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Education regional questionnaire Sub-Saharan Africa


Overview Context of the initiative Presentation of the regional module Lessons learned Next steps Results


A partnership with the African Union In the framework of the 2nd Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015), the AU has committed to monitoring the status of education and the progress made in implementing the 8 priority areas of their plan of action. UIS has committed to providing available data to populate the AU Observatory database, managed by the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA). A set of indicators covering pre-primary to tertiary education and including education finance indicators are provided 3 times a year

UIS has offered to use its expertise, infrastructure and technical platforms to collect new data that address AU indicator needs


The regional questionnaire Administered in 45 subSaharan African countries Developed using UIS questionnaires’ platform Launched at the end of January/beginning of February 2011 Countries given 3 months to provide data


The regional questionnaire Contains 6 tables with items chosen in agreement with regional partners according to well defined criteria: Relevance to regional monitoring and policy discussion Identified as high priorities by partners


6 items in the regional module Questionnaire table

Item designation

Link to AU areas of priority

Table 10.1

Classes and pupils

Quality management

Table 10.2

Availability of manuals and textbooks (reading and mathematics)

Quality management

Table 10.3

Graduates from preservice teacher training programmes

Teacher development

Table 10.4

Newly recruited teachers

Teacher development

Table 10.5

Availability of basic services

A key priority identified by regional organizations

Table 10.6

School census response rates

Education Management Information Systems


Item 1 : Classes and pupils Class size and multi-grade teaching The deployment of teachers in classrooms is a key factor affecting learning outcomes especially where class sizes are very large or cover several grades Indicators calculated: • • • •

Average class sizes in primary Sizes of single- and multi-grade classes Percentage of students in multi-grade classes Average number of grades in multi-grade classes


Item 2: Availability of manuals and textbooks (reading and mathematics) •

Textbooks are one of the educational inputs that have the greatest influence on learning achievement in African countries

Indicators calculated: Average number of pupils per textbook for reading and mathematics for all grades or by grade.


Item 3: Graduates from pre-service teacher training programmes The teacher is the corner stone of the quality of teaching in Africa. This item measures the capacity of countries to produce trained teachers It is important to assess the need of teachers to be trained to achieve UPE and to ensure quality of education

Indicator calculated : Ratio of graduates from pre-service teacher training to teachers in service


Item 4 :Newly recruited teachers Countries need to estimate the demand for teachers and to plan their recruitment on an annual basis This item can be used to measure: the level of recruitment in a country teacher turnover (or attrition) Indicators calculated : Percentage of teachers who are newly recruited Percentage of newly recruited teachers who are female Percentage of newly recruited teachers who are trained Teacher attrition rates


Item 5: Schools with basic service (toilets, potable water and electricity)

Availability of sanitation facilities improves the learning environment, improves pupils’ health, boosts attendance and achievement and promotes gender equality Girls are more likely to attend school where single-sex toilets are available


Item 6: School census response rates Enable the monitoring of data coverage and the efficiency of the data collection system Early country results show that the coverage is satisfactory


Piloting and responses A pilot test was conducted in December 2010/January 2011 with 6 countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Mali and Niger) By mid-September 2011, 30 countries (out of 45) had responded Some countries have provided 2 or 3 years’ worth of data (Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Niger and Nigeria) 3 other countries have submitted provisional data or are about to submit


Responding countries 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Angola Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Eq. Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea

17.

Guinea Bissau

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Mozambique Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sao Tome/Principe Senegal Togo Uganda Zambia Seychelles Côte d’Ivoire Botswana

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Blue = Imminent or provisional submission


A satisfactory response rate just a few months after the launch, but… Most submissions are not complete: response rates vary according to items Among the countries that have responded to the regional module » 68 % have completed the table on class size (Table 10.1) » 82 % have provided data on the availability of manuals and textbooks (Table 10.2) » 71 % have submitted data on graduates from teacher training programmes (Table 10.3) » 70 % have provided data on the availability of basic services (Table 10.5) » 90% have reported school census response rates (Table 10.6)


Lessons learned Pilot test allowed us

To detect and correct any potential issues (PDF version) To identify in advance countries’ difficulties in understanding the questionnaire To provide better guidance

Field staff intervention and regional workshops have helped to ensure good response rates

A handful of countries do not collect or centralise the requested information (Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland)

Need for clearer instructions and definitions Manuals (which languages?), toilets (include latrines?) Improved instruction guidelines and minor questionnaire amendments proposed for 2012


Conclusion Satisfactory response rate (67%) and good country collaboration given the novelty of the regional module

Next steps: » Agree with our partners on the inclusion of results in their publications and other releases » Ensure the continuing contribution of the UIS to meet regional needs » Promotion and dissemination of the results and analysis within UIS and UNESCO channels (website, publications, …)


RESULTS


Key findings ď Ž

Class types : multigrade classes are more common in early grades where the learning outcomes are the most important

ď Ž

Textbooks: availability of textbooks ranges from 0.4 pupils per textbook in Rwanda to 13 pupils per textbook in Cameroon.

ď Ž

Graduates from teacher training programmes: new graduates represent on average less than 10% of total teachers in service


Key findings 

Newly recruited teachers: In more than half of the countries with available data all the newly recruited teachers are trained

Teacher attrition : the percentage of teachers leaving primary public education ranges from 1% in Zambia to 10% in Eritrea

Schools with basic services : There is a long way to go to ensure widespread availability of basic services

School census response rates: High (100% for most countries with available data)


Class size: how crowded are classes in sub-Saharan Africa? 80 70 Class size (single and multigrade)

Pupils per class

60 50

Class size (single grade)

40 30

Class size (multigrade)

20 10

Senegal

Mauritius

Ghana

Niger

Guinea

Eritrea

Sao Tome/Principe

Togo

Benin

Rwanda

Madagascar

Mozambique

Burundi

Burkina Faso

Mali

Congo

Chad

0

Note : Burundi, Malawi, Mauritius and Rwanda have no multigrade classes.

•

The average class size ranges from 32 pupils per class in Mauritius to 67 in Chad.

•

1 country in 3 has more than 50 pupils per class.

•

In Mali multigrade classes have more than 70 pupils.


What is the share of pupils enrolled in multigrade classes? Percentage of enrolment in multigrade classes %

50

All grades

40 30

Grade 1

20 Last grade

10 Chad

C. African Rep.

Madagascar

Mali

Niger

Togo

Senegal

Burkina Faso

Guinea

Sao Tome/Principe

0

In most countries, less than 20% of pupils are enrolled in multigrade classes. In the C. African Rep. and Chad, more than 2 out of 5 pupils are in multigrade classes. In the C. African Rep. half of all the grade 1 pupils are in multigrade classes.


How many grades per multigrade classes? 2.35 2.30 2.25

Number of grades

2.20 2.15 2.10 2.05 2.00 1.95 1.90

Mali

Madagascar

Congo

Niger

Chad

Guinea

Togo

Sao Tome/Principe

Eritrea

Burkina Faso

1.80

Benin

1.85

In more than half of the countries, there are some multigrade classes covering 3 or more grades.


Textbooks are an effective and rather inexpensive mean to improve cognitive development and educational achievement

Availability of textbooks varies a lot across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon 13 pupils have to share the same mathematic textbook while each Rwandese pupils have on average more than 1 textbook.


How many students graduate from pre-service teacher training compared to teachers in service? 25 20 15 10 5

Sao Tome/Principe

Madagascar

Burundi

Ethiopia

Mauritius

Mozambique

Niger

Cape Verde

Cameroon

Angola

Mali

Guinea-Bissau

Zambia

0 Togo

%

In Togo new graduates from teacher training programmes represent 2% of teachers in service while in Sao Tome this proportion reaches 21%.


Percentage of teachers who are newly recruited 16 14 12 10 % 8 6 4

Cameroon

Malawi

Niger

Burundi

Ghana

Burkina Faso

Senegal

Mali

Eritrea

Madagascar

Togo

0

Cape Verde

2

The percentage of newly recruited teachers in primary education ranges from 2% in Cape Verde to 15% in Cameroun.


Percentage of newly recruited teachers who are female (primary education) 60

50

40

% 30

20

10

Madagascar

Ghana

Burundi

Senegal

Malawi

Mali

Eritrea

Niger

0

In Burundi, Ghana and Madagascar females represent 50% or more of newly recruited teachers. This proportion is below 40% in the other countries.


Percentage of newly recruited teachers that are trained 100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Malawi

Togo

Ghana

Niger

Mali

Cape Verde

Burkina Faso

Senegal

Burundi

In primary education, most newly recruited teachers are trained

Eritrea


Teachers’ attrition rates (primary education) 14 12 10 8 % 6 4 2 0 Zambia

Mali

Burundi

Cape Verde

Senegal

Niger

Burkina Faso

Cameroon

Eritrea

In all countries with available data, less than 5% of teachers are leaving the public sector, except for Burkina (6%), Cameroon (8%) and Eritrea (10%).


Are schools equipped with toilets? Percentage of schools 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Niger Madagascar

Without toilets

Chad Togo Mali Benin

Mixed-sex toilets

Burkina Faso Senegal Ghana

Single sex toilets

Cameroon C. African Rep. Eritrea Guinea DR Congo

With toilets, but without information on types Unknown

Burundi Ethiopia Cape Verde Mauritius Rwanda

In more than half of the countries with available data 40% of schools have no toilets. Nearly 80 % of schools have no toilets in Niger whereas single sex toilets are available in 100% of schools in Rwanda and Mauritius.


Availability of potable water and electricity 100 90

with potable water

Percentage of schools

80 70 60 50

with electricity

40 30 20

Mauritius

Benin

Ghana

Malawi

Chad

Gambia

Nigeria

Eritrea

Cape Verde

Burkina Faso

Madagascar

Cameroon

Ethiopia

Senegal

DR Congo

Burundi

Equatorial Guinea

Togo

C. African Rep.

Guinea

Niger

0

Mali

10

Schools are far better equiped with potable water than with electricity. Less than 20% of schools are equiped with electricity in most of the countries.


School census response rates

About half of the countries are reporting a response rate of 100%


More data on the regional module will soon be available on our website: www.uis.unesco.org


Regional module, SSA