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EhEPfMJA I

E H O T A C II

TMnOBM ñMECTOPA

flH L u e : jjH n n . m h m . M n p c a jj

3A nPOCEMHA nOlbOnPMBPEAHA flOMAMHCTBA

CauorpajjHrejbH Mory u ojj npnpywor uarepnjana H 3 p a jJ H T H

HajjeAHocraBHHje

MHrecTope h Ha raj Hawh o ó e só e n H T H 3 H a m e

Honmme jeBTHHe eHepmje 3a CBOje flO M d tlH H C T B O

B y /ió n ti

na (no3. 1) ce nocraBM Ha Horape BMCHHe a o nona Meipe, Te ce Ha rt»y AOAajy ysiMBHMK (4) u ncnycT (5). Ha ncnycT ce nocraBM c/iaBMHa, K0j0M ce perynmue McnyiiJTatt>e npeBpenor ociaTKa BpeHsa, to jecT ÓMot)y6pMBa. O ómmho ce nocTaB/ba KymacTa c/iaBMHa. riocyAa Man>er npeHHMKa (2) nociaB/ba ce oópHyto y oflHocy Ha nocy/iy (1). hbeHa y/iora je Aa npeACTaB/ba noKpeTHy Kyno/iy y Kojoj ce CKyn/ba ónorac, KOjM Ce OABOAM npMK/byneHMM n/iacTHHHMM upeBOM (6). OrpaHM4aBaH»e xoAa Tano H3patjeHe noKpeTHe Kyno/ié (2) nocTMwe ce noCTaB/ba4»eM rpaHMMHMKa (3). Y ko -

B IO P U N

b io m a s a

E a tu re H C H H jjn r e c T o p H 3 p a fje H o jj en acT H ^ H o r M a r e p n ja n a

[s u p s tra t)

H3pateH ojj npnpyHHor M a r e p n ja n a : H a jje jjH O c ra B H H jH jjM re c T o p c a

M , PREVREL O ST A TA K

noupe THOM HynonoM

OcHOBHa noAe/ia A nrecT o p a je no HaMMHy nyH9ert>a, Ha KOHTMHyMpaHe M flHCKOHTMHyHpaHe. KOHTMHyHpaHM AMrecTopH c e nyHe CBanor AaHa, jeAHOM mjim Bmue nyia, 3aBMCHO OA KO/lHHHHe M npMJIMBa MaTepnje, Te HeMajy 3acTOja y paAy, ochm peflOBHor ro/jHUJrt>er nper/iena c a Mmu‘heH>eM. flMCKOHTMHyMpahm AMrecTopn ce nyHe jeAHOM m notom c e c/ieAefcnx 20 a o 45 AaHa B m u e He nyHe, Hero c e no p e A o c jieay OABMjajy ct>a3e n p o u e c a BpeHba. K oa KOHTMHyHpaHMX A nrecTopa MCT0BpeMeH0 ce OABMjajy cB e tpm 0a3e Bpehta, Tano a a je h npon3BOAH>a ÓMoraca KOHTMHyHpaHa. .Qa/be n o šene A nrecT o p a cy no nono>Kajy, no MaTepnja/iy rpaAH»e, no BpcTM rpejart>a, no KOHCTpyKTMBhm m KapaKTepMCTMKaMa Kyno/ie, MTA- TaKO HX MMa: X0pM30HTa/lHMX,

40 BepTHKa/iHMx, yKonaHMx, HaA3eM-

hmx, óeTOHCKHX, Me/iMMHMx, n/iacTMMHMX, ÓaÜJTeHCKMX, MHflyCTpMjckmx, 6e3 rpejai-ba. ca cno/bHMM rpejanteM, ca yHyTpaujHaMM rpejaH>eM, KOMÓMHOBaHMX, 6e3 nOKpeTHe nynone, ca nonpeTHOM Kyno/ioM, KOMnaKTHMX m Apyrnx TMnoBa amrecTopa. flMrecTopn óe3 yrpatjeHor rpejanba cy HajjeAHOcraBHMje kohCTpyKUMje m HaMeHseHM cy -3a eKcn/ioaTauMjy caMO y Ton/ioM Ae/iy roflMHe, o aho cho y Ton/iMM KpajeBMMa. Koa Hac y Jyroc/iaBnjn Ton/iw A eo roAMHe, y KOMe npoceHHa AHeBHa TeMnepaTypa Huje McnoA ocaM CTeneHH Ue^3MjycoBnx, o/ihocho nepnoA y KOMe tokom aaHa TeMnepaTypa Ba3Ayxa Huje HMwa o/i neT CTeneHH L4e/i3MjycoBnx, Tpaje npoceHHO oko uuecT u no Meceum 3a Hace/beHa M ecía Ha^Mopcne BMCHHe flo 400 MeTapa. HajjeflHOCTaBHMjM flHrecTopn k o -

jn HeMajy yrp atjeH o r rpejatt»a 6 ho M ace Bp/io c y paujHpeHH y K hhh h MHflHjn. y EBponn c e M3patjyjy cam o óaujTeHCKe h BMKeHAauiKe eep3Mje, r^e MecTO HHje ÓHTaH npoH3BefleHH ó n o ra c, Hero BeoMa uen»eHO ÓHOtjyÓpHBO.

A H re cT o p _________ f l B a

o a

ó y p e ia

JeaaH o a HajjecJ)THHMjMx h HajMat-bHx A nrecTop a 0Be Knace je a h recTop npMKa3aH Ha c /imuh 1, Koju c e H3pabyje o a npnpyMHor MaTepHja^a. KopMCTe c e CTape óaMBe, 6ypaA h c/iMMHo, ó h /io A a cy o a MeTa/ia h /ih nnacTHKe. flB e TaKBe nocyA e c e A o p a A e y CMMC/iy n0Ka3aH0M Ha c/iHUH 1. flo c y A a Be tier npeMHH-

PR E V R E L I’ O ST A T A K

/imko c e He Mo>Ke Hahn nocyAa Ma«>er npeMHMKa, TaAa c e y3HMa jotu je a Ha HCTa nao Be ha (1), pa3pe>Ke joj c e n/iaujT n cn p a in oómm n/iawTa 3a 60 a o 65 MH/iHMeTapa, u TMMe yManbH npeMHMK 3a o ko 2P MH/iHMeTapa lu to je A0B0/bH0 A a ce jeAHa y A pyro j M ory KpeTaTH. ripn onepauHjn CMaHDeHaa npeMHHKa no cyA e (2), He Tpeóa 3aóopaBMTM A a c e CMaH>H npeMHMK KpoBa, o a h o c h o AHa nocyAe, y cpa3Mepn y Kojoj je C M atte n oómm n/iaiuTa. 0b3kbh HajjeAHOCTaBHujn AMrecTopn cy oómmho a o 300 ^MTapa 3anpeMMHe, MepeHO no 3anpeMMHM r/iaBHe nocyAe (1). HajMeiutie cy oa 200 /iHTapa, jep ce HajBMUje kopncTM óypaA o a TexHMMKMx yA»a MfiM ropMBa, Koja cy TaKBe Be/iMMMHe. 3aBHCHO oa MaTepnja/ia KojMM ce nyHe, AHeBHa np0M3B0AH>a 6mo-


'T vodena

1

brtva

------ i— ---- \

IZLAZ

Biogasa

|

POKRETNA KUPOLA

i PRAŽNJENJE

npeMHHKa — 2 (m), AyÓMHa nocy­ Ae a o 5 (m). 3 a AOMatiHHCTBa Koja AHrecTHjn noABpraBajy CTajHsaK, Kao npn6/iH>KHO TaMHO y3HMa ce noTpeóa oa jeAaH h no ao ABa Mepa KyÓHHX 3anpeMMHe AnrecTopa Ha CBaKMX 5 0 0 KnnorpaMa whbotmHaá. 3 a TaK03BaHa cpeAH>a AOMahHHCTBa, Koja HMajy Tpn ao MeTnpn roBeMeTa, a o AeceT CBHt-ba h ABaAeceTaK nepaAH, noTpeóan je ahrecTop Be/iHMHHe oko ocaM KyÓHHX MeTapa, ca npeMHHKOM AurecTopCKe nocyAe = 1,6 MeTapa, Te Ayóhhom MeTHpn MeTapa.

n o ro A H M

3a

npoceMHa f lO M a t lM H C T B a

O ahoc re e T o p e K e

THn jQHrecropa

A p y ra M H jn , u í t o /b a .

raca ce Kpehe npoceMHO M3Metjy a o 0 ,4 KyÓHkix MeTapa Ha AaH, LUTO je AOBO/bHO 3a npnnpeMy pynKa CKpoMHMjer oÓMMa. HaHMe, je­ AaH M eiap KyÓHor ónoraca pa3Bnja T0n/i0THy cHary npoceMHo ujecT kh-

0 ,2

noBaTa.

KaHMCTepe,(Kaqe. £ a Kyno/ia He óm H3neiena H3 cBOje BOAeHe 6 pTBe h oc/io6oAH/ia y OKO/iHHy ónorac, noCTaBM joj ce orpaHMMert»e, Kao koa AHrecTopa Ha c/ihlih 1. flowe/baH n noTpeóaH npHTHcaK ónoraca y ahrecTopy, a hotom y HHCTa/iaunjw npeMa noTpomaMHMa, nocTnwe ce AO/iaBahbeM óa/iaora Ha noKpeTHy

Kyno/iy. HaTnpMTMcaK He Óh TpeÓaBefan a o 4 0 MH/iHÓapa

/io A a 6 y j x e

mm B . C ) . O bh flMrecTopM ce rpaAe y Be/iHMMHaMa 3anpeMMHe A^recTOpCKe nocyAe o a uuecT a o 2 5 MeTapa Kyóhmx. O a h o c ayÓMHe u npeMHMKa am recTopcKe nocyAe ( f l ) j e oóhmho ABa n no. T o 3H3mm a a je ko a Henor

(4 0 0

M H f lM j C K M a n re cT o p

f lp y r n , H3 r p y n e jeAHOCTaBHMjMx A u r e c T o p a K ojn je pe/iaTHBHo ujhPOKO 3 a cT y n A > e H je TaK0 3 BaHM H H -t AMjcKM A H r e c T o p . rip M K a 3 a H je rt» e-‘ r o B onuiTH m r n e n Ha c n n u n 2 . K a o m c b h o c T a n n jeAHOCTaBHM A n r e c To p u 6 e 3 A O A a T H o r pejaH»a, H aM eH»eH je c a M O 3 a p a A y T o n / io M A e/iy roflM H e, Te 6 h TaKO M o ra o k o p h c t h th n y HaLUMM KpajeBM M a. M o h je C B o jo M K0 HCTpyKUMj0 M n o ro A a H 3a caM orpaArt> y. H 3 p at)yje c e o a a p M H p a H o r će T O H a . O c h o b h h A e o je A M re c T o p c K a n o c y A a , K oja h m b H3 rn eA A y6 oK e n o cy A e c a n p e rp a a o m n o cpeAM H M h A'bOCTpyKMM n p c ie H a c T H M b p x o m 3a CM eiu Taj n o K p eT H e K yno/ie. f lp e r p a A a M o m e 6 h th o a 6 eTOH a, ziHMa, A P B e T a h/ih n/iacTHKe. P a A H 6 o / b e Ton/ioTHe M3 0 /iaunje y K o n a H a ćeTO H CK a n o c y A a MO>Ke 6 mth 0 3 MAaHa ¡bahm m p e a o m u nr/ie u n 0 T0 M A o 6 p o K a i p a H HcaHa npoTMB n p o A o p a B/iare. U e bh 3 a nyH>eH3e m 3a npa>KH»eH>e, H3 p a t ) y j y c e o a n nacTH Ke, m e ia n a h/ih

6 eTOHa.

a

K o p n c ie

3a nytt>ett>e m

npa>Krt>eH»e yr/iaBHOM o a 6 eTOHa.

riOKpeTHa Kynona ce H3patjyje ; oa MeTasiHor /iHMa um n/iacTM«e. CaMorpaAHTe/bM Kopncre CTape nocyAe, Kao ujto cy 6ypaA, 6aMBe,

AyÓHHe

H h jjm J c h m

BMOrAC H3 PA3nHMMTMX OTflAflAKA ĐenHMHHa npMHOca ó n o r a c a 3 aB n cn o a aetier ó p o ja 4>aKTopa, Me^y K O j H M a c y : T e M n e p a T y p a ojqBH]aH»a speHba, K pynH otie u apcTe M aTepM je, npMTHCKa y AH recTO py, KHcenocTH p a c T B o p a 6 n o w a c e KBanMTeTa CTBOpeHHX m0T9hckmx óaKTepuja, speM ena n p o n a 3 a MaTepMje Kpo3 A M re cT o p , M eiu atba caApn< aja c y a e o p ra H c n e MaTepMje y ÓMOMacM m Ta* KO Aan»e. K a n o je cse o s e 4>aKTOpe TeuiKO O B fle noBe3aTM m iiOTOM A3TM M oryh e BenHMHHe npM HOca Ó M oraca M3JiomeHe BenMMHHe c y npoceMHe 3a npocomho o c T B a p e H e y c n o B e : CTajH>aK K p a s a M yaapa 1 .2 (m3/AaH, C J ) CTajn>aK roBeAa y TOBy 0 ,9 (m3/AaH, C J ) CTajK>aK pacnnoAHHx KpMasa 1 ,6 (m3/AaH, C J ) 1 ,5 (m3/AaH, C J ) CTajH>aK CBHrt»a y TOBy C TajH baK KOKa HOCHJlHUa 2 ,9 (m3/AaH, C J ) CTajhbaK nnnntia, ópojnepa 2 .2 ( m 3/ A a H , C J ) n>ycKa KpoMnnpa 0 ,2 2 ( m 3/ k g ) nMiuhe mehepHe pene 0 ,1 2 ( m 3/ k g ) BOAeHH AsHibaH 0 ,1 3 ( m 3/ k g ) Ko a CTajw>aKa AOMahnx >KHBOTHH>a npMHOC ÓMoraca je a bt y KyÓHMM MeTpHMa Ha AaH no jeAHOj CTOMHOj jeAHHHUH ( C J ) . CroMHa jeAHHHua je jeAHHHua Mepe no KOHBeHunjH ÓnoracHe TexHHKe n 03HanaBa Macy oa 5 0 0 KH^orpary/ia >KHBOTHhba. (IpHMepa paAH, jeAHa cTOMHa jeAHHHua KOKa Hocnn>a 6 pojn n3Metiy 2 0 0 h 2 5 0 KOKa, oahocho to 3HaMM Aa to/ihko h>hx HMajy yKynHy Macy 5 0 0 KwnorpaMa, HapaBHO y npoceKy. Ko a oTnaAaKa ÓM/bHor nopeKiia, npMHoc ÓMoraca je a b t y Kyóhmm MeTpHMa ÓHoraca no KH^orpaMy OTnaAaKa-, OHaKBor k b k b b ce jaBA>a.

h

nocyAe

llp e M H H K

je

h

npeM H H Ka a h M ow e

CTBap

BHCHHa

6 hth

h

rp a A H T e noKpeTH e

K y n o ^ e c y o ó h m h o p a B H e npeM H H Ky n o c y A e ,Q.

nnacTH H HH

new ehH

óaiuTeHCKM

A n r e c T o p , 3a n p e M H H e HajBH iue a o 3 0 0 zurrapa, H3 p a b y j e

ce oa

riBL)

ojaM aHe <j>o^Hje AeÓ nsH H e He Mart>e o a je A H o r MH/iHMeTpa h He B e h e o a jeA a H h n o MHflMMeTap. ü p H K a 3aH je n p H M e p o M Ha c / ih u h 3 . M 3p a tjy je c e B e o M a n a n o , 3 a B a p n B a i-beM nnacTHMHe ct>o^Hje. H a M e n te H je B H L iíe 3a AOÓHjanbe Ó H o tjy ó p H s a H3 ó a u jT e H C K H X h K y h H H x O T n a A a K a ,

n p e M A a c e n p o H 3B eA eH H ó n o r a c (n p o ceM H O 0 , 2 5 M e T a p a KyÓHHX) M o m e K opncTH TH 3a HeKy o a M a n n x K yhH H x ra cH H x ua,

H anpaBa

npoTOHHH

(rpeja/in-

ó o jn e p ,

racH H

0 p H > K H A e p , H C/IHMHO). npHHunn

rp a A H » e

nnacTH M H or

A H r e c T o p a je h c t h K a o k o a n p H M e p a A a T o r H a c /i h u h 1, H a po M H T O K a Aa

cy

y

n n TaH » y

npa>KH>eH»e.

M ow e

nyH>eH3e ce

m

kophcthth

Ka O K O H C T H H y H p a H H h /i h a h c k o h t m H ynpaH H A n re c T o p . 3a

rp aA H > y

ce

n p e n o p y M y je

p n u j t ie i^ e

(1BU

ó o jn

T a M H H ja ,

lu to

o ja M a n a paAH

ko-

0 o / iH j a

y

y n n ja t-b a

T o n / io T e c y H M e B H x 3 p a K a . r i p e n o p y M eH e Be/iH M HHe c y : Ay>KHHa a o

1 ,8

(M ) , U JH pH H a A O 0 ?7 5 (m) H B H C H H a

A O 0 ,4 (M ).

( y cn e jq e ñ e M ó p o jy : C A B P E M E H H J JH rE C T O P M )

41


EHEPflUA

Bmac (III)

riHuie: fíHtui.

CABPEMEHH flMrECTOPM flMrecTopn KOHCTpyHcaHM 3a HenpeKH/jaH paA uene roAMHe, npeaCTaB/bajy y m a B H O M peiuen>a HaCTa/ia y EBponu, a ca to>kh>om 3a ujto óo/bMM MCKopMiuheHseM ripou e c a BpeK>a, nano y n o r / ie A y kojwMMHe ÓMoraca, t8ko mcto my nomyHOCTM H3BpUi6Kba Bpetta M AOÓMjaH»y KBa/iMTeTHor npeBpenor ociarKa - oahocho ÓMobyópMBa. CaBpeM6HM AMrecTopM cy HacTa/m Ten noMeTKOM ocaMAeceTMX roAMHa 0 B0r BeKa. KapaKTepMCTMKa mm je, Aa HMajy peiueHO 3arpeBaK>e, oapwaBahbe cTa/me TeMnepaType, Memahbe u Aoópy ToruioTH y n 3o/iaUMjy, y3 ocTa/ia perneaba Kpo3 Koja ce nocTM>Ky yKynHO Aoópn pe3y/iTatm BpeH>a ónoMace (opraHCKM otnauM n/iyc Boaa). C oÓ3npoM aa je UM/b 0B0r HanMca na aHMMnpa caMorpaA«>y amrecTopa, y Ay6/be aHann3e HMje HeonxoflHo yna3HTM. AoBo/bno je Aatm HajocHOBHHje ynyTe Be3aHe 3a caMorpaAfey AMrecTopa, jep ce OMeKyje, Aa he caMorpaAMTe/b He* Ke noTpeÓHe AeTan>e peujHTM, mjim caM H/iM y3 noMoh OAroBapajyfte jiMTepaType, nao ujto je Ha npMMep KKbnra „Bnorac" y H3Aau>y „TbxhmmKe Khbnre" M3 BeorpaAa. HajMeuitiM o ójim k r p a A fo e c a B p e M eHM x A u r e c T o p a je H a A 3 e M a n , 6m/io Aa je BepTHKa/iaH mjim no/io>KeHH (xopM3c>HTa/iaH) AnrecTop oó/inna UM/iHHAPMHHe n o c y A e . Ha c jih u h 1 c y y n p o u jh e H O npw Ka3aHa ¡x&a o c HOBHa M3BOt)6rt>a HaA36MHMX B6pTMKa/iHMx AnrecTopa, h to 6es noKpeTHe Kyno/ie „a" h ca noxpeTHOM Kyno/iOM „6". O b 3 kbm m flnrecTopnM a ce AOAaje jo u j Metua/mua, nao Ha cjimum 2 h ueBHM noflHM rpejaM

CfiHKa 1: uieM arcH M n p m a 3 a a a o c h o b h b ru n a a e p t h k q jih h x jjH re c ro p a M e ran H e KO H crpyKU M je: a . M H re c ro p Ó63 n onp eT H e K yn o n e h 6. iin r e c r o p c a noKpeTHO M nynonoM

C/iHua 3: Hsrne/i h HavHH nocraajhatba u e a H o r n o jiH o r rp e ja v a

Cjimkb 2: npHKB3 C M B turaJa m n s rn B jia

mbuíbjimub ca no n aT M o au a

n p M K a 3aH c jim k o m 3 .

T o je o c h o b h m

noTpeÓ H e Koe<|>MUMjeHT K o p n u jtíe H b a A M re c T o p a . Y 3 t o , a m r e c T o p y c e n o c r a B / b a m noKa3MBaM H U B o a (cnH K a 4 ), Te TepMOM eTpM, M aH O M eTpn h A p y r a o n p e M a .

onpeMe

3a

hmbo

bhcokm

Ko a AMrecTopa ca noKpeTHOM Kyno/ioM Maca óa/iacTa q ce OApetjyje TaKO Aa HaAnpMTMcaK y AMrecTopy 6yAe y rpaHMuaMa o a 1 0 a o 4 0 MMnnóapa. flurecTop ca Kynojiom , Koja Mowe Aa ce Kpehe, rpaam ce TaMo tab ce OMexyje yMepeH Aeóa/iaHC M3Metjy np0H3B0AH>e h noTpoujK>e 6noraca. flnrecTop 6e3

-(f> ROTOR

hhw

.

Mupcajj WJIEHh

HapcHOBHHja ynyrcTBa 3a caMorpa/jH>y c a B p e iu e m

m ecropa


C/ihna S: Ho m ć h h o bbh h ocHrypa*4 n p o ru B n o B p a ra nnaM GHa, O A B ajan B n a re h n p e v H c ra v

BOJJOHHHCyf!<t>HMB H3 Č H o ra ca

CflMKa 6: CnpeMHHH ČHoraca M3pateH om

enacT H V H or

nanor uarepnjana

CnHKa 4: HavMH nocraBihatba HHBOKB3B ĆMOMace y nnrecTopy

noKpeTHe Kyno/ie ce rpaAM TaMo rae je M36a/iaHCMpaHa noipoiuK>a ca np0H3B0AK>0M 6noraca mjim naK temo r/je fce 6mtm 06e36etjeH0 CKnaAHiuTeH>e 6uoraca y noceĆHo M 3rpat)BHHM CnpeMHHUHMa. Metua*>e y A M re c ro p y je n o T p e ć -

ho o6e36eAKTM, Kano 6m MeTaHCKe 6 a K T e p n je , K o je c y c n a 6 o no K p e T n>MBe, op> K8 A o n a3 M n e a o n o ip e ć -

He m m x p a H e m T an o n p 0 H 3 B 0 A H /ie BMLue M eTaHa, oahocho 6 n o r a c a . Meiuatbe c e m 3 b o a m pa3/iMMMTMM M e m ajiM u aM a , noM eB oa H ajnpocTM je 6 y tiK a jiM u e K o jo M c e paAM pyMHO M3B3H A n re c T o p a , na a o e /ie K T p o MOTOpHMX Mema/IMLia. KoA HeKMX B p cT a A n re c T o p a , M e iu ah be c e n o CTM>Ke pa3/iMMMTMM npe/iM BM M a y rpab eH M M y c a M O M A n re c T o p y . H ajB H iue K o p M Liih eH a B p c T a M e iu a/iM ua je KpM/ma, npM Ka3aH a Ha c /im u m 2. Ilo c e Ć H O je 3aHMM/bMBa je p je je A HOCTaBHe KO H CTpyKunje m np n xB aT A>MBa 3a caM o rp aA H T en> e.

hbeHe

AMMeH3Mje 3aBMce oa

npeMHMKa AMrecTopcKe nocyAe D,

te M3Hoce:

d0 * (0 ,3 +0,5) D; d = 0,7do; a = 0,25d°; b = 0,2d° ^ OBaj TMn Meiua/iMua je noroAaH 3a BepTMKa/iHe AMrecTope 6e3 no­ KpeTHe Kynone, KojM cy MHaMe m npeTe>KHo y ynoTpe6M. no>Ke/baH 6poj o6pTaja Meuia/iMue je TaKaB, Aa ce o6oAHa 6p3MHa Kpehe M3Metjy 0,5 m 1,0 (m/s). TaKO, Ha npnMep, 3a npeMHMK AurecTopcKe nocyAe D = 2 (m), Meiuannua Tpeča Aa MMa npeMHMK d0 = 0,6 ao 1,0 MeTpa, a 6poj oćpTaja y rpaHMuaMa oa 10 ao 32 y MMHyTM. 3arpesaHbe MarepMja/ia y/io>KeHor y AMrecTop je npenopyM/bMBO M3 pa3nora Behe np0M3B0AH>e 6moraca, Ao6Mjan»a 6o/ber 6Moby6pMBa ca pa3rpat)eHMM opraHCKMM MaTepnjaMa m KOHTMHyMpaHy npoM3BOAH»y tokom ue/ie roAMHe. 3arpeBaTM ce MO>ne Ha BMuie HaMMHa: Kp03 ABOCTpyKM nJiaUlT, nOAHMM ueBHMM rpejaMeM, rpejaMMMa y nnaujTy mnyTeM sarpesanba BaH amrecTopa y3 AorpeBa*>e y AurecTOpy. Koa BepTMKa/iHMX AnrecTopa, HajBMUje ce kopmctb noAHM ugbhm rpejaMM, a p e te oa m6/immhmx ueBM. Yo6MMajeHO ce kopmctb 6aKapHe ueBM cno/baujtt>er npeMHMKa 62 “ 12 + 20 MM/iMMeTapa m Ae6JbMHe CT6HK6 S * 0,5 + 1,4 MM/1MMerapa. rio>Ke/bHO je Aa TeMnepaTypa, Kojy T p e 6 a OAP>KaBaTM y AMrecTopy, na ocHoey ncKycTBa Ha AeceuMMa xMA>aAa AnrecTopa Ha npocTOpMMa Espone. 6yAe y rpaHMuaMa oa + 32 ao + 36 CTeneHM Ue/i3MjyCOBMX. 3a 3arpeBaH>e ce kopmctm Ton/ia bo a a M3 eMeTeMa racHor KOT/ia, ko ¡m ce /io>km ćnoracoM. MHaMe, Tonna BOAa M3 racHor Koma ce kopmc ­ tm napa/ie/iHO 3a 3arpeBatt>e CTaHa, npMBpeAHMX 3rpaAa m AnrecTopa. JleTM ce npaKTMKyje KopMiut>ett>e Ton/ie b o a b M3 ČMoracoM /io>KeHor

6oj/iepa, jep /iotm HMje noTpeĆHa se/iMKa KonMMMHa Ton/ioTe 3a 3arpeBan>e AnrecTopa. npoceMHa roAMiuhba noTpeća AMrecropa 3a Tonn0T0M (Kojy aohocm Tonna bo a a) Kpehe ce oko 17 oacto ee/iMMMHe eHeprnje Koja ce Ao6nje Kpo3 npoM3BeA6HM ĆMorac. OBaj noAaraK ce oahocm Ha TOnnOTHO M3onoBaH am recTop. TonnoTHa M3onauMja ce M3boam HajMeuihe o6naran>eM TepM0M30nauM0H0M ByHOM y onnaTM o a a/iyMMHMjyMCKor /imMa. KopMCTe ce CTaK/ieHa mjim MMHepanHa ByHa, Ae6/bMHe cnoja HajBMiue a o 100 MMHMMeTapa, a HajMeuihe a o 60 MM/1MM6Tapa. npaKTMMHM Cy UJMBehm jopraHM ByHe Ha noA^03M oa KaTpaHMcaHor KapTOHa, a M3 pa3nora naKe m 6p3e M3onauMje, Te ziaKor KpojeH^a pa3/iMMMTMX oćnMKa. Ocmm nyH>ert>a AnrecTopa, cneAM m npa>KH»eH>e, at.h TaKO Aa ce 3aAP>KM noTpe6aH hmbo ĆMOMace y hbeMy. il0>Ke/bH0 je Aa hmbo 6moMace 6yAe y rpaHMuaMa oa 3/5 ao 3/4 BMCMHe AnrecTopa 6e3 noKpeTHor KpoBa, a koa AnrecTopa ca noKpeTHMM KpOBOM M AO 4/5 BMCMH6. Hmbo ĆMOMace y AnrecTopy ce Mo­ me KOHTponMcaTM Ha pa3He HaMMHe. JeAaH oa jeAHOCTaBHMjMx je yrpaA* H>a HMBOK33a Ca CTaK/ieHOM MJIM n/iacTMMHOM ueBM, Kao u jto je meM3TCKM npMKa3aHO Ha C/IMUM 4. Pa­ AM nocTojan>a Moryt>HocTM 3anymaBahba HMBOK33a, Tpeća y3MM3TM cTa«neHe mjim n/iacTMMHe ueBM ca yHyTpaiiiH»MM npeMHMKOM HajMa4»e 30 MM/iMM6Tapa, anM He Bnme oa 50 MM/iMMeTapa. Ha npMK/byMUHMa HMBOKa3a, rope m Ao/ie, Mory ce nocTaBMTM BeHTM/iM m/im Kyr/iacTe c/iaBMHe, Koje 6m 3aTBapan>eM 0M0ryhaBa/ie M3MeHy HMBOKaŠHe UeBM.

npoM3BeAeHM ĆMorac MMa y ce-

Top ca yHyrpauJH>MM caropeBaH>eM aKo ce 6Morac kopmctm 3a noKpeTaH»e TpaKTopa m/im AH3e/i-e/ieKTpMMHor arperaTa. npMcyTHa B/iara y 6moracy y6p3aBa m nocnemyje Kopo3MBHO Ae/IOBaHbe BOAOHMKCy/10MAa Ha MeTa/iHe Ae/iOBe MOTopa, Te, HapaBHo, m racHMX K0Tn0Ba. BoaoHMKcy/i())MA ce ycneuiHO OABaja nponyujTaH>eM ĆMoraca Kpo3 BOAeHy 3aBecy m/im TB03A6HM okcma. C o63mpom Aa je n0Tpe6H0 Ha ueBOBOAy yrpaAMTM m o6e36et)ett>e oa noBpaTa n/iaMeHa Kpo3 ueB y yHyTpauiH>ocT AnrecTopa, u j t o ce noCTM>Ke n/iaMeHOM 6paHOM HajjeAHOCTaBHMje M3BeA6HOM y BMAy enoja HeropMBe MaTepnje, Aočpo je ypaAHTM KOMĆMHOBaHM anapaT, KojM 6m MMao CBecTpaHy <J>yHKUMjy. Ha cjimuh 5 je npMKa3aHO Ha ABa lipniviepa M3Bot)eH>e KOMĆMHOBaHor anapara y KOMe ce oABaja B/ia­ ra, BOAOHMKCyJ10nA M npM TOM6 cnpeMaBa noBpaTaK nnaMeHa Kpos ueB. Kao McnyHa ce kopmctm tbo3AeHM okcma m/im npax rB03A6H6 pyAe. HaKyn/b6Ha boa a ce noBpeMeho McnyujTa nyTeM BeHTM/ia V2. PereHepauMja oBaKBor KOMĆMHOBaHor OABajaMa je Moryha m Bpmn ce npoAyBaBaH»eM Ton/iMM Ba3AyxoM npM OTBOpeHMM BeHTM/IMMa Vi M V2. y weAOCTaTKy Apyror M3Bopa Toniior Ba3Ayxa, Mo>Ke ce kopmctmtm jaMM cymaM Koce (0eH), KojM ce CBOjOM M3AyBHOM CTpaHOM npMK/byMM Ha OTBOp KOA B6HTM/ia V v HapaBHo, npM npOAyBaBaH>y y um/by pereHepauMje, Mopa ce o6ycrabmtm np0T0K ĆMoraca. Ae6/bMHa c/ioja rBosAe^or o«a*A a ce Kpehe oa 100 ao 30C MeTapa. fTpe^-^- nocvze MMa y ¥ SESfcOOCF”

npeMMiKa rao-c je a e

6m B/iare m BOAOHMKcy/i4>MAa. Bo-

AOHMKCy/l<}>MA y KOHUeHTpaii^ A Betioj oa ABa (g/m3) je uireians sa

f ca e je fte i

S< 010l

*


baklja p • 500 PQ. ( 5 mbar )

EHEPfHJA

Emrac IV PlfNOHRANA

¡rcauiatori (pritivfca

f h m ie : fíH n n . h h m . M u p c a n B y jJ B H H

CKJ1AAHLUTA

3A EHOrAC

—A —*—*.—¿ r Iz d¡g«stora

m

kotao

potroiači

C nn añH iU T e s a Ó n o ra c H 3 rp a te n o o a e n a crn ^ H o r M a re p n ja n a

Km ce rpajje cfoiaMum u/¡urecropu ojj pacnonoMBor npnpymr Marepnjana 3a MBpcTohy MaTepuja/ia o a koj' mx je M3pabeH0, Te c e K pe h e o a ABa AO HajBMLue 10 MM/iMÓapa. Kao luto c e bmam c a lueMaTCKor npMKa3a Ha c/imum 1, cnpeMHMUM M3paheHH o a enacTMMHMx MarepMja/ia c e o ô e c e Ha HenaKBy 3aiuTMTHy KOHCTpyKUMjy, Koja MX yjeAHO ujtmtm o a cyHMeBe CBemocTM. HaMMe, BehMHa e/iactmmhmx MaTepnjana aKO c y n3/io>KeHH cyHMBBHM 3paunMa Ó p 30 ryôe e/iacTHMHocT h ocoÔMHe Be3aHe 3a HenponycHOCT m MBpCTMHy.

rP A A H b A flH r E C T O P A O A

PA cnonow M Bor M A T E P M JA J1A KaAa je y nMTan>y caMorpaAK>a, OCHOBHM je npMHunn a a ce iuto bmuie KopncTe pacno/io>KMBM MaTepMja/iM h HanpaBe. TaKO je h y caMOrpaAtt>n AurecTopa noTpeÔHo MMatm y BHAy MoryhHocî KopmuTeH>a oAÔaneHMX mjih HeKopmuheHMX pa3HMx nocyAa oômiKa uMCTepHM, Kaua, ôaMBH. uesM Be/inKor npeMHMKa, Ae/ioBa npouecHe onpeMe m

cnMMHor. f la 6m ce ao6mo Ao6ap AMrecTop y3 pacnonowMBM MaTepMjan, HMje noTpeÔHo Be/iMKO ynaraH>e, a/iM je noTpeÔHo AOMMiun>aTocTM m TpyAa y 0CMMUj/baBaK>y KOHCTpyKUMje. Moryhe cy pas/iMMMTe KOHCTpyKUMje AMrecTopa, koa KOjMX cy npMCyTHM CBM 3aXT6BM B633HM 3a IUTO ÓOJbH M e0MKaCHMjM paA AMrecTopa. Ha C/1MUM 2. je npMKa3aHa BeoMa ycne/ia KOHCTpyKUMja AMrecTopa ca BMCOKMM KOe0MUMjeHTOM KOpMCHOr Ae/ioBahba m jaKO aoôpmm peiueHsMMa CBMX H>erOBMX 0yHKUMja. MaTepnja/1 3a Bpen>e (ÔMOMaca) ce yóauyje nyMnoM PP, tbko Aa ce Maca npM TOMe 3arpeje npo/ia3ehM Kpo3 ueBHM rpejaM. BMOMaca npBO CTM>Ke y npeTKOMopy, ycnefl Mera Aeo Mace KojM je 6mo y npeTKOMopM npe/iMBahbeM npe/ia3M y r/iaBHy KOMopy, Te ce Ta/iacanbeM M3BpiuM m MeLuaK>e. BniuaK ÔMOMace (npeBpe/iM ocTaTaK - ÓMobyópMBo) ce McnyujTa y caônpHM 6a3eH npeKO BeHTM/ia IP. Meiua4>e y AMrecTopy je peLueHO paAOM nyMne CP, Koja BpLUM uMpKy/iMcaKbe ÔMOMace y

nPH flPEM A BM OM ACE flPE yjlArAhbA y flH Œ C T O P LUeMarcKH npma3 ynonanor ôeroHCHor finrecropa npnnarote-

Hor TBHHOM H3hy6pMBaH>y era je; 1. - craja, 2. - cjihbhh naHan, 3. — jjHBBHa Jatma4. - a h recTop, 5. - jauta 3a npeapenn ocraran, 6.- BOABHH oenrypav, 7. - H3na3 npoH3BBABHor ônoraca. 5norac ce CK/iaAMiUTM Ha mctm KaO M CBM OCTa/lM rOpMBM raCOBH, C TMM lu t o pa3/iMKe nocToje Kafla je y ntfrafey np0M3B0AK>a u CK/iaflHLUTert>e ÓMoraca Ha c|>apMaMa M n0A>0npMBp6AHHM MMaHbMMa nojeflMHaMHMx B/iacHMKa. HaMMe, Ty ce nocTaBA>a 3axTeB 3a rpaAn»OM jeBTHHMx cK/iaAHLUTa (cnpeMHUJTa) ÓMoraca. Beh je Ha3HaM6HO <qa cy MoryhHocTM pa3/iMWMTe, noweB oa rpaflhbe AMrecTopa ca noKpeTHOM KynonoM, cBe a o 3aceÓHMX cnpeMHiuTa ónoraca. HajjeBTMHMja, BeoH3MHH

56

Ma npaKTMMHa 3a 0AP>naBaH»e m npMCTynaMHa 3a caMorpaAH>y cy cnpeMMtuTa M3patjeHa oa enacTMMHMX Marepnjana, Kao ujto cy: ryMMpaHa uepaAa, Ae6n>e Bpcie PVC <t>onnje, MMnperHMpaHe TKaHMHe m Apyro. Ha cîimum 1. je LueMaTCKM npMKa3aHO jeAHO TaKBo cnpeMMiuTe ÓMoraca. LUeMaTCKM je AaTa m H>eroBa Be3a ca MecTMMa noTpoiuK>e ÓMoraca, Te pacTepeTHOM racHOM óaKíbOM. HaTnpMTMCaK, KOJM ce OAP>KaBa y OBaKBMM cnpeMMLuTMMa je HM3aK M3 pa3/iora Be3aHor

ripe ynaraH>â ÔMOMace (opraHCKMx oTnaAaKa) y AMrecTop, a paAM ycneiuHor OABMjaK»a Bpenta, noTpeÔHo je HanpaBMTM noMohy BOAe pacTBop (cyncTpaî), KojM he y ceÔM caAp>KaTM cyBy MaTepnjy y rpaHMuaMa o a ocaM a o HajBMiue 12 o acto . BoAa ce AOAaje m^m ripe m/im HaKOH ynarart»a ÔMOMace y AMrecTop. TaKO Ha npMMep, Tpeôa Ha jeAaH KMJiorpaM /bycKe KpoMnnpa AOAaTM oko luecT m no iiMTapa BOAe. KaA je y nMTatty cTajhbaK, no>Ke/baH oahoc cyBe MaTepnje m BOAe, AOÔMja ce ko a TeMHor M3t)y6pMBahba, na rneAaHO npeMa Macu >KMBOTMH»a (CJ), AHeBHM npM/iMB CTajhbaKa je: KpaBe My3ape 45 KM/iorpaMa, roBeAa y TOBy 29, pacn^OAHe KpMane 30, CBMH>e y TOBy 32, kokb HMCM/iMue 50 m nM/iMhM 40 KM^orpaMa. HaBeAeHe Be/iMMMHe cy npoeew e npn caAP>Kajy 11 oacto cyBe MaTepnje. P a A M 6o/ber n p o u e c â B p e n » a , o a h o c h o sehe n p 0 M 3 B 0 A H > e Ó M o ra ­ c a m K B a/iM TeTH M jer Ó M o tjy ó p M B a , n o T p e Ô H o j e ycMTHMTM M a T e p M ja n KojM c e y/ia> Ke y A M r e c T o p , H a p a B H o a K O o h n p n p o A H o HMje CMTaH. CM TH»eH>e c e BPUJM pa3HMMMTMM M eXdH M M KM M CM THM /lM UaM a MHM c e M K a M a , K O je c e m MHaMe K o p M C T e y n o / b o n p M B p e A H M M p a A O B M M a m n p n n p e M M c t o m He xp a H e .


n\ riMEflEhityjH

r/iaBHoj K0M0pn. riyMna je CHare 0,1 KM/ioBaT, a to je AOBo/bHa januHa. noTpećaH u AOBO/taH KanauMT6T np0T0Ka joj je oa a sa no Tpn /iMTpa y ceKyHflM. OcnrypaH>e oa nojaBe npeBe/mKor n p m u c K a je H 3 BefleHO ABOjaKO, h to noMohy cnr y p H 0 C H 0 r Bemn/ia 0 3 H a n e H 0 r ca SV Ha racHoj CTpaHM u cHrypHocHor npHunonua ca npoTyTeroM Ha crpahh TeMHoctM, 03HaM6H ca SP.

KAnAUMTET flUrECTOPA nPEMA MOiTTiHOCTHMA flurecTop je H3patieH oa jeAHe Bet>e uHCTepHe, Ha Kojy je 3a racHH npocTop HaeapeH Aeo pe3epBoapa m/ih Mafee UHCTepHe. CaM0rpaflH>0M Mory Aa ce rpaAe flurecTopu msk h ao 20 Ky6nnx MeTapa 3anpeMMHe, na h BHiue, luto 3aBHCH oa M0ryhH0CTH HanaweH>a oflroBapajyher npnpy4Mor Maiepnja/ia h onpeMe. 3a caMorpaAH>y AHrecTopa HHje yc/ioB MMaTM nocyAy y bhay uhcTepHe m/im pe3epBoapa. Mome ce AHrecTop rpaAHTH m 6otohom. MHore caepeMeHe KOHCTpyKUHje AHrecTopa cy 6eTOHCKe, a/in 3a pa3/IHKy OA KHH6CKHX H MHflMjCKMX AHrecTopa HMajy yrpabeHO ron/ioboaho ueBHO rpejart>e ĆMOMace, Te cy m y xnaAHOM nepnoAy roAHHe y noroHy. JeAHa ycnena ćeTOHCKa KOHCTpyKUHja AHrecTopa je npHKa3aHa Ha c /ihum 3. MeujaH>e ce obab nocTHMe Ta/iacaK>eM m npe/iMBaH>eM, MaAa ce Mome Kpos otbop 3a MHUiheH>e AHrecTopa yrnaBMTH m

cnopoxoAH o ce

M e iu a n M L ia .

H3B O A H u e B H H M

r p e ja -

n e M . f ln M e H 3 M O HM pahbe A H r e c T o p a c e B p u jH H a 6 a 3 M p a c n o / i o m H B e 6 h O M a c e A H eB H O , TaKO a a c e n c r a n o M H O M H 6 p O jH H M ()>aKTO pOM H 3 MH-

TepBana oa 35 ao 50. Betin 6poj ce y3HMa 3a *<e/beHH eehn racHH npoCTop y AnrecTopy. 3a TanHHje ah MeH3HOHHpahbe Tpećano 6 h kophcthth nHTepaTypy. OBa KOHCTpyKUMja je noceĆHO npMXBam>HBa 3a tohho H3tjy6pHBatte cTaja, noujTO uMa AHpeKTHy Be3y ca CTajoM npeKO cnHBHor KaHana h ahbbhb jaMe. B oabhh 3aTBapa4, KojH c/iy>KM 3a pacTepeheH>e AHrecTopa y cnynajy noBehaHia HampMTHCKa H3HaA a o 3Bon>eHe Be/iHMHHe, H3pabyje ce y M3y36THO nojeAHocTaBrbeHoj 0opmh y3 BennKy cnrypHOd y paAy. fly6nHa ypon>aBart>a racHe ueen Hs y BOAy BoaeHor ocHrypana je 3a 10 oacto yBetiaH npHTHcaK 6noraca, a/)M H3pa>KeH y crapoj jeAHHHUH Mepe: MHnnueTapa B0AeH0r c i n ­ ija (03HaKa: mm V. S ). OBaj npMHiinn je bmaamb Ha c/ihuh 4. Ha npnMep, ano ao 3bo/ihmo Aa je HajBehn npHTHcaK y AnrecTopy ao tph kPA, oahocho 30 MH/in6apa, to je paBHO 300 mm V. V., Te 6h racwa ueB Tpe6a/io Aa 6yAe ypon>eHa y BOAy 3a Hs = 330 M M . To 3HBMH, aKO AOtie Ao nojaBe HamptrnicKa B e t i e r oa 330 m m V. S., Aa tie ce 6norac npo6HTM K p 0 3 BOAy H OTMttH y aTMOC0epy. 3a cnrypaH paA OBanaor ocnrypaMa noTpeĆHo je OApmaBaTH CTanaH hhbo BOAe y H>eMy, a paah aTMoc<J>epcKor HcnapaBaH>a.

- Kpaj -

J]Ba caBera

iipHoropcKor mempa

y pa3roBopy ca JQyuiaHOM CTaHHUJHtieM, AOMahHHOM M nMe/iapoM M3 Eapa ca3Ha/in cmo K>er0B0 MMUjn>eH>e o kopmjutieH>y nanpaTM 3a cnpeMaBart>e Bapoe. - Ja ce h caM noMano 6aBMM TpaBaMa, no3HajeM nx o k o tpm CTOTHHe, a Ha to Me je Harepana Moja 3HaTMM<e/ba h 6o/iecT >K6He. B o /ieo 6 h x a a mm Ka>ny /laTMHCKM Ha3HB Te nanpaTM. llpaBo Aa BaM KameM, ja c/ia6o BepyjeM a a o a Tora Mome 6 mtm HeujTo, cyMKbMMas je CraHMIliHt). 3 a nanpaT MMjM ysopaK MyBa koa ce6e m sa Kojy Bepyje Aa je cnnMTCKM nMenapM npenopyMyjy, Ka>Ke, Aa MMa a s a HasMBa: Aspidium filix vras m Driopteris, mcyAehM Aa ce y HapoAHoj MeAMUMHM KOpMCTe 3a /ieMert>e rnMCTa k o a Aeue, m o >k 6 6 htm Aa je OA H6K6 KOpMCTM. MnaK, AOK ce CBe He McnMTa m AO«a>Ke, CraHMUJHh npenopyMyje Aa ce KopMCTe nocTojetiM neKOBM. jy

y

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i

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K o i i i H M u a 3 a-

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nom acTM ,

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A a n a c

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H M c y m6ctmto hm mo Ć H O B M n a . V H a A M tiy H a h M hbkm mmp n o n e o C e 6 aBM TM B O t ia p C T B O M M

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Je a H o c ra B H H BO BO H H o c H ty p a >4 o n n p o B B JiH K o r H B T n p H TH C K a ra c a .

3 a o h o K o jn B o n e e n c n e p H u e H T H c a tb e : H a n a ča m u n p o 6 a jy jie u e t b e n o u o h y n a n p a rn

- H a u je

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FlAriPAT HHJE CMryPHA

r p e ja n » e

noAH M M

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3acaAMO ABe ctotmhb cTaćana BOtlKM, M OKO neT CT0TMH3 MOKOTa bmhobb no3e. Ty momb 6mtm Ao6pa m/im ziouja ce30Ha, a/iM HeMa yrnnytia Kao koa nqena. BMAMTe, lUTa caM to a y >kmBOTy ypaAMO a a o caM Aocra 3Hoja mto je HanpeAOBano, naa to a caM ocTaBMo - nponaAa/io je, Kame flyiuaH CraHMuiMt). 3aBpujaBajyhM pasroBop ca MCKyCHMM nwe/iapOM KOjM 3Ha Aa AO^Mja, a/iM m Aa ry6M, 3a6e/16MM/1M c m o joui ABa npefl/iora. JeAaH ce oahocm Ha TMn KOUJHMue. CTaHMiuMt) je Mcnpo6aeajyhM Aomao a o KOUJHMue Koja je no Tnny Hajc/iMMHMja J1P caM je AopaAMO m caM Hanpabmo Aa 6yAe y o6/iMKy KBaApa. JlaKiue ce MaHMny/iMUie ca KOLUHMUOM jep cy joj cnpaTOBM M OKBMPM jeAHaKM. flpyrn caBeT je Aao CraHM Lunti Kao nosHaBa/iau TpaBa: A ko Beft roBope o nanpaTM Kao MoryheM /ieKy npoTMB Ba­ poe, ja npenopynyjeM oho uito caM m caM mmhmo Ha nMe/iwrt>aKy. CBe 6M/bKe ca eTepMMHMM y/bMMa Mory Aa noc/iy>Ke 3a OA6paHy m Kao neK npoTMB HanacTM - caMO je Ba>KHO 3H8tm y Kojoj KO/1MMMHM y KOM ApyiliTBy, o a jaMMHe ApyujTBa 33bhcm Kojy m ko /imko TpaBe Tpeća npMMehmtm. AyeaH, MajMMHa ayujMua, 0pax0B0 /lmutie, 6yBapMiia m/im 6yxaH, CBe cy to Tpase Koje noMawy. DoKyujajTe m bm H. BAPHUiMTi

57


Biogas