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Janet’s Spiel Welcome to the winter holiday edition of girlworks. What an exciting time of year it is! The air is getting chilly, school is so busy with projects and extra-cirricular activities, but soon there will be a holiday and the New Year! Enjoy this fun-filled issue!
Volume 7, Number 4 November / December 2015 Publisher Janet Kim
Send your questions, rants and musings to Shannon Says: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Managing Editor Margaret Udovc
In this issue: • Let's explore naturally magnificent Norway • The incredible LADY GAGA • Holiday Tech • Cool and casual winter wear • Learn all about figure skating
Creative Director Victoria Kim Consulting Technical Officer S. Lally
Join us as we cover the hip, the bent, the real.
EDITORIAL ADVISORS Prof. Nicholas Bala Faculty of Law, Queen’s University
What’s coming in the January / February issue? • Let's go to Bahrain • Consider a career as a librarian • No New Year resolutions? • Hip new fashion • Book reviews, fanart, quizzes & games. When you have finished reading the magazine and want more, visit us on the web at: www.girlworks.ca for free content, help with
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or l d
"Norway or Switzerland are two marvelous countries, I very much admire, the most advanced countries in the world in fact with great qualities of life." -Jose Manuel Barroso
The Kingdom of Norway
Norway is a beautiful country that enjoys the Northern Lights as well as fjords, an abundance of wildlife and one of the longest coastlines in Europe. Norwegians love the great outdoors (like their Viking enemies and their Norse ancestors). Norway has thriving cities, free health care and an abundance of money. Norway has the World’s biggest sovereign fund, where it has been saving almost all the money it gets from the sale of oil. It is worth almost a trillion dollars. According to the 2013 Global Peace Index, Norway is one of the most peaceful countries in the world, ranking 11th out of 162 countries.
Population: Type of government: Chief of state: Head of government:
A Short History
994 C.E.: Two centuries of Viking raids tapered off when Norway adopted Christianity. 1000 C.E.: Leif Eriksson, sailed to Labrador and then south to a region he called Vinland, where grapes and corn were found growing wild. Both places, although never settled, marked a Norwegian “discovery” of America. Norway united with Denmark in 1397 for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norway resisted the union of their country to Sweden and created a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to allow the constitution to stay in force if they would be ruled by a Swedish king. Freedom was delivered in a 1905 referendum that granted Norway independence.
5,207,689 (July 2015 est.) Constitutional monarchy King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991) Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)
The Kingdom of
NORWAY 3 | November-December 15 girlworks.ca
Lofoten, Norway Author: Petr Šmerkl, Wikipedia
Norway tried in both world wars to maintain its neutrality. During the first World War, Norway lost many ships and seamen to assist the British. In spite of being neutral in WWII the Germans occupied the country between 1940â€“1945. Finally, Norway abandoned its neutrality becoming one of the first members of NATO. Since the discovery of vast reserves of offshore oil in the 1960â€™s, Norway has become one of the wealthiest countries in the world. Norway has not joined the EU after democratic referendum votes in 1972 and 1994.
The Economy The Norwegian economy is a prosperous mixed economy, with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through extensive regulation and large-scale state-majority-owned enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on the petroleum sector, which accounts for the largest portion of export revenue and about 30% of government revenue.
Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from the petroleum sector in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $870 billion in December 2014. It annually uses up to 4% of the fund to help finance public expenses. After growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to positive growth in 2010-14. Nevertheless, the government budget remains in surplus. Lower oil prices in 2015 may cause the economy to contract as higher costs production costs in the North Sea deter investment.
Woman in bunad
Norway is the world's third-largest natural gas exporter; and seventh largest oil exporter, making one of its largest offshore oil finds in 2011. The oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymariner Author: Jarvin Jarle Vines
Traditional Dress / Costume The bunad is a traditional Norwegian costume worn by both men and women. It can either come from established rural traditions or have a more modern design inspired by historical patterns and cuts. Traditionally bunads represented the family home and the area people came from but now in the modern world where moving from place to place is a necessity, Norwegians wear the bunad tradition from the place to which they have the strongest attachment. 4
The Norse goddess Skaði hunting on skis Author: Signed "H. L. M."
Norway has a total area of 125,021 square miles (323,802 square km), which includes Bouvet, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard Islands. Norway consists of about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline where Norway has a strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic. It has one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world.
Norway Fun Facts! • King Harald of Norway vowed to remain unmarried for life unless he could marry his true love, who was the daughter of a cloth merchant. They both later married with help from the Government of Norway and she became the Queen of Norway. • Norway has a minimum security island-prison where inmates are almost free to do as they wish. The criminals prisoned there are among Norway’s worst, but it has the lowest rate of re-offending in Europe, if not the world. • IKEA names sofas, coffee tables, bookshelves, media storage and doorknobs after places in Sweden; beds, wardrobes and hall furniture after places in Norway; carpets after places in Denmark and dining tables and chairs after places in Finland. • The archipelago of Lofoten in Norway is north of the Arctic Circle. Yet because of the largest positive temperature anomaly in the world relative to latitude, it is teeming with life and has the largest deep water coral reef in the word. • In Norway, income and wealth are public record, easily viewable online
5 |November-December 15 girlworks.ca
Norwegians love to SKI Modern skiing has its origins in the county of Telemark in the 19th century, but an ancient rock carving at Rødøy in Nordland county shows that Norwegians used skis as far back as 4,000 years ago. The oldest preserved ski excavated is a 2,300-year old one found in Finnmark in far northern Norway. In the 1870s and 1880s, Sondre Norheim of Telemark, began using stiff ski bindings that enabled him to swing and jump without the risk of falling off. He also designed a “waisted,” or Telemark, ski, which was the prototype for the modern ski. Norheim combined ordinary skiing with jumping and slalom and impressed his countrymen at the first national cross-country ski race held in Oslo in 1867. The word “slalom” (slalåm) originated in Morgedal, Norway, home of Telemark ski designer Sondre Norheim. The first syllable, sla, means “slope, hill, or smooth surface,” while låm is the track down the slope. The normal slalom was a cross-country run over fields, hills, and stone walls, weaving among thickets. Slalom was first contested as an Olympic sport at the 1936 Winter Olympic Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
The Scream Artist: Edvard Munch
• Norway gets 98-99% of its electricity from hydroelectric power, more than any other country. • Henry III of England was given a polar bear by the King of Norway. He kept it in the Tower of London, on a long chain so that it could swim in the Thames. • Norway has won the largest number of Gold, Silver and Bronze medals of all countries in the Winter Olympics. • Minnesota is the unofficial Norwegian capital of the United States. More Norwegians live in Minnesota than in any other state. • Edvard Munch was a Norwegian painter and printmaker, most famous for painting The Scream (1893). The Scream has served as a source of inspiration in pop culture, including for artist Andy Warhol. The Ghostface mask, of The Scream horror series, was also based on the painting.
The Weird and Wonderful Tradition of Russefeiring The russefeiring is a traditional celebration for Norweigan high school students in their final spring semester. Students can choose to take part in these celebrations, also known as russ.
Flickr: gcardinal / Creative Commons
Russ is a passage into adulthood when a person is old enough to drive and old enough to drink (not encouraged at the same time). Teens rent huge buses to take them out for three weeks of continuous partying. They are supervised and (mostly) responsible. The russefeiring starts around April 20th and ends on May 17th, the date same date as Norwegian Constitution Day. Participants wear coloured overalls, make groups and name a bus, car or van, and celebrate almost continually during this period. To earn as many knots as possible, students have to complete dares or accomplish something. 6
The colour of the overalls represents the student’s area of study: • Red (rødruss) Allmennfag (general studies) (mathematics, physics, biology, history, literature, English etc); media and communication, art, music, dance and drama; and athletics. Red is the most common colour.
• Green (grønnruss) Agricultural courses, also used by some as an alternative to orange russ.
• Blue (blåruss) Business Administration studies (Økonomi & Administrasjon)
• White (hvitruss) In some regions, athletics students or healthcare students use white uniforms. Christian russ choosing to celebrate without alcohol sometimes use this colour, but most often wear the same colours as their classmates. Christian russ might form their own groups to have fun together without peer pressure towards drinking alcohol and achieving the knot requirements.
• Black (svartruss) Vocational courses (like electronics, carpentry or culinary programs).
Drunkenness and public disturbances are regularly linked to the celebration and that’s completely okay with everyone!
7 |November-December 15 girlworks.ca
Published on Mar 11, 2018
Published on Mar 11, 2018
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