Page 1


ALBERT R. MANN LIBRARY New York

State Colleges OF

Agriculture and

Home Economics

AT

Cornell University

THE GIFT OF

Prof. Margaret Wylie


Cornell University Library

BL 603.H17 A glossary of important symbols in their

3 1924 014 060 440


The tine

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the

text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014060440


IMPORTANT SYMBOLS ADELAIDE

S.

HALL


A GLOSSARY OF

IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN THEIR HEBREW, PAGAN

AND

CHRISTIAN FORMS

Compiled by Author

of

ADELAIDE

Curator at the Chicago

Bates

S.

HALL

"Two Women Abroad" Academy

of Fine Arts

& Guild Company Boston, Mass. 1912

A


(.03

353389 Copyright, 1912

Bt Bates & Guild Company


INTRODUCTION Each year, the stream of travel increases and many people are brought in contact with ancient terms

and devices with which they are totally unfamiliar. Each year, new classes are formed in the History of Art and thousands of students enter art schools where they copy classic designs which represented in the past the customs and beliefs of powerful and intelligent people.

In order to thoroughly enjoy historical and reworks or to interpret the exact language of form and color in ancient buildings, it is necessary to be acquainted with the most important emblems, from their origin in the past to the present applicaligious

tion of these terms.

The

number of symbols Readers and teachers need to be familiar with the popular forms of expression employed by Hebrew, Pagan and Christian, in of

Bible contains the largest

any history

in the world.

order to interpret correctly the Scriptures as well as classic

and romantic

literature.

and illustrators book covers and

Architects, sculptors, decorators of fact

and

fiction,

designers of

and jewelers are often at a loss to find an object which will lend itself to their design and at the same time typify something or someone that

plates, smiths

they desire to suggest or memorialize in

its

plan.

The reasons governing the connection between the larger number of symbols and their meanings are so wrapped in myth and legend that an entire volume The is often necessary to explain a few emblems.


—which are the important

greatest need seems to be

symbols and what do they

signify.

Therefore, the compiler of this

manual respect-

submits to all readers, travelers and students, a list of symbols culled from her collection of notes covering a period of nine years' study upon the subIn the ject and an equal number of trips abroad. fully

majority of cases the emblem has been personally Also, a selected bibliography of helpful

verified.

books for those who desire to make a study of the subject. All of these works may be found either in the libraries of Boston or of Chicago. Adelaide S. Hall.


EXAMPLES Medium

Place

Architecture and Sculpture.

Temples of Egypt, India, China and Japan. Cathech-als and other early churches of Europe. Monuments. Tombs. Ornaments. Amulets.

Tomb

Painting.

decorations in Egypt and

India.

Kakemonos

or wall hangings in

China and Japan. Frescoes, easel pictures illuminated manuscript.

and

Stained glass windows. Heraldic shields and banners. Porcelain and pottery in folk lore designs.

Weavings and

Tapestry from Babylonian times to the present; rugs, carpets, brocades, tissues, and garments.

Embroideries. Crafts

work

in

chiseling, incising

and carving.

Coins, medals, seals, ornaments, table ware, and

altar ware, jewelry.


.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

The works of James Fergusson, F.R.S. The Gods of the Egyptians—E. A. T. W. Budge. The Grammar of the Lotus ^W. H. Goodyear, M.A. Buddha Dr. Herman Oldenberg. Chmese Ancient Symbolism ^Joseph Edkins, D.D. The Origins of Pictish Symbolism The Earl

— —

of

Southesk, K.T.

7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

—— Dictionnare des Symboles— P. Verneuil.

The Migration of Symbols Goblet d'Alviella. The Buddhist Praying Wheel ^WiUiam Simpson.

Mythology—W. J. Wilkins. The Rubdiydt of Omar Khdyydm. The History of Arabia Andrew Crichton. Ancient Arabian Poetry C. J. Lyall, M.A. Symbolism of the East and West Murray-Aynsley. Architecture, Mysticism and Myth W. R. Lethaby. ffindu

— —

Ideal Metrology Herman Gaylord. Ceramic Art in Remote Ages J. B. Waring. Demonology Sir Walter Scott. Ko-ji-ki, Translated D. H. Chamberlain. The Canon, with a Preface R. B. Cunninghame. The Night of the Gods—John O'Neil. The Hymns of the Rig Veda—R. T. H. Griffith. Scandinavian Mythology (The Eddas) Grenville Pigott. Horns of Honour— F. T. Elworthy. SymboUsm in Art F. E. Hulme. Volsunga Saga, Translated William Morris. The Mabinogian (from Popular Studies in Myth) Ivor

B. John, 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

— —

M.A.

Landscape Gardening in Japan ^Josiah Conder. Mediaeval German Epics— G. T. Dippold, Ph.D. Studies of the Greek Poets John A. Symonds. Artistic Japan Compiled by Bing.

Ornament ^A. W. Pugin. of Heraldry—W. Cecil Wade. Christian Art and Symbolism Rev. R. St. John Tyrwhitt. Colour (in Quarterly Papers on Architecture) T. Inman. Ecclesiastical

The Symbolisms

Early Christian SymboUsm—J. R. Allen, F.S.A. Popular Poetry of the Finns—C. J. Bilson, M.A. The Sibylline Oracles—Sir John Floyer. The Best Book of All—F. J. Hamilton, D.D. Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Chronicles, Samuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, St. Luke, St. John, Revelation.


TREES " The festival of the Christmas tree is the survival of tree worship among the Germans. The first care of the missionaries was to cut down the groves of the pagans and to consecrate the spot by the erection of a chapel. One of the last vestiges Fergusson. of a grove is the tree 'Stock am Eisen' in Vienna." The ancients attached the utmost importance to the significance of trees, their poetic and impressive language. We find this when we read the Scriptures, look at our oriental rugs, or examine a Gothic cathedral.

—

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM LIFE OR UNIVERSE TREE

THK TREE OF


.

RESIDENCE TREES—Continued Symbol Cypress

Country

PERSIAN

Signification

Residence of Mithra.

Emblem of Zoroaster.

BABYLONIAN

Palm

GRECIAN

Willow

ROMAN

Myrrh

JAPANESE

Icho

or tree

Gingko

Sovereign power. Residence of Istar, the divine mother. Birthplace of Hera, divine mother. Birthplace of Adonis, god of beauty. Sacred emblem of the gods: Eternal life.

GEM BEARING TREES OF PARADISE EGYPTIAN

Golden Sycamore Sacred to Nut as godof

gem fruits

dess of the sky.

and flowers

Gem

EAST INDIAN CHINESE

bearing tree Sacred to Buddha.

Pearl bearing tree Purity in eternity. of Paradise

Luminous gem The Great Light of the

ASSYRIAN

bearing tree

god.

TREE OF HAPPINESS

MOHAMMEDAN Bearing

all

man-

Paradise:

ner of fruits

CHINESE

"

Joys of the

Tooba.

CALEITOAR TREE Ming Kap " or Time's Monthly tree.

flight.

Fifteen buds on right of central

stem and fifteen on left; one falls daily

THE PINE TREE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN CHINESE JAPANESE

Natural form

Symbolic tree of the gods.

Longevity. Longevity:

Emblem-

atic of spirits of Tak-

asago and Suminoye

Conjugal and long

affection

life.


THE OAK Country

Symbol

JUDEAN

Natural form

Signification

Place of angelic visions.

Emblem of Abraham. Emblem of Zeus, the

GRECIAN

fathergod. Majesty.

The

mother

tree

of

Emblem

the race.

of Dodona grove, the seat of the Oracle.

ROMAN

Emblem the

EARLY BRITISH

ÂŤ

of

Jupiter,

father god.

Majesty. Sacred wood of Druidical altar.

THE ASH SCANDINAVIAN

Natural form

Emblem

of Odin,

father god.

the

Sov-

In connection with the elm they signify creators of the race. ereignty.

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN

Veneration of a nature god.

THE PLANE TREE

GRECIAN

Natural form

Emblem

of Xerxes. of Nature.

Love

THE OLIVE GRECIAN

Natural form

Emblem

Athena, goddess of

of

patron warriors. victory.

ROMAN

Symbol

Symbol of

of peace.

THE POMEGRANATE

ROMAN

Natural form

Emblem

of reproduc-

tion.

THE CEDAR

JUDEAN GRECIAN EAST INDIAN CHINESE

Natural form

Incorruptibility.

Emblem

of Artemis, goddess of the moon and of the chase.

Fertility.

Fidelity.


THE LAUREL Symbol

Country

GRECIAN

Natural form

ROMAN

Signification

Inspiration.

Emblem

Apollo: of Poetry. Antidote of of emblem evil eye:

Dapmie

who

was

changed to a laurel to escape Apollo.

THE PIPPALA OR BO TREE EAST INDIAN, Natural CHINESE AND JAPANESE

form

Emblem

of Buddha, under which he re-

ceived perfect

wis-

dom.

THE BAMBOO CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Natural form

JAPANESE

Natural form

Longevity.

THE PLUM Emblem

of woman's purity. Nightingale Dwelling Plum '

'

Tree," the emblem of daughter of Kino Tsurayiiki or a sacrifice rewarded.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM IN

GENERAL

Palm

Martyrdom

to attain

Heaven.

Victory over the flesh. Righteous Christian.

Good

Fig

Fruitfulness.

Oak

works. Majesty. Strength and endurance.

Cedar

The Lord's

Willow

blem of Lebanon. Abandoned. Desperation and grief.

Apple

Productiveness. first

sin.

tree.

Em-

The

Emblem

of Eve.

Poplar

Sympathy. lousness. tion.

TremuLamenta-


EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

Acacia

"

Aspen

'

Christian tree Life

FORM— Continued

Friendship.

Emblemof Judas: fear. of

ICnowledgeofgoodand evil. Tree of Eden. Tree of St. John's

vision, bearing twelve manner of fruits for the healing of the nations.

Golden tree of Galahad. "

Tree

Holly

of Jesse

The human

line or genealogical tree of Jesus.

Holy

tree.

Emblemof

Christmas

festivi-

ties.

*

Maple

Symbol

of

Canada.


EMBLEMS OF LIGHT (NATURAL AND FICTITIOUS) Since the words " Let there be Light " animated the Universe, light has been its most cheri^ed possession. It has been venerated by the ancients by its emblems, the sun, moon and stars. Candidates for leUgious promotion were often kept in darkness for a period of time before being permitted to enjoy the light of the higher plane or office. The Japanese believe that no offering is ever so precious to Buddha as a lamp or a lantern and love to tell a story about their " Hall of the Lamps " on Mt. Eoyasan. It contains ten thousand lamps, which are mainly votive offerings of the rich. One day a storm extinguished all the lights but one, that of a poor widow whose piety had led her to expend for this lamp, the few coppers she possessed. Today, we Christians symbolize our Saviour as the Light of the World.

HEBREW

AISTB

PAGAIT

FORM

THK SUN Country

IN GENERAL

Symbol Usual form

Signification

The

power of

active nature.

Emblem of Osiris. Ra. Sovereignty.

Emblem of Assur.

Sov-

ereignty.

Emblem

of Baal.

—Might.

Power

Emblem

of

Moloch.

Fierceness of sun's heat.

Emblem

of Mithra. Creation of light. Emblem of Loki. Blessing, fertility.

Emblem

of Helios, the

light of the universe.

Emblem

of Apollo as light of divinity.

National

emblem

of

Amaterasu as sun goddess and ancestress of the only dy-

nasty.

Emblem

of

the Emperor as a ruler by divine right.


:

THE DAWN Country

HINDU

Symbol Usual f onn

Signification

Emblem

GRECIAN

Ushas. The bride.

of

Blessing.

Emblem of Eos

:

youth.

purity.

ROMAN

Emblem

of Aurora as delicate beauty.

Freshness.

THE MOON IN

GENERAL

The

Usual form

passive form of nature. When in crescent form signifies virginity.

EGYPTIAN

«

Emblem

of Thoth, god truth. Hathor, goddess of beauty. of

JUDEAN

«

Emblem

SYRIAN

«

Emblem

of Ashtaroth, goddess of fertility. of

Astarte,

goddess of material desire ness.

and

heartless-

GRECIAN

Emblem

ROMAN

Emblem of Diana:

of Selene as serene loveliness.

goddess of the chase: chastity. «

CHINESE JAPANESE

Heaven's beauty. Emblem of Susano-o:

The

seed of the siesta (because of previous night watch-

ing).

EARLY MEXICAN

Emblem

«

of

Metzli:

goddess of agriculture.

THE STARS ZODIACAL

Orion

Hunter of

Gemini

Emblems of Castor and Pollux. Emblems of

beasts.

brotherly love.

MASONIC

Rayed circle

star in

a

Guidance.


Symbol

Country

GRECIAN

Signification

I.Alcyone, a River

of

Heaven.

single stai "

2.

A group

of Opening of navigation.

seven

stars

called

the

Pleiades 3.

MOHAMMEDAN

Six

Group called Tearfulness. tiie Hyades pointed

star

Emblem of the faith.

formed of two triangles

*

Eight pointed star

formed

Emblem of the faith.

two

of

squares

THE MILKY WAY SCANDINAVIAN Usual form

Pathway to the home gods.

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN

"

Pathway

Valhalla, of the

of ghosts.

THE RAINBOW CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Usual form

HINDU GRECIAN

Usual form

JUDEAN AND HINDU IN GENERAL

Altar fires

Sacrifice: consecration.

Beacon

fires

Communication be-

Hearth

fires

Home.

Bridge of heaven.

THE TORCH Active power of nature.

"

Progress.

FERE

*

tween men. Loyalty

to

family. "

Usual form

"

Lantern

Votive offerings to the gods.

dragon

and Emblem

of Persian Sibyl, who prophesied overcommg evil

by good.

TAPER OR CANDLE IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem

of Libyan Sibyl, who prophesied the sight of the

Saviour.


EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM THE SUN Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Usual form

Signification

Emblem of beneficence and f ruitfulness.

When illuminating Emblem of Virgin Mary as overcoming a woman with moon under and crowned with

The

the

the world.

her feet

spirit warring against

the

flesh.

stars

THE MOON IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Serene beauty.

Pen-

siveness.

THE STARS IN

GENERAL

1.

The morning Reward

2.

Star in the East

of

"He

that

overcometh."

star

Emblem

of the nativ-

ity. 3.

Cloud of stars Infinitude.

THE RAINBOW IN

GENERAL

Usual form

IN

GENERAL

Burning

Christ as the Light of the World.

In hand

Emblem

Promise.

THE TORCH of St.

Theo-

dore.

LAMP IN

GENERAL

Seven lamps or Sacrament. Consecration. The seven seven branched candlestick Five lamps burning

Five lamps extinct

ENGLISH

Altar candle

primitive churches.

The

five wise virgins.

The five foolish virgins. One on each side of cross.

Paschal candle On gospel side of choir. (Passover)

Proc essional candle

Carried in procession as the Head.


COLORS " The men of primeval times did not see colors: only strong colors are seen by a child. No color has any symbolic meaning taken in itseU, but only through association." F. DeUtzach, D.D.

HEBREW AND


COLORS—Continued Country

IN

GENERAL

ROMAN

Symbol

Red and

black

Signification

From life to

Green

Youth.

Red

Emblem god

death.

Victory. of

Bacchus,

vigor and

of

wine. Attribute of Pollux, as immortality.

Purple

Noble birth,

Royalty. as

"bom to the pur-

ple."

Black

Attribute of Castor, as

White

Emblem

mortality. of Jupiter as chief divinity.

PLANETARY COLORS

CHALDEAN

Black

Emblem of the sun. Emblem of the moon.

Orange

Emblem

Golden yellow

of Planet

Jupiter.

Emblem

Red

of Planet

Mars. Pale yellow

Emblem .

Emblem

of Planet Mercury. Emblem of Attila's blood stained trail. Emblem of the North. Water.

Blue

HUNGARIAN

Red Path

CHINESE

Black

Emblem

YeUow

Green

of the South. Color of the T.'sing dynasty. Emblem of the West. Metal. Emblem of the East.

Red

Wood. The earth.

White

JAPANESE

of Planet

Venus.

Warm

colors such Masculine colors,

as red, purple, orange, etc. Cold colors such as Feminine colors. blue, pale yellow, grey, etc.

Emblem

White

of

Minamoto

clan.

Emblem of Taira clan.

Red 11


EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM Country


HERALDIC COLORS Country

ENGLISH "

Symbol

Signification

Sable or black Grief. Penitence. Argent or white or Purity. Faith. silver

" "

" " " "

Gules or red Azure or blue Vert or green Purpure or purple Tense or orange Sanguine or blood red

13

Courage. Sincerity.

Zeal.

Piety.

Hope. Youth. Rank. Endurance. Patriotism.

Sacrifice..


NUMBERS —

" Egyptian gods the ordinary student may confine himself to lie study of the divinities, important enough to have made in stone, bronze or pottery rather than those simply sketched upon the walls or mentioned in the inscriptions.

Many names

refer to the same divinity, called by different in different localities. In China there are 67 sects all teaching the Christian religion to the natives; all different, yet the same spirit. The Moslems have 99 names for Allah."

names

J?.

A

Gnostic was a existed between the

H. Blanchard.

member

of one of several sects which first and sixth centuries after Christ. They combined in their belief oriental theology, Greek philosophy and the doctrines of Christianity.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE MYSTIC NUMBER THREE Symbol

Country

Signification

MEMPHIAN

The Triad

THEBAN

Triad Godhead

(3)

Godhead

These are Ptah, Sekhet, Nefer-Tem.

Amem-Ra,

Maut,

Khonsu.

ABYDAN HINDU EAST INDIAN, CHINESE AND JAPANESE IN

GENERAL

Triad Godhead Triad Godhead Triad of Buddha

Osiris, Isis,

Horus.

Brahma, Vishnu, Siva. Personality, church, law.

The

Triscula Triskele

or

_

Which are three curves joined together, each

by one end and forming a three spoked wheel, representing fertility.

SCANDINAVIAN

Triad Godhead

Odin, Thor, Prey.

SICILIAN

The

Emblem

MANX

Trinacria or three legs joined at thighs by the

head of Medusa The three legs of Emblem the Isle of

of

City

of

Palermo.

Man

of Island.

joined at the thighs

GRECIAN

Three pointed

tri-

dent or spear

Three

sickles

Megara 14

Emblem god

of

Good

of Poseidon, of the sea.

fortune.


NUMBERS— Continued Country

ROMAN


NUMBERS—Continued Symbol

Country

GNOSTIC

Signification

The seven Greek vowels arranged in cabalistic

JAPANESE

manner to signify The Creator. Seven household Daikoku, the god of wealth.

gods

Ebisu, the

god of fish and labor. the god_ of contentment. Bishamon, the god of Fukurokuju, war. the god of longevity. Benten, the goddess Hotei,

of love.

Juro-jin,

the god of wisdom.

NUMBER EIGHT EGYPTIAN

Eight oared boat

EAST INDIAN

The

eight sacred

myths.

The Tchetetfet of the Elysian fields or Heaven. Mystery of the

faith.

Eight

elementary gods

GRECIAN

Eight gods of the

wind

Boreas of the north, Kaekias of the northeast, ApeUotes of the east, Euros of the southeast,

the south.

Notos

of

Lips of

the southwest, 2Jephyr of the west.

EAST INDIAN, The eightfold path

CHINESE

AND

of

Right

faith, right resolve, right speech, right action, right living, right effort,

Buddha

JAPAN-

ESE

right thought, right seU-concentration.

NUMBER NINE GRECIAN AND

ROMAN

Nine muses

1.

Clio as heroic

muse

of

endeavor,

history. 2.

Euterpe as Bacchanalian music; the flute.

3. 4.

Thalia as comedy. Melpomone as song

and tragedy. 18


NUMBERS—Continued Country

GRECIAN """'" AND

ROMAN

Symbol Nine muses—Con-

Signification

Terpsichore as cho-

5.

" ' tinned

and

dance

ral

song. 6.

Erato as erotic poetry and the lyre.

7.

Polyhymnia

of in-

spired music. 8.

Urania of phenomena. Calliope

9.

celestial

of

elo-

quence and epic poetry.

NUMBER TEN

ROMAN

The ten Sibyls or wise

Prophecy,

women

NUMBER TWELVE EAST INDIAN

Groups

of twelve

Twelve orders

of Der-

vishes.

JUDEAN

ROMAN

Groups of twelve Groups of twelve

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Sixteen Arhats or disciples of

Sons of Jacob. Tables of Roman law.

NUMBER SIXTEEN Nearing

Nirvana

eternal bliss.

Buddha

NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR CHINESE

The twenty-four

Filial duty.

paragons.

NUMBER FIFTY-THREE JAPANESE

Refers to the fifty-

The way

three stations on the Tokaido or highway be-

of the noble

path of the empire.

tween Ky5to and Tokio

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

NUMBER TWO IN GENERAL

As opponent prop-

Positive

and

Warp and

erties

negative. woof.

NUMBER THREE IN

GENERAL

Triad— Father, Son and Holy Godhead Ghost.

Christian

17


— NUMBER FOUR Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

The

Signification

Euphrates,

Tigris,

four rivers

Pison, Gihon.

The

four gospels

Mathew, Mark, Luke and John.

The four winged The evangelists beasts of the ceding.

pre-

Apocolypse

NUMBER IN

GENERAL

The

five

FIVE

Patri-

Alexandria,

archates of the Greek Catholic

Constan-

Antioch,.

tinople,

Jerusalem, Russia.

church

IN

GENERAL

NUMBER SIX The number repre- The

six

attributes of

Creator which are Power, Majesty,

the

sents

Wisdom, Love, Mercy, Justice.

NUMBER SEVEN IN

GENERAL

Seven

Angels of the seven churches which are Smjrma, Ephesus, Pergamus, Thyatira,

stars

Seven golden candlesticks

The number

Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea. Emblem of the seven churches preceding. Completeness.

sif

NUMBER NINE IN GENERAL

Usual form The angelic number. The nine Worthies These are of the Gen-

Hector, Alexander, Julius Caesar. Of the Jews Joshua, tiles

David, Judas Maccabeus. Of the Christians King Arthur, Char-

lemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon.

The nine fruits the Spirit

of

Love, Joy, Peace, Long-sufiEering, tleness,

Faith,

Meekness,

Temperance. 18

Gen-

Goodness,


.

NUMBER TWELVE Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

The number signifies

IN

GENERAL

Signification

The disciples of Christ. The pearls as the gates of the new Jerusalem

NUMBER TWENTY-FOUR The number The twenty-four elders of St. John's vision.

IN

GENERAL

NUMBER FORTY The number Pasting and prayer.

NUMBER EIGHT HUNDRED Am) EIGHTY-EIGHT

SIBYLLINE

Thenumbersigni- The name and nature "in 8 units and 8 hundreds " fies

8

tens

19

of Christ.


ANIMALS " The phonetic alphabets of the Phcenidans, Greeks and Romans were originally developed out of the primitive picture writing or hieroglyphics of the Egyptians. The system of an animal symbolism, which was such a prevalent feature of Christian art of the Middle Ages, was derived for the most part from an anonymous treatise on the nature of beasts, (See Ency. originally known by the name of Physiologus." Britt.) /. R. Allen, F.S.A.

—

HEBREW Asm PAGAN FORM THE LION Symbol

Country

EGYPTIAN

Natural form

Signification

Kingliness. Emblem of Sef or Yesterday and Tuau or Today.

With htmian, ani- Emblem of deities or mal or bird head kings, denoting strength.

Lion's head with globe and asp

GRECIAN U ft

ROMAN

Male

lion

Emblem

Tefnut, of goddess of rain. Majesty.

Female lion Protection. With breasts and Inscrutability. head of a woman lence. Lion's skin

Pesti-

Emblem god

of Hercules, of strength.

HEBREW

Leo

EAST INDIAN, CHINESE AND JAPANESE PERSIAN

With flaming tails Guardians of Buddha's

Zodiacal constellation denoting heat. temples.

Lion with sun

National emblem. Sun as residence of the Lion of Strength and Power.

THE TIGER CHINESE

Stars outlining Constellation of the tiger form West and Autumn. EAST fINDIAN, Natural or conven- Materiality. The CHINESE AND tional form earth. 6,

JAPANESE

ROMAN

Emblem of Bacchus as god of wine and

Tiger skin

revelry.

20


Country

EGYPTIAN

THE IBIS Symbol Signification Either full form or Emblem of Thoth, god head alone of truth, scribe of the dead.

FOXES

CHINESE JAPANESE

Natural form Mischief, cunsing. Conventional form Emblem of Inari as goddess of rice as they are her messengers.

THE LEOPARD IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Stealthiness. tional

form

THE BEAR RUSSIAN

Natural or conventional

The friend of mankind.

form

THE GOAT

HEBREW

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation form of Capricorn. SCANDINAVIAN Natural form Emblem of Thor as divine virility.

GRECIAN

Full

EAST INDIAN

Natural form

form or horns Emblem of Pan, the and legs nature god.

THE DOG (Parsee)

IN

GENERAL

Vehicle

of

departing

souls.

Natural form

Fidelity, science.

obedience,

THE CAT EGYPTIAN

Full form or head

Salacity.

Emblem

of

Bast. Life giving rays of the sun.

THE RAT CHINESE

Stars outlining rat Zodiacal constellation.

HEBREW

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation. form Conventional or Emblem of Ptah as natural form creative power.

THE BULL EGYPTIAN

with white triangle on forehead of black animal and twenty-eight other marks. 21


THE BULL—Continued Country

EAST INDIAN, CHINESE AND JAPANESE GNOSTIC

Symbol

Signification

Conventional form Reincarnation.

Natural form

Emblem

of

Ormuzd

as

creator of Ufe.

THE HORSE CHINESE

Stars outlining Zodiacal

EAST INDIAN

form White horse with The sun. flaming

RUSSIAN

constellation.

mane

Natiiral or conventional form

Emblem of marriage, as human homemaking and happiness.

ROMAN

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem

of

Castor,

patron god of horse-

men.

SCANDINAVIAN Natural or conven- Emblem of Prey as the

WELSH

tional form Gray horse

CHINESE

Conventional form Symbol of honor and

JAPANESE

Conventional form

sun's speed.

Emblem

of Satan

THE DEER success.

Emblem god

of

of

Juro-jin,

wisdom.

THE ELEPHANT EAST INDIAN

Dark colored

The incarnation

of

Indra. "

When

white

Reincarnation

of

Buddha.

DANISH

Natural form

Emblem

of

Denmark,

representing a royal traveler to the East.

THE WOLF SCANDINAVIAN Natural form

Emblem

of Odin, the.

sun god.

Twin wolves

Emblem

of Geri

and

Freki.

ROMAN

Female wolf

Emblem of Remus and

Romulus foster

as mother

their

and

the nourishing guardian of Rome. 22


THE SHEEP Country

Symbol

GRECIAN AND Lamb

ROMAN

Signification

Emblem

of Jason and Order of the Golden Fleece, sig-

skin

the

nifying the sun.

EGYPTIAN CHINESE

HEBREW

Ram's head

or full

Emblem

Mendes

of

form and of Khnemu. Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation. form of ram Natural form Zodiacal constellation of Aries.

THE CAMEL EAST INDIAN

Natural form

long suffer-

Patience, ing.

PERSIAN

Natural form

Comes home

to camp,

like poet's cares.

THE HARE CHINESE

The hare moon

in the Signifying untiring industry.

Stars outlining

Constellation.

hare

THE PIG CHINESE

Stars outlining Zodiacal form

CHINESE

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation. form Natural form Attributes of Koshin and god of roads. These are Mi-Zaru who sees no evil.

constellation.

THE MONKEY JAPANESE

Kiki-Zaru

no

who hears

evil.

Iwa-Zaru

who speaks no

evil.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM THE LION IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Christ as the Lion of the tribe of Judah. tional form

Strength.

Guar-

dianship. Emblem of St. Natalia, St.

Germanicus. 23


THE LION—Continued Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Lion with wings

Signification

Emblem of St. Mark. Cognizance, of Venice.

Aged

Emblem of St. Jerome who took thorn out

lion

Gratitude.

of foot.

THE TIGER IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Blood thirstiness. tional

form

THE WOLF IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Rapacity. tional

form

Rapine.

Hunger.

THE FOX IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Syrnbol of craft. Cuntional form ning. Intemperance.

IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven-

THE OX tional

form

Emblem of St. Luke, who wrote of the sacrificial

nature of

Christ.

THE CALF IN GENERAL

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem digal

of the ProdiSon's return.

Weaknegs.

THE HORSE IN

GENERAL

White horse

Virginity in

The

manhood.

conquering

Christian. '

Red horse

Symbol

"

Pale gray horse

Dissolution.

of war.

THE CAT IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Loveof freedom. Spite. tional

form

THE LAMB IN

GENERAL

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem

of Christ as possessing the lamb's meekness and gentleness.

"

Lamb

with banner 24

Emblem

Sacrifice.

of St. Agnes.


THE DEER Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

Four stags

Mathew, Mark, Luke and John. Emblem

Stag with Crucifix between horns

Emblem of St. Eustace

of St. Hubert.

as the zealous Christian hunting for converts.

THE GOAT IN

GENERAL

Material-

Natural or conven- Dishonor. tional

form

ity.

THE APE IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Sin. Malice. Cunning. tional

form

THE ASS IN

GENERAL

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem

of flight into

Egypt

"Holy

of

Family."

Entry

to Jerusalem.

in-

Em-

blem of St. Anthony. Humbleness.

25


FISHES Christian emblem of the fish was adopted by the early followers of Christ as a secret sign. It may be seen cut in the walls of the catacombs and doubtless served as a finger post to the sanctuary within. It was chosen in Cabalistic fashion by using the Greek word for fish which is composed of the initial letters in the following sentence of that language:

The

" Jesus Christ, Son of God,

Saviotir."

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM Country

Symbol

EGYPTIAN

The dolphin

Signification

Emblem

of Isis, wife

sun god Osiris. Hathor, goddess of beauty. A marriage emblem. of the

JAPANESE GRECIAN

Reproductiveness.

Symbol

of Aphrodite, of beauty and fectmdity. Poseideon, god of the sea. Apollo, god of the sun. The hero Ulysses as a sea

goddess

traveler.

SCANDINAVIAN

Emblem

of Fria, goddess of beauty and fecundity.

The carp

Emblem

of the boy, signifying ambition and success. The

Samurai fish because indifferent to physical suffering.

JAPANESE

The red

tai

Emblem

of Ebisu,

god

offish.

ROMAN AND

Cuttle fish

HERALDIC

Emblem

of Neptune, god of the sea.

Hippocamp or sea Healing. horse

HEBREW

Sea lion Sea dog Twin fishes

Symbol of boldness. Symbol of fidelity. The Zodiacal constellation Pisces. Emblem of February.

26


FISHES—Continued Symbol Crab

Country

HEBREW

Signification

The

constellation

Can-

Emblem

cer.

of

summer.

CHINESE

The

JAPANESE

Tortoise with flam- Longevity. ing tail

Divination because it carries mystic tablet on back.

tortoise

EARLY CHRISTIAN FORM

THE FISH IN

GENERAL

Conventional

or

natural form

Emblem fisher of

blem Fish with key in

of Christ.

(See heading.) Emblem of Peter as

men.

Emblem

of St. Benno.

mouth Fish with anchor

Hope

The whale

Symbol

37

Em-

of Tobias.

in Christ. of Jonah.


BIRDS " There are two works which bear the title of ' Edda,' the one in verse, the other in prose. The first may be considered a symbolical work of the Scandinavian mythology; the latter a kind of commentary on the first."

—

Grenville Pigott.

Edda means great-grandmother. The folklore of the Elder Edda treats of heroic deeds, superstitions and myths. The Younger Edda is a compilation of fables, metaphors and rhetorical treatises.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE EAGLE Country

Symbol

Signification

EGYPTIAN

Natural or conven- The sun ssrmbol.

ASSYRIAN

Natural or conven-

tional tional

ANCIENT

HEBREW

GRECIAN

form

Emblem

of Nisroch.

form

Natural or conven- The divine tional

spirit.

form

With thunderbolt

Vigilance.

Majesty.

in claw

PHRYGIAN

Double headed

Double

ROMAN

Natural or conven-

Emblem

tional

form

vision.

chief

The

of Jupiter, of the gods.

Roman

Le-

gions.

GRECIAN

In connection with Symbol df abduction. Ganymede, the cup bearer of

CHINESE

Natural or conven- Sovereignty.

JAPANESE

tional form White eagle

Zeus

Emblem

of Jimmu Tenno, the first emperor. Divine right of kings.

THE PHCENK EGYPTIAN

Bennu, a bird believed

from

to its

Immortality.

rise

own

ashes

PERSIAN

Semorg, bird with Prosperity.

head of a woman 28

Mahomet.

Vehicle of


THE PH(ENIX—Continued Symbol

Country

CHINESE

Signification

Feng Wang, which Zodiacal

constellation Apof the South. pears before a proEmpitious reign. blem of summer.

peacock and half pheasis half

ant

JAPANESE

Ho Ho. Half Emblem pheasant and half peacock

the

of

Em-

press.

THUNDER BIRDS PERUVIAN PERSIAN SABINE RUSSIAN FINNISH

Probably wood-

Presage of storm.

peckers \ /

Guardian of

THE STORK CHINESE AND Natural or conven- Longevity. tional form JAPANESE Emblem The cormorant JAPANESE

treasures.

of Kushi-

yatama-no-kami, deity

of

the

eight

oflferings.

THE HAWK EGYPTIAN

Full form or

EGYPTIAN

Full

EAST INDIAN

Natural or conven- Scavenger of the earth,

head

Emblem

of Horus, son of Osiris, as keenvisioned.

THE VULTURE form or head

tional

Emblem

of Mut, goddess of the South and the North.

form

THE GOOSE SCANDINAVIAN Natural or conven- Emblem

of Freya, the

ROMAN

form northern Venus. Natural or conven- Emblem of Juno, as it cackles the sunrise tional form

JAPANESE

Wild geese flying

CHINESE

Stars outlining Zodiacal form

tional

for her.

Manhood.

THE COCK constellation.


THE COCK—Continued Country

CHINESE

Symbol

Signification

When on a drum

Symbol

peace

of

drum shows

as

disuse.

Cock's comb and Bravery, prosperity. pheasant's plume together

JAPANESE

When

on

torii

or

Emblem of Amaterasu, as

gate

it

crows the sun-

rise for her.

THE DUCK JAPANESE

Pair of Mandarin

Conjugal affection as they live and die in

ducks

pairs.

THE RAVEN ASSYRIAN

Natural or conven- Messenger of the gods,

form " "

tional

SCANDINAVIAN

ROMAN

Emblem of Woden. Emblem of Apollo.

THE OWL EGYPTIAN JAPANESE

Full form or head Emblem of Amem-Ra. Natural or conven- Filial ingratitude. tional

form

WELSH

"

GRECIAN

"

Emblem

of Blodeuwedd, the unfaithful. Emblem of Pallas Athena as goddess of wisdom.

THE CUCKOO FINNISH

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem

of

Aino.

Desolation.

Tears.

THE SWAN GRECIAN

Natural or conven-

form "

tional

ROMAN

Emblem

of Aphrodite, goddess of beauty. Emblem of Venus, goddess of beauty.

Leda, mother

of

Helen.

THE DOVE GRECIAN

Natural or conventional

form

Emblem

of

prophetic

gers.

Dodona as messen-

Emblem

of

Aphrodite as her aerial steeds.

Turtle dove 30

Constancy.


EARLY CHRISTIAN AltD MODERN FORM THE EAGLE Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

Signification

Natural or conventional

Emblem

of St. John the Revelator as

fonn

having

perfect

vi-

Theology. Emblem of U. S. A.

sion.

as signifying eternal vigilance. *

Emblem of Holy Roman Empire, Flan-

Double headed

ders, Austro - Htmgary and Russia. "

Young eagles ing upward

*

Eagleplimginginto Regeneration by bapwater to renew tism. youth

fly-

The

Ascension.

THE DOVE IN

GENERAL

Single, usually fly-

Holy Ghost, or [Spirit.

ing

Peace.

Moving over waters The

creation.

Shedding rays of Spiritual blessing. light

Perched on

Inspiration,

shoulder

A

pair

of

at Presentation in the Temple.

turtle Offering

doves

Palm branch

in Victory over death.

beak

On

each side of a The Eucharist. cup With serpent's tail Combination of

wis-

dom and peace. With olive branch Signifying the

deluge.

THE RAVEN IN

GENERAL

With bread in beak Emblem

of Elijah. St.

Benedict. "

Natural or conventional

Melancholy.

Stub-

bomness.

form

THE SWALLOW IN

GENERAL

Natural form 31

Emblem

of

summer.


THE SPARROW Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

The traveler. Vandal-

Natural fonn

ism.

THE NIGHTINGALE

GENERAL

Natural form

IN GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

Harmony.

Exclusive-

THE THRUSH Melodiousness.

THE WREN Modesty.

THE STORK The bearer

of the

new

born.

THE SWAN IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Solitude. tional

form

Emblem

St. Hubert coln.

of of Lin-

THE COCK IN

GENERAL

Natural or conventional

Emblem

form

of Peter,

denied his Lord.

THE PARTRIDGE IN

GENERAL

Natural form

32

Parental affection.

who


INSECTS FICTITIOUS The scarab

AND NATURAL

a model in pottery or stone of the sacred beetle of the Egyptians. It has been rightly named " A portable historic document," for the flat side of each scarab is engraved with signs, which, when translated, give the history of the owner. These personal seals were buried with tile mummy after decease. As many as three hundred scarabs have been found on one royal mummy. They ceased to be used in 600 B. C. is

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM

:

THE BEETLE Country

EGYPTIAN

Symbol Stone or pottery

Signification 1.

model known as the scarab, inscribed to

Signify

cal

mythologideities or

events. 2.

Names and ranks of historic personages.

3.

Names and

of animals plants.

4.

Funeral

5.

Amulets to protect

6.

Signature or

7.

mark. Bearing quotations from the Book of

signs.

wearers.

the

official

Dead and

placed

in the heart cavity of the mummy.

THE LOCUST

JUDEAN

Natural form

CHINESE

Natural or conven- Contentment.

Scourge.

Appetite.

THE BAT tional

form

Happi-

ness.

Wealth, longevity,

Five bats

health, love of virtue, peaceful end.

THE SCORPION

HEBREW

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation. Emblem of October. form 83


THE CHAMELEON Country

IN GENERAL

Symbol Natural fonn

Signification

Changeableness.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM THE BEE IN

GENERAL

Nattiral or conven- Industry. tional form Emblem

Diligence. of Napo-

leon and Beethoven.

THE ANT IN

GENERAL

Nattiral

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN GENERAL

Natural form

form

Conmiunity

spirit.

THE FLY Pestilence.

THE GNAT Torment.

Irritation.

Patience.

Subtility.

THE SPIDER IN

GENERAL

When

weaving

Emblem

of Arachn^.

THE SNAIL IN GENERAL

Natural form

JAPANESE

Natural form

Fruitfulness.

FIREFLIES Ghosts of riors.

34

slain

war-


THE SERPENT " Symbolism was the essence of the genius of fhe Egyptian nation."- -Lenormant. Ophites

—

^A

who

Gnostic sect

believed that the serpent of Divine Wis-

Garden of Eden was the impersonation dom and the Teacher of Men.

in the

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE COBRA Country

Symbol

EGYPTIAN

With head

Signification

erect, Sovereignty. ringed skin and tive power

swelling throat

EAST INDIAN

Seven headed

EGYPTIAN

Head

Generaof

the

sun.

Emblem

of

Naga.

THE ASP erect, short Royalty. Divine good-

thick

ness and irdmor-

body

tality.

THE COLUBER EGYPTIAN

Long body and

Destroyer of souls.

head in horizontal position.

THE SERPENT CHINESE

GRECIAN AND

ROMAN

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation. form Fertility. Twin serpents, Emblem of ^sculapius coiled

about a

wand,

GRECIAN AND

ROMAN

founder of medicine.

with

Symbol of Hermes and Mercury. heads erect Twined as curls Emblem of the Gorgon about a face with Medusa, whose hair staring eyes was changed to serpents.

GRECIAN

Coiled on shield of Athena or at her feet

Emblem

of her foster

Eriectbonios, whom as a child she kept in a chest with son,

the serpent of wis-

dom.

POMPEIAN

Natural or conven- Household gods (Lares and Penates), gods tional form of fertility. 35


THE SERPENT— Continued Country

MEXICAN

Symbol Feathered serpent

Signification

Emblem

of QuetzalAztec, "Fair god." Patron of laworder and agriculcoatl,

ture.

SCANDINAVIAN

Serpent with in its

JUDEAN

tail

The

Universe.

mouth,

forming a circle (JSrmungund). Brazen serpent of Healing. Moses' tune

THE ADDER

JUDEAN

With one ear to the Prudence. ground and stopping other ear wiVi her tail

THE SALAMANDER

FRENCH

Allied to the lizard and frog

HERALDIC

Crested head, erect Cruelty. and piercing eyes

Emblem of Francis the first. Immune to fire.

THE BASILISK Mesmerism.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM THE SERPENT IN

GENERAL

Natural or conven- Evil overcome by good tional

form

Crawling on ground Sin.

Subtility.

With Adam and Knowledge Eve

ELIZABETHAN Head

and erect

OPHITES

Natural form

IN GENERAL

Natural form

Human

good

wisdom.

Emblem

of Christ as perfect widsom.

THE CROCODILE

36

of

evil.

Dissimulation.


FABULOUS CREATURES " With savages, most religions sprang from a desire to propitiate by worship those powers from whom they feared that some injury may be done." Fergusson. Among the descendants of Shem, son of Noah, were the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Arabians and Hebrews, but the

—

were the only people among those tribes who believed in one God and no lesser deities. Therefore their ritual was less incumbered by fabulous creatures than any of the others. latter

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE DRAGON Country

Symbol

Signification

CHINESE AND Serpent's bulging JAPANESE

body, Imperial guardian of eyes, the air. Bearer of homed head and the imperial dead to five claws, in Paradise. clouds and generally pursuing the ball of wis-

dom In water or rising Imperial guardian of above streams, the waters. with above form Threading swamps Imperial guardian of the marshes. or near fields When showing only Dragon of the common people, representing three claws increasing

prosper-

ity.

CHINESE JAPANESE

Stars outlining Zodiacal constellation form of the East. Chinese form with Spiritual guardian of eyes gazing up-

the faith.

ward

The same

with Earthly guardian the faith.

of

eyes gazing downward

EAST INDIAN

ROMAN

Guardian of the faith. Usual form Dragon chained to Symbol of Perseus and Andromeda. a rock

HERALDIC

Hydra

or

seven

Terror.

Destruction.

headed dragon

Winged dragons Guardianship. facing arms 37


THE SPHINX Symbol

Country

EGYPTIAN

Body

Signification

and Strength and

of lion

human head Body

intelli-

gence.

of lion with

Emblem

Horus as

of

guardian of the body

hawk's head

of Osiris.

Body

of lion with

Emblem

ram's head

GRECIAN

Body of lion, breast and head

Khnemu,

of

the maker of stars. of

Secrecy.

Pestilence.

a

woman

PERSIAN

Andro-Sphinx Bird's body, man's Emblem of the Magian legs and scorGenius of Prophecy. pion's tail

THE CENTADR GRECIAN

A

HEBREW

A

GRECIAN

Head and breast of Torment.

horse's body Brute force. with a man's shoulders, arms and head horse's body Zodiacal constellation with a man's known as Sagittarshoulders, arms ius, the archer. and head

THE HARPY a woman, body of a vulture

Voracious

appetite.

THE SIREN IN

GENERAL

Half woman, half Allurement.

ROMAN

.

Entan-

glement. Dangerous affection.

fish

Circe, who changed Baleful attraction. captives into Sorcery,

beasts

THE GRIFFIN GRECIAN IN

GENERAL

Lion's body, eagle or vulture head

Emblem

of Alexander

the Great.

Lion's body, eagle Invincibility. or vulture head

THE UNICORN CHINESE

Chilin.

Body

of Prosperity.

antelope with single

horn 38

Peace,


THE UNICORN—Continued Symbol

Country

JAPANESE

The

Signification

of deer with single horn

MOHAMMEDAN

Radiant

Body Virtue.

Kirin.

beauty.

Body

of antelope Chastity. with single horn

EARLY CHRISTIAN Am) MODERN FORM

THE DRAGON IN

GENERAL

Resembling Chi- Emblem of St. Minese form and chael. St. George. depicted under Evil crushed to earth. foot

When

chained

Emblem

of St.

John

of

Rheims.

With a

Emblem

staff

of St.

Mar-

garet.

When winged

Emblem vester.

IN

GENERAL

"The great red

IN

GENERAL

Body

dragon "

Lust,

THE UNICORN

AND

HERALDIC

of a horse, Chastity. tail of a lion, hoofs of a stag,

central

long

horn, protruding

outward

3S

of

St.

Syl-


—

ANGELIC PERSONAGES " Knowledge of Christian symbolism is requisite for those who study ancient illuminations, sculptures, stained glass and other decorative arts. It is absolutely necessary for the architect and student of mediaeval architecture to have a thorough acquaintance with the art which guided its early masters." W. and G. Audsley.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM ANGELS Country

JUDEAN

Symbol

Signification

Michael, Gabriel, Celestial Service. Suriel, Raphael,

Tauthaboth, Eratooth.

EGYPTIAN

AND

ASSYRIAN EAST INDIAN

The good Genii

Celestial

service.

Bearers of water for the tree of Life.

The

Vedic. Charmers

of the blest.

Apsaris.

BUDDHISTIC

MOHAMMEDAN

AsB8dhisatvas and Rakan

Sanctified

service

of

once mortals. Houri, dark-eyed In the service of the maidens; beblest. saints,

ings which have never been mortals

ARCHANGELS Michael Gabriel

Conductor. Recording Angel. Herald of the Resur-

Asrafil Israfel

rection.

SCANDINAVIAN

"

Valkyria

Ministering angels of ValhaUa or Hall of the Blest. Attendants of Odin.

The Nomies

Bearers of sacred water to Yggdrasil.

CHINESE

The seven wor- Knowledge thies

"

of

happi-

ness.

The Genii who live Rulers of upon air and ride to heaven on the back of a dragon 40

spirits.


EAKLY CHRISTIAN FORM

THE OTNE CHOIRS WHICH ARE Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Signification

Archangels Angels

Cherubim Seraphim Thrones Dominions

7.

Virtues

8.

Powers

Celestial ministry.

9. Principalities

THE ARCHANGELS—PRIMARY 1.

Michael, Cap- Divine likeness. tain of the host

2. Gabriel, annun-

ciation

and Divine

power,

resurrection 3. Uriel,

4.

leader of

Seraphim Raphael

Divine

light.

Divine restorer.

SECONDARY 6.

Zophiel Zadkiel

7.

Hamiel

8. 9.

Camiel

6.

Leaders of choirs.

ZaphMel

The Seraphim are Guardians represented by Throne.

of the

heads,

infants'

surrounded six wings: two upper two lower

by the

and are

crossed

The Cherubim are represented by

Signify adoration protection.

and

infants' heads

between two wings Angels bearing The Dominion of God. sceptres

Angels bearing Felicity in Heaven. musical instru-

ments Angels bearing The voice of Deity. trumpets 41


Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Signification Angels with cen- Prayers. sers

*

Angels with gar- In the active service of

'

Angels without Heavenly

ments belted

Deity. service only.

sandals "

Cloud or

circle of Spiritual ecstasy.

angels "

Loving thoughts.

Angels

42


THE HALO AND THE CROWN " Mithraic (early Persian) bas-reliefs cut on the faces of

on stone tablets, abound in the countries formerly the Western Provinces of the Holy Roman Empire, exist in Germany, still more in France and in England, on the line of the Picts (early tribe) wall and the noted ones at Bath. Insomuch as Bel, the Semitic sun god, was the great divinity of the Druids, it is easy to see what a ready acceptance the worship of his more refined Persian equivalent (Mithra) would find among Celtic races when once introduced by the rocks, or

Roman

troops and colonists,

HEBREW Country

EAST INDIAN, JAPANESE

AND

many

of

whom were Orientals." —C. W.King, M.A.

AKTO PAGAN FORM THE HALO

Symbol

Signification

Circular or trefoil, whether plain or

The

triad god. The sun's rays. Sanctity.

decorated

CHINESE

JUDEAN

Two rayed

halo of Truth and Justice.

Moses, appearing also as horns

THE CROWN EGYPTIAN

When composed of Emblem solar

disk and

two

falcon

of Theban, sun god. Amem-Ra.

feathers "

Disk with goat Emblem of Isis, signifying life and strength. homs

"

White crown shaped

like

Crown of upper Egypt.

a

cone

Red crown shaped Crown a band with a peak

like

of lower

Egypt,

generally worn by Neith, as goddess of

hunting and weaving.

Red and white Double crown crown, together; one within the other

of

generally worn by Mut, the Egypt,

Theban divine mother, as well as other chief gods.

u


— THE CROWN— Continued Country

EGYPTIAN "

Signification Symbol Shuticrownof ten Signifies power to divide the heavens double ostrich and enter therein. plumes Atef crown com- Generally worn by Thoth as master of posed of asps,

horns and

law.

plumes, circling the white crown of upper Egypt

THE WREATH GRECIAN AND When of cypress Symbol of Pluto, Chief

ROMAN "

of Hades.

leaves

Whenofoak leaves Symbol

of

Jupiter,

Zeus or as the

father god. "

When

of

pine Symbol

of

Pan

as

Nature's king. When of laurel Symbol of Apollo and leaves the Muse Clio. When of willow Symbol of Hera as a part of her residence leaves leaves

*

*

tree. "

When

of

myrtle Symbol

of the bride.

leaves

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

THE HALO IN

GENERAL

Known as the Nunbus when circUng the head only

*

As Aureola, when circling

"

Sanctification.

head

and shoulders as the Glory, when circling entire

Known figure

THE NIMBUS IN

GENERAL

When circular and Emblem

of the First

plain or with

Person of the Trin-

three rays or with the Greek

ity.

letters

lAm

O Q N 44


THE NIMBUS— Continued Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

When

Signification

bearing Second

Greek cross or

Person of the

Trinity.

Lamb *

When

or rays square

Symbol

of distinction

only.

THE CROWN IN

GENERAL

Symbol of the Virgin Mary.

Usual form

"

AKHien at feet of Signifying noble birth. Saints

"

When worn on the Emblem head

"

When

held in the Symbol of the Virtues,

right

When

royal

of

birth.

hand

of thorns

Emblem

of the cruci-

fixion.

The Delphic

Sibyl, who prophesied the suffering of

the Saviour.

THE CORONA IN

GENERAL

Crown

of lights The Resurrection. used in churches on special occasions

IN

THE GARLAND OR CHAPLET The crown GENERAL As a circlet Wreath "

When used

as a continuous

motif

in

of beauty. of poetry.

Exuberance Joy.

of

life.

Mirth.

deco-

ration

THE MITRE IN

GENERAL

The two pomts of a The Old and bishop's crown or mitre, which is usually of cloth

New

Testaments.

studded with gems

DUCAL CROWN

ENGLISH

Designed in straw- Companionship with berry leaves 43

royalty.


THE CROSS AND THE

MONOGRAM "

By

these outward fonns early Christians were inspired with feelings of devotion and love and in the absence of books derived from them their chief knowledge of objects made sacred by usage. To the unlearned they spoke a clear and intelligible language; that they were full of poetry, no one who will endeavor to interpret them can doubt." Louisa Twining.

—

" The cross, the

priestly robes

anterior to the Christian era

and symbols are

by thousands

all

of years." —Alexander Wilder, M.D.

HEBREW AND PAGAW


THE CROSS—Continued Country

Symbol

ROMAN

Signification

Sign of omission (as when placed upon houses where child was to be spared during the Massacre of the Innocents.) Emblem of Hellespon-

"

tine Sibyl.

CRUX ANSATA OR KEY OF LIFE

ANKH EGYPTIAN

The tau surmounted by

Immortality.

Eternal

life.

circle of eternity in elliptical form

9

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

The original or tree "The accursed

tree."

Humiliation.

cross

THE CROSS IN

GENERAL

With equal arms

+

Greek cross color

of red

Christianity. Greek cross.

Symbol

of crucians.

plars.

Society. 47

the

The

Rosi-

The TemRed Cross


THE CROSS—Continued Country

IN GENERAL

Symbol

With

Signification

arm The

vertical

extended above horizontal

Crucifixion.

arm

t t

With double hori- Emblem bishop. zontal arms

With

triple

zontal

ENGLISH

The

Latin cross.

hori-

Emblem

of

an arch-

of the Pope,

arms

f X

In form of letter X Martyrdom.

The^ sal-

tire or St.

Andrew's

cross (as this saint

was

of four

Known

hammer-like

bury

Composed crosses

^ 48

martyred

on

this form.)

as the Cantercross,


THE CROSS—Continued Symbol

Country

RUSSIAN

with one half of St.

Andrew's

cross strapped across lower portion of upright

IN

GENERAL

Signification

The Latin cross Emblem St.

of Christ

and

Andrew, the

first

Christian missionary to Russia. The Slavonic cross.

Of equal arms Emblem

shaped like fishes' tails

FreeThe eight Beatitudes. The of

masons.

Maltese cross.

m

The Latin cross

with vertical arm pointed at base in order to fix in the ground

Signifying the Soldiers of the Cross. The Crusaders' cross.

Either Greek or Heraldic Latin cross with three balls at end of

arms

+ 40

cross

Batonn^.

called


THE CROSS— Continued Symbol

Country

IN GENERAL

Signification

Either Greek or Heraldic device called Latin form with Pommâ‚Ź. one ball or apple at the ends

+

Composed

of four Heraldic device called cross potent.

tau crosses

ffl Composed of cross Known as the Jem-

potent and

salem cross.

Greek cross

^ +

Either Greek or Heraldic device called Latin form with cross Fleur^. three leaves at point

CELTIC

Latin

cross with Immortality.

circle of eternity

t 50


THE CROSS— Continued Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

Latin cross worn on the breast

Signification

The

Pectoral cross.

*

Latin cross placed Pilgrims' prayers. at wayside or well

"

Latin cross made with receptacle in centre to hold sacred bread

The Monstrance,

Latin cross with receptacle to hold

The Reliquary, Sacred

*

sig-

nifying the Eucharist or Communion.

Memories.

relics of saints *

Latin cross afSzed to

The Rood cross.

Faith.

a loft or beam

or screen

ENGLISH

Public crosses

The heart

*

Roadside crosses

Right of sanctuary.

*

Boundary crosses Limited

*

Memorial crosses Sacred ground.

*

Preaching crosses Age of

*

Grave crosses

of the town.

rights.

faith.

Immortality Christ.

*

The

processional Jurisdiction.

cross

when

borne before a bishop

51

through


TWO MONOGRAMS Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbols

The

letter

P

Signification

com-

of

the

The

cross

bined with letter

Saviour.

X or the first two

Constantine or the portentious sign which he saw in the heavens. The precious sign or portent.

letters of the

Greek word

for

Christ

I.

Monogram

H.

Âą S. Initials of

sentence "Jesus

Homenum

Sal-

vator" (Jesus Saviour of men)

62

of

Monogram of the Saviour. The Precious Emblem.


DEMONS, SATYRS AND

NYMPHS "A

lover of the Bible is a philosopher of the highest class: for that word by its derivation signifies a lover of wisdom, from the Greek word ' phUos,' lover, and ' sophia,' wisdom. From these premises it is clear that a desire to relegate to the limbo of imtaught ' questions ' any branch of the religious study, finds no support from the Scriptures. The word devil occurs more than fifty times in the New Testament. The Cinghalese religion consists almost entirely of devil worship. In Ceylon, the fear of the devil is allowed full scope. In Christendom, iSie fear certainly exists and perhaps a certain degree of reverence, but the form of worship is lacking. This implies indirect or negative worship."

—E. Tiirney.

HEBREW

Ain>

PAGAN FORM


DEMONS—Continued Symbol

Country

Signification

SCANDINAVIAN Erictho

Sorcery in the forest.

The Galdrankinna

fairs of

CHINESE

with afthe heart.

Interference

With man's form Evil

influence.

though abnormal

Emma

JAPANESE

o, chief of

ten devils

Regent of Hades and demoniacal scribe.

in

Hades Oni or attendant False

leaders.

such as bewitched foxes and badgers devils,

The Tengu, long Demoniacal swordsnosed goblins manship.

ORKNEY

The Skow

ISLANDS ENGLISH AND IRISH

or devil Kidnapper of churchgoers.

Will-o-the-Wisp Jack-o-Lantheni

ENGLISH AND The Banshee

False lights that lure the unwary.

Messenger of fatalities.

IRISH

ENGLISH AND The Elves (evil)

Sylvan

IRISH

GERMAN

mischief-

makers.

Wicked

elves

and Glee

in mischief.

Gnomes

SCOTTISH

Haxa, the druidess The

Sorceress.

SATYRS AND FAUNS

GRECIAN

Man's body, goat's horns, tail and

Lasciviousness.

Rev-

elry.

hoofs

SCOTTISH

Ourisk or the Highland satyr

GREEK AND

Feminine wood

Freebooting.

NYMPHS

ROMAN

creatures, consorts of satyrs

si

License;

lawlessness;

the light-footed; beautiful

but soul-


EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

DEMONS Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Mehistopheles Prince of Darkness

Signification

Ferocity, Sorcery,

Lucifer

Lust, Lunacy, Tyr-

Satan Adversary

anny, Egotism, Rebellion, Deceit.

The Wicked One "

Beelzebub A devil. Judas

Disloyalty.

Iscariot

(John 6:70) "

"

"

The Possessed

Necromancy. (Luke 9:39) The son of the devil Heritage. (John 8:44) The demon cup as The cup of sorcery. defined (1 Cor. 10:21)

WITCHES IN

GENERAL

The witch of Endor Phantasy, for evU.

6S

Foresight


—

GEOMETRICAL FORMS " Every ornament to deserve the name, must posse,ss an appropriate meaning and be introduced witii an intelligent purpose. The symbolic association of each ornament must be understood; otiierwise things beautiful in themselves will be rendered absurd by their application." A. W. Pugin.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE CIRCLE Symbol

Country

EGYPTIAN

Signification

Whenrepresentmg Eternity. the sun or

moon

When placed

on a Sacred bread used as

dish

ASSYRIAN

altar offerings.

When winged and

Immortality.

enclosing figure

ofAssur,thesun god

EAST INDIAN

Three circles joined together

SCANDINAVIAN

Circle

with one

dot in the cen-

Signify Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the preserver and Siva the destroyer.

Emblem

of Preya, goddess of beauty.

ter

With three dots Symbol in the center

EGYPTIAN

As

solid circle or

globe with wings of

aspiration,

horns of strength

ROMAN

and serpents of wisdom Full formorcrescent

MOHAMMEDAN

Crescent and star

of

the triad

god.

Emblem

of Osiris, the

sun god and Judge of the Dead, Antidote to evil.

Emblem

of Diana, goddess of himting.

Emblem

of the faith.

National arms of Turkish Empire.

THE WHEEL EGYPTIAN

Natural or conven- The sun.

BUDDHISTIC

The Chakra

tional

form

Wheel

of

prayer, 56

law and


THE SQUARE Symbol Usual form

Country

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Signification

The

earth.

When placed with- Heaven and earth. in a circle

Usual fonn CHALDEAN AND JUDEAN

ROMAN

When

The

perfect plan.

referring

the

toEmblern

Roman

Quadrata or ancient symbol

city

form or

of ancient

which was

builded square.

stone

MOHAMMEDAN

Whenreferringto

Emblem of the faith.

the Caaba or sacred square stone and temp 1 e of the

Prophet

at

Mecca.

LINE

CHINESE AND When vertical JAPANESE

Signifies the

masculine

in nature.

When

horizontal Signifies the feminine in nature. or curved

EGYPTIAN

Zigzag

Water. The Nile river.

NORMAN

Zig zag

Life's course.

HERALDIC

When

invected or Land.

ingrailed (scalloped)

EGYPTIAN,

Meandering

GRECIAN AND

ROMAN

lines Continuity of

life.

suchastheDoric fret, etc.

CHINESE AND When used chain JAPANESE

as a Continuity of

Ogee or double Balance and

life.

support.

cturved line

IN

GENERAL

When

in the form of a labyrinth

Emblem

of

mystical

ancient grove or

woodland. cial

EGYPTIAN SCANDINAVIAN

Sacrifi-

temple.

THE TRIANGLE When used as em- Signifies

intelligence,

matter and cosmos. blem of Osiris, Isis and Horus Emblem of the triad Usual form god. 57


THE TRIANGLE—Continued Symbol

Country

EAST INDIAN

Signification

When pointing up- Emblem of Siva as god ward

of

fire.

When

pointing Emblem of Vishnu as downward god of water. Both forms inter- Creation of fire and secting

JUDEAN

water.

With unequal sides The Almighty. and two Hebrew letters of

Jeho-

vah's name. "

Double and

inter-

secting

The seal of Solomon. The positive and negative

attributes of creation.

THE RECTANGLE EGYPTIAN,

Whenusedasbase Sacred form

GRECIAN AND MEXICAN

for

tombs and

of

the

faith.

altars.

THE PENTAGON IN GENERAL

When

used as a Divination.

pentagram five

or sided object

andthepentacle or five pointed star

THE HEPTAGON EAST INDIAN

A

figure of seven Brahma's palace or sides and seven the divine abode. angles, as

THE OCTAGON CHINESE

A

figure of eight sides and eight angles, containing the eight trigrams or mystical

The path

of

life,

^

lines intro-

duced by an ancient sage, and the design

known Pakwa

JAPANESE

as

Usual form

l£e

Emblem

of heaven's palace of eight sides. Residence of goddess on Fuji mountain.

58


EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

THE CIRCLE Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Usual form

Signification

Eternity. Masonic

boundary

line of

duty.

When above head Sanctity. In crescent form Dominion, when beneath feet of Virgin

THE SQUARE IN GENERAL

A

The

of four sides and four angles

figure

Honesty. Eternity of Ufe.

When placed within

a

The Jerusalem,

Christian.

New

circle

KNOTS AND ENLACEMENTS (When

EARLY CELTS JUDEAN ÂŤ ITALIAN

endless)

Love of God. Runic knot Wisdom. Solomon's knot True lover's knot Fidelity. Enlacement in any Emblem of the Comancine builders. form

The joy of

Christian

living.

THE HEXAGON IN

GENERAL

A

figure with six six

The

attributes of the Creator.

sides and angles

THE HEPTAGON IN GENERAL

A

figure of seven

The seven

sides and seven angles

churches.

Seven angels. Seven k.mps. Seven seals.

THE OCTAGON IN

GENERAL

A

Regenerafigure of eight Baptism. tion. (Creation in sides and eight

seven days, the

angles

eighth

represents

recreation.)

THE DECAGON IN

GENERAL

A

figure of ten Signifying the Disciples, omitting Peter and ten and Judas, the one who denied and the one who betrayed.

sides angles

59


THE DODECAGON Country

Symbol

Signification

IN

GENERAL

A figure

IN

GENERAL

When winged and Symbol

of twelve Signifying the twelve sides and twelve Disciples.

THE WHEEL of fire and with eyes in wings

60

of the thrones or one of the choirs of angels.


ARCHITECTURAL FORMS History informs us that one of the ancient symbols of the Universe was a cave. The Zoroastrian sect in Persia were among the people who painted upon these caves emblems of natwre's forces.

The Ammonites were worshipers

of Jupiter in Libya.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE MENHIR AND DOLMEN Symbol

Country

DRUIDICAL

Signification

Upright stones Sun

JUDEAN

raised as altars

altars.

Emblem

of Jacob who raised altar stone to

the one God.

The

Beth-el.

THE COLUMN OR PILLAR EGYPTIAN

Column with

lotus

Emblem

of the faith.

or papyrus capital

"

When

signifying

Emblem of Nut, Neith,

heaven

the sky goddess, as

pillars of

GRECIAN

representing her arms and limbs. The Doric column. Signifies primitive

A

coltmm with

plain

force.

cushion

covered by an abacus or square tablet for its capital "

The

Ionic column. Signifying the influcolumn with ence of education upon primitiveforce. four volutes for

A

its capital

"

The Corinthian

Signifying the begin-

column. A column with acanthus leaves and

ning of degeneracy

volutes

in primitive force.

for its

capital

IN

GENERAL

A column used singly as

monument any

style 61

a in

Disti'nction minion.

Do-


THE COLUMN OR PILLAR—Continued Symbol used as a gondola hitcliing post and deco-

Country

VENETIAN

When

Signification

Emblem of distinction.

rated with coat of arms belonging to family owning the post

When striped with Emblem of the barber, who, in ancient times was a surgeon

red and white

and used this sign of a bandaged limb.

THE GATE EGYPTIAN

The Pylon

Entrance to the sanctuary.

Barriers to

evil.

JAPANESE

Torii or perch for

the fowl which announced the sunrise

IN GENERAL

In various forms

Emblem of Amaterasu the sun goddess. Emblem of Inari, the goddess of

rice.

Safety.

Protection.

Commerce,

Judicial

assembly.

THE ARCH PERSIAN AND PICTISH

ROMAN

In temples or on

The

tomb sculptures Used singly as a

Victory.

arch of the sun.

Dominion.

monument Employed in build-

Hospitality.

ings

THE PAVEMENT

JUDEAN

The palace floor of Emblem of the sea.

ROMAN AND

Solomon Mosaic floors in The movement and churches and color of the sea.

VENETIAN

palaces

THE DOME AND CENTRE IN GENERAL

EARLY PERSIAN

The dome The Omphalos

or

naveL (The origin of the dome.)

EAST INDIAN

Vedic omphalos

The canopy of heaven. The centre of the earth. Iran.

SymboliOf

Signifying Yama, dwelling on the centre of the earth.

62


THE DOME AND CENTRE— Continued Country

Symbol Signification Centre of dweUing Stability. or hearth Centre or apex, the Emblem of Shung-ti, single stone of the chief of all the thestepped temgods.

GRECIAN AND ARABIAN CHINESE

ple

MOKI INDIAN

The Bowl.

(Architectural form.)

Emblem

of the of heaven.

dome

ROOF AND CEILING IN

GENERAL

Usual form of roof

Canopy

heaven.

of

Protection. Safety. Hospitality.

EGYPTIAN

Decoration of ceil- The elements. ings.

Whenrep-

resenting figure of goddess

Nut

or the sky bend-

ing over the earth god Seb

and

supported

by the

air

god

Shu

STEPS OR STAIRS

CHALDEAN,

When

CHINESE,

erected singly or in

JAPANESE

groups

AND

Signifying rising stages of

mankind toward

heaven

or

highest

place.

MEXICAN THE WALL

IN

GENERAL

Single or double

Barrier. Safety. Prosperity. Distinction.

THE BRIDGE CHINESE AND JAPANESE *

MOHAMMEDAN

In any form

The way

of the gods.

When bowed

Bridge of heaven or rainbow. When of a hair's Bridge of Paradise which only the breadth righteous to cross. 63

are

able


THE TOWER Country

EGYPTIAN

Signification Symbol Tat or measuring The steps to heaven. tower of the Nile.

Nilometer.

FEUDAL EUROPEAN

Tall, slender

and Protection of the church treasures.

windowless at base generally

Watching.

THE PYRAMIB EGYPTIAN

Monumental buri- Fire of the gods. Residence of the al places of kings dead.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM THE COLUMN IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Aspiration

of the

Christian. The morally strong. The Straightforward.

THE ARCH IN GENERAL

Usual form

The beneficence of God. The hospitality of Christian faith.

THE DOME IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Love

RUSSIAN

Cluster of five domes

Signifying the Metropolitan and his four bishops.

ENGLISH

The Western Door Emblem

of

God.

THE DOOR Church When open

of Christ.

of

IN

GENERAL

Emblem

of

welcome.

Generosity.

IN

GENERAL

THE GATE When golden or

"

Signifies

entrance

to

entrance

to

heaven.

pearly

When of brass

Signifies

Hades.

IN

THE TOWER OR STEEPLE GENERAL Usual form Purity.

Aspiration.

Emblem of St. Barbara who was called the "Ivory tower of purity." 64


STEPS OR STAIRS Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Usual fonn

Signification

Pilgrimage. Pathway of the seeker after spiritual knowledge.

GARGOYLES IN

GENERAL

When represented by grotesque forms

Evil spirits kept on the outside of the church. Scare devils to ward oflE evil spirits.

DIVISIONS (Early Christian Churches)

IN

GENERAL

The bema or centre The Holy

of Holies or

Heaven. "

The chorus or ap- Holy place proach to the tion.

"

The narthex

Sanctity.

or proba-

centre or Penitence.

porch to the temple to

commem-

orate

porch

of

Solomon's temple

65

Approach,


MILITARY EMBLEMS " The decorative beauty of heraldry, far from being that of form and color alone was always an imagmative one depending much on the symbolic meaning of its designs."

—G. W.

HEBREW

Airo PAGAN FORM THE SPEAR OR LANCE

Country

Eve.


THE WINGED HELMET Country

Symbol

Signification

ROMAN, SCANDINAVIAN

The messenger.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

THE SWORD IN

GENERAL

Divine wrath. Emblem of Zophiel. Angel of the garden of Eden. Symbol of St. Paul as

Flaming sword

*

Usual form

*

When

"

When

the Christian soldier.

piercing Emblem of St. Thomas

hand

of Canterbury. at feet

Emblem

of

saint "

of

St.

Pan-

talon.

When showing

Signifies justice.

acute point *

When obtuse point

Signifies religion.

*

When

Signifies

blunted

mercy.

point *

When held upright Consecration.

Al-

legiance.

SPEAR OR LANCE IN

GENERAL

Usual or conven- Symbol of St. Michael, tional form St. George, St. Phillip. European Sibyl

who prophe-

sied the flight into

Egypt.

THE ARROW IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem of St. Sebastian who was martyred by arrows.

Emblem

of the hunter and of Cupid.

THE DAGGER IN

GENERAL

Misere-corde or Protection against the small dagger foe. used by ancient

monks

THE SLING IN

GENERAL

Pocket with string for holding and slinging stones 67

Emblem

of David who became the king,


THE BANNER Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Usual fonn

Signification

The

Christian's

vic-

tory over the flesh.

Triumph. Place. Title.

IN

GENERAL

ARMOUR "The whole

Lineage.

Protection of God.

armour"

Emblem

The Spurs

of

Knight-

hood.

The Hehnet

Signifies courage.

THE SHIELD HERALDIC, ENGLISH

1.

When

exhibit- Protection. ing chevron or

band like 2.

The

shaped a gable chief or Guardianship.

straight

band

passing across

upper third of shield 3.

The fess

or Patriotism. band crossing

centre of shield horizontally 4.

The pale

or Valor. band crossing shield in centre vertically

6.

The bend

or Knightly

service.

band crossing shield diagonally 6.

The

pile,

sharp Tenacity.

pointed, wedge

band

shaped

crossing shield vertically 7.

The bend sinis- Royal ter or

band

crossing from left hand upper

comer of shield to right hand lower comer

descent.


GEMS "HI

say • white ' or ' purple ' in any ordinary line of poetry, they evoke emotions so exclusively that I cannot say why they move me, but if I say them in the same mood, in the same breath with such obviously intellectual symbols as a cross or a crown of thorns, I thiii^ of purity and sovereignty. W. B. Yeats.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE SARD Symbol

Country

EGYPTIAN

One

usually

onyx, red

CHINESE

Signification

layer of the Blood of

Isis.

Stone of

August.

JADE A hard soapy. Emblem sometimes fibrous stone

Emperor.

of

the

Virtue.

formed by the drippings

from

mountain lakes in

Turkestan

which are usually salt water.

Near

rivers

in

Burmah

THE HELIOTROPE (See Bloodstone)

BABYLONIAN

Usual form

Divination. Sacred of the gods. Invulnerability.

stone

THE JASPER

EARLY PERSIAN

Crypto-crystalline

quartz

Stone of Mithra, god of truth. Stone of friendship.

THE SAPPHIRE

EARLY

Blue corundum

The

sacred stone.

PERSIAN

GRECIAN

"

EAST INDIAN

"

Stone of Apollo and September. Light of the gods. Prosperity.


GEMS OF AARON'S BREAST PLATE Symbol

Country

JUDEAN

Signification

1.

Sardius, Topaz, Divination.

2.

Carbuncle Emerald, Sapphire, Dia-

3.

Ligure,

4.

Amethyst Beryl, Onyx,

6.

The Urim and

mond Agate,

Jasper

Thummim

or jewels of light

and perfection (species unknown)

THE ABRAXUS GEMS GNOSTIC

Sard, Jasper, Sacred gems

of the divine creator known as "Abraxus," a fabulous creature

Amethyst

with a man's body,

a lion or cock's head and serpents for legs.

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

THE DIAMOND IN

GENERAL

Pure carbon

Sanctity.

Perfection. Pride. Intelligence, Stone of Apnl.

Fortitude.

THE RUBY IN

GENERAL

Red corundum

Divine

zeal.

Human

Stone of July.

love.

THE EMERALD IN

GENERAL

A

green beryl

The

over the Spring. Hope. stone of May.

victorjr

flesh.

The

THE SAPPHIRE IN

GENERAL

Blue corundum

Heavenly truth. cerity.

September. 70

Sin-

Stone of


THE PEARL Symbol

Country

IN GENERAL

Signification

The secretions of a Innocence.

Purity,

Stone of St. Margaret.

bivalve covering

Tears.

g^rain of sand which has en-

a

tered the shell

THE TOPAZ IN GENERAL

A

heavy

Fruitfulness.

silicate, Fidelity.

Stone of November.

mainly aliunina of yellow hue

THE AMETHYST IN

GENERAL

A quartz of a violet

Sympathy,

blue color, probably caused by peroxide of iron

IN GENERAL

tion.

Abnega-

Peace.

Stone

of February.

THE GARNET A hard red crystal Deep aSection.

Stone

of January.

THE CARBUNCLE IN GENERAL

A

precious garnet Martyrdom. cut in rotmded

form

IN GENERAL

THE CRYSTAL A symmetrical Simplicity. solid,

usually

Truthful-

ness.

transparent, stone

THE TURQUOISE IN GENERAL

An opaque

bluish

green stone

Sincere

aSection.

Stone of December.

TURQUOISE MATRIX IN

GENERAL

Or mother

stone Sincere

which contains the

affection. Stone of December,

gem

THE OPAL IN GENERAL

An

oxid of silicon. in layers containing water, which takes on prismatic hues 71

Ancient emblem good luck. October.

of

Stone of


THE AGATE Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

A mottled

IN

GENERAL

"

Signification

opaque, Long life and health. hard stone of Stone of June. Taryiug shades of browns, greys and dull red

THE CAT'S EYE A quartz with fi- Platonic affection. br ous

inclu-

sions"

THE CARNELIAN IN

GENERAL

A

chalcedony

of

Emblem of distinction.

deep, clear red.

Sometimes

mixed with white

THE CHRYSOBERYL IN GENERAL

Yellowish green or

Emblem of patience.

emerald green hard stone

IN

THE BLOOD STONE OR HELIOTROPE GENERAL A fibrous green Mourning. Stone stone

shaped

kidney

of

March. Sacred

stone streaked with red, with a

of

Babylon-

ians.

surface

THE JASPER IN

GENERAL

A

crypto-crystal-

Wisdom.

Pride. Second

line quartz

sight.

THE CORAL IN

GENERAL

The

skeleton

a tiny

marriage,

of Signifies

animal

Good

fortune.

known as the coral polp

LAPIS LAZULI

IN

GENERAL

A massive oriental

Nobility.

stone of rich

ultra-marine blue

THE MOONSTONE IN

GENERAL

A feldspar containing reflected lights of grey

and blue 72

Thoughtfulness.


THE ONYX Country

IN

GENERAL

A

Symbol Signification stone in two Reciprocity, layers of color

THE SARDONYX IN GENERAL

Three

layers

of

Conjugal

fidelity.

color

THE LABRADORITE IN GENERAL

IN GENERAL

Spar from Labrador

Sub tility.

Hidden

beauty.

THE CHRYSOLITE A silicate of mag- Unrequited love, nesium and iron of yellow hue

AMBER INJGENERAL

The gum of extinct Tears of the Heliades, who were turned into pine trees which dropped tears on the Greek coast, where

trees

amber

the body of their brother Phaeton was

washed ashore.

THE FOUNDATION STONES OF THE NEW JERUSALEM The Jasper, Sapphire, Chalcedony,

Em-

erald, Sardonyx, Sardius, Chrysolite,

Beryl, Topaz,

Chrysoprase, Jacinth,

Amethyst

78


FRUITS " It is by no means true that the ancient systems of mythology have ceased to exist; they have only been diffused and transformed." Gubernatis. The Rig Vega claims to be the oldest Bible in existence. It is composed of hjrmns which passed from generation to generation by word of mouth. The locality of tibe Garden of Eden is claimed by East India.

—

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM


THE POMEGRANATE Country

EGYPTIAN PERSIAN,

Symbol Natural f onn

GRECIAN AND

ROMAN


PLANTS AND BLOSSOMS "I

am a pure lotus, issue of the field of the sun."

Egyptian Book of the Dead Budge. " If tfaou be bom in a poor man's hovel, but hast wisdom, then thou art like the lotus flower growing out of the mud."

—A Buddhist Precept.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE LOTUS Symbol

Country

Signification

EGYPTIAN

As

BUDDHISTIC

Natural or conven- Sacred standard of the tionalform gods. Universal Matrix or mother.

Emblem

of Hapi, god of the Nile. Emblem of Isis.

self-fructifying

Emblem

of

Buddha,

as the enlightened, and the "Jewel in the Lotus."

THE PAPYRUS EGYPTIAN

When

Sacred standard of youth, vigor and

on sceptre

learning.

PERSIAN

HINDU

HOMA AND SOMA PLANTS AND The extracted Elixir of the gods, givjuice

which as

taken

ing eternal

is

life.

a

beverage

THE TREE PEONY CHINESE

Natural or conven- Royal flower. tional

form

JAPANESE

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Emblem of

dignity.

THE REED Natural form

Learning.

PLUM BLOSSOMS JAPANESE

Natural or conventional

JAPANESE

form

Womanly purity. Emblem of winter.

CHERRY BLOSSOMS Natural or conven- Womanly beauty. tional

form 76

Emblem

of spring.


THE AZALEA Symbol

Country

JAPANESE

Natural form

JAPANESE

Natural form

JAPANESE

Natural form

Signification

The

garden beauty. Flower of April.

THE WISTARIA Vine of Happiness. "Plant of a thousand years."

THE PAULOWNIA of the EmRectitude.

Emblem peror.

THE MAGNOLIA JAPANESE

Natural form

JAPANESE

When purple When not purple

Flower of May.

THE mis a

Signifies

The

mourning.

betrothal flower.

Emblem

of June.

THE MORNING GLORY JAPANESE

Natural form

Flower of July.

THE CHRYSANTHEMUM JAPANESE

Natural form

The

Imperial

pride.

Flower of October.

THE TEA PLANT AND FLOWER JAPANESE

Natural form

Rank and

riches,

THE ROSE

MOHAMMEDAN

Natural form

Emblem

of

MohamFlower

med's eyes. of Iran.

THE TULIP

MOHAMMEDAN Natural form

Ardent

affection.

THE VINE GRECIAN

Natural form

Emblem

of Dionysus,

god of wine.

Emblem

ROMAN

of

Bacchus,

god of wine. Joy of living. Wisdom

PERSIAN

of materiality.

CARNATION PERSIAN

Natural form 77

Emblem

of Persia.


THE ALMOND FLOWER Country


THE EGLANTINE Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Natural fonn

Signification Signifies poetry.

"to

gance;

Elethe

manner bom."

THE HELIOTROPE IN

GENERAL

Natixral f onn

Devotion.

Zeal.

Strength

sweet-

in

ness.

THE

HIBISCirS

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

Frailty. Conservativeness.

THE HYACINTH High

Pride.

estate.

Exclusiveness.

THE JONQUa IN

GENERAL

Natural form

Vanity. Imprudence. Uncontrolled affection.

THE HYDRANGEA IN

GENERAL

Natural form

Coldness.

Frigidity.

Massive beauty.

THE VIOLET IN

GENERAL

Natural form

Modesty.

Sweetness.

Loyalty.

THE LILAC IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

First emotions of love.

THE MAGNOLIA Dignity.

Respecta-

bility.

THE MARGUERITE IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

IN

GENERAL

Natural form

Preference in love.

THE SNOW DROP Purity of heart.

THE FORGET-ME-NOT True

love.

THE IVY Longevity.

Depend-

ence. Despondency. 79


THE CLEMATIS Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Natural fonn

Signification

Gladness.

Upward

flight.

THE BALSAM IN GENERAL

Natural form

The zealous benefactor.

The Samaritan flower.

ORANGE BLOSSOMS IN GENERAL

Natural form

GENERAL

Natural form

Fruitfulness. Exuberance. Flower of the bride.

THE MARIGOLD IN

Emblem of the Virgin as Mary's gold. Worth.

THE CORN FLOWER

GERMAN

Natural form

National flower of Prussia. Emblem of Queen Louise.

THE SHAMROCK IRISH

Natural form

SCOTCH

Natural form

SCOTCH

Natural form

National

flower of Ireland. Emblem of St. Patrick. The triad leaf.

THE THISTLE Flower of Scotland. Guardian of the race.

THE HEATHER Flower of the Scottish clans. Sympathy. Allegiance.

THE EDELWEISS SWISS

Natural form

Flower of the Alps. Chastity.

THE GRAPE VINE IN GENERAL

Natural form

Emblem said,

vine." 80

of Jesus

"I

am

who the


THE WHEAT Symbol

Country

IN GENERAL "

Signification

Natural form

StafiE

The

Emblem

ears of wheat

of perity.

Pros-

life.

of

Ruth as

model of constancy. "

Stack of wheat

81

Body

of Christ.


UNCLASSIFIED SYMBOLS " A symbol is either representative, indicates a thing and makes you think of it, as a bunch of grapes over a house

door indicating wine, is called a public house sign; or it is vicarious, as a five pound note stands for five sovereigns. The bunch of grapes reminds you of the juice of the vine but you can't drink it. The piece of paper passes vicariously for five pieces of gold and you can spend it." —Rev. R. St. John Tyrwhitt.

HEBREW AND PAGAN FORM THE SISTRUM Symbol

Country

EGYPTIAN

Signification

An instrument used by priestesses during

ritual, like a

shaped half

Chastity.

circle

together

drawn at the

end and crossed by loose bars of metal which jingle

when shaken. This is fastened to a handle which is shaped like the

Tau

JAPANESE

cross

used

Instrument

Virtue and piety.

by priestesses in the Shinto ritual. It has the form of a wand

encircled by small bells and

shaken to attract the attention of the gods. is

THE HAND

JUDEAN

Natural form

Might. Justice. yThe Almighty. ;

With

first

three Was, Is and

fingers extended

and thumb and little

finger

closed on the palm 82

Is to Come.


THE HAND—Continued Country

Symbol

BUDDHISTIC

Signification

One finger and Perfect action of thumb touching

MOHAMMEDAN

right,

ROMAN

thought with his per-

each other UsuaUy held up-

fect plan.

Emblem of Mohamfingers med. Signifying

and thumb ex-

power

tended

daughter, Fatima, sigrufying prosperity and long life.

Thumbs of Vestals Mercy

.Of his

to vanquished.

turned up "

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Thumbs of Vestals Death to vanquished. turned down (In the arena.) A many handed Mercy. Contempladeity called tion. Ewaimon

THE TRIPOD GRECIAN

Usual form

JUDEAN

Usual form

Emblem

of Delphic Oracle. The three mysteries.

THE ARK the

Signifies

Emblem

deluge.

of

Noah.

The covenant

of the

Jews with Jehovah.

WATER EGYPTIAN

Nattual or hiero- The passive principle.

The Nile. Fertility. The river Styx which

glyphic form

leads to Hades.

CHINESE JAPANESE

Water

Signifies humility.

fall

Primary water

fall Signifies

the masculine

principle.

secondary Feminine principle.

The

water

fall

THE VEIL PHCENICIAN

Emblem of Tanit,

Usual form

god-

dess of beauty.

IN GENERAL

Dotted with stars

Emblem

of Night.

THE UMBRELLA EGYPTIAN

When

held

the head

CHINESE

When held the head

over

Emblem

of honorable distinction.

over Protection throne.

of

the


THE STAFF BUDDHISTIC

ROD

AITO

Symbol

Country

Signification

With jingling rings Kindness.

Mercy.

attached to a rod

and carried by the pilgrims: to disperse insects and small animals without injuring

GRECIAN

BABYLONIAN

ROMAN

them

Thyrsus

or staff Sceptre of Dionysus, twined with ivy god of fertility. and tipped with a pine cone Hazel guiding rods Divination. Wand tipped by a Emblem of Jove. The globe which is Roman Legions.

surmounted by an eagle

Budded staS

JAPANESE

EGYPTIAN

Tokko

Emblem

of HeUespontine Sibyl.

or one The

irresistible

power

spoke of wheel of prayer. of the law Staff in the shape Sovereignty. of a crook

"

The

'

The papyrus

lotus sceptre Virility.

Eternal youth,

sceptre

SCANDINAVIAN Staff

with

circle,

The

used as sceptre

sun's rays.

Di-

vine light.

THE HAMMER GRECIAN

Usual form

Emblem of Hephaestus, the divine forger.

SCANDINAVIAN When shaped like Emblem a Tau cross

god

of

of

Thor as

thunder and

Ughtning.

JAPANESE

Usual form

HINDU

Usual form

Daikoku

as god of wealth which is taken from the earth.

THE CLUB Emblem

of

Yama

as

Judge of the Unseen.

ROMAN

When knotted

Ssmibol

of

Hercules,

god of strength. 84


THE CLUB— Continued Country

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

Symbol Signification Club or mace with Divine office,

shaped

he'art

head resembling the sacred fun-

gus which grows at

the

foot of

Buddha's tree

WHIP OR SCOURGE EGYPTIAN

Club or stick with Sovereignty by

force.

lashes "

The club shaped as Emblem a

of

THE BOOK GRECIAN AND When sealed

Chastity.

GRECIAN AND

Emblem

ROMAN

ROMAN

guardian

diety of agriculture.

flail

Either closed or

open

Sibyl

of

Cumaean

who prophe-

and wrote the of civil and religious Rome. sied

laws

THE BALL

EGYPTIAN

Usual form

Emblem

of

the

sun

and the moon.

CHINESE AND JAPANESE

The omnipotent pearl of wisdom or Hoshuno-tama.

THE FAN JAPANESE *

War fan

Signal ensign.

Tea ceremony fan The charm of three sticks

of

sii

plicity.

THE BUCKET, BAG OR BASKET Which holds sane- Divine refreshment. EGYPTIAN tified

water for

the tree of life and the souls of

PERSIAN

EARTH AND WATER When used to- Subjection gether as offerings 86

crown.

to the


THE RING Country

TEUTONIC

Symbol Usual f onu

Signification

Emblem

of

promise.

Emblem

of the Rhine daughters of the Nibelungenlied.

THE GOHEI JAPANESE

Paper strips repre- The

fruit of the loom, Sacred oflEering to Shinto gods.

sentiug cloth

THFllIRROR PH(ENICIAN

Usual form

Emblem

of Istar, god-

dess of beauty.

JAPANESE

When in

a Shinto

Emblem

of

Amaterasu

leading goddess of the Shinto faith,

temple

as

signifying truth.

GRECIAN AND

Usual form

EGYPTIAN

THE FEET A winged foot Emblem of Serapis, the

ROMAN

AND

GRECIAN

Emblem of truth.

crustog a but-

Greek deity, which was the Egyptian bull Apis, wor-

terfly

shipped after

his

death, in Greece.

EAST INDIAN

Footprints showing triscula or swastica

Emblem

of

Buddha's

pilgrimage and service.

FIRE

EGYPTIAN PERSIAN JAPANESE

In the abstract

The

active principle.

Life of the soul.

Emblem

of Fudo, as signifying fire of wisdom. Symbol of Prometheus,

GRECIAN

who fire

stole

celestial

and gave

it

to

manldnd.

SCANDINAVIAN

Residence of Muspel, genius of fire.

CIRCLE OF FIRE

IN GENERAL

Usual form

Inviolability. tity.

TEUTONIC

"

Symbol

Chas-

Magic. of Brunhilde.


THE PIPES Country

GRECIAN AND

ROMAN

Symbol Usual form

Signification

Emblem

of

deities,

the

harmony

Nature. Pan.

ANCIENT The bagpipes SCOTCH AND

The

THE CUP OR BEAKER

AND

ASSYRIAN

Symbol

of of

voice of the clans.

CELTS

EGYPTIAN

woodland

who evoked


THE TOMB OR TOMB STONE Country

ANCIENT

Symbol Usual form

Signification

Residence of the dead. Finger post of the

TRIBES

soul.

JAPANESE

Sotoba or tomb The five elements: stone of the ether, air, fire, Fujiwara dan water, earth.

EGYPTIAN GRECIAN

Three large vases Signifies the Nile river. Amphoraorvaseof Blessing of wine or grain. two handles Hydiia, a pitcher Blessing of water.

THE VASE

vase

THE EYE EGYPTIAN

Emblem

One eye

of Osiris, the

sun god. *

Two

eyes, one Emblem of Horus as the night and day and the perfect white black, the other

grain.

ASSYRIAN

Emblem

Natural form

of

the

sun

and moon.

THE DEW ORIENTAL

Emblem

Usual form

of Fragility.

SCANDINAVIAN The honey dew

delicacy.

Emblem

of goddess Servitur, who drops

honey from Yggdraor

sil

tree

of

life

upon those deserving benefaction.

THE BELL

BURMESE

Temple wind

CHINESE AND Evening beUs JAPANESE

bells

Music

of the gods.

temple Prayers to the gods.

THE COMB PICTISH

Usual form

The

sun's rays.

blem of Venus.

THE EGYPTIAN

SAIL

Usual form 88

The

breath.

Em-


THE LADDER Country

Symbol Usual form

JUDEAN EGYPTIAN

"

Signification

Emblem Emblem

of Jacob.

of Set who climbs to Heaven's

palace.

THE LOOM IN

GENERAL

Usual f onn

GRECIAN

"

Industry.

Emblem

of Penelope the faithful.

RICE BALES

JAPANESE

Usual fonn

Emblem god

of Daikoku, of wealth and

THE BOAT

EGYPTIAN

Usual fonn

bark of the

Signifies

sun.

Bark of Charon boatman who

the takes souls across the river Styx to Hades. Bark of the Elysian Fields.

THE HORN

JUDEAN BABYLONIAN

On head of Moses On head of Bel, the

GRECIAN

god Usual form

Truth and Justice. Material strength.

chief

Emblem

of Bacchus. Alexander the Great

called the "Two horned power." Hospitality. Measure

SCANDINAVIAN

of joy.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

JUDEAN

The harp

Contemplation. Symbol of David, who charmed the king. National instrument

The Lyre

Harmony of the gods. The constellation Vega

GRECIAN

of poetic song.

EGYPTIAN

HEBREW

"

the lyre.

EGYPTIAN

The

lute

Emblem Hetep

EARLY FRENCH

AND SPANISH

—

Emblem

of Nefer^lord of joy.

of the Trou-

badour.


THE CLOUD Country

Symbol Cloud banks

Signification

CHINESE PERSIAN

Rising

JUDEAN

Frankincense Emblem

Immortality.

smoke

Joys of the weed. Retrospection.

clouds

of race of

Japhet.

Myrrh clouds

Sacred to race of

Ham.

THE APRON EGYPTIAN

Usual form

CHINESE

When worn

Royalty.

THE PADLOCK amulet

90

as an Long

life.

Prosperity.


:

UNCLASSIFIED OBJECTS " By outward forms early Christians were inspired with feelings of devotion and love and in the absence of books, derived from them their chief knowledge of sacred things. To the tmleamed, they spoke a clear and inteUigible language that they were full of meaning and poetry, no one who will endeavor to interpret them can doubt." Louisa Twining.

—

EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MODERN FORM

THE STAFF AND ROD Country

IN

GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

Religious jurisdiction.

Pastoral staff (Crozier)

With gourd

Signifies the

Usual form

Emblem of old age.

Archangel Raphael as a polgrim.

Represented by The staff of Ufe. bread

With

leaves and Symbol of St. Christopher, patron of dates travelers.

Symbol

The rod

who

of the Creator comforts.

Symbol

Flowering rod

of Aaron, the

and Joseph, the successful suitor. priest,

THE HAND IN GENERAL

When in clouds

The first Person

of the

Trinity.

When

holding The

lightning bolts or emitting rays of Ught

first

two

of the Tibertine Sibyl.

fin-

thumb extended and gers and

and fourth closed on palm third

91

Person of the

Emblem

Usual form

With

first

Trinity.

The

Trinity.


THE HEART Symbol

Country

IN

GENERAL

tional "

Signification

Natural or conven- Piety, Love,

When

form

pierced

by Charity.

THE ANCHOR IN GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem

Hope.

of St.

Nicholas, patron of Russia.

THE SCALES IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Justice. Symbol of St. Michael as Captain of the Heavenly Hosts.

IN GENERAL

THE CENSER When burning Piety

before men.

EMBLEMS OF THE PASSION IN GENERAL

Cross, nails, The Crucifixion, thorns, hammer, reed, scourge, purse and dice

WINGS IN

GENERAL

Bat's wings

Emblem

When

Aspiration.

spread

of Lucifer.

Trans-

lation.

Usual form

Protection. Ambition.

Astronomy.

IN

GENERAL

Night.

THE HAIR When flowing Symbol of Mary Magdalen as the penitent.

When coveringlike Symbol

of St. Agnes, when persecuted, prayed for clothing. The glory of a woman.

a garment

who,

WATER IN GENERAL

In a font The Jordan river

When

<-.â&#x20AC;˘

-it

i

Signifies baptism.

gushing Emblem of Moses.

from a rock 92


THE WEB Country

IN GENERAL

Symbol Usual form

ITALIAN

Whenheld over the Honor,

Signification

Destiny. Energy. Industry of the Christian at work about his Father's business.

THE UMBRELLA Position.

head of a dignitary

THE SNOOD

ANCIENT SCOTCH

A band

of cloth, Signifies virginity. /

ribbon or metal, entirely circling

the head

THE SHELL IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Pilgrimage. of

St. elder.

Emblem

James

the

THE SHIP IN GENERAL

When

held in the Signifies the Church,

hand "

Usual form

The greyhound

of the

sea.

THE RIVER IN GENERAL

Usual form

IN GENERAL

Sacrificial knife

Signifies life.

THE KNIFE Symbol of Zadkiel, who stayed the hand of Abraham. Emblem of St. Bartholomew,

strument

the inof his

martyrdom.

THE GRIDIRON IN GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem rence,

ment dom. 93

of St. Lawthe instruof his martyr-


.

THE RING Symbol

Country

IN GENERAL

Signification

When held in hand Symbol representa-

of St. Catherine in her mystical

tions of the

marriage with

of

Christ Child "

Christ.

The symbol

Usual form

of

mar-

riage.

SKULL AND CROSS BONES IN GENERAL

Usual form

Brevity of

human

life.

THE ORGAN IN GENERAL

Symbol

Usual form

of St. Cecelia,

legendary inventor of the organ.

THE CORNUCOPU IN GENERAL

Usual form

Abundance.

The har-

vest.

IN GENERAL

THE CUP When covered

The

with a wafer Cup with serpent

Symbol

Eucharist.

of St. John, indicating immunity from poison.

Shedding rays of The Holy Grail or cup containing the blood of Christ, caught at the Crucifixion, by

light

Joseph of

Arima-

thaea.

Symbol

Usual form

St. BeneSt. Donato.

of

dict.

Bitterness. Sorrow. Joy. Happiness. to Brotherly love,

With handles pass from hand to hand,

known

as " The loving cup "

THE HORN IN GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem of Roland, the Paladin of

Ch a rlemagne Plenty.

The

hand

corner of the front of an altar left

94

The gospel horn,


,

THE HORNâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Continued Country

IN

GENERAL

IN

GENERAL

Symbol Signification Therighthandcor- The epistle horn. ner of the front of an altar. " The little end of Loss. Grief. the horn "

THE BEE HIVE Symbol and

Usual form

of St. Bernard Ambrose. St.

Industry.

System.

THE GARMENT IN

GENERAL

Mantle or cloak Charity. dividing Symbol of with a beggar

When

St.

Martin.

MONASTIC HABITS IN

GENERAL

Black cassock and Order of the Jesuits. square cap White habit, black Order of the Domini-

mantle with hood Dark brown

habit, Order of the Carmel-

white mantle

Brown

cans.

ites.

or gray Order of the Francis-

fastened about waist with a knotted rope

habit,

cans.

THE APRON IN

GENERAL

Usual form

IN

GENERAL

Face or head ofanEmblem of St. angel or cherub Matthew, who wrote

Service. Masonic emblem of ancient craft.

THE FACE the

genealogy

Christ.

FUR IN GENERAL

HERALDIC, ENGLISH

HERALDIC, ENGLISH

HERALDIC ENGLISH

Emblem Ermine Pean or black and Honour. yellow

furs,

mixed Ermine

Honour.

Vair or blue and Honour,

white

furs,

mixed 95

of royalty.

of


THE NAPKIN Country

IN GENERAL

Symbol

Signification

When showing Emblem portrait of

IN

Jesus

ica,

of St.

Veron-

who wiped

the

perspiration from the Saviour's face, when He was carrying the cross. (Legendary.)

THE BOX OR VASE OR DISH GENERAL When of alabaster Emblem "

of Mary Magdalen. Dish holding eyes Emblem of Santa Lucia, who removed her eyes and sent them to a presumptuous suitor. (Legendary.)

TIME IN GENERAL

The hour glass The scythe

Measuring of time.

The instrument

of

time.

The sun

dial

Nature's clock.

THE CRADLE IN

GENERAL

Emblem

Usual form

of Nativity. Sibyl,

The Samian_

who

prophesied the

Nativity.

THE KEY IN

GENERAL

Keys held hand

in the

Symbol of St. Peter as holding keys of heaven.

"

When

at girdle

St.

Martha the house-

keeper.

THE TABLET IN

GENERAL

When

of stone

Signifies the

Ten Com-

mandments. "

When with

connected Signifies geometry.

compass

and square

IN

THE HAMMER AND CHISEL GENERAL Usual form Signifies sculpture and the crafts. 96


PALETTE AND BRUSHES Coutttry

IN GENERAL

Symbol Usual form

Signification Signifies painting.

SCROLL IN

GENERAL

With pencil or quill pen

Signifies literature.

Scroll with harp

Signifies music.

THE BELL IN

GENERAL

Usual form The vesper bell

The

The passing

Dissolution. years.

Curfew

bell

bell

preacher.

Evening prayer. Tolling

Forced retirement.

THE ROCK IN GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem

of

Peter.

Truth.

THE BALL IN GENERAL

Usual form

Emblem

of St. Nicho-

las.

Three balls

Emblem

of

pawn

broker.

Cognizance of the Medici banking

Balls

house of Tuscany.

THE GLOBE IN

GENERAL

Usual form

Rhetoric.

With

cross

Emblem of church and

ENGLISH

Globe with dove

state. Dominion. Ruler by divine right.

IN GENERAL

When When

a

THE BOOK With

closed

Knowledge.

open

Perfect Imowledge. Emblem of Uriel

roll

light of

97

as

knowledge.


INDEX Classified Objects

CHAPTERS Trees Light

6

3. C!olor

10

1.

2. 4.

Numbers

14

5.

Animals

6.

Fish Bttds

20 26 28 33

7.

8. Insects 9.

CHAPTEBS 12. Halo

1

Serpents

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

35

10. Fabulous Creatiu-es 11. Angelic Personages

37 40

43 46 53 56

Cross

Demons Geometrical Forms Architectural Forms Military Emblems

61

Gems Fruits Plants and Blossoms Unclassified Objects.

.

.

66 69 74 76 82-91

GENERAL INDEX A.

Acacia

1-5

Adder Agate

36 72 8 78 73

Alcyone

Almond Flower Amber Amethyst Anchor

Aspen. Ass Ax.... B.

Ball

Balsam

Bamboo

71

27-92 Andro-Sphinx 38 Angels Bearing Sceptres 41 Angels Bearing Trumpets. 41 Angels Bearing Musical Instruments 41 Angels Bearing Censers. 42 Angels Belted 42 Angels Without Sandals 42 Angels in a Circle Enclosed 42 Ant 34 Ape 25 4-74-75 Apple Apron 90-95 62-64 Arch Archangels 40 Archbishop's Cross 48 Ark 83 Armour 66-68 66-67 Arrow

Banner Bat Bat's Wings Bear Bee Bee Hive

Ash Asp

Butterfly

.

.

.

.

Beetle

.

Bell

Bema

.

Black Bloodstone Blue

Boat Bddhisattvas

Book Box Bridges Bright Yellow

Brushes

Bucket

BuU

1-3 36 98

5

25 66

85-97 80 4 68 33 92 21 34 95 33 88-97 65 10-11-12-13 72 10-11-12-13 89 40 85-97 96 63 12

97 85 21 86


C.

Calendar Tree Calf

Camel Candle Carnation Camelian Carbuncle Carp

Cat Cat's

Eye

Cedar Ceilings Celtic Cross

Censer Centaur .

Chain Cherry Blossoms Chameleon Cherubim '.

Chisel

Chorus

Chrysanthemum Chrysoberyl Chrysolite Circle

Clematis

Cloak Cloud Club Cobra

Cock Cold Colors

Colimm Coluber

Comb Coral Corinthian Column

Cormorant

Com Flower Cornucopia

Corona Crab Cradle Crescent Crested Helmet Crocodile Cross Cross Batonn6 Cross Fleur6 Cross Pomm6 Cross Potent

Cross of Constantine

2

Crown Crown

24 23 8

of Roses

Crozier Crusader's Cross

77 72 71 26 21-24 72 3-4 63 50 92 38 57 76 34 41 96 65 77 72 73 56-59-86 80 95 90 84 35 29-32

Crux Ansata Crystal

71

Cuckoo

30 87-94 26

Cup Cuttle Fish Cypress

D. Dagger

Dawn Decagon Deer

Demons

Dew Diamond Dodecagon

Dog

61

26 62-64 64

Doric Column

Dove Dragon

Duck Dull YeUow E.

Eagle Earth and Water Edelweiss

Egg Eglantine Eight

61 29

Elephant

Emerald

80 94 45 27

Endless Knots

Enlacements

Eye

96 56 66

Evil Genii F.

Fan

99

61

30-31 8-37-39 30 12 28-31 85 80 87 79 16 22 70 59 59 88 53

85 54 Fifty-three 17 Fig 4 8-86 Fire Fire-flies 34 Fish with Key in Mouth.. 27

Faims

36 46 49 50 50 50

67 7 59 22-25 53 88 70 60 21

Dolphin

Door

11

1-2

Dolmen

Dome

61-64 35 88 72

52 43-45 78 91 49 47


Five Five Trees of Indra

15-18

Flail

85 78 34 86 79 19 15-18 21-24 57 95

Fleur de

Hibiscus

1

lis

Fly Footprints Forget-me-not

Forty

Four Fox Fret

Fur

Holly

Honey Dew Horn Horse

Hour Glass

I.

G. Gargoyle Garland Garnet

Gate

Gem

Bearing Paradise

Trees

Good Genii Goose Grapes Grape Vine Greek Cross Green Gridiron GriflSn.

Hyades Hydrangea

8 79

Ibis

71

Iris

62-64

Ivy J.

Jade Jasper Javelins

Jerusalem Cross Jonquil

69 69-72 66 50 79

K. Keys Keys

Key

96 96 47 93 59

at Girdle of Life

Knife

Knots

76

80 47-49 10-11-12-13 93 38

L.

Labyrinth Ladder

Lamb Lamb

H. Hair Halo

Hammer Hand Hare Harp

Harpy

Hawk Heart Heather Heliotrope Flower Heliotrope Gem

Lance

92 43-^4 84-96 82-91 23

Lanterns Lapis Lazuh Latin Cross Laurel

Leopard

89

38 29 92 80 79 69-72 66-67-68 58-59

Lilac Lily

Lion Locust

Loom Lotus Lute Lyre 100

57 89 24

Skin or the Golden

Fleece

Lamps

Helmet Heptagon

21 2 61 77-78 79

of

7

Geranium Gingko Globe Gnat Goat Gohei Gold

40 79

Icho or Gingko Tree Ionic Colimin

40-53 78 2 97 34 21-25 86 10-12 40 20

Genii

Houri Hyacinth

65 45

2

Gemini

59 79 5 88 89-94 22-24 96

23 9 66-67 8 72 48 4 21 79 78 20-23 33 89 76 89 89


M. Magnolia

77-79

Maple Marguerite Marigold

Mask

Monkey Monograms

Peari Pectoral Cross

Pentagon Phoenix Pig

61

Pillar

8 86 45 95

Pine Pine Cones Pipes Pippala Plane Planetary Colors

23 52 72 7-9 77

Moonstone

Moon Morning Glory

Myirh

Peach Pear

14r-53

Mirror Mitre Monastic Dress

77 62 74-75 75

Pavement

49 95 79 80 87 57

Mantle

Meander Medusa Menhir Milky Way

Paulowina

5

Maltese Cross

â&#x20AC;˘.

Pleiades

Plum Plum Blossoms Pomegranate

2-90

Poplar

N. Napkin Narcissus

Narthex Nightingale

Nimbus Nine Nornies

Nymphs O.

Oak Octagon Ogee

96 78 65 32 44 16-18 40 54

Onyx Opal Orange Orange Blossoms Organ Orion

Owl P.

Purple

Pyramid Q.

Quince

R. Rainbow

Rakan

Ram Rat Raven

3-t 58-59 57

Rectangle

Red Red Cross Red Path Red Rose RedTai Reed

3 31 62 73 71 11-13

Olive Olive Branch (dove with)

Omphalos

Poppy

.

ReUquary Cross

80 94

Residence Tree Rice Bales

7

Ring River

Ox

30 24

Padlock

90

Roof Rose

Palette

Pahn Papyrus Papal Cross Partridge

Rod Rood

97 1-2-4 76 48 32

Cross

Ruby S.

Sail

Salamander 101

71 51

58 28 23 61 1-2 84 87 4 3 11

8

4 76 3-75 4 78 10-11-12 64 74 8-9 40 23 21 30-31 58 10-11-12-13 47 11

78 26 76 51 1

89 86-94 93 84-91

SI 63 77-78 70

88 36


Scales Scarlet

Scarab Scorpion Scourge Scroll

Scythe Sea'Horse Sea Dog Sea Lion Seraphim Serpent Seven

Shamrock Sheep

SheU Ship Shield Sickles Single Column

Siren

Sistrum Six Sixteen Skull and Crossbones Slavonic Cross Sling Snails

Snood Snowdrop Sotoba Sparrow Spear Sphinx Spider Spurs

12 33 33 85 97 96 26 26 26 41 35 15-18 80 23 93 93 68 14 61 38 82 18 17 94 49 67 34 93 79 88 32

14r-66-67

68 57-59 81

Staff

84r-91

Stars Steeple

Steps Stork

Sun Swallow

Swastica

Sword Sycamore T.

Tablet Tai

Taper Tamarisk

Tau Tea Plant Ten Thistle

Thom

.

1

46 77 17

80 1

Tiger

20-24'

Tokko Topaz

84 71 8-9

Torch Torii Tortoise

Tower Tree of Life Tree of Jesse Tree Peony Triad,

Theban

Memphian

" "

Heliopolian

"

Hindu

"

Buddhistic Scandinavian Triangle Trident Trinacria "

Tripod

Twelve Twenty-four

Twin Fish

Two Typhon U. UmbreUa Universe Tree

Unicom. 102

96 26 8

14^17 32

Tulip Turquoise Turtle Doves

25 7 7-9 64 15-63-65 29-32 6-9 31

30-32 46-86 66-67 1-2

Three Thrush

Triskele Triscula

38 34

Square Stack of Wheat Stag Star in Circle

Swan

69-70 69 73 54 92

Sapphire Sard Sardonyic Satyrs

30-62 27 64 1-5 5 76 14 14 14 14 14 14

57 14-15 14 83 14 14-86 77 71 30-31 17-19 17-19 26 17 53 83-93 1

38-39


V. Valkyria

Vase Vedic Asparis Veil

Vine Violet (Flower)

Vulture

White Elephant White Rose Willow Wild Geese Flying.

40 88-96 40 83 77 12-79 29

Wmgs. r Winged Foot Wishing Thorn Wistaria

W. Wall

Warm Colors Water

Web Whale Wheat Ears Wheel

Whip White

63 11

83-92 93 27 78-81 '... 56-60 85 10-11-12-13

Endor

Witch Wolf

of

Wood

Pecker

Wren Wreath

22 78 2-t 29 92 86 1

77 55 22-24 29 32 44

Y. Yellow

11-12

Zig-zag

57

Z.

103


A GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN THEIR HEBREW, PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN FORMS  

Adelaide S. Hall_A GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN THE HEBREW PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN FORMS

A GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN THEIR HEBREW, PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN FORMS  

Adelaide S. Hall_A GLOSSARY OF IMPORTANT SYMBOLS IN THE HEBREW PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN FORMS

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