes the Hub where people will come and because of that will go to other buildings like a theatre et al.

Current Accessibiity 61


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Future Links with the Context: The site will have Underground Tunnels connecting different spaces present within the Context. The underground tunnels shall have accessibility by Electric Cars, Bikes and will have a Pedestrian path as well. The need arises out of the fact that during Summer time it becomes hard for a Pedestrian to actually cross even this small a distance. By providing the Tunnels connecting different buildings other advantages are Better connectivity to the context Above as well as Underground. The Electric cars and bikes facility will be chargeable. Other important Advantage shall be the Emergency Exits. Underground Spaces has the least fear of catching or trapped inside fire, but in case of a Fire or Flooding, people need to move out of the space safely. The challenge here is, when in an Aboveground building or a space in case of Emergencies people have to run down, which is Easier and more Comfortable than Running Upwards in Underground Spaces/Buildings. So, to cope with that problem Underground Tunnels connecting to the surrounding context would be helpful. But, a special service needs to be established so as to Ensure that during the Emergencies the Utilities like Electric Cars/Bikes must be charged and ready to use.. Other future link is the coming Project of Vallbh Sadan PLaza besides the Site.

62


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

OBSERVATIONS & CONCLUSIONS

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Observations & Conclusions

6.1 Observational Notes/Architectural Narration Observational Notes, though I added this topic after a lot of thinking I wonder what actually will come in this Section. Observations in Architecture is like the first Step towards understanding any Space. Be it a Building made by Le Corbusier or Zaha Hadid. Observations are always subjective and thats the main reason why the writing style of this section may have a Personal touch rather than just a Formality. Expect Observational Notes regarding the Underground Desing Proposal proposed by me. "While travelling through Ashram road, one may reaslise the Importance of the road for the city of Ahmedabad. This road is ever bustling with the people and their toys(vechicles). It goes without saying that when I pass through the road I almost everytime get stuck in the traffic. So frustrating. On second notes, on a different note before sometime I asked few friends of mine that I want to get-away to some place. Can you suggest me a place in Ahmedabad where I can sit, read book, observe people and let the time pass? Surprisingly all I got was names of some Good Cafes, Gardens, or a Mall. That was the moment which actually made me think, am I creating the same kind of space in Ahmedabad? I dont hate Cafes, but Cafes in Ahmedabad is supported by Artificial cooling, and we cant Sit out in the scorching heat of Ahmedabad. I dont hate Gardens, but at odd timings there the gardens are always a "recreational" spot for Couples. I dont hate that either, but when you want to observe people and read book the "recreational" activities may get "distracting". And last but not the least, a Mall, fully AIr conditioned, where people are always busy shopping or eating i thought this isnt a bad idea. But the main problem with me was It was Noon, and I wanted to Sit Out!!. There came the idea of Creating a Realm, a Space for not just Ahmedabadians, but myself as well(selfish nature, maybe). The Ashram Road is all about Commercial taste of Architecture. It is a Concrete Jungle where people are just a part of the system. It has theatres, parks, malls and a landmark created by Ar. Le Corbusier "ATMA house". So as an Architect where I have to be contextual I argued with myself as to what is the Context here? The concrete and commercial buildings? Or the people wanting and longing for a space where they simply can enjoy themselves? Should it be a Cafe, a Garden, a Mall, or simply a Space? This question was indeed very hard to answer to. Because what matters as an Architect was in question. The decision was taken, concept formed and Design Proposed. I as an Architect considering the Climate, the demands of the people out of an Urban space in Ahmedabad, the Nature, the Future response, the advantage of or Usage of the space for the people. In short the current culture of Ahmedabad. The space shall be Above as well as Underground. Above ground to just let people connect to the space directly through the context, and Underground so as to let the Nature take advantage of the space created by an Architect. The biggest advantage of the space was the location. It had a connection with the major roads of Ahmedabad but also with the major River, Sabarmati River of Ahmedabad. Though river being besides the site posses great engineering challenges, the risk had to be taken to try and create something truelly for people." This was how the decisions were taken. The next fewlines quickly describes how the space is actually. "Entering from the ever bustling roads of Ahmedabad, the place is a relief in it self. It gives a feeling of a Garden with an added advantage of this Garden directly, i.e. Physically as well as Visually connectng with the Road. Having the Street Edge open to public, I had a vadpau and went inside. After entering the Map provided to me showed me options, like Many Options. I decided upon going to read a book in the Open Library, then will work on my laptop using the Tables provided and facilitated for charging(surface charging). After that I decided upon to simply sit at the Children's Play Area and see the kids play around and also observe the people bargaining down the Informal Market which represented the true Ahmdabadi Shopping culture. What I noticed was there was a service of Cycles, and also that i could amost run with it anywhere. So, I simply did that. It was noon, yet it was possible to do that because of the various regions which were shaded by Neem and Ashoka trees. After that I was already aware of the people chattering about some kid Made a Wonderful piece of art here and wished to check it out. What I observed was there were just four Gulmohar trees marking and or acting 64


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

as landmarks. One such Gulmohar tree marked the space where workshops and display of the work produced in the workshops was. Pretty easy to navigate, I thought. It was almost around 4:30 now. I begin to think what to do. I was actually very tired. So, thought to just go to the Meditation chambers which were also Underground and just sit there and calm myself. But while going till the space, as I had a lot of idle time to kill, i went there by walking instead of the Elevators. What I observed was te path leading to all the underground spaces had a mesmerizing effect. Not just the scale was compact and had a human touch to it, but also it had it's own language of Space. It in itself had a calmness, and to the contrary of what people tend to think about tunnels this passage had a daylight raining through the roof, and also through the fibre glassed roof as well. It was more interesting than walking on the ground. This was about it, I thought. I entered the meditation chambers(chambers because it is just you confined in one room of 3 x 3m) and filtered and calmed myself out. What I discovered after this was something extraordinary. There was a passage/tunnel where there was this Street Wall Art, or grafitti. I felt a relief after so much travelling but the excitement of what was ahead made me walk some more. Because at the end of this tunnel was this lush green trees and to my surprise I was like four floors down already(12m). and was standing in a valley of lush green trees and a Mountain? i was confused, because to describe that space is very tough. There i was in between four Mountains or One big Mountain and there was this small water body. Though I dont know it was a lake or a pond or a swimming pool I thoroughly enjoyed being with a water body which i can connect to. I sat there for almost like an hour or so and had some more things to eat. After this i climbed this mountain with the help of the cycles provided and found that the whole experience was real. At the top of the mountain I still couldnt believe my eyes because I have been to Sabarmati Riverfront before, but I never saw Beach there? Yes, Beach. Sand and water where people were just playing some volleyball. I went there, had Cocunut Water and I thought about the journey. Is this really Ahmedabad? Though I was always moving from one space to another, I felt rejuvenated. And replenished with energy. But it was almost 7:30-8. I thought to come here next time, and hence begin to march upwards by cycle and go towards the place where i initially came from and parked my vehicle. But, what I missed was there it was. A structure where people were on it, like on a pavilion experiencing the view of the river from above it. But it got my attention as to the fact that I saw a Miniature version of Ahemdabad beneath the structure. Like just below it and it was upside down. I was like, "What is this Ulta Fulta Structure where people are above the city, and so are the trees?". But unfortunately didnt stop and experience it due to lack of time, I told myself to again visit this place soon. In the end, I spent more than 5 hours in this space without actually going to any place else. And as I was cycling through the space towards the begining(though I wonder is there any starting point for this?) street lights which were fully charged through solar power started to lit. I guess it is called tyndal effect which I saw. Lights cutting through the trees. I also had few jambus hanging around on the Jambu tree while going back. A tiring yet a Revitalising Journey is all I can say. Finally drank some colas and joined the Over-bustling Ashram road yet again with the hope of coming back to this place again.

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Below are the Clicks which he Uploaded on the My Wall(basically a cloud service provided by the UUS-Underground Urban Space) . His memories, His Journey. The pictures on the left are of Aboveground and right of Underground Spaces.

Chilren's PLay Area

Informal Market

Open Work Environment

Open Library

Open Tennis Court

Art Display

Semi Open Yoga Spaces

Meditation Chambers

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Swimming Pool

Ulta Fulta Structure

Relief Tunnel

Top of the Mountain

In between Mountains.Valley

FINISH 67

Beach


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

6.2 Conclusion/ Fulfillment of the Thesis Statement Architectural Design Solution helps Overcome the basic Disadvantages of Underground Architecture:

Light & Ventillation: The sections shows exactly how the light is penetrated inside the building and also how the mass vs void ratio, void being 50% of the space helps maintaining natural Ventillation inside the Underground Space.

Water Seapage/Water Proofing problems: The section clearly shows that firstly, the danger of water penetrating from beneath the space isnt possible. As the data has been already established in section 5.4 Design case Study- Rain Water Harvesting System, that water table of Ahmedabad is not less than 100m. Secondly, the water penetrating from the Sabarmati river is also not a problem because majorly the present section has a 10m deep diaphragm which stops water penetrating inside the site, but in the worst case scenario, what can be observed that in this type of Soil, at the max it can traverse and penetrate horizontally by 100m. But the design is handled in such a way that the BuiltPart where water leakage problems may arise starts after 100m of the river horizontally. Hence, simple Water proofing techniques like Instant Spray on, or Sheet Water proofing can easily solve the problem.

Maintaning Underground Ecology: As per the established system in 5.4 Design case Study- Rain Water Harvesting System, It is possble not just to Save it, but also to Improve it. 68


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Views and Vistas: The sections shows how the sight or visibility from above as well as underground spaces work. The sections also show that how elements like Elevators, Gulmohar trees, Neems trees, Ashoka trees connect the two spaces visually and also define them from above ground.

Spatial Orientation: The last but not the least, challenge is Disorientation from inside the Underground Spaces. That is usually because of the factors lack of Daylight, Natural Ventillation, Views and Vistas. But that parts are handled carefully while designing this space. Another aspect is, an Identification or Relating certain Element with the Direction. That helps identifying the Direction and Navigate easily Underground. The Element in this Design Solution is the way Activities are kept. All the activties are kept Along East, West and North DIrection only. Making it specific that the side on which there is NO activity or has a Plasma Screen is South. This indicator is very helpful to understand the directions.

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Objectives: 1- To keep or maintain the Already existed Natural Land of the Site by minimum of 50% of the Total Area Status: Fulfilled 2- To make an Urban Oasis Beneath us. Status: Fulfilled 1- Total Area of the Site Aboveground: 19,000sqm Total Non usable land (voids of underground spaces): 6,000/19,000sqm (31.54%) Total Land Available for Public Usage/Open Quality Urban Land: 13,000/19,000sqm (68.42%) Total Available land for Built up (excluding roads): 13,000-1,800(roads)=11,200sqm Total Built up: 8000/11,200sqm (71.43%)Total Open Quality Urban Land/ Landscaped Area: 3,200/11,200sqm (28.57%) Total Built up On the Land: 100sqm (0.52%) 2- Space involves: Eating (informal, formal) Shopping (informal, formal) Open Library Art Gallery Workshops Meditation Chambers Common Gathering Spaces Common Screen Gazing Cycling Walking Garden Sitouts Open Work Environment Children's Play Area Outdoor Sports Semi Open Yoga Spaces Artificial Mountain Efficient Rain Water Harvesting System Technologically Apt Spaces Wider Age Oriented Comfortability- visual and physical Efficient interlocking of spaces Open to public Street edge Valley with a Water body

Hence A Complete Gateaway for Ahmedabadians. Capacity: Comfortably 15,000 persons at a time 50 cars- street and edge parking Before the Humans Staying on the Site was 5% of the humans passing through the Site, Now, the Humans Staying on the Site is 85% of the humans passing through the Site.

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Objectives: 3- Extract Site Specific Guidelines and try and Generalise it. Status: Fulfilled 3- a)SCALE OF THE MODULES- HEIGHT LENGTH WIDTH RATIO AND MASS VOID RELATIONSHIP Height Width ratio 1:2 Length Width ratio 1:1 & 2:1 Therefore, Width : Length : Height (x : y : z) - 2 : 4 : 1 Mass Void ratio 1:1, where the proportion of Void can increase as per the program. But this defines the minimum of the Ideal Ratio for the Underground Space to work at it's best for the People, unless and otherwise specifically required not to have this ratio. The purpose and Use of this Scale and or ratios is to Maintain and Achieve maximum Daylight, Visibility, Natural Ventillation and Views and Vistas from the Underground Spaces/buildings. Though the Programs which WONT require Daylight, Visibility and Natural Ventillaiton may not follow this guideline, but other programs where aspects mentioned above are required in the design should follow this guideline. Unlike Engineering guidelines which are Rigid and Stiff, Architectural Guidelines are always allowed to change here and there. Leading to New guidelines in all the projects. But the essence of this guideline if will be preserved can help make the underground overcome it's basic disadvantages atleast.

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b) VERTICAL LAYERS- THE VERTICAL COMPOSITION OF ACTIVITIES LAYER WISE. The activities in Urban context can basically fall into 4 categories: Dynamic Humans, Dynamic Vehicles, Static Humans, Static Vehicles. With the another Category of Natue which is rarely seen, the aspects are now 5. The order which was followed in this Design Proposal is from Ground layer to the lowest level of the Underground Space: Nature ; Dynamic Humans ; Dynamic Humans ; Static Humans ; Static Humans But that is Site specific in this case. When generalising the Layer system we have: Nature Dynamic Humans Dynamic Vehicles Static Humans Static Vehicles, again from Ground level till the lowest level of Underground space. The points to be taken into consideration while applying this Guidelines: - Climate, this Aspect is very important while applying this guideline. For example, the Design Solution of this thesis has Hot climate and hence the Static activities will go down, but if it would had to be designed in Canada(PATH system) then the dynamic activities will be the lowest level as on above layers it will be colder. - The actual Compostition of activities of the Site. The four types of activities is very general, but if the site specific activities differ than this guideline could be moulded. As said before, it isnt an Engineered Guideline, but Architectural. So, changing here and there is a positive side of it. - Actual Site conditions, again may change how the layers are to be stacked. For example, if the Site is a Road or has a Major road in it than the Dynamic Vehicles Layer should be the second ,cost or could be even first layer to decrease the construciton cost and everything. - The guidelines doesnt specify or even talk about number of floors. It is Layers and not Floors. It is conceptual guideline and shouldnt be taken and applied literally. The system could have 2 floors of Nature, 2 floor of Dynamic Humans, 1 floor of Dynamic Vehicle, 2 floors of Static Humans and 1 floor of Static Vehicle. Hence comprising of 8 floors. though the layers are 5.

General Model

Layers in Design Proposal

Thermal Vision 72

Design Solution of the Thesis Model


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

c) SPATIAL HIERARCHY This guideline is General to an extent that it can even be applied to the buidings or spaces aboveground. This guidelines specifies that -To make realise the Importance how how small or big the space is, it is neccessary for the person to actually go through exactly opposite space, i.e. If the Architect wants people to grasp how big the space is, he needs the Users to go through an opposite or smaller space first and then the actual space. The guideline is extracted on the basis of the Design Solution. The design solution has Cryptoporticuses as passages to go till the main Modules and even the Grottoe. The scale of Cryptoporticus is 3m in width general, and height from 0m to -12m. This actually makes people walk in a tight and small space to go till the Modules. The hierarchy is such that after tunnel like passages people stop for a buffer that are the Squares of 10x10m and height -3m to -12m. After the buffers or squares, comes the main Modules. So the overall system or Spatial hierarchy actually shows users the Importance of Small Spaces as well as Big Spaces. And makes them realise the importance of Land as a Resource. This was local to this Design Solution. Generally how should it be Small (Passages/walkways/cycling tracks) -- Medium (Buffer spaces/squares) -- Large (core activities) Or it could be totally reverse, Larger-Smaller spaces. A thumb rule could be established that, When the main or Core Spaces are more Public or has a Public value(extrovert) attached to it, SmallerLarger hierarchy should be the Approach as people will be compressed and then released tension free into Public Spaces. Where as, when the core Space has more Private(introvert) values attached to it, the hierarchy should be Larger-Smaller as people here will be concentrated into a smaller and warmer(not literally) spaces. The purposes of functions as to what could be the functions for Small, Medium and Large spaces may very greatly as per the programme. But a general layout could be made as to what would be the scale of each appropriately with respect to each other. Small- Passages, could be walkways i.e. Pedestrian walkways, or could be for Cycles or could be just Roads. And if it is a Private project than it could be main residence i.e. bedrooms, kitchen, pooja room et al. Medium- Buffer spaces like Squares or chowks. And if for private projects it could be courtyards. Large- Core activities if public spaces, and spaces like Living Rooms, Verandah for private projects.

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DESIGN APPRAISAL

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Design Appraisal 7.1 FAQs raised by the Jury members Juries are an Important part of Studies in Architecture. A jury is a Formal way of preparing students how to present and convince people of What is your Design about. Or how have you done it? Or what was the approach et al. But even though being a very Important part of Architectual Education, it is never mentioned. So, the chapter Design Appraisal deals with that aspect of Learning. The questions mentioned here are not just of the Final Juries but overall FAQs which arose in all the Juries. FAQs: Q- Why Underground? A- Why underground, as I have tried to explain in the 2.2 What is the difference between Aboveground and Underground Architecture and 2.3 Why Underground Architecture and state it's Advantages and DIsadvantages is mainly because of few reasons. Though that was after I started exploring about the topic, I was fascinated to begin with. That teachers always have said there are two types of Structures, Super Structure and Sub Structure but never have encouraged to take up the SubStructure. Also with the fact that I found Caves fascinating and my initial research was on Caves only. After refining it, I understood how Important going Underground is and why should we go down. Q- Why going Underground has never been tried frequently all over the world and or in Ahmedabad context? A- This question could be answered through 2.3 Why Underground architecture and state it's advantages and disadvantages. The challenges faced for going and making and designing spaces are Light and Ventillation, Views and Vistas, Flooding, Water drainage. but majorly it has been human's psychology that it has been tough to design a space underground. Due to lack of awareness as to what are the advantages and that Underground Architecture is nothing like Basements, humans have developed a Psychology which makes it harder for Architects to do so. Other major reasons why specifically it isnt' that an Acceptable method, or approach is the fact that the Cost is considered more, the Economical Factor is more a concern than what actually Common public wants. It is taken into consideration that what will be the advantages Cost wise for us, rather than for Nature, also that What will be the Resale value of the project? But whats not considered is the Lifecycle Advantages of the Underground Spaces. Q- How will be the Water Seapage due to the River be handled? A- This question could be answered with the help of the section 5.4 Rain Water Harvesting System. It can be clearly established that as far as the Water table of the Ahmedabad is considered, it isn't a hindrance. because it is as below as 100m. Coming to the point that the site is besides Sabarmati river, HCP has developed the Riverfront section in such a way that they have kept a 10m deep diaphragm to keep river waters away from the newly formed or reclaimed land. Hence, worst case worst case that the 10m deep diaphragm doesnt work, with the given soil conditions and droughtfull condition of Ahmedabad's soil, maximum distance which is like even if the soil would be porous, it could travel upto 100m horizontally. But as seen, the main Built up of the Desing Solution starts after 100m from the river. Hence, simple water proofing techniques like the one's where we chemically water proof it in normal aboveground buildings, or spray on instant waterproofing or Waterproofing sheets can be used. Q- How is the Challenges or Disadvantages of going Underground solved? A- The challenges and or Disadvantages are handled very accurately as can be seen in 6.2 Conclusion/ Fulfillment of the Thesis Statement. The sections, plans and schematic sections clearly shows how the challenges are resolved. Though Engineering challenges needs to be concrete rather than just being schematic, efforts and attempts have been done to even resolve them.

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Q- What are other Engineering challenges which will hinder the project? And how have you tried to solve it? A- The engineering challenges which will or can hinder the projects are Structural Systems, Details like Materials which can be used to make that Structural system work, how or what is the actual soil composition i.e. local conditions of the site for soil, the actual water seapage levels. Majorly this sums up the engineering challenges which will be faced while actually making this project. I have tried to solve Structural system, and tried to assume the water seapage levels for the site through the datum available. Structural system as tried and resolved should be an Exoskeleton rather than Collumn-beam system because of the fact that the forces exerted by the ground will be the major concern. After successfully creating exoskeleton the built up part inside it an be any ordinary structural system like column beam. The exoskeleton can be either made up by using Concrete and Rammed Earth, staggering wall section, or can be totally Steel and Concrete web like structure. Q- How going Underground helped the context? A- The context being a Concrete jungle, where the only access to the most precious resource of any city River was through the roads. The River was connected only in Plan, that too just in single axis. Longitudinally was the city connected with the river. That too physically, and that too single dimensional. Other problem was the area is one of the most densed areas of Ahemdabad, but has just Commercial values attached to it. There is no existing Natural value added to the Area of Ashram Road. A faint attempt of one garden, near income tax and few other places could be seen but because of it's location and rigidity, they are vacant. The next problem of the area was that the existing old theatres and one new mall, wasnt sufficient to create economy for themselves. They go neglected most of the time, even though they have been since a long and being on an area where traffic kills. The Design Solution, firstly connects the Site and hence the city with the precious Sabarmati river in Three Dimensions, longitudinal, lattitudinal and in Z axis. It doesnt just connect the city Physically, but because of the Portals created it Actually connects humans with the River. The problem of no recreational hubs, and unnoticed nearby theatres and malls is solved because this Space acts as an Activity generator as well as is a Place for Retreat. Because of the number of varrying activities provided, more number of people from all the age groups will be drawn towards the area and will recreate themselves. But this also means, that more number of persons will stay in or around the site creating opportunities for other buildings. Q- Till what extent is this Project Viable, in terms of Cost, Practicality and Acceptance? A- The project is viable in all the aspects. Cost, though the initial costs would be huge, including construction cost, building it, and making it open for public the advantages like because of the fact that Underground spaces are insulated by Earth, energy is conserved. So, in the life cycle the overall consumption of electricity would be much less than if the space would have been Aboveground. Then another strategy used is to make all the gadgets including Streetlights, Charging tables, et al grid free. Means they will have their own power supply which will be powered through Solar energy. Next strategy to get the cost covered would be to export and sell the soil hence excavated and reuse atleast 20-25% of it within this space to make Ottas, building structures, or small small landscape furnitures. This will show the respect towards the mother Earth and also get us Money slowly slowly covered. Last way would be by boosting the other existing theatres and mall's economy. Practicallity, by the sections and Design it is already established that this project is Practical and people would love to use it. Acceptance comes when people will be made aware of the facts of going underground and that their Psycological fears are covered for.

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Q- Is this Isolation or the Conceptual Process of your's of making people go through different portals and make them aware of the nature, Forced or Autogenerated? A- Answering this question is a very tough job. Even though the nature of the Plan, sections and the concept in itself may seem Forcefull, what could be observed is People when it comes to the concepts of Meditation and such activities, requires a push. A push is always required for people to actually start doing it. So, maybe the space may seem Forcing in nature for starting, or may get tough to let go the Urban fabric behind, once they start enjoying it they will autmatically Enjoy the Isolation which once seemed Forceful. What is interesting is, when first Mobile phones started even that idea of shifting from Landlines to Wiresless Phones seemed forceful to an extent and absurd. But once people started to use it, they started to enjoy it and that is because they are aware of what are the advantages of using it, and also the disadvantages. Even though they know how harmful the Mobile phones are, it's Usage has Increased drastically and is Increasing Exponentially. Though an arguement could be made as to Where are the Stats, I would like to say that even a Person whose income is as low as 1Rs per day, and for whom eating is tough he must own a Mobile phone. So, it is just how much people are made aware of, and how much they enjoy it once forcefull. Q- How are you Rejoicing going Underground? A- Phylosophical questions are always tough to tackle. Rejoicing anything is very Subjective. I may love spending 100rs on shoes and Rejoice it, a poor guy even if can afford it wont Rejoice that 100rs shoes, because he knows from where does that 100rs comes from. Similarly, Rejoicing going Underground will vary greatly with person to person, but ofcoarse I have to establish a common ground here. People will Rejoice the Space and not going Underground. They will know that this space is Underground, but the way it has been handled they may Ultimately not feel as if it is Underground just like Bharat Bhavan by Charles Corea. But it is equally important to observe that The Passages and or the Spatial Hierarchy established through this Design Solution actually answers this question. The reason for going down through small passages is this that people will first realise how important any space is, be it small or big. But also will realise that being Underground is not Dark or Dampy experience rather a Smoothe and Comfortable Journey. After this they will be thrown or send into the Main modules, where they will see that being Underground doesnt need to be a Small space either, it can even be very Big space as this. This Spatial variation actually makes them enjoy being inside an Underground Space. Though Rejoicing it, depends on how they percieve it. Q- Dont you think the Design as an Architect have become too Simple? Shouldn't this be more bold and innovative just like the topic? A- It is very Important to learn How to Walk before one can Actually Run. Why did I start with that sentence is very simple. Underground Architecture is totally unexploited and a new Avenue. It has many limitations and challenges even when we just keep a small rectangular room inside ground and make it Liveable. So, as a student before I can jump to Innovative or Bold design or Form Explorations, first I need to Tackle the already existing Limits or challenges by exploiting the simplest of forms if it has to be. After actually properly understanding all the aspects and resolving it in it's simplest form can One try and Experiment with it's form. Because when we arent Building anything inside the Envelope of Air, but Envelope of Earth lots of Variables and Constants changes. Now that I have actually Understood the Variables and Constants of Underground architecture, the next step could be Form Exploration, Because as Steven Holls says- "Building isnt an Object, but Form in Space." Where the space here is the Earth.

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7.2 Avenues for Further Explorations After doing the whole thesis, and evaluating it one can say that there are many Avenues or Aspects on which further Exploration or work could be done. Analysing the FAQs and all the Juries, analysing the Main Objectives of the Thesis, analysing the result of the objectives and the Design Solution we can jump to the conclusion regarding the topics which needs to be futher Exploited: 1- Structural Systems for Underground Architecture. 2- Effect of Different Materials, for Underground Architecture. 3- Study on different Soil compositions of the same area, and finding different uses of it. 4- New or different Water Proofing techniques for Underground Architecture. 5- Phylosophical Approach towards Underground Architecture. 6- Efficient methods or ways for Emergencies inside Underground Architecture. 7- Methods or techniques to Connect Underground Space with it's Neighbouring buildings except the known tunnels. 8- Form Exploration for Underground Architecture. 9- How the Services like Water Drainage, Electricity supply et al be handled in Underground Architecture. 10- Presentation Techniques for Architectural Drawings of Underground spaces.

This were the top 10 topics related to Underground Architecture which could be studied or rather shall be studied in Detailed. As Underground Architecture is a new Avenue and not much Literature has been established on it, there could be more than 100 topics related to Underground Architecture on which Research and Exploration could be done for. So, by hightlighting 10 here, I am showing a positive attitude for the topic that a lot will be done on it, be it My own Research topic for further exploration or someone else's.-

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Architect's Vision

BEFORE: SG Road, Ahmedabad. What could be observed is that the whole stretch has Buildings majorly with commercial values attached to it, that too Hotels, Mall and such types. Ahmedabad has 328 malls but only 0.28% open/ greenspaces.

AFTER: SG Road, Ahmedabad. What is proposed here is a Bold and Huge step. It shows how the whole of the SG Road, can be converted into a GreenBelt by taking all the buildings, majorly malls and hotels Underground. Only untouched buildings would be religious worshipping places. And at a bigger picture, if we take 328malls and the upcoming malls Underground, we can increase the open/greenspaces from 0.28%-0.48% minimum.

BEFORE: AFTER: Ashram Road, Ahmedabad. A concrete Urban Ashram Road, Ahmedabad. The proposal or idea texture could be observed through the plan and talks about interevening how the Roads are in 3d sketch. It shows how less the green cover is in the Ahmedabad. By converting "Patches" of roads, as whole area around, which is from the starting of the can be seen in the 3D sketch and the plan, we can Ashram road till it's end. increase the Green cover of the Ahmedabad city. This are the initial ideas or visions as an Architect. I truelly think if judiciary Used, Underground Architecture is the Future of Architecture. If not, the Future seems Gloomy. The End. 79


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Works Cited

Reffered Literature: 1- 03.RFDG-Proposed development plan for riverfront neighbourhoods, 1976 2- Soil temperature regime at Ahmedabad-Girja Sharan, IIM-A 3- 2014 Trends in Travel & Tourism 4- The social value of public spaces-Joseph Rowntree Foundation 5- EARTH SHELTERED BUILDINGS FOR THERMAL COMFORT-Subhash C. Devrath 6- Agriculture Contingency Plan for District :AHMEDABAD 7- Ahmedabad Draft Plan 2021-Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority(AUDA) 8- A PRESENTATION ON LAND USE AND URBAN TRANSPORT-I.P.GAUTAM, IAS, PRINCIPAL SECRETARY, URBAN DEVELOPMENT & URBAN HOUSING DEPARTMENT,GANDHINAGAR , GUJARAT 9- City Development Plan for Ahmedabad-Chapter 6 Social Amenities 10- Ahmedabad Residential Real Estate Overview March 2012-ICICI Property Services 11- BUILDING WITH EARTH, A guide to Flexible-form earthbag construction-Paulina Wojciechowska 12- Evolution of Shopping Malls:Recent trends and the question of Regeneration-Buket Ergun Kocaili 13- Construction Sequence of Sabarmati Riverfront Development 14- Underground Structures Engineering services for owners and contractors-COWI 15- Going underground A Cumbrian perspective-PHIL REDDY 16- Underground Buildings-Chris van Dronkelaar 17- THE GREEN HOUSE SYSTEM: STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES 18- GREEN INDIA: THE WORLD’S SECOND MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY COMBATS DEFORESTATION -The Green India Mission (GIM) 19- SABARMATI RIVERFRONT....Socializing a River & Inclusive Development- Sabarmati River Front Development Corporation Limited & AMC 20- SUBSURFACE PLANNING-To go Underground - Right or Wrong?-H. C. Fischer, B. Jansson, M. Barker, Y. Watanabe, M. Bergman, C. Fairhurst, J. Rygh, L. Lupiac 21- URBAN UNDERGROUND SPACE AND BENEFITS OF GOING UNDERGROUND-Jean Paul GODARD Past Vice-president, ITA,France 22- Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling-Proefschrift 23- Hydrologic Studies for Sabarmati Riverfront Development Project- National Institute of Hydrology Roorkee – 247 667 (Uttaranchal) February 2007 24- Urban Space-Matthew Dobias 25- Sabarmati Riverfront Development Integrated Environmental Improvement and Urban Revitalization India Urban Conference, Mysore, November 2011- Sabarmati River Front Development Corporation Limited, HCP Design & Project Management Pvt. Ltd, Ahmedabad 26- Feasibiity Report-SRFD-Environmental Planning Collaborative(EPC) 27- Sun, WInd & Light:Architectural Design Strategies,Second Edition-G.Z.Brown and Mark Dekay 28- Underground Architecture:Connections between Ground-Level Public space and Below Ground Building-Ammie Wright 29- Possible paper subjects “Underground Space Technology”-TUDelft 30- World Energy Council 31- Why go Underground?-ITA - AITES 32- Underground Buildings:More than meets the Eye-Loretta Hall 33- Identification of Success & Failure Factors of Malls in Ahmedabad City-Sagar Desai MTM-0508 34- Presentation on Sustainable Building-Kaushik Panchal 35- Buildings and Daylighting/Energy Effciency in buildings-CEPT Ahmedabad 36- Metric Handbook:Planning and Design Data-David Littlefield 37- Handbook for Interior Lighting Design 38- Time Saver standards for Architectural Design-Donald Watson 39- Neufert:Architectural Timesavers 40- Our Cities Ourselves:Principles for Transport in Urban Life 41- Our cities ourselves:Vision of Ahmedabad 42- IA&B-May 2015 80


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

43- IA&B March 2015 44- Contextuality in Indian Commercial Spaces: Shopping Malls/Arcades, looking for an Indian Identity 45- Adobe and rammed earth buildings: Design and Construction book 46- Impact of Geotechnical Investigations on Design and Construction of SubstructuresKaushal S. Sabuwala 47- Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison 48- The Third Level, Jack Finney 49- The Underground House Book, Campbell Stu 50- Earth Sheltered Landscapes, Debord, David Douglas and Thomas R. Dunbar 51- Underground Houses: How to build a low cost home, Roy Robert 52- Earth Sheltered Housing Design, The Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota

Reffered Websites: 53- www.youtube.com 54- www.wired.com 55- www.ecoimagination.com 56- www.reddit.com/r/architecture/comments/1es3ij/ 57- www.wikipedia.com 58- www.porousearth.wordpress.com 59- http://www.dezeen.com/2014/10/10/miralles-tagliabue-elizabeth-de-portzamparc-paris-metrotrain-stations/ 60- http://www.subsurfacebuildings.com/diggingforthegreen.html 61- http://www.underground-homes.com/underground-homes-disadvantages.htm 62- http://www.earthhomesnow.com/earth-home-advantages.htm 63- https://www.ita-aites.org/en/why-go-underground 64- http://www.candidslice.com/the-raleigh-underground-an-epic-era-sealed-beneath-cameron-village/ 65- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=u3iEjXoaRW8C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=undergrou nd+mall+construction+method&source=bl&ots=K00QVbBjfG&sig=6MOaMZ-vJHTgvoZFh2nVFH0o2w&hl=en&sa=X&ei=u93hVJmOBcSQuATLsIDoDQ&ved=0CFMQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=undergr ound%20mall%20construction%20method&f=false 66- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/London-Eye-museums-and-highrises-being-planned-onSabarmati-riverfront/articleshow/36223034.cms 67- http://www.hockertonhousingproject.org.uk/ 68- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_in_Ahmedabad 69- http://www.dnaindia.com/ahmedabad/report-will-giant-ferris-spin-on-sabarmati-soon-1937713 70- http://www.dnaindia.com/ahmedabad/report-realty-makes-22-storey-towers-reality-inahmedabad-1906502 71- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/surat/-First-skyscraper-in-city-on-way/articleshow/5200908. cms? 72- http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31805&articlexml=GUJARAT-AN-EMERGINGDESTINATION-FOR-SKYSCRAPERS-24082014301007 73- http://www.magicbricks.com/Property-Rates-Trends/ALL-RESIDENTIAL-rates-in-Ahmedabad 74- http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-pricey-sabarmati-riverfront-lures-realtors-1383980 75- http://www.ourproperty.co.uk/guides/the_wonders_of_living_underground_guide-p2.html 76- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population 77- http://www.unep.org/forests/Portals/142/docs/our_vision/Green_India.pdf 78- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_business_district 79- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/Groundwater-levels-in-Ahmedabad-takeanother-deep-plunge/articleshow/10912228.cms 80- http://blog.renewableenergyworld.com/ugc/blogs/2010/04/the-utility-of-the-future-think-shoppingmall.html 81


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

81- http://property.sulekha.com/ashram-road-real-estate-price-trend-ahmedabad 82- http://www.thelowline.org/ 83- http://www.marketwatch.com/story/10-things-shopping-malls-wont-tell-you-1308954251095 84- http://www.pps.org/reference/placeforparking/ 85- http://www.1728.org/gradient.htm 86- https://answersingenesis.org/geology/grand-canyon-facts/when-and-how-did-the-grand-canyonform/ 87- http://www.greenhomebuilding.com/QandA/rammedearth/structural.htm 88- http://www.counterview.net/2011/12/central-groundwater-board-alarm-over.html 89- http://www.evolo.us/architecture/skyscraper-or-sustainable-underground-society/ 90- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underground_living 91- http://www.biotekt.com/ 92- http://www.drtomorrow.com/lessons/lessons7/20.html 93- http://gondolaproject.com/2010/04/06/eyes-on-the-street/ 94- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucalyptus_globulus 95- http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/31452 96- http://bhudeva.org/blog/2012/01/06/is-it-possible-to-build-an-earthship-in-moist-freezingexpansive-clay-soil/ 97- http://architecture.about.com/od/A-Architecture-Terms/g/arcology.htm 98- http://www.malcolmwells.com/designs.html 99- http://www.fastcodesign.com/3023159/the-case-for-building-cities-underground 100- http://www.architonic.com/ntsht/camouflage-architecture-underground-buildings/7000497 101- http://www.designboom.com/tag/underground-architecture/ 102- http://www.dezeen.com/tag/underground/ Reffered Videos/Documentaries: 103- Argentina en Mexico - Underground Mall in Mexico 104- By Ultra MIX 360 - STRIP THE CITY - TORONTO 105- Cave People of the Himalaya _ National Geographic Documentary 106- ETFE, properties, Installation, comparison with glass_HD 107- Garden Santa Fe _ Underground Mall _ KMD Architects 108- GARDEN STA FE AEREAS RYMS 109- Grand Designs - 'The Stealth House' (S10E02) 110- Grand Designs S08E01 - The Underground House 111- Grand Designs S08E11 - The Underground House- Revisited (from series 3) 112- Grand Designs S12E10 - The Disco Home- Revisited (from series 11) 113- Massive Lightbox Acts Like It's Alive - Origin By UVA & Scanner 114- PATH - The World's Largest Underground Shopping Complex _ 115- Proyecto Nuevo Aeropuerto Ciudad de MÊxico - @AeropuertoMEX I 116- The London Underline 117- The Lost Caves of Tibet (Full Documentary) 118- Visiting The Derinkuyu Underground City In Cappadocia 119- When Infinity Comes To Life 120- World's largest Underground City - Full Documentary 121- BNKR VIDEOS EARTHSCRAPER CNN 122- Batman-Movie 123- IronMan-Movie 124- Resident Evil-Movie 125- UP-Movie 126- The Jetsons-Cartoon 127- Dexter’s Laboratory-Cartoon 128- Urbanized- Documentary 82


UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

List of Figures

List of Figures: 1- Vector "Underground Architecture" an original works by Preyan Mehta, Front page "Underground Architecture" A painting by Preyan Mehta, Second Page 2- Page 9,Types of Underground Architecture, 2.1 What is Underground Architecture? and it's Types and Archtypes?- Sketches by Preyan Mehta 3- Pages 10-12, Underground Archtypes, 2.1 What is Underground Architecture? and it's Types and Archtypes?- Image source, Underground Architecture, Ammie Wright 4- Page 13, 2.2 What is the difference between Aboveground Architecture and Underground Architecture?- Sketches by Preyan Mehta 5- Page 14, 2.3 Why Underground Architecture and state it's advantages and disadvantages. - Vectors from Google Images 6- Page 15, 2.3 Why Underground Architecture and state it's advantages and disadvantages. - Land Utilization, Disaster Resistant, Natural Ventillation- Sketches by Preyan Mehta, - The other vectors by Goodle Images 7- Page 16, 2.4 What is an Urban Space and why do we need it, Underground? - Images by Google Images, Edited by Preyan Mehta 8- Pages 19,20, 3.2 Primary casestudies for Underground Architecture- Sections by Preyan Mehta 9- Pages 21-24, 3.3 Secondary casestudies for Underground Architecture- Sections by Preyan Mehta 10- Pages 25, 3.4 Primary casestudies for Urban Spaces- Plan by Preyan Mehta 11- Page 25, 3.4 Primary casestudies for Urban Spaces- Image source: Everyday Urban Space, by Jaydip Biniwale, Shaival Gajjar, Gopi Viththani, Darshini Sanghvi 12- Page 26, 3.5 Secondary casestudies for Urban Spaces- Sections & images by Google Images 13- Page 27, 3.5 Secondary casestudies for Urban Spaces- Plan & Images by BIG Architects 14- Page 28, 3.6 Inferences- Plan, sections and diagrams by Preyan Mehta 15- Page 29, 3.6 Inferences- Image "Framing" by Preyan Mehta, Bharat Bhavan 16- Page 29, 3.6 Inferences- Images "Enclosure", "Cone of vision" by "Urbanized" Documentary 17- Page 29, 3.6 Inferences- rest images by Google Images 18- Page 31, 4.1 Site Identification- Plans by Preyan Mehta 19- Page 31, 4.2 Site Selection- Table by Preyan Mehta 20- Pages 33-35, 4.3 Site Analysis- Plans, sections by Preyan Mehta 21- Page 36, 4.3 Site Analysis- Section by Preyan Mehta 22- Page 36, 4.3 Site Analysis- Table by Ahmedabad Residential Real Estate Overview March 2012 ICICI Property Services, 23- Page 37, 4.3 Site Analysis- Photos and Plan by Preyan Mehta 24- Page 40-42, 5.1 Concept Formulation- Sections, Plans and Sketches by Preyan Mehta 25- Page 43, 5.2 Site Specific Design Framework- Activity graphs by Preyan Mehta 26- Pages 44-50, 5.3 Drawings- Plans, Sections, Rendered Photos by Preyan Mehta 27- Pages 51-62, 5.4 Design Case Study- Sections, Plans, Sketches, Diagrams by Preyan Mehta 28- Pages 66-67, 6.1 Observational Notes/Architectural Narration- Rendered Photos by Preyan Mehta 29- Pages 68-69, 6.2 Conclusion/ Fulfillment of the Thesis Statement- Sections, Plans, Sketches by Preyan Mehta 30- Pages 71-73, 6.2 Conclusion/ Fulfillment of the Thesis Statement- Sections, Plans Sketches by Preyan Mehta 31- Page 79, Architect's Vision- Images, 3Ds, Plans by Preyan Mehta

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UNDERGROUND DESIGNING OF AN URBAN SPACE- Preyan Mehta

Appendix

APPENDIX A: Design Exploration-TImeline

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Sabarmati Riverfront Rd Ashram Rd Cycling Track

TV Screens

Staggerd-Stepped Roof/Ground Cover Courtyards Frames Cafes/Eateries

Utilities/ Indoor Gaming

Cafes/Eateries

Pavillion-Parking/Drive-In

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Shops

Multi Level Parking


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THANK YOU

Name: Preyan Mehta Guide: Kaushik Panchal

UG Thesis::Underground designing of an Urban Space- Thesis(B.Arch)-Preyan Mehta  

A Undergraduate thesis done for the submission process. The thesis report revolves around the idea of Building Underground, why should we de...

UG Thesis::Underground designing of an Urban Space- Thesis(B.Arch)-Preyan Mehta  

A Undergraduate thesis done for the submission process. The thesis report revolves around the idea of Building Underground, why should we de...

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