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UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND

UNFPA

Handbook

Chairman David Alejandro Águila Rangel Moderator Karla Gabriela De la Rosa Gómez Conference Officer Luis Carlos Espinosa Andrade

Escuela Tomás Alva Edison


“Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship.” -Buddha

Dear Delegates: Please be welcomed to the tenth edition of the Model of United Nations in your hosting school Tomas Alva Edison, as your conference officer, Luis Carlos Espinosa Andrade, as your moderator Karla Gabriela De la Rosa Gómez and as your president, David Aguila Rangel. In the following days, we expect a very fructiferous debate that stands to the international community relationships and help build the proper resolution to the problems according to current issues whose relevance include us all not as individuals but as part of a unique world. UNFPA is particularly dedicated to humanitarian issues which not means a complete job upon it, more like the conjunction of human rights, gender equality and population dynamics. We hope the actions and ideas given in this forum will complement us all in ways beyond the event, for it is the present actions that will reflect in the future. Please receive our very own gratitude for taking part in this tenth edition of a Model of United Nations in Tomas Alva Edison and particularly in this commission. Looking forward to sharing this experience with you, United Nations Peoples Fund Chair TAEMUN 2013

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Topic B: Accomplishing global health services Through time, health and the necessity of governments to providing a service that satisfies the demand of the population has become one of the main issues of the international agenda, up to the point, that health services have been taken into account as part of the United Nation´s Millennium Goals.1 Goal number four pretends to reduce child Mortality, number five, to improve maternal health, and six, to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. (United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2012). According to the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World of 2005 the critical factors that affect the health include: Increasing inequalities within and between countries New patterns of consumption and communication Commercialization Global environmental change Urbanization However, those are not the only challenges that the governments face these days. The vulnerability of children, the rapid economic and demographic changes and exclusion of marginalized, disabled and indigenous people have become also part of the issue. It is task of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) committee to generate proposals in order to resolve these challenges, taking into account the opportunities that the new technologies offer and having clear the necessity of: investment, partnership and legislation that will be required in the process.Taking a as a reference the definition of the World Health organization (WHO), we can delimit health services as: “The promotion, maintenance and restoration of health as well as services dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases performed by health care professionals or by others under their direction supplied by either the government or the private initiative.� (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012) In one hand, during the last decade, countries such as the United States and China have created legislations in order to reach the universal coverage of health. In both cases, they include highinvestments, which are previewed to give results bythe 2020 decade. This may not be profitable for In 2000, 189 nations made a promise to free people from extreme poverty and multiple deprivations. This pledge turned into the eight Millennium Development Goals (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2012)

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all the developing countries. Nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization 2010 Report, developing countries such as Sri Lanka, Chile, Cuba, Brazil and Thailand have created policies that will eventually lead them to the universal coverage.In addition, countries such as Costa Rica, Vietnam, Philippines and Mexico have increased their commonwealth funds so that they can give protection to all their citizens. As a resume, it could be said that there are three ways of collecting additional funds or of diversifying the financing sources: Give health a greater priority in the current expenses, especially in the budgets of the government. Find sources of national financing: new or diversified. Increase the financial external support.

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Graph shows public investment in health services by region Taken from: http://www.who.int/ whr/2010/10_chap02_es.pdf

On the other hand, there are cases in which the efforts done by the government and the private investors have been insufficient to cover the needs of health. This owes, between other factors, to social problems

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that include: the disinformation of the existence of these programs, the limitation of the public services and the incapacity of transporting to the most margined communities from every nation. The objective is to lead to a change in health regulations through the creation of a legal framework that adapts to the technological, social, political and economic needsof both capacity and availability of each country and region. Achieving health targets depends on equitable access to a health system that delivers high quality services. The exact configuration of services will depend on country context, but will in all cases require: adequate financing with pooling of risk; a well-trained and adequately remunerated workforce; information for policy and decision-making; logistics for medicines, technologies and vaccines; well-maintained facilities; as well as leadership and governance (World Health Organization,2013). Taking the previous as a point of item it is necessary that the countries distinguish between the different types of social programs to achieve effective campaigns of awareness. For this it is not only necessary a more equitable distribution of the resources but also the accomplishment of a suitable agenda that contemplates the following points: Local projects of support to use the resources of a most efficient way. To canalize the funds across the institutions and the fundamental mechanisms for the universal coverage Innovating health service and access on marginalized and poor sectors of the population. (World Health Organization, 2010) The crucial point regarding access to health services lies in the fact that technological, social and economic factors converge on both a need and a must to be established in order to get the best quality of these services. The lack or weakness on any of these points leads to a decrease of the amount and quality of the services that a nation can offer. It is important therefore, to create the framework that will lead to a better usage of resources (not only economic, but mostly humanitarian) that will lead to the empowerment of several solutions in the most affected areas.

Questions Which are the levels of access to health services in your country? How are these funded (through national/international funding, etc.)? What are the social programming requirements in your country and regionally in order to achieve better health services?

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Which are measures that can be applied worldwide, disregarding financial aspects?

References United Nations Development Programme(UNDP). (2012) Millennium Goals Retrieved on December 28,2013 from: http://www.un.org/mille nniumgoals/ United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2012). Human Resources for Health Retrieved on December 27, 2012 from: http://www.unfpa.org/sow my/resources/docs/library/R038_Rao_etal_2011_India_LANCET_SS-HRH_ article.pdf World Health Organization (WHO).(2012a). Guidelines Retrieved on December 27, 2012 from:http://www.who.int/publications/guidelines/en/ index.html World Health Organization (2012b).The Bangkok Charter for health promotion in a Globalized World Retrieved on December 27,2012 from: http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/6gchp/hpr_050829 _%20BCHP.pdf World Health Organization.(2010) World Health Report Retrieved December 27,2012 from: http://www.who.int/whr/2010/10_chap05_es.pdf

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