Page 1


Why$pollina+on$ma-ers‌$

~80%$owering$plants$worldwide$ depend$on$animals$for$cross=pollina+on$ 87$of$the$100+$most$commonly$cul+vated$ crops$are$pollinated$by$animals$ Up$to$30%$of$the$U.S.$diet$is$derived$from$$ animal=pollinated$plants$


Bees:$The$most$important$pollinators*$ All#food#comes#from#plants##(mostly#owers)# $$$$$$$$$$Nectar$and$pollen$from$owers$ What#makes#bees#eec;ve#pollinators:# $$$$$One$of$the$very$few$insect$groups$that$$ #####purposefully$collects#pollen$(larval$food)$ $$$$$Floral#constancy:$Tend$to$focus$on$limited$$ $$$$$numbers$of$target$plant$species$when$foraging$$


Pollina+on:$Agricultural$value$


Pollina+on:$Agricultural$value$ $18=20$billion/year$ to$U.S.$agriculture$


Pollina+on:$Ecosystem$maintenance$


Pollina+on:$Ecosystem$maintenance$


Pollina+on:$Ecosystem$value$ U.S.$hun+ng$and$$ nature=watching$ valued$in$the$ billions$of$dollars$


Bees:$Na+ve$vs.$non=na+ve$ Most#familiar#bee#in#U.S.#is#nonEna;ve:$ European#honeybee#(Apis%mellifera)# #########Na+ve$to$Africa,$Europe,$and$Asia$ $$$$$$$$$In$domes+ca+on$for$over$4,000$years$$ $$$$$$$$$First$brought$to$U.S.$in$1621$ $$$$$$$$$Social$(queen$and$daughter$workers)$ $$$$$$$$$Up$to$50,000$workers$in$single$colony$


Bees:$European$honeybees$ Managed#and#feral#colonies#in#decline# since#midE1950s#in#U.S.# $$$$$Introduced$parasites$and$diseases$ $$$$$Small$farms$to$intensive$agriculture$ $$$$$Colony$collapse$disorder$


Bees:$European$honeybees$ “Africanized”#European#honeybees$$ $$$$$Hybrids$of$African$and$European$$$$$$ $$$$$subspecies$ $$$$$Much$harder$to$manage,$public$health$$$$ $$$$$threat$ $$$$$Now$occur$across$Texas;$many$feral$$$$ $$$$$colonies$are$likely$Africanized$$$$$


Bees:$European$honeybees$


Bees:$European$honeybees$ European#honeybee#decline#a#major#concern## for#agriculture‌# #####Primary$U.S.$agricultural$pollinator$$ $$$$$$$$$$$15$billion$of$$18=20$billion$annual$produc+on$ but#not#for#natural#ecosystems‌# ######Can$monopolize$nectar$and$pollen$resources$ $$$$$$Reduce$na+ve$bee$diversity$and$abundance$ $$$$$$Increases$seed$set$of$non=na+ve,$invasive$plants$


Na+ves$bees$ 4,000#bees#na;ve#to#North#America# #####~700#na;ve#bee#species#in#Texas# Primary$pollinators$of$na+ve$plants$ Maintain$integrity$of$terrestrial$ecosystems$ More$eďŹƒcient$and$eec+ve$agricultural$ pollinators$than$honeybees$for$several$crops$ $$$$$$$$$$$3$billion/year$to$U.S.$agriculture


Na+ves$bees:$Solitary$bees$ 90%+#of#na;ve#bees#are#solitary#species:# $$$$$Single$female$establishes$and$provisions$$$$$ $$$$$nest$all$by$herself$ $$$$$Solitary#bees#do#not#defend#their#nests;$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$Solitary$bees$nest$in$the$ground$or$in$dead$$$$$ $$$$$woody$material$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ ~70%#of#na;ve#solitary#bees#nest#in#the# ground# Prefer$open,$sparsely$vegetated$sites$ providing$access$to$bare$ground$ Females$will$ohen$aggregate$in$good$nes+ng$ habitat;$look$for$small$mounds$of$soil$and/or$ mul+ple$small$burrows$ Do#not#defend#nest#sites#


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ Digger#Bees## (Anthophora#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ LongEhorned#Bees## (Melissodes#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ Mining#Bees## (Centris#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ Sunower#Bees## (Svastra#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Ground=nesters$ Sweat#Bees## (Agapostemon%species)$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$ ~30%#of#na;ve#bees#nest#in#exis;ng#cavi;es# or#create#their#own#in:# #####Standing$dead$trees$ $$$$$Stumps$ $$$$$Downed$logs$ $$$$$Pithy$stems$ $$$$$$$$$$(agave,$elderberry,$sumac,$yucca,‌)$ Do#not#defend#nest#sites#


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$ Leafcu]er#Bees## (Megachile#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$ Large#Carpenter#Bees## (Xylocopa#species)$


Solitary$bees:$Dead$wood=nesters$ Mason#Bees## (Osmia#species)$


Na+ve$bees:$Bumblebees$ Bumblebees# One$of$the$few$truly#social#groups#of$na+ve$ bees$in$Texas$(queen$and$daughter$workers)$ Nest$in$pre=exis+ng$cavi+es$(abandoned$rodent$ burrows)$or$in$deep$thatch/grass$tussocks$ Colonies$contain$100=300$workers$


Na+ve$bee$conserva+on$concerns$ Pervasive#and#widespread#habitat#loss#primary#threat# Dependent#upon#owerErich#sites## The#New#Normal#

The#Excep;on#


Na+ve$bee$conserva+on$concerns$


Habitat$loss$and$degrada+on$


Habitat$loss$and$degrada+on$


Introduced$pathogens$

Fungal$pathogens$introduced$into$wild$ bumblebee$popula+ons$by$cap+ve$bumblebees$ imported$from$Europe$for$greenhouse$crop$ pollina+on.$


Insec+cides:$Neonico+noids$

Agricultural$and$home/garden$systemic$ insec+cides$that$travels$throughout$plant,$ including$into$nectar$and$pollen.$ If$not$lethal,$other$impacts$include:$$ • $Impaired$flying$and$naviga+on$ • $Slower$learning$of$new$tasks$ • $Reduced$foraging$and$food$consump+on$ • $Reduced$reproduc+on$ • $Delayed$development$


How$are$na+ve$bees$doing?$


How$are$na+ve$bees$doing?$ Bumblebee#declines#first# noted#in#the#United#Kingdom## • #18$European$species$threatened$ Evidence#of#decline#in#North## America#documented#in#early#2000s# • 11$species$experienced$decline$ 18#na;ve#bees#listed#as#Species#of# Greatest#Conserva;on#Need#in# TPWD#Texas#Conserva;on#Ac;on#Plan#


Bumblebees$of$Texas$


Bumblebees$of$northeastern$Texas$


Bumblebee$Persistence:$Grasslands$


Bumblebee$Persistence:$Grasslands$


Bumblebees$of$northeastern$Texas$


Grassland$management$for$bees$ Nectar#and#pollen# from#owers#

Suitable#Nest#Sites#


Bumblebee$life=cycle:$6=8$months$of$food$


Management$Resources$


Wildlife$Tax$Valua+on:$Na+ve$Bees$


Iden+fy$nectar$and$pollen$resources$ #1.#Iden;fy#and#protect#what#you#already#have#


Iden+fy$nectar$and$pollen$resources$ Which#plants#are#most#heavily#used#by#ower#visitors?###


Iden+fy$nest$sites:$Ground=nesters$


Iden+fy$nest$sites:$Ground=nesters$


Iden+fy$nest$sites:$Dead$wood=nesters$


Iden+fy$nest$sites:$Dead$wood=nesters$


Adapt$management$ #2.#Adapt#management#prac;ces#to#support#na;ve#bee#needs# ##########Management#has#the#poten;al#to#eliminate#and#reduce# ##########vital#resources# ##########Must#implement#prac;ces#to#minimize#impact#on#oral## ##########resources#and#nest#sites#


Adapt$management:$Prescribed$Fire$ ##Burn#from#fall#to#early#spring#####Avoid#growing#season#burns# ##Only#treat#30%E50%#of#a#site#(leave#untreated#refugia)# ##Allow#suďŹƒcient#;me#between#burns#for#thatch#to#accumulate#


Adapt$management:$Ca-le$grazing$ ##Only#treat#30%E50%#of#a#site#(leave#untreated#refugia)## ##Low#intensity,#short#dura;on#grazing#during#the#dormant#season## ##will#have#the#least#impact#on#bee#resources#


Adapt$management:$Haying$and$mowing$ $$$Restricted#to#fall#and#winter#(don’t#cut#when#flowers#in#bloom)#### ###Avoid#culng#to#low#(6E8”#min.)# ###Avoid#culng#more#than#once#per#year#####Cut/mow#in#patches# ###Cuts#during#growing#season#should#be#limited#to#30E50%#of#site# ###(leave#uncut#areas#to#supply#flowers#and#nest#sites)#


Augment$resources$ #3.#Augment#oral#resources#and#nest#sites# ###########May#lack#suďŹƒcient#nectar/pollen#sources#and/or#nest#sites#


Augment$resources:$Nectar$and$pollen$ Increase#diversity#of#na;ve#owering#plants# # Light#reseed#or#complete#restora;on# ##################with#na;ve#forbs#and#grasses#


Augment$resources:$Nectar$and$pollen$ Increase#diversity#of#na;ve#flowering#plants# #####Need#a#sequence#of#flowers#from#spring,#summer,#into#fall# Three#to#five#plant#species#flowering#in#each#season## # # # ############


Augment$resources:$Nectar$and$pollen$ Increase#diversity#of#na;ve#owering#plants# ########Diversity#of#colors#and#shapes# ########Promote#na;ve#bunch#grasses# # #


Monitoring$na+ve$bees/ower=visitors$


Monitoring$na+ve$bees/ower=visitors$


Monitoring$na+ve$bees/ower=visitors$


Resources$


Resources$


Resources$


michael.warriner@tpwd.texas.gov#

Pollinator ls  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you