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Ciència PRBB-CRG CONFERENCES

Conference Programme financed by the CRG and the PRBB RUTH SCHERZ, Friday Februar y 17. Scherz, from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which tumors reprogram their local environments. Her goal is to provide a deeper understanding of how tumors develop into systemic malignancies, predict which tumors are more likely to do so, and design therapeutic strategies to overcome these malignancies by targeting genetically stable elements in the tumor microenvironment. She has been invited by Ben Lehner (CRG). RODRIGO QUIAN QUIROGA, Monday February 27. Quian, from the University of Leicester, UK, is interested in the study of the principles of visual perception and memory. In particular he is focused on principles of Neural Coding, visuo-motor transformations, single-trial evoked potentials, synchronization and the development of methods for the analysis of neurophysiology data. He discovered the so-called “Concept cells” or “Jennifer Aniston neurons” - neurons in the human brain that play a key role in memory formation. He has been invited by Rodrigo Alberto Rocamora (IMIM).

www.prbb.org  www.prbb.org | | febrer maig de 2011 2017       

CARRERA CIENTÍFICA / SCIENTIFIC CAREER

ELISABETH CARDIS – DIRECTORA DEL PROGRAMA DE RADIACIÓ (ISGLOBAL)

«Als 24 anys, vaig anar a Hiroshima a estudiar els efectes de la radiació» Maruxa Martínez-Campos Com et vas introduir al camp de la radiació? ’agradaven la medicina i les ma· temàtiques. Un tutor a Ottawa em va parlar sobre la bioestadística i l’epidemiologia i vaig fer el doctorat a l’Esco· la de Salut Pública de la Universitat de Was· hington a Seattle. Allà vaig tenir l’oportuni· tat d’anar durant 15 mesos a Hiroshima per aprendre sobre els efectes de la radiació —al lloc on va explotar la primera bomba atòmi· ca llançada en temps de guerra!

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D’on va venir aquesta oportunitat? La Fundació per a la Investigació dels Efectes de la Radiació està finançada pels EUA i el Ja· pó, i cada any els EUA hi envia investigadors. L’Acadèmia Nacional de Ciències tenia un acord amb la meva universitat i jo vaig ser la segona estudiant que hi va anar. La majoria no estaven interessats en anar al Japó, però jo sí. Potser a causa del meu bagatge internaci· onal i del meu interès previ per la Xina.

GRANT LYTHE, Monday March 6. Lythe, from the University of Leeds, UK, is focused on stochastic models of immune cell, and immune system dynamics. In collaboration with academic and industrial partners, he seeks to describe T cell homeostasis, the TCR repertoire and dynamics of responses to infection. He coordinates “Quantitative T-cell Immunology” (QuanTI), an Initial Training network with partners in the UK, Ireland, France, Germany and the Netherlands. He has been invited by Jordi García-Ojalvo (UPF).

Què vas aprendre allà? El meu doctorat es va centrar en el càncer induït per la radiació. A causa de les bombes atòmiques sabem molt sobre les persones amb exposicions moderades i altes, però em vaig adonar que no sabem tant sobre els efec· tes de les dosis baixes: és difícil estudiar-les per estimar els efectes. Tanmateix, moltes més persones estan afectades per elles: a través de la medicina diagnòstica, als llocs de treball i al nostre entorn en general... De manera que les radiacions a dosis baixes són importants, però estudiar-les és més difícil i controvertit. De fet, em vaig prometre que mai les estudiaria!

A N D R E W F I R E , Fr i d ay March 10. Fire, from the Stanford Medicine University, USA, studies the mechanisms by which cells and organisms respond to genetic change. His lab studies a variety of natural mechanisms that are utilized by cells adapting to genetic change. These include mechanisms activated during normal development and systems for detecting and responding to foreign or unwanted genetic activity. They primarily make use of the nematode C. elegans in their experimental studies. Much of his team’s current effort is directed toward a molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and its roles in the cell. He has been invited by the CRG PhD Students committee.

I no obstant... Sí, és el tema principal al que em dedico ara! Després de la meva tesi doctoral vaig rebre una oferta de treball a Montreal i una altra a la IARC (Agència Internacional per a la Inves· tigació sobre el Càncer) a Lyon. Vaig acceptar la feina a Montreal, amb la condició d’anar a Lyon un any. Un cop a Lyon, l’IARC havia de fer un estudi sobre els treballadors de la in· dústria nuclear, i, amb la meva experiència a Hiroshima, em van demanar a mi que ho fes. La primera etapa, la combinació de dades de tres països, va trigar més del previst, així que mentrestant vaig començar a fer més feina... Llavors va ocórrer l’accident de Txernòbil. Vaig acabar creant una unitat de radiació a l’IARC i m’hi vaig quedar 22 anys!

GUIDO BARBUJANI, Monday March 13. Barbujani, from the Ferrara University, Italy, has been working on different aspects of human genetic diversity and evolutionary biology. He produced a statistical method for comparing genetic and linguistic data and thus reconstruct the evolutionary history of human popula­ tions. His studies of DNA and distribution of genetic differences have demonstrated that the traditional concept of race fails to provide a satisfactory account of human diversity. He has been invited by Jaume Bertranpetit (UPF).

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Per què vas marxar? Quan es va crear el CREAL l’any 2005, Mano· lis Kogevinas em va escriure dient que estaven buscant gent. Em va costar un any decidir-me però vaig animar-me a participar en el desen· volupament d’aquest nou centre. Va ser una bona decisió. Al CREAL (ara ISGlobal) tenim un entorn estimulant, no jeràrquic, les deci· sions es prenen de manera compartida, i per descomptat estem molt a prop del mar! Quines són les principals qüestions obertes en el camp de la radiació? Una d’elles seria la radio­sensibilitat. Algunes persones són més sensibles que altres als efectes de la radiació; per què? I necessitem saber més sobre els efectes no cancerígens,

PERFIL / PROFILE Nascuda a Ottawa (Canadà), Elisabeth Cardis viu a Sant Pere de Ribes amb el seu marit i els seus dos fills de 14 i 17 anys. Aquesta epidemiòloga, una experta mundial en radiació, parla francès, espanyol, anglès, una mica de japonès i rus, i ara català des que va arribar a Barcelona fa vuit anys per establir el programa de radiació del CREAL - ara ISGlobal. Recent­ment ha rebut la medalla «Txernòbil - 30 anys» d’un institut de recerca del Ministeri de Salut de Rússia, pel seu treball en l’avaluació i mitigació de les conseqüències de l’accident. Born in Ottawa, Canada, Elisabeth Cardis lives in Sant Pere de Ribes with her husband and their two boys (14 and 17). This epidemiologist, a world expert in radiation, speaks French, Spanish, English, some Japanese and Russian, and now Catalan since she came to Barcelona eight years ago to establish the radiation program at CREAL — now ISGlobal. She recently received the “Chernobyl - 30 years” medal by a research institute in the Russian Ministry of Health, for her work on evaluating and mitigating the consequences of the accident. com les malalties cardiovasculars o les cata· ractes. També, són els efectes de la radiació externa i de la que inhalem o ingerim simi· lars o diferents? I, finalment, la radiació no ionitzant: té efectes en la salut?

and controversial. In fact, I promised I’d never study them!

How did you get into the field of radiation? liked both medicine and maths. An advisor in Ottawa told me about bios· tatistics and epidemiology, so I did my PhD in the school of public health at the University of Washington, in Seattle. There I had the opportunity to go to Hiroshima for 15 months to learn about the effects of ra­diation — in the place where the first ato· mic bomb launched in war time exploded!

And yet, here you are now… Yes, that’s mainly what I am doing now! After my PhD I got a job offer in Montreal and one at the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), in Lyon. I took the job in Montreal with the condition to go to Lyon for one year. Once in France, IARC was asked to do a study on workers in the nu­ clear industry, and, with my Hiroshima ex· perience, they asked me to get involved. The first stage, combining data from 3 countries, took longer than planned, so in between I started doing more work. Then the Cher· nobyl accident happened - I ended up crea· ting a radiation unit at the IARC and stayed there for 22 years!

How did that opportunity come about? The Radiation Effects Research Founda· tion is funded by the US and Japan, and each year the US sends some researchers to help. The National Academy of Sciences had an agreement with my university and I was the second student to go. Most students were not interested in going to Japan, but I was. Perhaps because of my international background and previous interest in China.

Why did you leave? When the CREAL was created in 2005, Manolis Kogevinas wrote saying they were looking for people. It took me a year to de· cide but I felt I wanted to take part in the development of this new centre. It was a good decision. At the CREAL (now ISGlobal) we have a stimulating, non-hierarchical en· vironment, decisions are taken collegially, and of course we are close to the sea!

What did you learn there? My PhD focused on radiation-induced cancer. We know a lot about effects to high exposure from the atomic bombs. I rea· lised we don’t know so much about the effects of low doses: it’s difficult to study them and estimate the effects. Yet many more people are affected: in diagnostic medicine, occupational settings, in our ge· neral environment. So low dose radiations are important, but more difficult to study

What are the main open questions in the field of radiation? One is radiosensitivity. Some people are more sensitive than others to the effects of radiation, and the question is why? We also need to know more about non-cancer effects, such as cardiovascular diseases or cataracts. Also, are the effects of external ra· diation and inhaled or ingested radiation si· milar or different? And finally are there any health issues with non-ionising radiation?

“At 24, I went to Hiroshima to learn about the effects of radiation”

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El lipse 101: "The PRBB family keeps growing"  
El lipse 101: "The PRBB family keeps growing"  

The news of this month include positive effects of extended breastfeeding, the formation of the inner ear in zebra fish embryos observed in...

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