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UGA PREMED A MAGAZINE FOR STUDENTS INTERESTED IN SCIENCE AND HEALTH GRADY COLLEGE OF JOURNALISM

EMPOWERMENT THROUGH HEALTHCARE

SHIFA CLINIC ATHENS

MENTAL HEALTH AROUND THE WORLD


EDUCATING TOMORROW’S HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS Georgia Campus – Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (GA–PCOM) is a private, not-for-profit branch campus of the fully accredited Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, a multi-program institution with a more than 100-year tradition of educational excellence. Offering students a high-tech, collaborative learning environment with hands-on educational opportunities, GA–PCOM features state-ofthe-art classrooms and labs, along with an osteopathic manipulative medicine clinic which is open to the public by appointment.

DEGREES OFFERED • DOCTOR OF OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE (DO) • DOCTOR OF PHARMACY (PharmD) • MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES (MS) • MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT STUDIES (MS)

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THE

L E A R A SCHOLARSHIP PREMED MAGAZINE IS PROUD TO OFFER YOU, OUR READERS, A SCHOLARSHIP IN EACH ISSUE. YOU MAY SUBMIT A PIECE OF WRITING OR ARTWORK THAT REPRESENTS YOUR PERSONAL CONNECTION TO HEALTHCARE. THE WINNING AUTHOR OR ARTIST WILL RECEIVE A $500 SCHOLARSHIP AND $ 250 TO A CHARITY OF HIS OR HER CHOICE. TO ENTER, PLEASE SEND AN EMAIL TO UGAMEDMAG@GMAIL.COM BY DECEMBER 20TH, WITH THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: -YOUR NAME -YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS -YOUR PHONE NUMBER -YOUR LOCAL ADDRESS -YOUR EXPECTED GRADUATION DATE -YOUR MAJOR -YOUR CURRENT GPA PLEASE ATTACH TO THIS EMAIL A FILE CONTAINING YOUR SUBMISSION. PREFERRED FILES ARE MICROSOFT WORD DOCUMENTS, .JPGS, OR PDFS. REMEMBER, THE SCHOLARSHIP IS OPEN TO ALL MAJORS, NOT JUST PRE-HEALTH STUDENTS. THE RECIPIENT OF THE SCHOLARSHIP WILL BE ANNOUNCED IN OUR NEXT ISSUE. HE OR SHE WILL BE REWARDED WITH $500 TO BE SPENT ON FURTHERING HIS OR HER EDUCATION BOTH ON AND OFF CAMPUS.

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96.4%

OR 738 out of 765 2014-2015 Ross graduates eligible for a 2015 residency attained a residency by 2016.1

Lilian Sarfati, MD ‘12 É Dermatology, AdvantageCare Physicians

YOUR ROAD TO RESIDENCY. LEARN MORE AT: ROSSU.EDU 1

According to the National Residency Matching Program and institutionally reprted data.

©2017 Ross University School of Medicine. All rights reserved.


A NOTE FROM OUR EDITOR In the past century, many of our most important medical discoveries have been thanks to research done across the globe. From the three-parent baby created in the United Kingdom to the refinement of the varicella vaccine in Japan, we heavily rely on research done in other countries to progress our scientific knowledge. However, international travellers have also brought us fears of an outbreak of SARS or ebola. From diseases to ground-breaking innovations, we share it all. I can only imagine what the next one-hundred years will bring us and our neighbors abroad. As we dive into the Fall semester and begin to focus on academics, many of us consider how we can use the upcoming year to better ourselves. I want to challenge each of you to use what little free time you have as pre-health students to become informed citizens. It is our mission as future healthcare professionals to educate ourselves not only on issues in our own backyard, but those abroad as well. The University of Georgia offers students free subscriptions to many outstanding news sources. Even if you can only read one article a day, begin to form educated opinions that you can support with facts. Not only will this help you on your journey to becoming a healthcare professional, but it will also make you a more aware global citizen. Enjoy, and best of luck to all of you in this new school year!

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12 TABLE OF CONTENTS 9

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Shifa Clinic Athens

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Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals: A healthcare disparity

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Voluntourism: The good, the bad, & the ugly

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IMMIGRATION RX

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EAST VS WEST: Two contrasting systems

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STIGMATIZED & UNRECOGNIZED Mental health on a global scale

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STUDY ABROAD 1001

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STAFF

FACULTY ADVISOR DR. LEARA RHODES

EDITORIAL BOARD EMMA BURKE MICKEY DAO GRANT MERCER LILY WANG

WRITERS

HAMZAH ALI EMMA BURKE LEAH GINN SHERRY LUO KATIE LUQUIRE SYEDA NAUSHEEN MUHAMMAD SIDDIQ

EMMA BURKE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

GRANT MERCER COMMUNICATIONS EDITOR

MICKEY DAO TREASURER

LILY WANG PHOTOGRAPHY EDITOR

PHOTOGRAPHERS LEAH GINN LILY WANG

COPY EDITORS

ANNIKA JONKER CHRISTINA NAJJAR MUHAMMAD SIDDIQ

WANT TO JOIN OUR STAFF? APPLY ONLINE AT WWW.PREMEDMAG.ORG/APPLY/ WE ARE CURRENTLY LOOKING FOR TALENTED DESIGNERS, PHOTOGRAPHERS, AND WRITERS 8

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SHIFA CLINIC ATHENS STUDENT ORGANIZATION SPOTLIGHT HAMZAH ALI

A noble vision, five University of Georgia undergraduates, two physicians, a will to serve the community… these were the essential tools needed to establish Shifa Clinic Athens, a new free health clinic in Athens. Athens, Georgia is known primarily for being home to the University of Georgia, an enriching academic hub for students from all over the state. However, once you step “off campus,” you step into the world of the local residents, a world of omnipresent and acute poverty. Access to healthcare is scarce, and the emergency rooms of St. Mary’s and Athens Piedmont hospitals often fill with uninsured patients. While Mercy Health Center, Athens Nurses Clinic, and a few others have already been tackling this issue, Shifa Clinic Athens is ready to join the cause and make progress in Athens.

medical specialties: nephrology, neurology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. Free lab services are also available for basic blood tests. Due to the low patient volume, walk-in appointments are the main source of patient flow. Each patient is handled with attentive care by volunteer staff and physicians. Shifa is operational on Saturdays from 10:30am-2pm.

students from the University of Georgia, ten local physicians, and two nurses. While these pioneer volunteers are the current backbone, engine, and driving force of the clinic, Shifa will always rely on future pre-health students and health professionals in Athens to maintain its public outreach and services. Through long term service and dedication to the community, Shifa will help provide solutions to the existing The volunteer staff at Shifa is healthcare problems within the comprised of twenty pre-health region.

(PHOTO)

The clinic`s immediate goal is to increase awareness to uninsured individuals of our clinic’s services. Currently, Shifa provides free primary care services along with a few other www.premedmag.org

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ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR CHEMICALS

A HEALTHCARE DISPARITY BEMSI WALLANG

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It’s common knowledge that minorities have been systematically exploited in the United States since its inception in almost every realm, but seldom do we stop to think of the ways this exploitation occurs through healthcare and overall wellness. Minorities and residents of low-income communities tend to have disproportionate access to adequate healthcare and often lack helpful information regarding health and wellness that those in more affluent areas use to their benefit. These healthcare disparities work to solidify the pre-existing barriers between the classes of our stratified society, leaving us more disconnected, divided, and unreachable. For example, consumerism trends are directly influenced by availability, and if there are more Walmarts in an area than Whole Foods and Sprouts chains, what kind of food will the members of that community tend to eat, and what kind of health profile will these members tend to carry as a result of the foods they consume? We are so quick to call our minority population lazy and reluctant to change, yet we are so hesitant to offer them solutions to get there. Maybe black men wouldn’t have the highest rate of heart attacks if they weren’t rhetorically, culturally, and commercially manipulated to eat foods that stimulate and regulate the vicious cycle which keeps them there. Why aren’t we aware of the differences and why can’t we recognize them as ethnic issues? These are ethnic, racial issues. It’s a matter of limited to no access for extended periods of time and what that does to a group of people. It’s a social experiment; a medical, social, experiment. According to Forbes contributor Dr. Robert Pearl, the health care disparity that our minority population deals with costs the country $60 billion each year, and that minorities experience “30-40%

poorer health outcomes than white Americans,” including their higher susceptibility to diseases and death (Pearl, 2015). We should consider the chemicals and endocrine disruptors that come into play as well. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals or substances that alter the functioning and effectiveness of the body’s endocrine system, which is a network of glands that secrete hormones which regulate the developmental, neurological, and reproductive systems of the body, among other things. Endocrine disruptors like bPA (bisphenol-A) and phthalates are rampant in products like plastics and canned foods. Exposure to such chemicals have dangerous repercussions, including dangerous effects on reproduction, hormonal regulation, and metabolism. Some EDCs mimic the effects of estrogen in the body, and these environmental EDCs can lead to breast cancer (Stiel et al,. 2016). When a certain group of people cannot afford to buy and eat healthy foods with known, reliable sources it is expected for them to be exposed to these chemicals, often without their knowledge. This affirms the dire, present need for health advocacy and education in low-income areas. The ignorance is only perpetuating trends and leaving more people more sick. A study lead by Leonardo Transande of the New York University School of Medicine supports this, stating that “different racial/ ethnic groups use phthalate-containing shampoos and lotions differently, or use products containing different [phthalate] mixes” (Bienkowski, 2013). As future medical providers, there is hope for the betterment of this matter, and there are many ways that we can help. Low-income and minority communities are not just in need of our attention; they are in need of our commitment and care. It’s unsettling how reluctant so many of us are to truly making changes

Optometry Audiology Physician Assistant Studies Occupational Therapy Blindness and Low Vision Studies Public Health Biomedicine Speech-Language Pathology THE FUTURE OF HEALTH SCIENCE SINCE 1919.

salus.edu

in these areas. The damage that has been done to them repels us, but why are we repelled from making changes as well? Intentional, designed ethnic issues are inescapable in the United States, but we are more than equipped and more than capable of working towards their resolutions. The National Health Service Corps offers loan repayment incentives to doctors who commit to practice in underserved communities. A four year commitment to serve in a targeted area is all that it takes to get all four years of your medical training paid for. It shouldn’t take an incentive to drive the work that really takes genuineness of heart, but this program is serving communities and changing lives. If we could simply approach this issue in a humane light, dwell on the people in the areas rather than the areas themselves, and be more forward thinking in our strategies, much more people could be reached to. We are more than able. www.premedmag.org

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PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS SHERRY LUO 12

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As much as the pandemic has been popularized through film, games, and literature, there are few who are prepared to deal with and withstand such an elusive reality. The word “pandemic” brings to mind several images: quarantines, dehumanizing disarray, complete breakdown of society. While these images are an exaggeration of the world’s worst fears and many of the current generation do not yet have a grasp on what the implications of a pandemic are, they are a reminder of what society should aim to avoid. There have been quite a number of notable pandemics and epidemics in history. The most famous are those involving the plague. The Black Death for example, reduced England’s population by half. Cholera has claimed tens of millions, which is nothing compared to the hundreds of millions that smallpox has been responsible for. Measles, tuberculosis, malaria, yellow fever, typhus. While none of the names of these diseases may have appeared in recent contexts, those in the current generation will definitely be familiar with such viruses as Zika and Ebola, diseases that still have the world in a grip of panic. Several viruses have pandemic potential, including coronavirus, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and influenza virus, which was responsible for millions of infections and deaths worldwide in a pandemic outbreak in 1918, 1957, 1968, and the H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Since the late 1900s, the number of worldwide outbreaks has tripled, and because of global traveling and communication, contagions can spread far more easily and quickly than they used to. Pandemics not only have consequences on global health, but they also have economic, and societal impacts that are inevitably connected by nature. For example, if sectors controlling water and electricity are not functioning properly, not only will that affect individual neighborhoods and businesses, but it will also affect the healthcare sector, leading to the inertia of disaster and chaos in the situation of a pandemic. The economic costs of a pandemic are great. In the 21st century alone, it is predicted that pandemics will cost the global economy over $6 trillion. Without proper contingency plans and policies, countries can suffer from effects of even greater severity. Preparation for an unlikely event may seem excessive, but as the saying goes, “better be safe than sorry.” While such events can expose previously unseen vulnerabilities in public health capacities on a global, national, and local scale, they can also bring to light deficiencies in research, knowledge, policies, and communication. Only a handful countries have bothered to go through multiple evaluations, internal and external, of pandemic readiness. In total, there are six: the United States, Finland, Saudi Arabia, Eritrea, Pakistan, and Tanzania. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Organization for Animal Health are making efforts to increase pandemic preparedness. The WHO has compiled and created a compendium of documents detailing a framework of how to best deal with pandemics. This comprehensive framework lays down five key prin-

ciples: a whole-of-society approach, preparedness at all levels, attention to critical interdependencies, scenario-based responses, and respect for ethical standards. Without any one of these principles, societal collapse is imminent. It may seem easy to maintain these principles, but when individuals in every branch of society are infected, the system breaks down quite easily. Along with these principles, there are nine essential services (health, defense, law and order, finance, transport, telecom, energy, food, and water) and a checklist for governments and businesses to use to make sure they are pandemic-ready. It is important to note that preparations for a pandemic take years. After all, when there is no immediate threat of infection, funds and brain power are directed elsewhere. Disease detection has improved dramatically over the course of the last few years through web-based field reports and other means, but prevention is the ultimate goal. Assessments have shown that true levels of vaccine effectiveness are actually lower than have been broadcasted. Vaccine production methods that rely on egg cultures are too slow and produce too small quantities to hold their own against waves of infection as large and widespread as those of a pandemic. Fortunately, more and more countries are building their own vaccine factories. The slow yet steady march of research towards finding a universal vaccine that is non-strain specific can turn the process of preparing for a pandemic from one of reactivity to one of proactivity. Preparing for a pandemic is the responsibility of the individual as much as it is that of the health sector’s. Awareness is the first step, preparation the second. Are you ready? Providing excellence and leadership in education, patient care and research Palmer College of Chiropractic provides a challenging, yet supportive academic environment that prepares you for one of the fastest-growing health care careers.

www.palmer.edu

Campuses in Davenport, Iowa, Port Orange, Fla., and San Jose, Calif.

The Trusted Leader in Chiropractic Education®

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VOLUNTOURISM THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY EMMA BURKE

We Are UCF’s M.D. program epitomizes innovation. Established in 2006, the UCF College of Medicine is one of the first U.S. medical schools in decades to be built from the ground up. As a new medical school, we embrace high-tech learning tools, an integrated curriculum and a pioneering spirit to educate young doctors and scientists in a new and better way for the 21st century.

Apply today and find more information

med.ucf.edu STAY UP TO DATE AND BE SOCIAL 020217-R1-COM

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Social media posts during breaks from school are very predictable: a curation of study abroad videos, a smattering of beach photos, and a highlight reel of volunteer trips. Those who travel the globe to volunteer often post an entire photo shoot worth of images from far flung destinations such as Honduras, Ethiopia, and even Malaysia. It begs the question - how much can a group of college students change a community in less than twenty days? While these groups can offer important aid to these impoverished areas, there are many downsides to participating in voluntourism. Many pre-health students are lured into expensive volunteer trips because they believe it will help them stand out among thousands of other applicants. However, this defeats the purpose of the experience. Admissions committees want students who have experience working with different groups of people as well as those who are compassionate and altruistic. Voluntourists often cite a desire for fulfillment or self-improvement as a reason for participating in such a trip (McLennan, 2014). Trips are often crafted with this in mind, commonly focusing on helping more desireable or marketing their work with orphanages (Guttentag, 2009). While these desires do not come from ill-intentions, they are selfish nonetheless. Completing a volunteer trip to have a flashy line on one’s resume benefits no one, save for the applicant. Participants in international volunteer trips rave time and time again about the work they complete overseas. Frequently dubbed voluntourism, these forays abroad last only a few weeks and have been shown to have few lasting effects on communities in need. Companies that lead these vacations are often based in countries such as the United States, rather than the areas they claim to help (McGloin & Georgeou, 2016). This can cause a disconnect with what locals’ desire, resulting in more harm than good. Additionally, providing communities with short-term benefits such as free clothes or temporary clinics can generate a dependency on these organizations, rather than training citizens to provide for themselves. These short-term fixes serve as band-aids rather than a cure. Unlike organizations that feature long-term volunteer positions focused on developing underserved communities, the main goal of voluntourism companies is to turn a profit (McGloin & Georgeou, 2016). However, money spent by groups while volunteering abroad can be a major source of revenue for a country. In Honduras, one-fourth of the country’s tourism revenue is made through voluntourism (McLennan, 2014). This source of income can be especially important for a country that is trying to become a tourist destination but does not yet have the resources and infrastructure to do so. While wanting to improve the lives of others is a noble cause, it is important to ask oneself why and how we can best accomplish such a task. Through working with agencies based in countries in need and ensuring the work we participate in has a long-term goal, we can transition from being tourists who happen to volunteer to simply volunteers. GUTTENTAG, D.A. (2009). THE POSSIBLE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF VOLUNTEER TOURISM. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH, 11: 537-51. MCGLOIN, C. AND GEORGEOU, N. (2016). ‘LOOKS GOOD ON YOUR CV’: THE SOCIOLOGY OF VOLUNTOURISM RECRUITMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION. JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY, 52(2): 403-17. MCLENNAN, S. (2014). MEDICAL VOLUNTOURISM IN HONDURAS: ‘HELPING’ THE POOR?. PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES, 14(2): 163-79.

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IMMIGRATION RX MUHAMMED SIDDIQ AS A COUNTRY WITH NEARLY THIRTY PERCENT OF ITS POPULATION COMPRISED OF IMMIGRANTS AND THEIR CHILDREN, THE UNITED STATES IS NO STRANGER TO CONTROVERSY REGARDING IMMIGRATION POLICY. FACTORS SUCH AS THE INCOME DISPARITIES BETWEEN DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES HAVE HAD PEOPLE MOVING AROUND FOR CENTURIES. THE POLICYMAKERS OF THE NATIONS RECEIVING THESE PEOPLE MUST WEIGH COMPETING ECONOMIC, SECURITY, AND HUMANITARIAN INTERESTS RESULTING IN CONSTANT POLITICAL DEBATE (FELTER & RENWICK, 2017). WITH THE RECENT ELECTION SEASON AND THE INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP, IT SEEMS THAT THE ISSUE OF IMMIGRATION IS AT THE FOREFRONT OF POLITICAL DISCUSSION IN THIS COUNTRY. IMMIGRATION HAS ALWAYS PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN AMERICAN HISTORY. PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR AND “ERA OF RAPID COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION,” THE UNITED STATES ENCOURAGED OPEN IMMIGRATION TO SETTLE ITS LAND (CENTER FOR IMMIGRATION STUDIES). FOLLOWING THE CIVIL WAR, SEVERAL STATES BEGAN PASSING IMMIGRATION LAWS, BRINGING NATIONAL ATTENTION TO THE ISSUE. IN 1891, THE IMMIGRATION SERVICE WAS ESTABLISHED TO

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INSPECT AND PROCESS IMMIGRANTS SEEKING ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE THIRTY YEARS FOLLOWING THE CREATION OF THE IMMIGRATION SERVICE SAW THE CREATION OF NUMEROUS IMMIGRATION SERVICES SUCH AS ELLIS ISLAND IN 1982 (ORIGINS OF THE FEDERAL IMMIGRATION SERVICE, 2016). IN 1924, FOLLOWING A PERIOD KNOWN AS THE “GREAT WAVE,” WHEN NEARLY 24 MILLION IMMIGRANTS ARRIVED IN THE UNITED STATES, CONGRESS CREATED THE U.S. BORDER PATROL (CENTER FOR IMMIGRATION STUDIES). A COMBINATION OF IMMIGRATION POLICY, WORLD WAR II AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION RESULTED IN VERY LITTLE IMMIGRATION OVER THE NEXT COUPLE DECADES. IN THE 1950S AND 60S, THE UNITED STATES BEGAN TRYING TO ATTRACT SKILLED IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES. A FORMAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO IN 1951 ALLOWED THE UNITED STATES TO PERMANENTLY EMPLOY SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL LABOR FROM MEXICO AS THEY HAD DURING WORLD WAR II. IT WAS DURING THESE DECADES THAT THE SOURCES OF IMMIGRATION SHIFTED FROM MAINLY EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA (CENTER FOR IMMIGRATION STUDIES). IN 1980, THE UNITED STATES PASSED THE REFUGEE ACT, FINALLY CREATING A GENERAL POLICY GOVERNING THE ADMISSION

OF REFUGEES (POST-WAR YEARS, 2016). AS THE EASE OF MODERN TRAVEL INCREASED, THE 1980S AND 90S SAW NEW CHALLENGES SUCH AS THE INCREASE OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. LAWS WERE CREATED FOR THE DEPORTATION OF THOSE FOUND WORKING ILLEGALLY AS WELL AS ALLOWING ALIENS TO LEGALIZE THEIR RESIDENCE (LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY, 2016). CONGRESS PASSED THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT REFORM IN 1996 AND IMMIGRANT RESPONSIBILITY ACT WHICH RESULTED IN THE HIRING OF MORE BORDER PATROL AND IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE AGENTS (CENTER FOR IMMIGRATION STUDIES). IMMIGRATION POLICY TOOK ANOTHER TURN FOLLOWING THE EVENTS OF 9/11. SINCE THEN, AMERICAN IMMIGRATION LAW HAS BEEN FOCUSED ON BORDER SECURITY AND THE REMOVAL OF CRIMINAL ALIENS TO PROTECT THE NATION FROM TERROR (POST-9/11, 2017). IMMIGRATION POLICY TODAY FOCUSES ON MANY OF THE SAME ISSUES IT HAS IN THE PAST: NATIONAL SECURITY, ECONOMIC CONCERNS AND HUMANITARIAN RELIEF. WITH MANY AMERICANS UP IN ARMS OVER ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION AND SECURITY CONCERNS, PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP MADE IMMIGRATION ONE OF THE CORNERSTONES OF HIS PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN. POPULAR BELIEF


IN TODAY’S SOCIETY IS THAT IMMIGRANTS ARE TAKING JOBS FROM AMERICAN CITIZENS AND THAT IMMIGRANTS POSE A SECURITY THREAT. PRESIDENT TRUMP’S CONTROVERSIAL IMMIGRATION PLAN PRESENTED SEVERAL IDEAS TO CURB ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION AND PROTECT NATIONAL SECURITY. TRUMP’S PLAN INCLUDED SEVERAL CONTROVERSIAL PIECES INCLUDING BUILDING A WALL ON THE UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER, CUTTING LEGAL IMMIGRATION SIGNIFICANTLY, HIRING ADDITIONAL BORDER PATROL AND IMMIGRATIONS AND CUSTOMS EMPLOYEES, AND ENFORCING A TRAVEL BAN THAT WOULD BLOCK CITIZENS OF SIX PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM COUNTRIES FROM ENTERING THE UNITED STATES (KOPAN & SHOICHET, 2017). TO NO SURPRISE, TRUMP’S IMMIGRATION POLICY WAS MET WITH HEAVY BACKLASH AND DEEMED BY MANY AS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. TRUMP’S TRAVEL BAN ESPECIALLY, HAS BEEN DEEMED BY MANY AS DISCRIMINATORY RATHER THAN AN ACTUAL SOLUTION TO POTENTIAL SECURITY THREATS. MANY VIEW THE IDEA TO BUILD A WALL ON THE UNITED STATES-MEXICO BORDER AS A WASTE OF ENERGY AND RESOURCES, EVEN IF TRUMP WERE TO SOMEHOW MAKE MEXICO PAY FOR IT. CURBING LEGAL IMMIGRATION WOULD HAVE SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON CERTAIN INDUSTRIES AND THE ECONOMY AS A WHOLE. WHILE PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO IMPLEMENT MANY OF HIS IDEAS REGARDING IMMIGRATION YET, HE HAS CERTAINLY SPARKED SIGNIFICANT DEBATE OVER THESE ISSUES. IMMIGRATION POLICY HAS A HUGE IMPACT ON THE GROWING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, MATH AND MEDICAL FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES. STEM INDUSTRIES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY OF THE CUTTINGEDGE TECHNOLOGIES THAT HAVE GREATLY RAISED LIVING STANDARDS IN THIS COUNTRY. THESE COMPANIES PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE NATION’S ECONOMY AND THEIR ROLE IS ONLY GROWING, WITH THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS PROJECTING A 13 PERCENT GROWTH IN STEM OCCUPATIONS BY 2022 (AMERICAN IMMIGRATION COUNCIL, 2017). STEM FIELDS RELY HEAVILY ON FOREIGN BORN WORKERS.

IN FACT, TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT OF HIGH-TECH COMPANIES FOUNDED BETWEEN 1995 AND 2005 HAVE AN IMMIGRANT FOUNDER (AMERICAN IMMIGRATION COUNCIL, 2017). THESE HIGHTECH COMPANIES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY OF THE U.S. PATENTS IN TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS MEDICAL DEVICES AND PHARMACEUTICALS. TODAY, WORKERS IN STEM AND HEALTHCARE FIELDS MAKE UP NEARLY THIRTEEN PERCENT OF THE TOTAL U.S. WORKFORCE AND THIS NUMBER IS ONLY INCREASING. NEARLY TWENTY PERCENT OF THESE WORKERS ARE FOREIGN BORN. IN HEALTHCARE FIELDS SPECIFICALLY, ABOUT SIXTEEN PERCENT OF WORKERS ARE FOREIGN BORN. NEARLY THIRTY PERCENT OF THE UNITED STATES’ PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS ARE FOREIGN BORN (AMERICAN IMMIGRATION COUNCIL, 2015). WITHOUT THE AID OF FOREIGN BORN WORKERS, IT’S EVIDENT THAT THE INCREASING DEMAND FOR PEOPLE IN THESE RAPIDLY EVOLVING FIELDS MIGHT NOT BE MET LONG TERM. AMERICA’S HEALTH SYSTEM SPECIFICALLY FACES A DELICATE ISSUE AS IT SUFFERS A SHORTAGE OF PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS (“TRUMP’S TRAVEL BAN”, 2017). AN ESTIMATED 15,000 U.S. PHYSICIANS ARE FROM THE SEVEN COUNTRIES INCLUDED IN PRESIDENT TRUMP’S TRAVEL BAN. WITH THE AVERAGE DOCTOR SEEING BETWEEN 800 TO 1,500 PATIENTS A YEAR, A TRAVEL BAN AFFECTING 15,000 PHYSICIANS COULD AFFECT THE HEALTH CARE OF MILLIONS OF AMERICANS (“TRUMP’S TRAVEL BAN”, 2017). BY CHOOSING TO CURB LEGAL IMMIGRATION AND IMPLEMENTING A TRAVEL BAN, PRESIDENT TRUMP WOULD GREATLY LIMIT THE POTENTIAL OF THESE INDUSTRIES.

IMMIGRANT UNINSURED RATE FELL FROM 32 PERCENT TO 22 PERCENT (BATALOVA & ZONG, 2017). DESPITE THE IMPROVEMENT IN RECENT YEARS, THERE IS STILL A LONG WAY TO GO. ANOTHER ISSUE PREVENTING SOME IMMIGRANTS FROM GETTING THE HEALTHCARE THAT THEY NEED IS FEAR. MANY PEOPLE IN THIS COUNTRY, BOTH ILLEGAL AND LEGAL, ARE FRIGHTENED BY RECENT IMMIGRATION POLICY AND PRESIDENT TRUMP’S DEPORTATION INTENTIONS. FAMILIES ARE SCARED TO SEE DOCTORS AND EVEN PICK UP THEIR PRESCRIPTIONS. CLINICS THAT SERVE LARGE IMMIGRANT POPULATIONS HAVE RECENTLY REPORTED A DOWNTURN IN APPOINTMENTS SINCE PRESIDENT TRUMP TOOK OFFICE. IN A RECENT POLL OF PROVIDERS BY THE MIGRANT CLINICIANS NETWORK, TWOTHIRDS OF RESPONDENTS MENTIONED THAT THEY SAW A RELUCTANCE AMONG IMMIGRANT PATIENTS TO SEEK HEALTH CARE (HOFFMAN, 2017). MANY IMMIGRANT COMMUNITIES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES TEND TO SUFFER FROM HEALTH ISSUES SUCH AS HIGH RATES OF OBESITY, DIABETES, LIVER DISEASE, AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HOFFMAN, 2017). WITH SUCH PERTINENT HEALTH ISSUES PREVALENT IN THESE COMMUNITIES, IT’S IMPORTANT THAT IMMIGRANTS HAVE ACCESS TO HEALTH PROVIDERS WITHOUT FEAR. THE LARGE IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION POLICY ON SCIENCE AND MEDICINE CANNOT BE UNDERESTIMATED. IMMIGRANTS PLAY A HUGE ROLE IN THESE GROWING FIELDS THAT HAVE A LARGE EFFECT ON THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY AND OUR QUALITY OF LIVING. VIEWING THE POLITICAL CLIMATE TODAY AND SEEING HOW IMMIGRANT PATIENTS ALSO FACE A SLEIGH DIVIDED THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE ON OF ISSUES. AS OF 2015, APPROXIMATELY 55% ISSUES SUCH AS IMMIGRATION CAN OFTEN BE OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES HAD FRIGHTENING, BUT IT’S IMPORTANT THAT WE PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE COMPARED TO 69% COME TOGETHER AND REMAIN OPTIMISTIC. OF THE U.S. BORN PATIENTS. OF THE REMAINING OUR SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT GIVES A IMMIGRANTS, 29% HAD PUBLIC INSURANCE VOICE TO MANY AND AS A RESULT, MANY OF COMPARED TO 39% OF NATIVE BORN PATIENTS THE IMMIGRATION POLICIES THAT WOULD AND 22% WERE UNINSURED COMPARED NEGATIVELY AFFECT THE MEDICAL FIELD HAVE TO 7% OF THE NATIVE-BORN PATIENTS. IN NOT BEEN PASSED. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE RECENT YEARS THERE HAS BEEN AN EFFORT REMAIN INFORMED AND ACTIVE DURING THESE TO INCREASE HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE TIMES BECAUSE AS PRE-MED STUDENTS WE ARE FOR IMMIGRANTS. FROM 2013 TO 2015, THE THE FUTURE AND THIS WILL AFFECT US.

FELTER, C., & RENWICK, D. (2017, SEPTEMBER 06). THE U.S. IMMIGRATION DEBATE. RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.CFR.ORG/BACKGROUNDER/US-IMMIGRATION-DEBATE-0 FOREIGN-BORN STEM WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES. (2017, JUNE 15). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.AMERICANIMMIGRATIONCOUNCIL.ORG/RESEARCH/FOREIGN-BORN-STEM-WORKERS-UNITED-STATES HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION POLICY. (N.D.). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTPS://CIS.ORG/HISTORICAL-OVERVIEW-IMMIGRATION-POLICY HOFFMAN, J. (2017, JUNE 26). SICK AND AFRAID, SOME IMMIGRANTS FORGO MEDICAL CARE. RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2017/06/26/HEALTH/UNDOCUMENTED-IMMIGRANTS-HEALTH-CARE.HTML?MCUBZ=0 KOPAN, T., & SHOICHET, C. E. (2017, JANUARY 26). KEY POINTS IN TRUMP’S IMMIGRATION EXECUTIVE ORDERS. RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/2017/01/25/POLITICS/DONALD-TRUMP-IMMIGRATION-EXECUTIVE-ORDERS/INDEX.HTML LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY. (2016, FEBRUARY 04). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 22, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.USCIS.GOV/HISTORY-AND-GENEALOGY/OUR-HISTORY/AGENCY-HISTORY/LATE-TWENTIETH-CENTURY NEWS, C. (2017, FEBRUARY 21). TRUMP’S TRAVEL BAN CAUSING ANGST FOR AMERICA’S HEALTH SYSTEM. RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 21, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.CBSNEWS.COM/NEWS/TRUMP-TRAVEL-BAN-IMPACT-ON-INTERNATIONAL-DOCTORS-AMERICAN-HEALTH-SYSTEM/ ORIGINS OF THE FEDERAL IMMIGRATION SERVICE. (2016, FEBRUARY 04). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 22, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.USCIS.GOV/HISTORY-AND-GENEALOGY/OUR-HISTORY/AGENCY-HISTORY/ORIGINS-FEDERAL-IMMIGRATION-SERVICE POST-9/11. (2017, JANUARY 31). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 22, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.USCIS.GOV/HISTORY-AND-GENEALOGY/OUR-HISTORY/AGENCY-HISTORY/POST-911 POST-WAR YEARS. (2016, FEBRUARY 04). RETRIEVED SEPTEMBER 22, 2017, FROM HTTPS://WWW.USCIS.GOV/HISTORY-AND-GENEALOGY/OUR-HISTORY/AGENCY-HISTORY/POST-WAR-YEARS

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EAST VS WEST TWO CONTRASTING SYSTEMS SYEDA NAUSHEEN Ever since the rise of Western medicine in the 19th century, there has been an ongoing battle, within the medical community, regarding Eastern and Western medicine. Both health care practices hold different but valid positions; therefore, whether one approach is better than another is strictly a matter of opinion. Western medicine, also known as allopathic or modern medicine, is based on scientific theory and it uses a deductive approach. The deductive approach entails applying an existing theory to develop a hypothesis and then analyzing that hypothesis by designing a research strategy. This approach allows conclusions to be deduced, as it views all medical phenomenon as cause-and-effect patterns. The nature of western medicine is completely science-based due to its high reliance on drugs, surgery, radiation, etc. as treatment options in order to alleviate symptoms and cure illnesses. 18

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There are many pros to the use of Western medicine. One positive is that modern medicine is based on evidence. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies must undergo intensive, strict trials in order to prove the effectiveness of their drugs. The manufacturing of the drugs is also highly regulated to make sure no contamination occurs and that the safety requirements set by the FDA are met. Another advantage is that, nowadays, physicians must undergo years of extensive training in order to prove their skills as medical professionals. Also, doctors have access to a greater variety of advanced medical equipment, which allows physicians to diagnose diseases more accurately and treat patients efficiently and quickly. Because Western medicine emphasizes alleviating symptoms in the short term, physicians are better trained in treating acute diseases, rather than chronic diseases.

disadvantages, the disadvantages cannot be outright ignored. One con of Western medicine is the potential of medication to produce minor, or even serious, side effects. Many patients find themselves stuck in a cycle, where they take drugs to lessen the side effects of the medication that was originally prescribed. Also, a research study conducted by The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania found that Western drugs induce a “boomerang effect,� in which patients that are taking medication perceive a reduced importance of and motivation to participate in positive behaviors and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Another disadvantage to Western medicine is the high costs. As advancements in research continue to improve drugs and medical equipment, the prices will also escalate.

On the other hand, Eastern medicine is regarded as a more holistic and natural practice. EasAlthough the advantages of tern medicine heavily depends Western medicine outweigh the upon the inductive approach, in


which theories are developed as a result of the observations that are made. A broad chunk of Eastern medicine is made up of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM focuses on the patient as whole, rather than separate systems and organs, and attempts to stimulate the body’s self-healing mechanisms. TCM was founded on the following ancient beliefs: diseases arise due to imbalances between two opposing forces (yin and yang), the human body represents the surrounding universe, the five elements (water, fire, earth, metal, wood) explain how the body operates, and a vital energy (Qi) helps to maintain an individual’s health (NCCIH). TCM includes the use of acupuncture, herbal medicines, therapeutic massage, tai chi, etc. to treat health problems.

Eastern medicine also offers many advantages to its users. One advantage is the importance Eastern medicine places on caring for the patient as a whole. Due to this, Eastern medicine addresses not only the body but also the emotional well being, mental stability, and spiritual health of the individual. Also, practitioners of Eastern medicine are expected to provide their patients with a greater degree of one-on-one attention. Unlike Western medicine, Eastern medicine treatments emphasize preventative medicine by encouraging people to partake in activities that help prevent diseases from occurring in the first place.

Only limited types of Eastern medicine treatments have been scientifically proven to improve health. Another disadvantage is that Eastern medicine does not provide immediate results. Eastern medicine focuses on bringing healthy lifestyle changes within the patient’s’ life and is generally used to heal long-term symptoms.

Both Western and Eastern medical practices have benefits and drawbacks. Therefore, it is not necessary to choose one over the other. In the marketplace today, Western and Eastern medicine coexist and consumers pick and choose between the two approaches, depending on the type of One disadvantage of Eastern treatment they seek. medicine is the lack of a substantial amount of scientific research.

BOLTON, LISA. “TRADITIONAL VS. WESTERN MEDICINE” WHICH ONE IS EASIER FOR CHINESE CONSUMERS TO SWALLOW?” AUDIO BLOG POST. KNOWLEDGE@WHARTON. N.P., 17 OCT. 2007. WEB. “TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE: IN DEPTH.” NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPLEMENTARY AND INTEGRATIVE HEALTH. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, 23 MAR. 2017. WEB. TSUEI, JULIA J. “EASTERN AND WESTERN APPROACHES TO MEDICINE.” WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. U.S. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, JUNE 1978. WEB.

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STIGMATIZED AND UNRECOGNIZED MENTAL HEALTH ON A GLOBAL SCALE

KATIE LUQUIRE

McPherson, Angie. “Visit the Top 10 Happiest Countries in the World.” Visit the Top 10 Happiest Countries in the World, National Geographic, 31 July 2017, www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/top-10/2016-worlds-happiest-countries/. Accessed 13 Sept. 2017. NGUI, EMMANUEL M. et al. “Mental Disorders, Health Inequalities and Ethics: A Global Perspective.” International Review of Psychiatry (Abingdon, England)22.3 (2010): 235–244. PMC. Web. 29 Aug. 2017. “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform.” United Nations, United Nations, 25 Sept. 2015, sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld. Accessed 29 Aug. 2017.

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ACCORDING TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, THE TEN HAPPIEST COUNTRIES INCLUDE SWEDEN, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, THE NETHERLANDS, CANADA, FINLAND, NORWAY, ICELAND, SWITZERLAND, AND DENMARK. BUT WHAT ACTUALLY MAKES A COUNTRY HAPPY? AS IT TURNS OUT, THERE ARE SOME COMMON THEMES AMONG THESE “HAPPIEST COUNTRIES”. THESE FACTORS INCLUDE CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, EDUCATION, WORK-LIFE BALANCE, AND SOCIAL CONNECTIONS. ON THE CONTRARY, THE LEAST HAPPY COUNTRIES ARE OFTEN WAR-TORN, UNSTABLE, AND POOR. SO HOW DOES THIS RELATE TO MENTAL HEALTH ON AN ALL-ENCOMPASSING GLOBAL SCALE? “MENTAL HEALTH” IS AN INCREASINGLY PREVALENT TERM IN OUR SOCIETY TODAY. MORE THAN EVER, PEOPLE ARE RECOGNIZING HOW CRUCIAL MENTAL WELL-BEING IS TO A FULLY-FUNCTIONING LIFE, AND THEY ARE TAKING ACTION. HOWEVER, MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FAIL TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE TREATMENT TO THOSE WHO ARE STRUGGLING WITH MENTAL ILLNESS. IN FACT, STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT IN A GIVEN YEAR, 30% OF THE POPULATION WORLDWIDE IS AFFECTED BY A MENTAL DISORDER AND OVER TWO-THIRDS OF THAT GROUP DO NOT RECEIVE CARE (NGUI, 2010). MENTAL HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE IS LARGELY STIGMATIZED, AND ITS ACCEPTANCE VARIES FROM CULTURE TO CULTURE. THIS LEADS TO A MISUNDERSTANDING OF MENTAL ILLNESS AND THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO IT, WHICH CAUSES DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THOSE WITH MENTAL DISORDERS IN MANY ASPECTS OF LIFE INCLUDING EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND PRODUCTIVITY. THEREFORE, IF WE WILL EVENTUALLY BE ABLE TO DEVELOP BETTER CARE FOR THOSE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS, WE MUST RECOGNIZE MENTAL ILLNESS AS A SERIOUS CONDITION AND WE WILL NEED TO INTEGRATE THAT UNDERSTANDING INTO THE PRIMARY CARE SYSTEM, ESPECIALLY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. ALTHOUGH THERE IS A LONG ROAD AHEAD FOR BREAKING DOWN THE BARRIERS FOR THOSE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS, ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) HAVE BEGUN TO DEVELOP PLANS TO IMPROVE MENTAL HEALTH ON A GLOBAL SCALE. IN FACT, THREE OF THE SEVENTEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS) FOCUS ON THE “PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, INCLUDING BEHAVIORAL, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS, WHICH CONSTITUTE A MAJOR CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” (WHO 2015). THE AGENDA REQUESTS THAT COUNTRIES REDUCE MORTALITY OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES BY ONE-THIRD BY PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL ILLNESS. IT ALSO CALLS TO STRENGTHEN SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT, WHICH HAS BEEN A MAJOR FACTOR IN DETERMINING MENTAL HEALTH. BY MAKING MENTAL HEALTH A PRIORITY, WE ARE ABLE TO RADICALLY CHANGE THE LIVES OF THOSE WHO ARE AFFLICTED BY MENTAL ILLNESS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE LIVES OF MILLIONS OF CITIZENS WHO WILL FINALLY RECEIVE THE AID THAT THEY NEED. MCPHERSON, ANGIE. “VISIT THE TOP 10 HAPPIEST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD.” VISIT THE TOP 10 HAPPIEST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, 31 JULY 2017, WWW.NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC.COM/TRAVEL/TOP-10/2016WORLDS-HAPPIEST-COUNTRIES/. ACCESSED 13 SEPT. 2017. NGUI, EMMANUEL M. ET AL. “MENTAL DISORDERS, HEALTH INEQUALITIES AND ETHICS: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.” INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY (ABINGDON, ENGLAND)22.3 (2010): 235–244. PMC. WEB. 29 AUG. 2017. “TRANSFORMING OUR WORLD: THE 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT .:. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE PLATFORM.” UNITED NATIONS, UNITED NATIONS, 25 SEPT. 2015, SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT.UN.ORG/ POST2015/TRANSFORMINGOURWORLD. ACCESSED 29 AUG. 2017.

At the state of Georgia’s medical school, our students define us. They are academically excellent and personally altruistic. They consistently rank at or above average on objective measures such as the Medical College Admission Test and United States Medical Licensing Exam. They consistently secure spots in the country’s top residency programs. They volunteer to tutor and mentor local grade-school students. They help build community by providing seasonal fresh fruits and vegetables to our urban neighbors. Students in Augusta recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of their clinic for the underserved. Students in Athens started their own clinic within a year of their arrival. For nearly a half-century now, our students have spent a portion of their summers with high school and college students from underrepresented-in-medicine populations across our vast state, sharing what it really takes to be a doctor and serving as inspirational examples. They’ve even been known to sing a song and dance a step to raise support for children with cancer and their families.

Come change the world with them. The Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University

For more information about the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, please visit augusta.edu/mcg.

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IN STARK CONTRAST TO THE BIG PHARMADRIVEN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM WE KNOW IN AMERICA TODAY, THERE EXISTS A LONG-LIVED, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE SYSTEM THAT ABIDES BY THIS PHILOSOPHICAL ADVICE: “ALL THAT A MAN NEEDS FOR HEALTH AND HEALING HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY GOD IN NATURE.” FOR MULTIPLE MILLENNIA, DIFFERENT CULTURES AROUND THE WORLD HAVE HARVESTED AND UTILIZED CURATIVE PLANTS AS A PRIMARY APPROACH TO HEALTHCARE, AND SCIENCE IS PROVING TODAY THAT ANCIENT HEALERS WERE EXTREMELY KNOWLEDGEABLE IN THEIR PRACTICE. IT’S INTERESTING TO EXPLORE HOW PLANT-BASED MEDICINE BECAME AN INTEGRAL CUSTOM THROUGHOUT HISTORY, AND HOW THE REVELATIONS IN PLANT-MEDICINE HAVE AFFECTED MODERN HEALTHCARE. IT’S ALSO IMPORTANT TO NOTICE THE DAMAGING EFFECTS THAT OUR INCREASINGLY INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETY INFLICTS UPON THIS SYSTEM WHICH IS OVERFLOWING WITH WELL-KNOWN AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO HUMAN HEALTH.

LED TO HUGE ADVANCES IN EASTERN PHARMACOLOGY; MEDICINAL HERB GARDENS BECAME PREVALENT THROUGHOUT EUROPE AND MEDICAL SCHOOLS AND APOTHECARIES BEGAN TO SOURCE DRUGS FROM THEIR CULTIVATED GARDENS (SINGER, 2017.) THESE TRADITIONS SPREAD ACROSS OCEANS AND IMPACTED AFRICAN AND AMERICAN HEALTHCARE AS WELL. AFRICAN FOLK HEALERS DOCUMENTED RECIPES COMPRISED OF WEEDS AND HERBS FOR CERTAIN THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS; NATIVE AMERICANS RECRUITED HERBALISTS TO SPRINKLE HERBS OVER SACRED FIRES DURING HEALTH RITUALS. AS TIME PROGRESSED, SO DID KNOWLEDGE REGARDING WHAT PLANTS WOULD MEDICATE THE COMMON COLD, A HEADACHE, OR SORE JOINTS. SCIENCE HAS ONLY STRENGTHENED THESE FINDINGS, AND HAS ENCOURAGED THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANT-MEDICINE INTO MORE THE FORMAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.

A META-ANALYSIS PUBLISHED IN 2012 IN THE JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY AND AN ARTICLE LOCATED IN THE US NATIONAL ETHNOMEDICINE REPORTED THAT THE WORLD LIBRARY OF MEDICINE THROUGH THE HEALTH ORGANIZATION HAS ESTIMATED THAT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH PROVIDES 80% OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION RELIES A USEFUL HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE USE LARGELY ON TRADITIONAL REMEDIES FOR OF MEDICINAL PLANTS. THE AUTHOR CLAIMS HEALTH CARE, AND THERE IS SPECULATION THAT HEALING WITH MEDICINAL PLANTS IS THAT MORE THAN TWO BILLION PEOPLE AS OLD AS MANKIND ITSELF, AND THAT THE MAY BE HEAVILY RELIANT ON MEDICINAL BEGINNINGS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS’ USE WAS PLANTS (SMITH-HALL, 2012.) WHILE THIS IS INSTINCTIVE (PETROVSKA, 2012.) THE FIRST SO, PHARMACEUTICAL CORPORATIONS HAVE RECORDED EVIDENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT SOPHISTICALLY INCORPORATED PLANT-DERIVED USAGE DATES BACK TO AN ASTOUNDING 5000 COMPOUNDS INTO SYNTHETIC DRUGS OVER YEARS AGO: A SUMERIAN CLAY SLAB FROM THE YEARS. UP TO 50% THE APPROVED DRUGS NAGPUR DENOTED 12 DRUG RECIPES REFERRING DURING THE LAST 30 YEARS ARE EITHER TO OVER 250 PLANT SPECIES INCLUDING POPPY, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM NATURAL HENBANE, AND MANDRAKE (PETROVSKA, 2012.) PRODUCTS, AND TO DATE, 35,000-70,000 ANCIENT HOLY TEXTS REFER TO PLANT-BASED PLANT SPECIES HAVE BEEN SCREENED FOR THEIR TREATMENTS AS WELL; THE INDIAN HOLY BOOKS MEDICINAL USE (THIS DATA WAS PUBLISHED VEDAS SUGGESTS MEDICINAL USES OF NUTMEG, IN A 2012 STUDY, SO JUST IMAGINE THE PEPPER, AND CLOVE. THE HOLY BIBLE FOCUSED ADVANCES IN PLANT-SCREENING SINCE THEN,) ON THE USE OF AROMATIC PLANTS, SUCH AS (VEERESHAM, 2012.) IT’S WELL KNOWN IN MYRTLE AND INCENSE, IN ACCOMPANIMENT THE LITERATURE THAT A DIET RICH IN PLANTS WITH RITUALS OF TREATMENT. AROUND 800 IS DISEASE-PREVENTATIVE; SCIENTISTS HAVE BC, HOMER ACKNOWLEDGED IN THE ILIAD AND FOUND COUNTLESS COMPOUNDS IN PLANTS THE ODYSSEYS THAT CERTAIN PLANT SPECIES THAT KILL CANCER, FIGHT DEGENERATIVE WERE BELIEVED TO RESTORE STRENGTH AND DISEASE, AND PROMOTE LONGEVITY. FUNDING PROTECT HEALTH. LEAPING FORWARD IN IS INCREASINGLY BEING POURED INTO RESEARCH TIME, WE FIND COUNTLESS REPORTS OF ASIA’S REGARDING THE MANY HEALTH BENEFITS HERBAL HERITAGE, WHICH PERMEATES INTO CONTAINED IN PLANTS THAT WE MAY EVEN EASTERN MEDICINE TODAY (SINGER, 2017.) THE FIND IN OUR BACK YARDS. THE POTENTIAL CHINESE WERE THE FIRST TO DISCOVER THAT FOR FINDING MEDICINAL AND THERAPEUTIC THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF PLANTS DEPENDED PROPERTIES OF PLANTS IS OVERWHELMING, ON THE INTERACTION OF THE CHEMICAL BUT WE MAY BE STIFLING THOSE EFFORTS COMPOUNDS WITHIN THEM. THIS KNOWLEDGE SIMULTANEOUSLY.

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HABITAT DEGRADATION, OVEREXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE USE OF HARMFUL INDUSTRIAL COMPOUNDS THROUGHOUT WATERSHEDS AND ECOSYSTEMS ARE ISSUES THAT THREATEN COUNTLESS EUKARYOTIC SPECIES ACROSS THE GLOBE AT ALARMING RATES. THESE PRACTICES HAVE PROVEN TO HAVE EXTREMELY DETRIMENTAL CONSEQUENCES ACROSS A WIDE SPECTRUM. HUMAN ALTERATION OF FORESTS AND OTHER HABITATS OFTEN ELIMINATES SITES RICH IN WILD MEDICINAL PLANTS. THIS PROBLEM PLAGUES FOLK HEALERS, WHO THEN HAVE TROUBLE FINDING THE PLANTS THEY NEED FOR PERFORMING CERTAIN CURATIVE PROCEDURES, AND ALSO WILL NEGATIVELY AFFECT SCIENTIFIC PURSUITS. THE TROPICAL FOREST NETWORK TELLS US THAT EVERY DISMANTLING OF A UNIQUE HABITAT REPRESENTS A LOSS OF FUTURE DRUGS AND MEDICINES, PARTICULARLY IN SPECIES-RICH HABITATS LIKE TROPICAL FORESTS. FEWER THAN 1 PERCENT OF ALL PLANT SPECIES HAVE BEEN SCREENED BY CHEMISTS TO SEE WHAT BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS THEY MAY CONTAIN (TUXILL, 1999.) IN ORDER TO GAIN THE MOST KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND BENEFIT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND THEIR USES, IT WILL BE IMPORTANT FOR OUR SOCIETY TO START ADOPTING MORE RESPONSIBLE AND SUSTAINABLE FARMING TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCE UTILIZATION METHODS. IN CONCLUSION, PLANT-BASED MEDICINE HAS PLAYED AN INTEGRAL ROLE THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE OF HUMAN HISTORY; SINCE THE DAWN OF TIME, HUMANITY HAS LOOKED TO FRUITS, SEEDS, LEAVES, NUTS AND EXTRACTS FOR DISEASE RESOLVE. THERE IS PROMISING REASON TO SUSPECT THAT THIS PRACTICE WILL CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE PHARMACOLOGY FOR YEARS TO COME, AS THE NUMBER OF POSSIBLE THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES CONTAINED WITHIN PLANTS IS NEARLY INFINITE, AND WE HAVE ONLY EXPLORED THE VERY TIP OF THE ICEBERG. ADOPTING PLANT-BASED MEDICINAL APPROACHES MAY BECOME AN ALTERNATIVE TO TAKING A PLETHORA OF SYNTHETIC DRUGS FOR SIMPLE AND CHRONIC DISEASES, MANY OF WHICH CREATE MORE HARMFUL EFFECTS THAN THE ILLNESS ITSELF. AS A FUTURE PRACTITIONER OF HEALTHCARE, I FEEL A RESPONSIBILITY TO NOT ONLY UPHOLD THIS PORTION OF HUMAN HERITAGE, BUT ALSO TO EXPLORE AND IMPLEMENT THESE PRACTICES TO GAIN A WIDER UNDERSTANDING OF THE BENEFITS THAT PLANTS MAY BRING TO OUR HEALTH.


BACK TO OUR ROOTS

EXPLORING A CULTURE OF PLANT-BASED MEDICINE

LEAH GINN

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STUDY ABROAD 1001

THE OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION IS UGA’S DEPARTMENT THAT MANAGES STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS STUDENTS CAN TAKE CLASSES, CONDUCT RESEARCH, INTERN, WORK, OR VOLUNTEER ABROAD THROUGH UGA PROGRAMS RANGE IN LENGTH FROM A FEW WEEKS TO AN ENTIRE YEAR THE OIE WILL ALSO HELP STUDENTS FIND NON-UGA AFFILIATED PROGRAMS THAT INTEREST THEM

STUDENTS CAN STUDY ABROAD ON EVERY CONTINENT EXCEPT ANTARTICA POPULAR DESTINATIONS INCLUDE CORTONA, SOUTH AFRICA, AND NEW ZELAND

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THERE ARE TWO LOCATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES WHERE STUDENTS CAN STUDY - WINDER, GEORIGA AND WASHINGTON, D.C.

THE COST OF STUDYING ABROAD VARIES BY PROGRAM LENGTH, LOCATION, AND THE PARTNERING INSTITUTION

UGA OFFERS OVER $600,000 IN SCHOLARSHIPS TO STUDENTS WHO WANT TO STUDY ABROAD FINANCIAL AID MAY BE APPLIED TO STUDY ABROAD PROGRAMS FOR OUT-OF-STATE STUDENTS, STUDYING ABROAD MAY COST LESS THAN UGA TUITION

FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT WWW.GOABROAD.UGA.EDU

24

Global Health


The University of Medicine and Health Sciences (UMHS) offers a rigorous and hands-on education in state-of-the-art facilities. Our skilled faculty take a personalized approach to educating physicians dedicated to outstanding patient care. UMHS is the first Caribbean medical school approved by the Georgia Composite Medical Board, making our students eligible to participate in clinical rotations and state residency selection, and obtain licenses to practice in the state of Georgia. Your success is our success. OUR RESULTS CONFIRM IT.

93%

USMLE FIRST-TIME

PASS RATE AND AVERAGE USMLE SCORE OF

220

.

AFFORDABLE TUITION

ASTOUNDINGLY HIGH RETENTION RATE AVERAGING OVER

96%

.

UMHS IS AFFILIATED WITH

20

AND COMPREHENSIVE

+ TEACHING HOSPITALS

FINANCIAL AID PROGRAM

IN THE US, CANADA, AND

FOR QUALIFIED STUDENTS.

PUERTO RICO.

APPLICANTS ACCEPTED IN

EXCEPTIONAL RESIDENCY

3

ANNUAL ENROLLMENT

TERMS: JANUARY, MAY,

PLACEMENT IN THE US AND CANADA.

AND SEPTEMBER.

LEARN MORE umhs.org/uga Download your step-by-step guide to starting medical school.

St. Kitts, Caribbean US/Canada: 866.686.0380 admissions@umhs-sk.net


Educating the next generation of... DOctors. www.LMUnet.edu

Global Health  
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