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Azimut The Premex Newsletter #1


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THE IMPORTANCE OF SELENIUM TO HUMAN HEALTH The essential trace mineral, selenium, is of fundamental importance to human health.

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

AUTHOR Margaret P. Rayman (“The Lancet. Vol 356: 233-41, July 15, 2000), Centre for Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, UK

As a constituent of selenoproteins, selenium has structural and enzymic roles, in the latter context being best known as an antioxidant and catalyst for the production of active thyroid hormone. Selenium is needed for the proper functioning of the immune system, and appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS. It is required for vshup#prwlolw|#dqg#pd|#uhgxfh#wkh#ulvn#ri#plvfduuldjh1#GhĽflhqf|# has been linked to adverse mood states. Findings have been equivocal in linking selenium to cardiovascular disease risk although other frqglwlrqv#lqyroylqj#r{lgdwlyh#vwuhvv#dqg#lqľdppdwlrq#kdyh#vkrzq# ehqhĽwv#ri#d#kljkhu#vhohqlxp#vwdwxv1#Dq#hohydwhg#vhohqlxp#lqwdnh#pd|# be associated with reduced cancer risk. Large clinical trials are now sodqqhg#wr#frqĽup#ru#uhixwh#wklv#k|srwkhvlv1#Lq#wkh#frqwh{w#ri#wkhvh# khdowk#hļhfwv/#orz#ru#glplqlvklqj#vhohqlxp#vwdwxv#lq#vrph#sduwv#ri# the world, notably in some European countries, is giving cause for concern. The trace mineral selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This has become increasingly obvious, as new research has shown a hitherto unsuspected role for this element in areas important to human health. As selenocysteine, the 21st aminoacid, selenium is a component of selenoproteins, some of which have important enzymic functions.1 It has now been recognized that all these enzymes are selenium-dependent, generally with selenocysteine at the active site.1 Here selenium functions as a redox centre, for instance when the selenoenzyme, thioredoxin reductase, reduces nucleotides in DNA synthesis and helps control the intracellular redox state,2 or when the selenium-dependent iodothyronine deiodinases produce active thyroid hormone from inactive precursor.1 The best-known example of this redox function is the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and

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«SELENIUM IS NEEDED FOR THE PROPER FUNCTIONING OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM»

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damaging lipid and phospholipid hydroperoxides to harmless products (water and alcohols) by the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases.1–3 This function helps to maintain membrane integrity,3,4 protects prostacyclin production,4 and reduces the

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

likelihood of propagation of further oxidative damage to biomolecules such as lipids, lipoproteins, and DNA with the associated increased risk of conditions such as atherosclerosis and cancer.3,4 About 35 vhohqrsurwhlqv#kdyh#ehhq#lghqwlĽhg/#wkrxjk#pdq|#kdyh#urohv#wkdw# have not yet been fully elucidated.5 Table 1 details known selenoproteins that carry out nutritional functions of selenium.1–3,5–9 Vhohqlxp#kdv#dgglwlrqdo#lpsruwdqw#khdowk#hļhfwv#sduwlfxoduo|#lq# relation to the immune response and cancer prevention, which are almost certainly not exclusively linked to these enzymic functions. Khdowk#frqglwlrqv#dvvrfldwhg#zlwk#vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf| Recognition of the important role of selenoproteins in metabolism khosv#wr#h{sodlq#wkh#dgyhuvh#frqvhtxhqfhv#ri#vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|#lq# human and animal health. Selenium enters the food chain through plants, which take it up iurp#wkh#vrlo1#Vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|#kdv#wkhuhiruh#ehhq#lghqwlĽhg#lq# parts of the world notable for their low soil content of selenium, such as volcanic regions.10 Acid soils and complexation, frequently with iron or aluminum, also reduce the uptake of selenium by plants, as lq#pdq|#sduwv#ri#Hxursh143#Dqlpdo#ghĽflhqf|0glvhdvhv#kdyh#ehhq# lghqwlĽhg#vlqfh#wkh#4<83v#rq#d#zlgh#vfdoh#lq#olyhvwrfn#lq#frxqwulhv/# including the UK, that have such soil conditions, examples being reproductive impairment, growth depression (ill-thrift), and whitemuscle disease, a myopathy of heart and skeletal muscle principally dļhfwlqj#odpev#dqg#fdoyhv143#Wkhvh#glvrughuv#kdyh#kdg#vxfk#vhulrxv# economic consequences that measures to increase selenium intake (such as top dressing of pasture land with selenised fertilizers, mineral mixes, boluses, drenches) are now applied to prevent their occurrence.10

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gnized in some regions: Keshan disease, an endemic cardiomyopathy, dqg#Ndvklq0Ehfn#glvhdvh/#d#ghiruplqj#duwkulwlv/#zhuh#Ľuvw#lghqwlĽhg# in an area of China where the soil is extremely low in selenium.10

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Human dietary intakes also range from high to low according to jhrjudsk|1# Kxpdq# vhohqlxp0ghĽflhqf|# glvhdvhv# kdyh# ehhq# uhfr-

Both these conditions are believed to have other causative cofactors. Wkhuh# lv# hylghqfh# wkdw# ohvv0ryhuw# vhohqlxp# ghĽflhqf|# fdq# kdyh# adverse consequences for disease susceptibility and the maintenance of optimal health. Low selenium status may contribute to the etiology of the disease process but in some cases it may be an outcome of the condition itself and may exacerbate disease progression (eg, KLY#lqihfwlrq,1#Wkhvh#glĿfxowlhv#duh#odujho|#ryhufrph#lq#survshfwlyh# hslghplrorjlfdo#vwxglhv/#sduwlfxoduo|#zkhuh#wkh#Ľuvw#ihz#|hduv#ri#irolow-up are excluded from the analysis, and in randomized controlled

Selenoprotein

Function

Glutathione peroxidases (GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, GPx4)

Antioxidant enzymes: remove hydrogen peroxide, and lipid and phospholipid hydroperoxides (thereby maintaining membrane integrity, modulating eicosanoid synthesis, prgli|lqj#lqľdppdwlrq#dqg#olnholkrrg#ri#sursdjdwlrq#ri# further oxidative damage to biomolecules such as lipids, lipoproteins, and DNA).1,2,3,6

(Sperm) mitochondrial capsule selenoprotein

Form of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4): shields developing sperm cells from oxidative damage and later polymerizes into structural protein required for stability/motility of mature sperm.7

Iodothyronine deiodinases (three isoforms)

Production and regulation of level of active thyroid hormone, T3, from thyroxin, T4.1

Thioredoxin reductases (probably three isoforms)

Reduction of nucleotides in DNA synthesis; regeneration of antioxidant systems;2 maintenance of intracellular redox state, critical for cell viability and proliferation;2 regulation of gene expression by redox control of binding of transcription factors to DNA.2

Selenophosphate synthetase, SPS2

Required for biosynthesis of selenophosphate, the precursor of selenocysteine, and therefore for seleoprotein synthesis.2

Selenoprotein P

Found in plasma and associated with endothelial cells. Appears to protect endothelial cells against damage from peroxynitrite.1,2,8

Selenoprotein W

Needed for muscle function.1,2

Prostate epithelial selenoprotein (15kDa)

Found in epithelial cells of ventral prostate. Seems to have redox function (resembles GPx4), perhaps protecting secretory cells against development of carcinoma.9

DNA-bound spermatid selenoprotein (34 kDa)

Glutathione peroxidase-like activity. Found in stomach and in nuclei of spermatozoa. May protect developing sperm.9

18 kDa selenoprotein

Important selenoprotein, found in kidney and large number ri#rwkhu#wlvvxhv1#Suhvhuyhg#lq#vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|18

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

trials of selenium supplementation.

Table 1: Known selenoproteins that carry out nutritional functions of selenium

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IMMUNE FUNCTION Qxphurxv#vwxglhv#vxjjhvw#wkdw#ghĽflhqf|#ri#vhoh-

cytes and natural-killer cells, thereby facilitating

nium is accompanied by loss of immunocompe-

their interaction with interleukin-2. This interac-

tence, probably not unconnected with the fact that

wlrq#lv#fuxfldo#iru#forqdo#h{sdqvlrq#dqg#glļhuhqwld-

vhohqlxp#lv#qrupdoo|#irxqg#lq#vljqlĽfdqw#dprxqwv#

tion into cytotoxic T cells. Even at so-called replete

in immune tissues such as liver, spleen, and lymph

levels of plasma selenium produced by normal die-

nodes. Both cell-mediated immunity and B-cell

tary intake in the USA (120–134 mcg/L), supplemen-

function can be impaired.6 By way of contrast, supplemen-

tation with 200 mcg selenium per

«SELENIUM ENTERS

day has considerable immunoen-

“selenium-replete” individuals,

THE FOOD CHAIN

have been demonstrated by the

has marked immunostimulant

THROUGH PLANTS,

tation with selenium, even in

effects, including an enhancement of proliferation of activated T cells (clonal expansion). 11 Lymphocytes from volunteers

WHICH TAKE IT UP FROM THE SOIL»

supplemented with selenium (as

same research group in patients undergoing therapy for head and neck cancer. Additionally, cells of the immune system may have an important functional need for

sodium selenite) at 200 mcg per day showed an

selenium. Activated T cells show upregulated

enhanced response to antigen stimulation and an

selenophosphate synthetase activity, 12 direc-

increased ability to develop into cytotoxic lympho-

ted towards the synthesis of selenocysteine, the

cytes and to destroy tumor cells. Natural-killer-

essential building block of selenoproteins, which

cell activity was also increased. Supplementation

shows the importance of selenoproteins to activa-

resulted in a 118% increase in cytotoxic-lympho-

ted T-cell function and the control of the immune

cyte-mediated tumor cytotoxicity and an 82%

response. The mRNAs of several T-cell-associated

increase in natural-killer-cell activity compared

jhqhv#+hj/#lqwhuohxnlq050uhfhswru#0vxexqlw/#FG7,#

with baseline.11

have the theoretical capacity to encode functional

The mechanism appears to be closely related to

selenoproteins, suggesting that the roles of sele-

the ability of selenium to upregulate the expression

nium in the immune system may be more diverse

of receptors for the growth-regulatory cytokine

than previously suspected.13

interleukin-2 on the surface of activated lympho-

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hancing effects.11 Such effects


be explained.15 Selenium seems to be a crucial nutrient for HIV

Vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|#lv#olqnhg#wr#wkh#rffxuuhqfh/#

infected individuals. It is a potent inhibitor of HIV

virulence, or disease progression of some viral

replication in vitro.17 The progress of HIV can be

infections.14

thought of as being synonymous with the progres-

Beck and colleagues have shown that in a sele-

sive loss of CD4 helper T cells. More than 20 papers

qlxp#ghĽflhqw#krvw#kdupohvv#yluxvhv#fdq#ehfrph#

report a progressive decline in plasma selenium

virulent,1

in parallel with the on-going loss of CD4 T cells in

SELENIUM SEEMS

Keshan disease. When selenium-

TO BE A CRUCIAL

deficient mice were inoculated with a benign strain of the cox-

NUTRIENT FOR HIV

sackie virus (CVB3/0), mutations

INFECTED INDIVI-

occurred in the genome to give a cardiovirulent form of the virus

DUALS

that caused myocarditis with simi-

HIV-1 infection.18 This decline in selenium occurs even in early stages of disease when malnutrition or malabsorption cannot be a factor.18 In fact, plasma selenium is a strong predictor of the outcome in HIV infection. Baum and colleagues showed that vhohqlxp0ghĽflhqw#KLY#sdwlhqwv#

larities to that seen in human beings. Furthermore,

are nearly 20 times more likely (p<0·0001) to die

when the virus from these mice was inoculated into

from HIV-related causes than those with adequate

mice that had adequate selenium, it still induced

ohyhov14<# Vhohqlxp# ghĽflhqf|# lv# ghĽqhg# e|# wkhvh#

heart damage, showing the irreversibility of the

workers as a plasma concentration at or below 85

mutation. In the case of the Coxsackie virus, six

mcg/L, a concentration not attained in many nor-

vhsdudwh#srlqw#pxwdwlrqv#zhuh#lghqwlĽhg#zlwk#wkh#

thern European countries—eg, a mean concentra-

development of virulence, causing myocarditis in

tion of 60 mcg/L was found in a Scottish study.20

the host. A similar study on mice that were unable

Baum and colleagues showed that low plasma

to make glutathione peroxidase (GPx1-knock-out

vhohqlxp# lv# d# vljqlĽfdqwo|# juhdwhu# ulvn# idfwru# iru#

mice) showed that this enzyme is essential for the

mortality than low helper-T-cell count, by a fac-

avoidance of oxidative damage to the RNA-viral

wru#ri#49/#dqg#frqihuv#d#pruh#vljqlĽfdqw#ulvn#wkdq#

genome that results in the myocarditic mutations.16

ghĽflhqf|# ri# dq|# rwkhu# qxwulhqw# lqyhvwljdwhg1# Lq#

Coxsackie virus has been isolated from the blood

HIV-infected children, low levels of plasma sele-

and tissues of people with Keshan disease and is

qlxp#zhuh#vljqlĽfdqwo|#dqg#lqghshqghqwo|#uhodwhg#

thought likely to be a cofactor in the development

to mortality (relative risk 5·96; p=0·02) and faster

of the cardiomyopathy.15,16 It seems probable, the-

disease progression.21

uhiruh/#wkdw#kxpdq#vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|#vlploduo|#

Selenium also appears to be protective in indi-

dļhfwv#wkh#yludo#jhqrph#uhvxowlqj# in the development of the heart pathology. Li#wkhvh#Ľqglqjv#zhuh#wr#eh#dssolcable to other RNA viruses, such as srolryluxv/#khsdwlwlv/#lqľxhq}d/#ru# HIV, there would be considerable

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

5 a situation that is likely to be relevant to the development of

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VIRAL INFECTION

viduals infected with hepatitis

SELENIUM DEFICIENCY IS LINKED TO PROGRESSION OF SOME VIRAL INFECTIONS.14

public-health implications. The

virus (B or C) against the progression of the condition to liver cancer.22,23 Viruses may be capable of hijacking the selenium supply of the host by incorporating selenium into viral selenoproteins,

vwhdg|#hphujhqfh#ri#qhz#vwudlqv#ri#lqľxhq}d#yluxv#

thereby reducing the ability of the host to mount

lq# Fklqd# zlwk# lwv# vhohqlxp0ghĽflhqw# ehow/# ru# wkh#

dq#hļhfwlyh#lppxqh#uhvsrqvh1#Wkhuh#lv#h{shulphq-

Ľuvw#furvvlqj#ryhu#ri#KLY#wr#kxpdq#ehlqjv#lq#wkh#

tal evidence that this is possible from the work of

vhohqlxp0ghĽflhqw#srsxodwlrq#ri#]dluh/#pljkw#dovr#

Moss’s group in the case of the pox virus, mol-

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luscum contagious, which makes

STUDIES HAVE

long as there is enough selenium

theoretical and experimental evi-

SHOWN THAT IN A

high and the host cell will be less

dence from Taylor’s group that the

SELENIUM DEFI-

likely to die (by apoptosis). The

proteins (such as GPx) is common

CIENT HOST HAR-

replicate at very low levels and

to many human viral pathogens

MLESS VIRUSES CAN

establish a persistent infection.

BECOME VIRULENT

however, increased oxidative

a homologue of GPx,24 and both

capability of making viral seleno-

such as HIV-1 and 2, coxsackie virus B3, hepatitis B and C viruses, and the measles virus.25,26 Good

around, cellular immunity will be

best viral strategy is therefore to

Under low selenium conditions, stress and apoptosis activate the

selenium status may protect against HIV progres-

virus, which must replicate at higher rates to

sion by maintaining host immune competence and

escape from a dying cell thus leading to increased

appropriate redox control. Taylor suggests that as

sdwkrjhqlf#hļhfwv1

MOOD Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

In a study in the USA, selenium deprivation led There are a number of indications that selenium

to depressed mood and more hostile behavior as

is important to the brain : during selenium deple-

measured by a questionnaire.38 The lower the

tion the brain receives a priority supply;38 the

initial selenium status, the more the mood scores

turnover rate of some neurotransmitters is altered

decreased indicating a worsening of mood, as a

lq# vhohqlxp# ghĽflhqf|>6<# vxssohphqwdwlrq# zlwk#

result of the low selenium diet. In a second US study,

selenium reduced intractable epileptic seizures in

where individuals were fed either a low or a high

children;40,41 low plasma selenium concentrations

selenium diet for 15 weeks, those on the low sele-

lq# wkh# hoghuo|# zhuh# vljqlĽfdqwo|# dvvrfldwhg# zlwk#

qlxp#glhw#kdg#vljqlĽfdqwo|#ghfuhdvhg#fohdukhdghg2

senility and accelerated cognitive decline;38,42

confused and elated/depressed subscores.43 (The

and brain selenium concentration in Alzheimer’s

dietary selenium intake on this low-selenium diet

patients was only 60% of that in controls.38 Fur-

was 32·6 mcg per day, similar to current UK intakes

thermore, the brain is deficient in catalase,41

of 29–39 mcg per day).45

thus peroxidation products such as hydrogen

selenoenzymes. A beneficial effect of

THAT

selenium status on mood

SELENIUM

when selenium status is

has been shown, at least

IS IMPORTANT

“marginal”. In three stu-

TO THE BRAIN

tus was associated with

dies, low selenium staa significantly greater incidence of depression

and other negative mood states such as anxiety, confusion, and hostility.38,43,44

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Low selenium

1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 re e ho abl st eile Cl ea r co he nf ad us ed Co ed* m p an ose xi dou Fr s qĽ gh un q su w0 re de E pr la es te se dEn d* er ge t ti icre d

INDICATIONS

ved by the antioxidant

High selenium

Ag

A NUMBER OF

peroxides must be remo-

Ratio of mood scores weeks 11-14 : weeks 2-5

THERE ARE

1.1

peroxide and primary

"ECSPA %LÑSAL?AMBQAJALESK?MLRALRMB@EARMLKMM@QR=RAQ KA=QSPA@>VRDA{,PMÐJAMB)MM@/R=RAQqENMJ=P"MPK{ questionnaire Wkh#kljkhu#wkh#vfruh/#wkh#ehwwhu#wkh#prrg1#-VljqlĽfdqw#glļhrence between groups (p<0.05). (Bar chart constructed from reference 43.)


OR SUPPLEMENTATION WITH SELENIUM APPEARS

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HIGH DIETARY SELENIUM

Lq#frqwudvw#wr#wkhvh#Ľqglqjv/#kljk#glhwdu|#vhoh-

in weeks 11–14 to those in weeks 2–5, for both the

nium or supplementation with selenium appears to

kljk#dqg#orz#vhohqlxp#glhwv1#D#vlplodu#Ľqglqj#zdv#

improve mood. In the US study referred to above,43

obtained in a double-blind crossover study done

those on the high selenium (226·5 mcg per day) diet

in the UK, where a 100 mcg selenium supplement

vljqlĽfdqwo|#lpsuryhg#lq#wkh#fohdukhdghg2frqixvhg/#

vljqlĽfdqwo|# ghfuhdvhg# dq{lhw|/# ghsuhvvlrq/# dqg#

confident/unsure, and composed/anxious subs-

tiredness,44 the effect being greatest in those

fruhv/#dqg#wrwdo#prrg#glvwxuedqfh#zdv#vljqlĽfdqwo|#

whose diets were lowest in selenium.

ohvv1#Wkh#uhvxowv#ri#wklv#vwxg|#duh#vkrzq#lq#Ľjxuh#4# as the ratio of mean mood scores (six categories)

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Selenium may be protective against cardio-

The balance is therefore tipped towards the

vascular disease.4 On theoretical grounds, this

proaggregatory state. In men with coronary artery

hypothesis is supported by the ability of GPx to

disease, platelet aggregability is inversely related to

frpedw#wkh#r{lgdwlyh#prglĽfdwlrq#ri#olslgv#dqg#wr#

selenium status.4,49

reduce platelet aggregation.4 GPx4 reduces hydro-

Prospective epidemiological studies have had

peroxides of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters

pl{hg#Ľqglqjv1#Zkloh#Vdorqhq#dqg#froohdjxhv#irxqg#

associated with lipoproteins48 and may therefore

a two-fold to three-fold increase in cardiovascular

reduce the accumulation of oxidized low-density

morbidity and mortality for individuals with serum

lipoproteins in the artery wall. GPx is required

selenium concentrations below 45 mcg/L compa-

for the metabolism of hydroperoxides produced

red with individuals above that concentration at

in eicosanoid synthesis by the lipoxygenase and

edvholqh/83#Yluwdprġv#jurxs#irxqg#qr#vljqlĽfdqw#

f|forr{|jhqdvh#sdwkzd|v19#Lq#vhohqlxp#ghĽflhqf|/#

associations with selenium concentrations above

a build-up of these hydroperoxides inhibits the

and below that cut-off point except for stroke

enzyme prostacyclin synthetase that is responsible

mortality.51 A study by Suadicani and colleagues

for the production of vasodilatory prostacyclin by

showed that middle-aged and elderly Danish men

the endothelium, but stimulates the production of

with serum selenium below 79 mcg/L had a signi-

thromboxane, which is associated with vasocons-

Ľfdqwo|#lqfuhdvhg#ulvn#ri#lvfkhplf#khduw#glvhdvh185#

triction and platelet aggregation.4

However, about half a dozen other studies have not

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

TO IMPROVE MOOD

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SELENIUM MAY BE PROTECTIVE AGAINST CARDIOVASCULAR

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

DISEASE

shown a clear association between cardiovascular

plasma selenium concentration might be expected

ulvn#dqg#orz#vhohqlxp/#dowkrxjk#wkhvh#glļhu#iurp#

in people who have atherosclerosis, even before the

the above studies in having included few or no

occurrence of an event.

people with low selenium concentrations.4,53 That a low selenium status may be relevant was sugjhvwhg#e|#wkh#Ľqglqjv#ri#Nduglqddo#dqg#froohdjxhv# lq#wkh#whq0fhqwuh#HXUDPLF#vwxg|#zkhuh#d#vljqlĽcant inverse association between toenail selenium

Selenium behaves both as an antioxidant and

levels and risk of myocardial infarction was shown

dqwl0lqľdppdwru|#djhqw1#Wklv#lv#ehfdxvh#vhohqlxp#

only for the centre with the lowest selenium (Ger-

in its antioxidant role, notably as GPx, can: reduce

pdq|,187#Wkxv#wkh#hļhfw#pd|#rqo|#eh#dssduhqw#lq#

hydrogen peroxide, lipid and phospholipid hydro-

populations of low selenium status, lower than the

peroxides, thereby dampening the propagation of

concentrations obtaining in the USA and a large

free radicals and reactive oxygen species; reduce

part of Europe. The disparity between studies may

hydroperoxide intermediates in the cyclooxyge-

also be explained to some extent by the status of

nase and lipoxygenase pathways diminishing the

other antioxidants such as vitamin E, which may

production of inflammatory prostaglandins and

frpshqvdwh#iru#d#ghĽflhqf|#lq#vhohqlxp#lq#surwhf-

leukotrienes; and modulate the respiratory burst,

tion against atherosclerosis.54

by removal of hydrogen peroxide and reduction of

A further factor to be taken into consideration

10

OTHER OXIDATIVE-STRESS OR INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS

superoxide production.6

when assessing these studies is that atheroscle-

Any condition associated with increased oxi-

urvlv#lv#dq#lqľdppdwru|#vwdwh#dqg#zloo#suryrnh#wkh#

gdwlyh#vwuhvv#ru#lqľdppdwlrq#pljkw#eh#h{shfwhg#

acute phase response to a degree related to its seve-

wr# eh# lqľxhqfhg# e|# vhohqlxp# ohyhov/# zklfk# pd|#

rity. Being an acute-phase reactant,55 some fall in

be the case in rheumatoid arthritis, pancreatitis,


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SELENIUM BEHAVES BOTH AS AN ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY

and asthma. In a case-control study nested within

Vhohqlxp#kdv#dovr#vkrzq#ehqhĽw#lq#dfxwh#sdq-

a Finnish cohort of 18 709 men and women who

creatitis. In a small controlled trial in Rostock,

had no arthritis at baseline, the adjusted relative

Germany, intravenous administration of selenium

risk between the highest and lowest tertiles of

to patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

serum selenium was 0·16 (p for trend=0·02) for

reduced mortality from 89% in controls to zero in

rheumatoid-factor-negative arthritis.56 There

the treatment group.59

was no association for rheumatoid-factor-positive

A protective relationship was found between

disease.56 In a double-blind randomized trial in a

dietary selenium intake and asthma in adults in

small group of patients with rheumatoid arthri-

a large population-based case-control study in

tis,56 supplementation with 200 mcg selenium

London (odds ratio per quintile increase=0·84;

as organic selenium for 3 months, significantly

p=0·002).60 In a small nested case-control study,

reduced pain and joint involvement.57

fxuuhqw#zkhh}h#dprqj#Qhz#]hdodqg#fkloguhq#zdv#

Wkhuh#lv#hylghqfh#iru#d#surwhfwlyh#hļhfw#ri#vhoh-

more common in those with low concentrations

nium in pancreatitis, a disorder associated with a

of selenium in serum samples collected 8 years

high level of oxidative stress. At Manchester Royal

previously (odds ratio=3·1).61 Another small study

LqĽupdu|/# dgplqlvwudwlrq# ri# vhohqlxp# +933# pfj#

lq#lqwulqvlf#dvwkpdwlfv#vkrzhg#vljqlĽfdqw#folqlfdo#

per day) along with other antioxidants to patients

improvement on supplementation with selenium

with chronic and

at 100 mcg per day as sodium selenite.62

uhfxuuhqw#sdqfuhdwlwlv#vljqlĽfdqwo|#uhgxfhg#sdlq#

Vhohqlxp#vxssohphqwdwlrq#pd|#eh#ri#ehqhĽw#lq#

and frequency of attacks. Treatment has been revo-

preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury: a seleniu-

lutionized by obviating the need for surgery for

phqulfkhg#glhw#kdg#d#vljqlĽfdqw#hļhfw#+s?3™38,#lq#

pancreatic pain.58

preventing reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in an

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

AGENT

animal model.63

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CONCLUSIONS Recent evidence has reinforced the importance to health of adequate selenium status. Selenium intakes may be suboptimal with respect to disease risk, notably in populations of adults in the UK, sduwv#ri#Hxursh#dqg#Fklqd/#Qhz#]hdodqg/#dqg#hyhq# in the USA. Indications that this may be the case are strongest for cancer—where selenium intake at a much higher level than that required to saturate the vhohqrhq}|phv#zrxog#dsshdu#wr#eh#ehqhĽfldoğdqg# HIV progression to AIDS. Further research is needed to clarify the optimal nutrition level with respect to selenium. In this context, the planned PRECISE and VHOHFW#wuldov#vkrxog#jlyh#wkh#ghĽqlwlyh#dqvzhu#rq# the ability of selenium to reduce cancer risk. If similar results were to be obtained to those of

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

the NPC trial, addition of selenium to the food sup-

12

ply in countries such as the UK would be a possible outcome. This has been achieved in Finland, where selenium intakes were formerly very low, by addition of selenium to fertilizers since 1984.


and subcellular distribution of selenium and selenoproteins. In: Roussel AM, Favier A, Anderson RA, eds. Trace elements in man and animals 10: proceedings of the tenth international symposium on trace elements in man and animals. New

technique

5.Ehkqh#G/#SĽhihu#K/#Urwkohlq#G/#N|uldnrsrxorv#D1#Fhooxodu#

York: Plenum Press, 2000: 29–33. 6.Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Larsen HS. Advances in understanding selenium’s role in the immune system. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990; 587: 123–39. 7.Ursini F, Heim S, Kiess M, et al. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation. Science 1999; 285: 1393–96. 8.Arteel GA, Briviba K, Sies H. Protection against peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett 1999; 445: 226–30. 9.Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A, Kalcklosh M, et al. Two new selenoproteins found in the prostatic glandular epithelium and the spermatid nuclei. Biomed Environ Sci 1997; 10: 340–45. Academic and Professional, 1996. 11.Kiremidjian-Schumacher L, Roy M, Wishe HI, Cohen MW, Stotzky G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biol Trace Elem Res 1994; 41: 115–27. 121Jxlpdudhv#PM/#Shwhuvrq#G/#Ylfdul#Y/#hw#do1#LghqwlĽfdwlrq#ri# a novel SelD homolog from eukaryotes, bacteria, and archea: is there an autoregulatory mechanism in selenocysteine metabolism? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 15068–91. 13.Taylor EW, Nadimpalli RG. Chemoprotective mechanisms of selenium in cancer and AIDS: evidence for the involve-

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10.Reilly C. Selenium in food and health. London: Blackie

ment of novel selenoprotein genes. Info Onkologi 1999; 2: 7–11. 14.Taylor EW, Nadimpalli RG, Ramanathan CS. Genomic

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18.Look MP, Rockstroh JK, Rao GS, Kreuzer KA, Spengler U, Sauerbruch T. Serum selenium versus lymphocyte subsets dqg#pdunhuv#ri#glvhdvh#surjuhvvlrq#dqg#lqľdppdwru|# uhvsrqvh#lq#kxpdq#lppxqrghĽflhqf|#yluxv0lqihfwlrq1#Elro# Trace Elem Res 1997; 56: 31–41. 19.Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Lai S, et al. High risk of HIV-

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sub-fertile human males. Br J Urol 1998; 82: 76–80.

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induced cell death blocked by a selenoprotein from a human

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dermotropic pox virus. Science 1998; 279: 102–05.

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ristics in subfertile men. J Androl 1995; 16: 441–47.

AG, Taylor EW. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase

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modules encoded by RNA viruses. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999;

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stress—the EVA study. J Am Geriat Soc 2000 (in press).

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14


Joint Food Safety and Standards Group, UK Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF), October, 1997. 46.Olivieri O, Girelli D, Azzini M, et al. Low selenium status lq#wkh#hoghuo|#lqľxhqfhv#wk|urlg#kruprqhv1#Folq#Vfl#4<<8>#;<=# 637–42.

56.Knekt P, Heliövaara M, Aho K, Alfthan G, Marniemi J,

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Aromaa A. Serum selenium, serum alpha-tocopherol and

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the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Epidemiology 2000 (in

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press).

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and LDL-associated cholesterylester and phospholipid

treatment of recent onset rheumatoid arthritis by selenium

hydroperoxides by phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione

supplementation: preliminary observations. Br J Rheumatol

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1992; 31: 281–86.

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58.McCloy R. Chronic pancreatitis at Manchester, UK: focus

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of serum selenium and antioxidants to plasma lipoproteins,

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platelet aggregability and prevalent ischemic heart disease

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in Eastern Finnish men. Atherosclerosis 1988; 70: 155–65.

and other antioxidants. J Nutr Environ Med 1996; 6: 393–94.

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60.Shaheen SO, Sterne JAC, Thompson RL, et al. Dietary

P. Association between cardiovascular death and myco-

antioxidants and asthma in adults. Eur Respir J 1999; 14

cardial infarction and serum selenium in a matched pair

(suppl 30): 141s.

longitudinal study. Lancet 1982; ii: 175–179.

61.Shaw R, Woodman K, Crane J, Moyes C, Kennedy J, Pearce

51.Virtamo J, Valkiela E, Alfthan G, Punsar S, Huttunen JK,

N. Risk factors for asthma symptoms in Kawerau children. N

Karvonen MJ. Serum selenium and the risk of coronary heart

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disease and stroke. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 276–82.

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52.Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. Serum selenium

Selenium supplementation in intrinsic asthma. Allergy 1993;

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prospective cohort study of 3000 males. Atherosclerosis

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1992; 96: 33–42.

Leiris J. Trace elements and cardioprotection: increasing

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MJ. Plasma levels of the antioxidant selenium and risk of

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arrhythmias. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1998; 12: 28–38.

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

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45.Food Surveillance Information Sheet, No 126. London:

1995; 76: 1218–21. 54.Kardinaal AFM, Kok FJ, Kohlmeier L, et al. Association between toenail selenium and risk of myocardial infarction in European men: the EURAMIC Study. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 373–79. 55.Nicol C, Herdman J, Sattar N, et al. Changes in concentrations of plasma selenium and selenoproteins after minor elective surgery: further evidence for a negative acute phase response. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 1764–66.

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Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

ORGANIC MINERALS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN INORGANIC MINERALS FOR ANIMAL SUPPLEMENTATION 16


product

THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL SELENIUM DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL SELENIUM SOURCE AND LEVEL ON COMMERCIAL LAYER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AND ON TABLE EGG SELENIUM CONTENT

Maria Alejandra Velásquez.

INTRODUCTION The table egg industry is continuously searching for strategies

Animal Husbandry Specia-

leading to surgxfw# glļhuhqwldwlrq, for consumers to distinguish

list, National University,

enhanced eggs from traditional eggs. On the other hand, one consu-

Medellín, Colombia.

mer sector is showing a growing interest for foods leading to improved nutrition/health status, i.e.: the so called "functional" foods”.

Carlos González. Animal Husbandry Specialist.

One of the strategies explored by the animal nutrition sector to

Professor, National Univer-

ixoĽoo#erwk#surgxfhu#qhhgv#dqg#frqvxphu#ghpdqgv#iru#glļhuhqwldwhg#

sity, Medellín, Colombia.

products is using mineral organic sources in feeds. The basis of feeding animals with organic resources revolves around the theory that

Paula A. Toro. MSc. Animal Husbandry, Premex SA. Javier Chica Peláez. MSc. Animal Husbandry, Premex SA.

organic minerals are more similar to the forms found in live animals therefore they tend to be more biologically available than inorganic sources. If organic compounds are more stable in the digestive tract, then minerals given this way can be protected from complexing with other dietary components that can interfere with their absorption

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

RESEARCHERS

(Dudley-Cash, 1997). This way, improved mineral status can be obtained in the birds. Generally, rujdqlf# plqhudov# duh# pruh# hĿflhqw# wkdq# lqrujdqlf# minerals for animal supplementation, but their positive responses are conditioned by several aspects, including: The organ or tissue vhohfwhg# wr# phdvxuh# wkhlu# dfwlylw|/# wkh# glhwdu|# ohyho# xvhg# wr# ixoĽoo# the requirements of the species being supplemented, the timing and length of supplying the mineral source being evaluated, and the micromineral in question (Gutiérrez, 2000; Dudley-Cash, 1997). This trial was performed as an attempt to prove that organic mineral supplementation increases the transfer of Selenium (Se) to table eggs, leading to modulating nutrient egg contents. This allows for surgxfw#glļhuhqwldwlrq#wkdw#hqg#frqvxphuv#fdq#shufhlyh1#

17


product

GENERAL OBJECTIVE Hydoxdwlqj#wkh#hļhfw#ri#glhwdu|#Vhohqlxp#vxssoh-

EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS Wdeoh#4#ghvfulehv#wkh#glļhuhqw#wuhdwphqwv1#

mentation source and level on Selenium content in commercial layer eggs.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Frpsdulqj#wkh#hļhfwlyhqhvv#ri#glļhuhqw#Vhohqlxp# sources on the transfer of Selenium to the egg.

Table 1. Selenium sources and levels used in the glļhuhqw#h{shulphqwdo#wuhdwphqwv

Feeds

Sodium Selenite (ppm)

Treatment 1

0.10

Prokel™ Selenium (ppm) 0.0

Treatment 2

0.30

0.0

Ghwhuplqlqj#wkh#hļhfw#ri#ihhg#Vhohqlxp#vxssoh-

Treatment 3

0.0

0.10

mentation levels on the concentration of Selenium

Treatment 4

0.0

0.30

in commercial layer eggs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

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A total of 192 thirty-week-old Lohmann Brown commercial laying hens was used. Birds were housed in San Pablo experimental farm, Medellín Section, National University of Colombia, located in the municipality of Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The experimental period lasted for 6 weeks, including 2 phases. Phase I (adaptation phase) lasted for 2 weeks, during which birds were adapted to the experimental treatments. Phase II (evaluation period) lasted for 4 weeks, during which determinations were performed in accordance with the experimental design. Birds were housed in laying cages, within the experimental house. Each treatment included 4 repetitions, 12 birds per repetition, housed in 4 adjacent cages, 3 birds per cage.

18

During the experimental period birds were fed to meet daily nutrient requirements as established by both the primary breeder and the National Research Council (NRC, 1994). Throughout the experimental period, birds in all treatment groups received the same corn/ soybean meal/wheat bran-based diet, as described in Table 2, the only variation being Selenium sources and inclusion levels, as described in Table 1. Prior to the adaptation period, one feed sample per treatment was analyzed in order to compare Se supplementation levels designed with those actually found in the feeds, in order to assure that experimental diets were actually as planned. Gxulqj#wkh#h{shulphqwdo#shulrg#wkh#hļhfw#ri#wkh# glļhuhqw# wuhdwphqwv# rq# dyhudjh# hjj# zhljkw/# hjj# yolk pigmentation, and egg Selenium contents were evaluated.


RESULTS

the last experimental day. For this purpose, 4 eggs

Productive variables, average feed intake (bird/

per repetition (one egg per cage) were collected at

day), average egg weight, and egg yolk pigmentation

random. Total eggs per repetition (yolk + albumin)

zhuh#qrw#dļhfwhg#e|#Vhohqlxp#vrxufh#ru#Vhohqlxp#

were pooled then subjected to Selenium quantita-

concentration in the feed. This could lead to conclu-

tive analysis by the Service Laboratory, Faculty of

ding that in accordance with this study (Table 3),

Exact and Natural Sciences, Chemistry Institute,

supplemental Selenium source/level in commercial

Dqwlrtxld#Xqlyhuvlw|/#Frorpeld/#xvlqj#sxovh#glļh-

od|hu#glhwv#gr#qrw#fdxvh#srvlwlyh#ru#qhjdwlyh#hļhfwv#

rential polarography.

on these select performance parameters.

Results were subjected to analysis of variance

Table 3. The effect of supplemental Selenium

iroorzlqj#d#5#{#5#idfwruldo#ghvljq/#wkh#Ľuvw#idfwru#

source/level on select performance parameters

being Selenium supplementation level (0.1 and

in laying hens

product

For egg Selenium content analysis, a sample was taken from each repetition of each treatment on

0.3 ppm), and the second factor was the Selenium Selenium source

Doo#yduldeohv#zlwk#d#vljqlĽfdqw#glļhuhqfh#+S?3138,#

and level

were subjected to a Tukey's test. Wdeoh# 51# Qxwulwlrqdo# vxsso|# dqg# ihhgvwxļv# xvhg# in the manufacturing of the basal diet used in all experimental treatments Nutrient

Dietary level

Protein, % ME, kcal/kg Lysine, % Methionine + Cystine, % Tryptophane, % Threonine, % Calcium, % Available phosphorus, % Na, % Cl, % K, %

16.5 2.800 0.83 0.69 0.20 0.62 3.8 0.37 0.18 0.26 0.70

Egg weight

(g/bird/day)

(g)

0.10 ppm Sodium Selenite 0.30 ppm Sodium Selenite 0.10 ppm ProkelTM Selenium 0.30 ppm ProkelTM Selenium

116.59 115.79 115.76 113.50

64.62 64.46 65.28 64.74

12.44 12.56 12.38 12.44

Probability

NS

NS

NS

(Treatments)

pigmentation

Contrary to performance parameter observations, egg Selenium content was significantly +S?31334,#lqľxhqfhg#e|#erwk#wkh#vrxufh#dqg#ohyho#ri# Selenium supplemented in hen feeds. This means that as dietary Selenium concentration is increased –regardless of its source– Selenium transfer to the hjj# lv# lqfuhdvhg1# D# 67183(# glļhuhqfh# zdv# irxqg# between 0.1 and 0.3 ppm Selenium supplemen-

Ingredient, % Corn Soybean meal Extruded soy Wheat bran Monocalcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Marine salt Myco-Ad Vitamins/minerals DL-methionine Lysine, HCl Rovabio AP ]lqn#edflwudflq Phytase

Egg yolk

Feed Intake

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source (Sodium Selenite or ProkelTM Selenium).

tation. Likewise, it was determined that using 60.70 18.68 6.37 3.0 0.67 9.49 0.38 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.06 0.005 0.04 0.009

Prokel™ Selenium (organic Selenium) results in increased egg Selenium concentration (8.4% higher than that obtained with Sodium Selenite-the Selenium source traditionally used as a feed Selenium supplement) (Table 4). Lq#dgglwlrq#wr#wkh#hļhfw#ri#Vhohqlxp#ohyho2vrxufh/# uhvxowv#iurp#wklv#wuldo#dovr#vkrzhg#d#vljqlĽfdqw#+S?# 0.001) Selenium level x source interaction on egg Selenium content (Table 4).

19


product

This interaction shows that supplementing 0.1 ppm Sele-

BIBLIOGRAPHY

qlxp#lq#wkh#ihhg#grhv#qrw#srvh#d#glļhuhqfh#ehwzhhq#Vhohnium sources on the content of this mineral, but higher

Ĩ#Ashmead, H.D. 1993. The roles of Amino

concentrations (i.e.: 0.3 ppm) result in higher transfer levels

Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. Noyes

zkhq#Surnhoį#Vhohqlxp#lv#xvhg/#iru#d#glļhuhqfh#ri#xs#wr#

Publications, Park Ridge, Il.

11.50% when compared with Sodium Selenite. Wdeoh# 71# Wkh# hļhfw# ri# vxssohphqwdo# Vhohqlxp# vrxufh2 level on egg Selenium content

Ĩ#Dudley-Cash, W.A. 1997. Organic form ri#]lqf#pd|#surylgh#dgglwlrqdo#ehqhĽwv#lq# srxowu|1#Ihhgvwxļv/#Ghfhpehu#41#s#44/#4:1

Feed concentration

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Mineral source

Average source

0.10

0.30

ppm

ppm

Sodium Selenite

0.115x

0.148y

0.131a

ProkelTM Selenium

0.118x

0.165]

0.142b

Average concentration

0.116x

0.156b

Probabilities Vrxufh#hļhfw Ohyho#hļhfw Interaction

<0.001 <0.001 <0.001

Nuevas fuentes suplementarias para el ganado. Rev. Cubana Ciencia Agrícola. Vol 34. Nº 4. p 283-288. Ĩ#National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient Requeriments of Poultry. 9th Rev. Edition. Natl. Acad. Press, Washingtong, DC. Ĩ#Stanton, W.J.; Etzel, M.J. y Walker, B.J.

CONCLUSIONS Neither the level nor the source of supplemental Selenium

1992. Fundamentos del Marketing. 9th Ed. México, McGrawHill, New York, NY. Ĩ#]lqsur1#4<<:1#D#qhz#Fodvv#ri#rujdqlf#

lq#frpphufldo#od|hu#ihhgv#dļhfw#shuirupdqfh#sdudphwhuv#

trace minerals. Focus Trace Mineral

including average daily feed intake, egg weight or egg yolk

]lqsur1#Yro#61#Lvvxh#41#s#4#:1#

pigmentation. As dietary Selenium supplementation level increases, egg Selenium content increases regardless of the source used. Using Prokel™ Selenium (organic source) increases Selenium transfer to the egg, as compared to Sodium Selenite. As layer feed Selenium concentration increases, the glļhuhqfh#lq#Vhohqlxp#wudqvihu#wr#wkh#hjj#lqfuhdvhv/#zkhq# comparing the 2 Selenium sources evaluated, in favor of Prokel™ Selenium. Results from this trial lead to establishing the use of Surnhoį#Vhohqlxp#dv#d#ehwwhu/#pruh#hĿflhqw#qxwulwlrqdo# strategy for table egg Selenium enrichment than Sodium Selenite.

20

Ĩ#Gutiérrez, O. 2000. Minerales orgánicos:


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RESULTS FROM THIS TRIAL LEAD TO ESTABLISHING THE USE OF PROKEL™ SELENIUM AS A BETTER, MORE EFFICIENT NUTRITIONAL STRATEGY FOR TABLE EGG SELENIUM ENRICHMENT THAN SODIUM SELENITE.

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feedback

NUTRITION FEEDBACK EVENTS (=QR /ANRAK>AP  PECDR =BRAP RDA /N=?A   EL "P=L?A  )P  =Ă&#x152;E@ /=L?DAW  0A?DLE?=J )=L=CAP MB RDA /NA?E=JREAQ 1LERMB,PAKAUK=@A=Ă&#x152;APVNPM@S?REĂ&#x152;AĂ&#x152;EQERRM)ELD$SLC CPE?SJRSP=J)=RAPE=JQ0P=@ELC=L@/APĂ&#x152;E?AQEL2EARL=K=L@ Eurotec Nutrition in Thailand. In Vietnam we visited an actual customer of Prokel Se (premixer),

Azimut #1 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The Premex Newsletter

giving technical support and explaining them the highly advantage of using our product compared with other organic mineral structures. After this visit, we visited an actual client of Vitamin Alpha D3 that lv#xvlqj#lw#lq#Ľvk#glhwv1#Kh#h{sodlq#xv#klv#juhdw#uhvxowv#dqg#klv#qhz# lghd#wr#shuirup#d#qhz#wuldo#zlwk#Doskd#G6#lq#wkh#vpdoo#Ľvkhv1#Zkdw#kh#

ABOUT MALAYSIA Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysiaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabahâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;subsistence crops, rubber, timber, coconuts, rice; Sarawakâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;rubber, pepper, timber. Labor force: 12.92 million; agriculture 11.1%, industry 36%, services 53.5% (2012 est.). Industries: Peninsular Malaysiaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;rubber and oilpalm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabahâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;logging, petroleum production; Sarawakâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; agriculture processing, petroleum surgxfwlrq#dqg#uhÄ˝qlqj/#orjjlqj1# Natural Resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite.

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told us is that he wants to improve the bone development from small Ľvkhv#xqwlo#wkh#hqg#ri#wkh#jurzlqj#shulrg1#Krshixoo|#kh#zloo#nhhs# building more new knowledge with our product in order to obtain more protein, with more quality and a lower cost. Also we had a discussion with one of the technical and sales persons lq#wkh#frpsdq|1#Wkh#pdlq#wrslf#zdv#wkh#glğhuhqw#vwudwhjlhv#wr#dyrlg# PSE syndrome in pigs (Pale, Soft and Exudative). We already know some information in poultry that could be consighuhg/#gxulqj#vodxjkwhu#surfhvv1#Wkurxjkrxw#wkh#vflhqwlĽf#olwhudwxuh/# dark colored muscles have been associated with high muscle pH +Olylqjvwrq#dqg#Eurzq/#4<;4,1##\dqj#dqg#Fkhq#+4<<6,#frqĽuphg#wklv# observation by reporting that ground chicken meat with high pH was darker, redder, and more yellow in color than meat with low pH. In this study, upon increasing the pH of chicken meat using trisodium phosphate, the meat became darker in color and upon lowering the pH using citric acid, the meat became visually lighter. Dqrwkhu# lpsruwdqw# lvvxh# wkdw# dğhfwv# froru# phdw# lv# vwuhvv# ehiruh# slaughter process, because stress increases the conversion of glucose into lactic acid in muscles that reduces pH on meat. In these cases PROKEL Cr can help reducing stress behavior of pigs followed by PROKEL Se reducing oxidation of packed meat improving shelf life.


feedback product and will start a trial for 12 weeks with Alpha D3. After customer visit, we trained the sales team by In Thailand we visited several companies to promote our product Vitamin Alpha D3.

explaining them how Alpha d3 works and the different metabolic issues in layers, breeders and broi-

In one of the clients (feed mill producer) that was

lers. Also a huge congratulation to Eurotec Nutrition,

focused in layer and breeders feed, we presented

as they are doing a fantastic job in promoting Alpha

the product while explaining Ca and P metabolism.

D3 in Thailand!!!

Our main focus was to decrease eggshell quality sureohpv/#lq#rughu#wr#rewdlq#d#juhdwhu#surĽwdelolw|1#

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

We congratulate Minh Hung stuff as they are doing a phenomenal work in Vietnam!!!

QUALITY FEEDBACK EVENTS:

Also we did a huge emphasis on safety features as our main competitor is building a discredit strategy

Dr. Jose Ignacio Barguil was in Malaysia last Sep-

with non-true arguments and false information.

tember participating in the Feed Safety Seminar

After showing them scientific human and ani-

organized by our distributor Rhone Ma.

mal research papers with such positive and great

Dr. Barguil´s presentation was “Microbial contami-

results, they decided to start a new trial with Alpha

nation issues in feed mil during storage and produc-

D3 in layers.

tion stage, Common microbial contamination in raw

In other customers that were already running the

materials, How to minimize microbial contamination

trails, we explained several important topics for

lq#Ľqlvkhg#ihhg#dqg#Vhohfwlrq#ri#lqklelwruv#iru#ihhg#

layer formulation, regarding Ca and P formulation.

mill operatioThis event was very successful because

After the presentation, the customer decided to try

it changed the concept that raw materials were not

Alpha D3 matrix for broilers also.

lpsruwdqw#lq#Ľqlvkhg#ihhg#frqwdplqdwlrq1#Wkh#pdlq#

The last client visited was really interested in the

concern was the contamination in the vegetable ori-

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feedback Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

DR. JOSE IGNACIO BARGUIL WAS IN MALAYSIA LAST SEPTEMBER PARTICIPATING IN THE FEED SAFETY SEMINAR ORGANIZED BY OUR DISTRIBUTOR RHONE MA. gin raw materials and the importance of contrololqj#wkhp#dv#lw#zdv#vkrzq#zlwk#vflhqwlĽf#gdwd#dqg# investigation about the contamination with E.Coli and Salmonella in corn and soybean meal.

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Also, our product Inhimold L50 CF was presented as a great option to control microbiological contamination in stored grains, and the importance of using it. We were giving support to Rhone Ma in the Asia Live Stock Show and also we did some visits to clients presenting our safety in the food chain proposal. KEY ,DMRMQ&MQA%CL=?EM=PCSEJÌEQERRM)=J=VQE=


THAT RAW MATERIALS WERE NOT IMPORTANT IN FINISHED FEED CONTAMINATION.

FEEDBACK

BECAUSE IT CHANGED THE CONCEPT

Premex - Azimut #1 - janvier à juin 2013

THIS EVENT WAS VERY SUCCESSFUL

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leadership

LEADERSHIP "BEING WELL" TO BE ABLE TO PRODUCE WELL-BEING

Our corporation is committed to the comprehensive development of

Azimut #1 — The Premex Newsletter

individuals, in which members develop their personal leadership – or

AUTHOR Mauricio Cardona E Senior Consultant Corporate culture evolution and transformation maucardona@une.net.co

self-leadership. Indeed, we understand that, in order to be a world irufh#wr#qrxulvk#wkh#zhoo0ehlqj#ri#pdqnlqg#Ğ#dqg#doo#olih#0#/#Ľuvw#dqg# foremost we ourselves have to be that inner force that drives to cofuhdwh#dqg#wr#ohyhudjh#wkh#lqĽqlwh#uhvrxufhv#wkdw#zh#kdyh#uhfhlyhg/# always giving the most and the best of ourselves. Contributing to well-being is a commitment based on doing and being (being true to oneself) so that our actions are consistent and produce a lasting impact. It involves ‘being well’ to be able to produce well-being. The one is not possible without the other. In short, that powerful and positive personal force is the commitment to nurture our personal inner power, that is, our authentic power. Authentic power goes hand-in-hand with the personal energy (or soul) that has always driven us and the personality that we create during our short personal history. It means being in tune with the purposes of life itself and the on-going evolutionary process into a consciousness of the expanded historical events in which we take part. Being in alignment is being aware of our being in relationships. We are relationships. I (our being) is in a relationship, whether we realize it or not, whether we want to or not, with ourselves, with others, with the cosmos and with the creative energy that gives life to the entire creation (this is why it is a cosmotheandric relationship).

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leadership AUTHENTIC POWER IS HAVING OUR INNER LIFE CONSCIOUSLY IN TUNE WITH THE PACES OF LIFE

Premex - Azimut #1 - December - June 2013

AND THE UNIVERSE.

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Premex - Azimut #1 - December - June 2013


WE ARE SHIPS VshflĽfdoo|/#dxwkhqwlf#srzhu#lv#kdylqj#rxu#

IT IS TO LEAD

inner life consciously in tune with the paces

OUR LIVES FROM

of life and the universe. Authentic inner

BECOMING WHAT

entire stage of the life and history in which

power is being aware of who we are and of the

WE ARE CALLED

we participate through joint creation. It is a

TO BE.

the institutions, society, life, the earth, the

Azimut #1 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The Premex Newsletter

RELATION -

conscious alignment among us, the groups, cosmos, and the force that created all. This

consciousness is the foundation for giving and contributing to being well for well-being. It is being aware that living is being in a relationship and participating in something greater, full of meaning and purpose. It is being aware of the fact that participating is an on-going co-creation, by initiative or as a reaction, by action or by omission, and for good or for evil (in evolution or involution). It is directing our lives from the being that we are called to be and from the persons we are called to be with respect to society and life in the future. It is knowing how to respond to, or how to be responsible for, the call from the entire creation so that our existence contributes to, and does not hinder, the processes of society and of life itself.

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We are inspired by the possibility of transforming microingredients into macroresults to nourish wellness in people.

Azimut #1  

The Premex Newsletter # 1