Table of Contents
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Letter from the Secretary-‐General……………………………….......... 02
2. Letter from the Executive Board........................................................... 03 3. Historic Security Council at CBITMUN 2012……………………....... 04 4. Statement of the problem……………………………………….................. 04 5. History of the situation in Vietnam………………………………......... 05 6. Main parties involved in the Conflict……………………………............06 7. Timeline of the war……………………………………………….....................07 8. Questions A Resolution Must Answer (QARMA)…………………....09 9. References………………………………………………………...........................10
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Letter from the Secretary-General
CBIT Model UN 2012 SREEKAR REDDY Secretary-General SURAJ PERI Deputy Secretary-General YASWANT ADIRAJU Under Secretary-General SHRUTI HARI Head of International Press THANMAY KRISHNA Charge d’affairs SHARAT CHANDAR Charge d’affairs PRANAV KONDALA Head of Designing Executive Board of HSC:
Dear Delegates, It gives me immense pleasure to welcome you all to the second edition of CBITMUN. I am a third year mechanical engineering student but debate is something I enjoy the most. As student of engineering it tool a tremendous effort for the team of the 2011 conference to ensure that it was such a success. The number of MUNs is growing at a rapid rate in India with the whole nation embracing this concept with open arms and with more and more students involving themselves in MUNs, we could initiate a revolution that would lead to young minds assuming greater responsibility. CBITMUN returns with 7 councils this year which shall ensure high quality debate and a very satisfactory council experience. I take great pride in taking over as the Secretary-General of CBITMUN and my team and I shall ensure that AugustSeptember 2012 is an experience each and every one of you will cherish. Last year we promised an experience, This year we promise a phenomenon
Sreekar Reddy Secretary-General CBIT Model UN 2012 firstname.lastname@example.org
ANANSH PRASAD Chairperson AKSHAY RAJESH Vice-Chairperson MONEER KOSHANI Director
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Letter from the Executive Board Dear Delegates, It gives us immense pleasure to introduce our self as the Executive Board of the Historic Security Council for CBIT MUN 2012. Just being a part of it is a big honor for us and we expect the highest level of debate to take place in this conference.
CBIT Model UN 2012 SREEKAR REDDY Secretary-General SURAJ PERI Deputy Secretary-General YASWANT ADIRAJU Under Secretary-General SHRUTI HARI Head of International Press THANMAY KRISHNA Charge d’affairs SHARAT CHANDAR Charge d’affairs PRANAV KONDALA Head of Designing Executive Board of HSC: ANANSH PRASAD Chairperson AKSHAY RAJESH Vice-Chairperson MONEER KOSHANI Director
In our belief, a Historic Security Council is a wonderful simulation which gives us an opportunity to study the past in the present and then go back into the past and change it. It is a retrospective decision making process which requires unconventional thinking abilities in addition to a good understanding of the actual past scenario. This in our belief is what distinguishes a great MUNner from a good one. As far as the topic area is concerned-‘The Vietnam War’, we believe that there is a lot of loss to life and property that could have been averted if some decisions were taken differently in the period of the war. It is our belief that the delegates will be able to come up with comprehensive resolutions after having discussed the agenda in extensively. As the Executive Board of the Historic Security Council, our role is to moderate debate and to ensure that delegates maintain the flow of discussion. We wish all the delegates the best of luck for the conference. We hope that all of you come extremely well prepared for the conference with ample research so that we can have constructive discussion and deliberations over the period of three days. We are looking forward to seeing all of you. Regards, Anansh Prasad Chairperson
Akshay Rajesh Vice-Chairperson
Moneer Koshani Director
Historic Security Council CBIT Model UN 2012 email@example.com
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The Historic Security Council at CBIT Model UN 2012 Dear Delegates,
he Historic Security Council is a retrospective decision making process and requires a lot of good research on the decisions and their repercussions. It is quintessential to avoid repetition while at the same time not changing your country policy to such a great extent that it has little or no semblance with the actual situation prevalent during that time in history. Hence, striking the correct balance is of utmost significance. In relation to how we shall be moving forward with reference to the agenda and committee at CBIT MUN 2012, I’d like to firstly state that quite contrary to the name of the agenda i.e. ‘The Vietnam War’, the HSC in this case is not being convened at the time of the full blown Vietnam War. In the present situation, the situation in Vietnam is that of an armed conflict with rising tensions among the different parties involved in it. The HSC is being convened on 2nd September, 1964. The situation as of the said date might be considered analogues to a situation that might come into existence between North and South Sudan in the future considering the present day issues of the Janjaweed, oil among other things. The emergency session of the United Nations Security Council is being convened at the behest of the United Kingdom on the 2nd of September, 1964. There have been various act of aggression by the North Vietnamese military, the South Vietnamese military, the United States of America and the Viet Kong which is just beginning to become a more aggressive guerrilla outfit. At this juncture, Operation Rolling Thunder or a similar attack was already
very imminent. Furthermore, with the assassination of Diem and his brother, South Vietnam was in complete disarray. The Viet Kong was taking advantage of this to mobilize the masses. The United Nations Security Council is convened in the midst of such rising conflict, imminent war and problems faced by neighboring countries like Cambodia and Laos.
Topic: The Vietnam War, 1964 Statement of the problem
he Vietnam war is considered as one of the most morally ambiguous, lengthy and futile wars in World history. Practically a proxy war between the United States of America and the erstwhile Soviet Union in the midst of the Cold War, the Vietnam War was one of the most bloody wars too have occurred causing the death of more than 3.5 million people in all. Although, a war that was technically fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam, it was actually an indirect war between the United Stated States of America and the USSR who supported the South Vietnamese and North Vietnamese respectively. It also included a lightly armed South Vietnamese group called the Viet-Kong or the National Liberation Front (NLF) which specialized in guerrilla warfare and were against the United States of America and the allied forces. The United States of America during that period of history during the early 1950s were trying to prevent the spread of communism and were propagating democracy. At the same point in time, the USSR was trying to spread communism across different parts of the world. Both countries were looking towards forming their own powerful blocs and spread their strong influence across the world. Once North Vietnam became a supporter and follower of communism under USSR influence, the United States of America | P a g e
intervened immediately to prevent the further spread of communism across Vietnam and the Middle East.
South. However, the communist infrastructure in the South was not destroyed despite a wave of repression in 1954-59.
The war lasted from 1955-1975 with over 55,000 US soldiers losing their lives, more, 1.1 million dead North Vietnamese soldiers, 200000 South Vietnamese soldiers and about half a million people from Vietnam and Laos also lost their lives.
In 1959-60, the communist remnants of the South, fortified with “returnees” from the North, launched an insurgency in the South. Available regional and local research (Elliott 2003; Race 1972) suggests that the insurgency was greatly facilitated by the organizational infrastructure that was left from the previous period, positive memories of past insurgencies, and the failure of the repression to root out communist activists. This was a textbook insurgency in almost every respect, with the only difference that it did not take place in rough peripheral terrain but in the country’s heartland. Mixing selective benefits (especially land reform) with selective violence, the insurgents (who became known as the National Liberation Front – NLF or Vietcong – VC) were able to sap the presence of the state in a substantial part of the country, reducing its ability to control its territory. By 1965, the South Vietnamese regime was on the verge of collapse and was saved only by the American decision to intervene massively. After this point, the war mutated from a classic insurgency into a combination of civil and interstate war fought both irregularly and conventionally by NLF insurgents, South Vietnamese regular soldiers and local militias, and regular American and North Vietnamese troops. The US promoted and implemented vigorously a massive counterinsurgency campaign that attempted to wrest control of the Vietnamese hamlets away from the insurgents. As Huntington (1968:650) put it: “The war in Vietnam is a war for the control of the population.” This campaign was quite successful, judging from both qualitative studies and HES data. Induced urbanization through massive population displacement toward the cities and mass Vietcong defections weakened the social basis of the insurgency. However, the high human and economic cost of the war led to the eventual
Ultimately, the US troops were withdrawn in August, 1973 as result of the US Congress passing the Case-Church amendment. The war ultimately ended in April, 1975 when the Vietnam People’s Army captured Saigon. North and South Vietnam were re-unified after this. There were steps that could have been taken differently by the UNSC that could have further prevented such losses.
History and Discussion of the Situation in Vietnam Introduction
t is not easy to characterize the Vietnam War in a simple way because of its duration and complexity: it was a civil and an interstate war, as well as an irregular and a conventional war involving a variety of actors over time. Historically, it is a composite of many successive wars: it began as a resistance war during the Japanese occupation of Vietnam, pitting mostly communist insurgents against Japanese occupiers. Following the country’s liberation, it mutated into an anticolonial war against the French (1946-1954), undergoing various periods and ending in a compromise that saw the country’s partition. The North became communist, while the South turned toward the West, with the Americans replacing the French as its main sponsors. Partition was followed by substantial migration in both directions, as many Southern communists left for the North and many northern anticommunist Catholics migrated to the
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disengagement of the US, eventually followed by a North Vietnamese conventional military invasion of the South, which led to the country’s reunification under communist rule. To summarize, while the Vietnam War was a combination of many successive and partially overlapping wars fought by a fluid cast of actors with a changing menu of tactics, it was in its core a classic civil war fought largely through irregular means.
Main Parties Involved in the Conflict This is a brief note on the various main parties involved in the conflict at the point in time when the UNSC is being convened: United States of America and South Vietnam
he United States of America believes that it is of monumental importance that the seeds of communism do not spread across South East Asia. The fact that the Communism wave had reached North Vietnam which was deeply influenced by the Communist ideologies of Ho Chi Min among other was looked upon as a bad precedent. The US of A has increased its military presence in South Vietnam where it trains the South Vietnamese groups. There have been sporadic acts of aggression committed by the United States of America against the North Vietnamese military and the Viet Kong. The monumental Gulf of Tonkin resolution has been passed in the U.S of A which provides the extra-constitutional powers to President Lyndon Johnson to take all necessary steps to thwart any further attacks on the US forces in Vietnam. This is after two US Destroyers have been attacked and destroyed by the North Vietnamese forces in August, 1964. The
corrupt South Vietnamese regime under President Diem lost a lot of support among the people before his assassination. After making an attempt to strike a peace deal with Ho Chi Minh of North Vietnam, Diem had further lost support of the United States of America. North Vietnam and the USSR
orth Vietnam being a communist regime is supported by the USSR which is also looking at the entire situation as proxy war against democracy and the United States of America. The Politburo continues to provide military aid to the guerrilla forces of the Viet Kong to wage further armed aggression against the South Vietnamese regime of Diem and the United States of America. North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh has already developed a lot of popular support among the people of the region and unlike South Vietnam is much better mobilized for the imminent war like situation with support from the Viet Kong as well. The North Vietnamese forces had already been quite successful in the armed conflict against the French forces which have completely withdrawn from the region. As a result of greater numbers and stronger leadership, the forces generally make use of the ploy to attack regions if South Vietnam in large numbers. There is also an imminent threat of an imminent aerial attack being carried out by the US forces after various act of aggression by them among which the most significant one is the attack on the US Destroyer by the North Vietnamese patrol boats.
Viet Kong (National Liberation Front)
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he Viet Kong are basically a guerrilla outfit in South Vietnam which basically comprises of South Vietnamese who are totally against the oppressive and corrupt Diem regime and the United States of America for supporting it. A well-organized outfit that is taking full advantage of the popular support against the Diem regime, they are able to mobilize section of the South Vietnamese masses against the United States of America and the Diem regime. They are successful in carrying out surprise guerrilla style attacks in various regions of South Vietnam and taking control of them. Receiving support from the forces of North Vietnam and proxy support from the USSR, they are slowly and steadily becoming a major threat to the US of A and the South Vietnamese regime which is also in disarray at the given juncture.
Cambodia and Laos
ambodia and Laos are the neighboring nations that are being affected as a result of the entire conflict in Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces are penetrating regions of these two countries and there has been loss of life and property as well. It is important for the UNSC to take steps to ensure that these neighboring nations are not affected by the situation prevalent in Vietnam. It is in this regard that Resolution 189 is adopted on June 4, 1964 which urged all parties involved in the Vietnam conflict to recognize the territorial integrity and neutrality of Cambodia.
Timeline of the War (Up to 2nd September, 1964)
he timeline presented below gives a brief description of the various events that took place during the Vietnam War up to 2nd September, 1964. The Historic Security Council meet is dated to convene on 2nd September, 1964. This is the period after the attack on the two US destroyers by the North Vietnam Army and before the very important Operation Rolling Thunder which took place on 2nd March, 1965.
1941 Communist activist Ho Chi Minh secretly returns to Vietnam after 30 years in exile and organizes a nationalist organization known as the Viet Minh (Vietnam Independence League). After Japanese troops occupy Vietnam during World War II, the U.S. military intelligence agency Office of Strategic Services (OSS) allies with Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh guerrillas to harass Japanese troops in the jungles and to help rescue downed American pilots.
1945 Amid rumors of a possible American invasion, Japanese oust the French colonial government which had been operating independently and seize control of Vietnam, installing Boa Dai as their puppet ruler. Ho Chi Minh garners massive support during the famines that strike the region. To disarm the Japanese, the Allies divide the country in half at the 16th parallel. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia become French colonies again. Ho Chi Minh's guerrillas occupy Hanoi and proclaim a provisional government. He declares independence and also declares himself president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and pursues American recognition but is repeatedly ignored by President Harry Truman.
1946 Ho Chi Minh agrees to permit French troops to return to Hanoi temporarily in exchange for | P a g e
French recognition of his Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Chinese troops then depart. Ho Chi Minh spends 4 months in France trying to negotiate recognition for full independence but fails in his attempts. In a major affront to Ho Chi Minh, the French high commissioner for Indochina proclaims a separatist French-controlled government for South Vietnam (Republic of Chochinchina). After a series of violent clashes with Viet Minh, French forces bombard Haiphong harbor and occupy Hanoi, forcing Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh forces to retreat into the jungle. The Vietminh launch a guerrilla attack against the French.
1949 The French install Bao Dai as puppet head of state in South Vietnam and establish the (South) Vietnamese National Army.
across regions of Vietnam. France urges the United States of America to offer more military aid. Gen Giap is replaced by Gen Raoul Salian in course of time as he is ailing from cancer. The casualties of the Viet Minh and the French armies continue to rise.
1953 The United States of America increase military aid to the French troops in Vietnam. They come up with the famous “Domino theory” which states that if one nation falls to communism, then the others in the region will also be affected by it one at a time. Hence, they claim it is their duty to the world to prevent this from happening. The Viet Minh and the French troops continue warfare.
1954 May 7, 1954 - The French suffer a decisive defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union recognize Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam. China then begins sending military advisors and modern weapons to the Viet Minh.
July 21, 1954 - The Geneva Accords
The United States and Britain recognize Bao Dai's French-controlled South Vietnam government.
Viet Minh begin an offensive against French outposts in North Vietnam near the Chinese border.
creates a cease-fire for the peaceful withdrawal of the French from Vietnam and provides a temporary boundary between North and South Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
In January, the first direct shipment of U.S. military aid to Saigon arrives. The U.S. also offers to train the fledgling South Vietnam Army.
United States military involvement in Vietnam begins as President Harry Truman authorizes $15 million in military aid to the French.
Ho Chi Minh’s regime receives and accepts Soviet aid.
The U.S. establishes a Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Saigon to aid the French Army.
from power, defeated by Prime Minister Diem in a U.S.-backed plebiscite which was rigged. Diem is advised on consolidating power by U.S. Air Force Col. Edward G. Lansdale, who is attached to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
1951-1952 The Vietminh under Gen Giap and the French forces under Gen De Lattre continue warfare
October 23, 1955 - Bao Dai is ousted
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October 26, 1955 - The Republic of South
July 8, 1959 - Two U.S. military advisors,
Vietnam is proclaimed with Diem as its first president. In America, President Eisenhower pledges his support for the new government and offers military aid.
Maj. Dale Buis and Sgt. Chester Ovnand, are killed by Viet Minh guerrillas at Bien Hoa, South Vietnam. They are the first American deaths in the region.
1960 1956 In January 1956, Diem launches a brutal crackdown against Viet Minh suspects in the countryside. Those arrested are denied counsel and hauled before "security committees" with many suspects tortured or executed under the guise of 'shot while attempting escape.' The French withdraw completely from Vietnam.
1957 The Soviet Union proposes permanent division of Vietnam into North and South, with the two nations admitted separately to the United Nations. The United States of America however, refuses to recognize the communist regime of Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam.
1959 The armed revolution begins as Ho Chi Minh declares a People's War to unite all of Vietnam under his leadership. His Politburo now orders a changeover to an all-out military struggle.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 132, adopted on September 7, 1959, decides to appoint a sub-‐committee consisting of Argentina, Italy, Japan and Tunisia, and instructed it to examine statements made before the Council concerning Laos and to receive further statements and documents, and make inquiries and report to the Council as soon as possible. It was the only resolution adopted by the Security Council in 1959.
Corruption increases in the President Diem run South Vietnamese regime which is backed by the USA. They begin to become unpopular among the people because of unpopular and unfair trials, torture and executions of people. Thousands who fear arrest flee to North Vietnam. The National Liberation Front is also called the Viet-Kong is established in South Vietnam.
1961 The Soviet Union further pledges its support to the Ho Chi Minh regime. John F Kennedy becomes President of the United States of America. US Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visits President Diem in South Vietnam and hails the embattled leader as the 'Winston Churchill of Asia.' The US sends troops to South Vietnam to train Vietnamese soldiers. They are called the Green Berets. By December 1961, the Viet Cong guerrillas control much of the countryside in South Vietnam and frequently ambush South Vietnamese troops.
1962 February 6, 1962 - MACV, the U.S. Military Assistance Command for Vietnam, is formed. It replaces MAAG-Vietnam, the Military Assistance Advisory Group which had been established in 1950. The Declaration on the Neutrality of Laos signed in Geneva by the U.S. and 13 other nations, prohibits U.S. invasion of portions of the Ho Chi Minh trail inside eastern Laos. | P a g e
1963 The Viet Cong are victorious in the Battle of Ap Bac as 350 Viet Cong fighters defeat a large force of American-equipped South Vietnamese troops attempting to seize a radio transmitter. Political pressure mounts on the Kennedy administration to disassociate itself from Diem's repressive, family-run government. Diem responds to the deepening unrest by imposing martial law. US Ambassador Lodge reports a coup is "imminent." South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Nho are executed during a coup. Saigon celebrates the downfall of Diem's regime. Viet Cong use the unstable political situation to increase their hold over the rural population of South Vietnam to nearly 40 percent. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas. Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th U.S. President.
President Johnson approves planning phase by the Pentagon.
President Johnson's aides begin work on a Congressional resolution supporting the President's war policy in Vietnam. The resolution is shelved temporarily due to lack of support in the Senate, but will later be used as the basis of the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
Summer - As 56,000 Viet Cong spread their successful guerrilla war throughout South Vietnam, they are reinforced by North Vietnamese Army (NVA) regulars pouring in via the Ho Chi Minh trail. Responding to this escalation, President Johnson approves Operation Plan 34A, CIArun covert operations using South Vietnamese commandos in speed boats to harass radar sites along the coastline of North Vietnam. The raids are supported by U.S. Navy warships in the Gulf of Tonkin including the destroyer U.S.S. Maddox which conducts electronic surveillance to pinpoint the radar locations.
By year's end, there are 16,300 American military advisors in South Vietnam which received $500 million in U.S. aid during 1963.
General Maxwell D. Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is appointed by President Johnson as the new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam.
President Johnson also appoints Lt. Gen William C. Westmoreland to be the new U.S. military commander in Vietnam.
General Minh is ousted from power in a bloodless coup led by General Nguyen Khanh who becomes the new leader of South Vietnam. Secret U.S.-backed bombing raids begin against the Ho Chi Minh trail inside Laos, conducted by mercenaries flying old American fighter planes. The cost to America of maintaining South Vietnam's army and managing the overall conflict in Vietnam now rises to two million dollars per day. The U.S. National Security Council recommends the bombing of North Vietnam.
June 4, 1964- United Nations Security Council Resolution 189 is adopted unanimously and deplores an incident caused by the penetration of units of the Republic of Vietnam in to Cambodia and requests compensation for the Cambodians. The resolution then requests that all States and authorities recognize and respect Cambodia's neutrality and territorial integrity, deciding to send 3 of its members to the places the most recent incidents had occurred to | P a g e
report back to the Council in 45 days with suggestions. Cambodia had previously complained of acts of aggression and intrusions by South Vietnamese and American troops into its territory. On July 24, 1964, the mission sent by the Council reported that the situation at the frontier remained tense and a solution had yet to be found.
July 31, 1964 - In the Gulf of Tonkin, as part of Operation Plan 34A, South Vietnamese commandos in unmarked speed boats raid two North Vietnamese military bases located on islands just off the coast. In the vicinity is the destroyer U.S.S. Maddox.
August 2, 1964 - Three North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the American destroyer U.S.S. Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin ten miles off the coast of North Vietnam. They fire three torpedoes and machine-guns, but only a single machine-gun round actually strikes the Maddox with no causalities. U.S. Navy fighters from the carrier Ticonderoga, led by Commander James Stockdale, attack the patrol boats, sinking one and damaging the other two. At the White House, it is Sunday morning (twelve hours behind Vietnam time). President Johnson, reacting cautiously to reports of the incident, decides against retaliation. Instead, he sends a diplomatic message to Hanoi warning of "grave consequences" from any further "unprovoked" attacks. Johnson then orders the Maddox to resume operations in the Gulf of Tonkin in the same vicinity where the attack had occurred. Meanwhile, the Joints Chiefs of Staff put U.S. combat troops on alert and also select targets in North Vietnam for a possible bombing raid, should the need arise.
August 3, 1964 - The Maddox, joined by a second destroyer U.S.S. C. Turner Joy begin a series of vigorous zigzags in the Gulf of Tonkin sailing to within eight miles of North
Vietnam's coast, while at the same time, South Vietnamese commandos in speed boats harass North Vietnamese defenses along the coastline. By nightfall, thunderstorms roll in, affecting the accuracy of electronic instruments on the destroyers. Crew members reading their instruments believe they have come under torpedo attack from North Vietnamese patrol boats. Both destroyers open fire on numerous apparent targets but there are no actual sightings of any attacking boats.
August 4, 1964 - Although immediate doubts arise concerning the validity of the second attack, the Joint Chiefs of Staff strongly recommend a retaliatory bombing raid against North Vietnam. At the White House, President Johnson decides to retaliate. Thus, the first bombing of North Vietnam by the United States occurs as oil facilities and naval targets are attacked without warning by 64 U.S. Navy fighter bombers. Two Navy jets are shot down during the bombing raids, resulting in the first American prisoner of war, Lt. Everett Alvarez of San Jose, California, who is taken to an internment center in Hanoi.
August 7, 1964 - In response to the two incidents involving the Maddox and Turner Joy, the U.S. Congress, at the behest of President Johnson, overwhelmingly passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution put forward by the White House allowing the President "to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force" to prevent further attacks against U.S. forces. The Resolution, passed unanimously in the House and 98-2 in the Senate, grants enormous power to President Johnson to wage an undeclared war in Vietnam from the White House. Furthermore, the United States of America threatens to carry out aerial campaigns in the near future.
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escalating protests against General Khanh's military regime. As a result, Khanh resigns as sole leader in favor of a triumvirate that includes himself, Gen. Minh and Gen. Khiem. The streets of Saigon soon disintegrate into chaos and mob violence amid the government's gross instability.
September 2, 1964 – The United Nations Security Council is convened in order to discuss the escalating tensions in Vietnam and solutions to solve the conflict which does not only affect Vietnam but also Cambodia and Laos.
Questions a Resolution Must Answer (QARMA) i.
What are the measures that can be taken to strike a peace agreement between the regimes of North and South Vietnam?
What are the parameters and measures that must be taken into consideration while chalking out the borders of North and South Vietnam in the outcome that peaceful reconciliation is not possible and the region must be divided?
Should the member nations start taking the necessary steps to recognize South Vietnam/North Vietnam as nations of the world and support their membership to the United Nations and other bodies?
What are the steps that must be taken to prevent the neighboring countries from being affected by the armed conflict in Vietnam?
Should there be any military sanctions/economic sanctions imposed against nations providing military aid and support to the forces in North Vietnam/South Vietnam/Viet Kong?
What are the steps that can be taken to ensure that other member nations of the United Nations do not directly intervene in the armed conflict by supporting the North Vietnam/South Vietnam regimes?
What are the possibilities of providing financial aid to regions in North and South Vietnam that have suffered a great loss to life and property as a result of the armed conflict?
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Is there a possibility of establishing a Transitional Federal Government under the auspices of the United Nations to ensure peace while a transitional strategy can be worked out?
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Published on Aug 15, 2012