Page 1

Aircraft General Knowledge

Ground School Textbook Pages 95 - 192

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 1


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Airframe – Major Components  Fuselage 

Semi-Monocoque

 Wings 

Spars – Struts - Ribs

 Tail Assembly  Flying Controls 

Ailerons – Elevator – Rudder – Flaps – Spoilers

 Landing Gear  Engine and Propeller

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 2


Aircraft General Knowledge

Wings – Empennage  Wings provide lift and control by the ailerons  In general, wing flaps are attached  Tanks  Wing spars carry the major load  Ribs with stringers shape the airfoil  External struts may strengthen the wing structure  Empennage o Vertical stabilizer with rudder o Horizontal stabilizer with elevator

and trim-tabs PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 3


Aircraft General Knowledge

Wing Flaps  Wing shapes cannot be optimized for all phases of flight o

o

Cruise flight: Low drag – higher speed – higher stall speed Takeoff and landing: High lift – slower speed – lower stall speed

 Flaps control lift and drag by changing the shape of the wing

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 4


Aircraft General Knowledge

Landing Gear and Tyres

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 5


Aircraft General Knowledge

Landing Gear Retraction Systems  Retraction systems are hydraulical or electrical  Squat switches prevent retraction on the ground  Maximum speed for gear extension and gear extended must be observed  Landing gear status (retracted – transition - down & locked) by panel lights  Emergency extension by gravity or hand-pump

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 6


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Hydraulic Braking System

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 7


Aircraft General Knowledge

Parking and Tie-Down  Park into the Wind  Set Parking Brake  Chock the Wheels

 Lock Control Surfaces  Tie Down

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 8


Aircraft General Knowledge

Airframe Limitations  Weight o o o

MTOW - Maximum Takeoff Weight MLW - Maximum Landing Weight Maximum Ramp Weight

 Speed o o o o o o o

VS1, VS0 - stalling speeds clean, landing configuration VNE never exceed speed VNO normal operating speed VA manoeuvring speed (turbulent air) VFE maximum flaps extended speed VLO maximum landing gear operation speed VLE maximum gear extended speed

 Load factor → manoeuvring PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 9


Aircraft General Knowledge

Velocity - Load Diagram

ď ś Maximum load factors e.g. for C172 o o

Normal Utility

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

+3.8, -1.52 (flaps down 3.0) +4.4, --1.76 (flaps down 3.0) AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 10


Aircraft General Knowledge

Load Factor in a Turn  In straight and level flight where lift = weight → load factor =1  With increasing bank in a turn, lift must increase by equal weight → load factor increases  Load factor in a turn1) = lift / weight or wing loadturn / wing loads&l  At 60° bank angle, twice the lift has to be produced as in straight and level.  This means, at a load factor of 2, → the wing supports twice the weight → g-force 2g 1)

Load factor = 1/cos θ, e.g. 1/cos 45° = sqrt(2) = 1,4144 1/cos 60° = 2

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 11


Aircraft General Knowledge

Stress Loads on the Ground  Landing stress loads not only on landing gear but also airfoils and fuselage  Nosewheel cannot take high load → touchdown on main landing gear  Landing gear is susceptible to side load during landing and during taxi  Control surfaces must kept from moving abruptly by wind gusts or slipstream from other airplanes (control locks when parking)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 12


Aircraft General Knowledge

Checks Following Excessive Airframe Stress  Refer to maintenance service and note in maintenance book  Inspection by qualified personnel prior to next flight  Items to be checked among others: o o

o o o o

Distortion of the structure Cracks Missing or sheared rivets Wrinkles in the skin Landing gear and attachments Firewall with nose gear

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 13


Aircraft General Knowledge

Electrical System (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 14


Aircraft General Knowledge

Electrical System (2)  Alternator & Battery o Battery provides Ground- and Starter Power o Alternator Charges Battery and Provides Electric

Power While engine is Running o Alternator A/C transformed to D/C (Generally 28V) o Regulator maintains constant Voltage

 Master Switch o Battery Switch o Alternator Switch

 Ammeter o Left-Zero Ammeter (Loadmeter)

The loadmeter has a scale beginning with zero and shows the total load being placed on the alternator/generator

o Center-Zero Ammeter

When the pointer of the ammeter is on the plus side, it shows the charging rate of the battery. A minus indication means more current is being drawn from the battery than is being replaced.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 15


Aircraft General Knowledge

Electrical System (3)  Electrical malfunctions o Circuit Breaker Trips

Reset once only, if no other signs like smoke or smell o Low Voltage Lamp or no Charge (Discharge) on Ammeter Recycle Master Switch Reduce electrical load – land as soon as practicable

o High Voltage Lamp or Excessive Charge on Ammeter Turn off Alternator Switch – land as soon as practicable

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 16


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Vacuum System

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 17


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Aeroplane Engine (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 18


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Aeroplane Engine (2)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 19


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Aeroplane Engine (3)  Four Stroke Engine Cycle o Intake (Induction) Stroke o Compression Stroke o Power Stroke o Exhaust stroke

 Valve Timing o Via Camshaft, Push Rods and Rocker Arm

o Valve Lead – Intake Open Before TDC o Valve Lag – Intake Close after BDC o Valve Overlap – Exhaust Valve still Open when Intake Valve Opens

o At 2400 rpm – 20 Valve Movements per Second

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 20


Aircraft General Knowledge

Ignition

ď ś Dual Independent Ignition System o Magnetos Independent from Electrical System o Two Magnetos Firing Independently One Sparkplugs each per Cylinder

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 21


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Engine Starter

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 22


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Carburettor (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 23


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Carburettor (2)  Deliver Fuel / Air Mixture to the Cylinders o Fuel to Air Weight Ratio Ideally 1:12 (Varies between 1:8 and 1:20) o Airflow through Venturi Reduces Pressure and Leads in Fuel Through metering Jet o Throttle Lever Controls Throttle Valve

 Components o Float Chamber with Needle Valve and Accelerator Pump o Metering Jet with Idling Metering Jet o Venturi with Throttle Valve

o Mixture Valve and Idle Cut-Off Valve

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 24


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Carburettor (3)  Mixture Control o Adapt Mixture to Altitude and Flight Conditions o Leaner Mixture Required at High Altitude o During Take-Off and Landing, Mixture is Full Rich (Unless at High Altitude Airports)

o During Climb Rich Mixture for Additional Cooling (Unless engine Runs Rough) o During Descent Mixture Gradually Richer

 Abnormal Combustion o Detonation Instantaneous, explosive combustion of the unburnt charge in the cylinder after normal spark ignition o Preignition Uncontrolled firing of the fuel / air charge before the spark ignition

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 25


Aircraft General Knowledge

Carburettor – Icing (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 26


Aircraft General Knowledge

Carburettor – Icing (2)  Impact Ice o Forms Through Freezing Water Droplets o Air inlet, Air Filter, Air Intake o Use Carburetor Heat / Alternate Air

 Fuel / Throttle Ice o Forms Through Temperature Drop of Fuel Air Mixture in The Carburettor o When Throttle is almost Closed at Low Power Settings -> Throttle Icing

 Formation of Carburettor Ice o At Temperatures up to 30°C when Humidity is High o Symptoms are Power Loss (MP Drop) and Rough Engine Running o Apply Carburettor Heat Immediately o Apply Carburettor Heat during Approach and Landing according to POH

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 27


Aircraft General Knowledge

Fuel Injection (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 28


Aircraft General Knowledge

Fuel Injection (2)  Fuel Control Unit o Directs Air directly to Cylinders o Pressurized, Metered Fuel via Fuel Distributor to Cylinders

o Surplus Fuel back to one of the Tanks (Fuel Mgt.!)

 Benefits of Fuel Injection o No Icing o Better Mixture Control

o Better Engine Control and Efficiency

 Possible Problems o Vapor Lock when Starting Hot Engine o Contamination of Fuel Lines

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 29


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Fuel System (1)

Example: PA28 PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 30


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Fuel System (2)  The F.-S. Stores and Delivers Fuel to the Engine in a Continuous Flow o Fuel Vents o Fuel Filters o Fuel Drains o Fuel Pump o Boost (Auxiliary) Pump o Priming Pump

o Fuel Selector o Fuel Quantity & Fuel Pressure gauges

 Fuel Grades o Only AVGAS 100LL (AViation GASoline Low Led)

o Fuel Colour is blue. Marking is White Letters on Red Background o Auto Fuel (MOGAS) forbidden, Unless Certified through an STC

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 31


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Fuel System (3)  Fueling o No-Smoking o Fire Fighting Equipment in Reach o Connect Ground cable o Check Fuel Type and grade o Verify Quantities Actually Loaded

 Preflight Fuel Checking o Use Fuel Tester o Check Grade (AVGAS 100LL – Blue Colour) o Check for Water and Contaminants o Visually Check Fuel Quantity as Required for Flight

o Fuel Caps Placed and Closed Properly

 Fuel Management o Apply Recommended Procedures of POH

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 32


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Oil system (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 33


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Oil system (2)  Engine Oil o Reduce Friction o Cool the Engine o Remove contaminants o Seal between Cylinder Wall and Piston

 Only Use Recommended Oil Grades  Regular Oil Changes according to Maintenance Schedule  Malfunctions o Incorrect Oil Quantity o Low Oil Pressure o High Oil Temperature o Loss of Oil o Faulty Oil Pressure Gauge

o High Oil Pressure

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 34


Aircraft General Knowledge

Cooling – Cowl Flaps (1)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 35


Aircraft General Knowledge

Cooling – Cowl Flaps (2)  Cooling is Provided by o Engine Oil o Exhaust Gases o Air Cooling System

 Movable Cowl Flaps Allow to Adapt Air Cooling  Check Oil Temperature (and CHT if Available)  Excessive Engine Temperatures o High Power o Low Airspeed o Incorrect Fuel o Too Lean Mixture o Low Oil Level o OAT o Dirty and Clogged Oil Cooler

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 36


Aircraft General Knowledge  Engine Start

Engine Operation (1)

o Safety Precautions before Startup o Startup according to POH

 Flooded or Over-Primed Engine o Mixture Idle-Cutoff, Throttle Full Open

o When Engine Fires, Mixture Full Rich, Throttle 1000 rpm

 Hot Engine start (Fuel Injection) 

Throttle Full open, Mixture Idle-Cutoff, Boost Pump High

Startup according to POH

 Constant Speed Prop Operations o Increase Power – ^rpm then ^MP o Decrease power – ^MP then ^rpm

 Engine Shutdown o Avionics, Electrical Equipment Off o Throttle Idle, Mixture Idle-Cutoff, Ignition Off o Master Switch Off PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 37


Aircraft General Knowledge

Engine Operation (2)  POH must always be Followed  Monitor Engine Instruments – Cross Check  Adjust Mixture according to Flight Condition

   

Open and Close Cowl Flaps According to Flight Condition Apply Power Changes Smoothly Avoid Shock Cooling on Descent When Engine Runs Rough, Check for: o Fuel Supply o Carburetor Ice o Mixture o Magnetos and Ignition

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 38


Aircraft General Knowledge

Propeller  Power output of the engine is converted into thrust by the propeller  The propeller being a rotating airfoil, creates a horizontal lift force  A fixed pitch propeller can only be of maximum efficiency at a given RPM and airspeed  Propeller pre-flight check: o o

Check blades for nicks and dents Propeller and spinner must show no looseness

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 39


Aircraft General Knowledge

Constant Speed Propeller (1)  Variable pitch and even more: constant speed propellers overcome the compromise  C-S Propeller takes any blade angle between low pitch and high pitch → most efficient AOA at all RPM / airspeed combinations  Maintains RPM selected by the pilot, e.g. o o

Low pitch – high RPM at takeoff and climb High pitch and lower RPM during cruise

 At engine run-up before each flight, the propcontrol should be cycled at least twice for checking the function and to circulate the engine oil

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 40


Aircraft General Knowledge

Constant Speed Propeller (2)  The constant speed propeller is controlled by a “governor”, which automatically adjusts blade angle irrespective of airspeed and power to keep a given RPM

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 41


Aircraft General Knowledge

Instruments by category  Pressure Instruments o o o

Altimeter Airspeed Indicator (ASI) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

 Magnetic Instruments o

Magnetic Compass

 Gyroscopic Instruments o o o

Turn Coordinator Directional Indicator (DI) Attitude indicator (AI)

 Engine Instruments  Radio and Electrical Instruments

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 42


Aircraft General Knowledge

Pressure Instruments  Static and total pressure are measured by “pressure ports” o o

The port for the static pressures is connected to the altimeter, the vertical speed indicator and the airspeed indicator The port for the total pressure (pitot tube) airspeed indicator

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 43


Aircraft General Knowledge

Air Speed Indicator (1) ď ś Operation o

The aerodynamic speed (indicated airspeed) corresponds to the total of static and dynamic pressure. A barometric capsule is set inside an airtight casing. The pressure in the casing equals the static pressure, The pressure within the capsule equals the total pressure, The pressure difference expands the barometric capsule and this movement is transmitted to the needle of the airspeed indicator, It shows the indicated airspeed, IAS.

ď ś Errors o

The IAS needs to be corrected to take into account the position error of the pitot tube. Result: Calibrated Airspeed (CAS).

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 44


Aircraft General Knowledge

Air Speed Indicator (2)  Airspeed Indicator Malfunctions The Static Port is Blocked (Ice or Foreign Objects)

o

o

Above an altitude where the static port is blocked, the indicated airspeed shown is less.

Below an altitude where the static port is blocked, the indicated airspeed shown is more.

Action: Alternate static pressure or break the glass of the vertical seed indicator

The Pitot Tube is Blocked (Ice or Foreign Objects) •

The airspeed indicator becomes an altimeter. As the aircraft descends the static pressure will increase. Thus, the indicated airspeed will decrease as the aircraft descends regardless of the actual airspeed. The opposite would happen if the aircraft climbed.

Action: If the pitot heat does not reopen the tube, take precautions to avoid stall or overspeed

 Checks o o o

Check the pitot heat Before taxiing check no airspeed indication At the beginning of the takeoff roll check airspeed indication

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 45


Aircraft General Knowledge

Vertical Speed Indicator (1)  Operations o

The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) shows the change of altitude per time unit. A barometric capsule is placed within an airtight casing. When a pressure change occurs, a thin tube permits the pressure to align inside and outside the capsule after some seconds. During climb and descent, where the static pressure changes, the capsule will expand or contract and the indicator linked to it shows the vertical speed.

 Errors o

The VSI is calibrated for standard temperature. Its principle of operation causes a few seconds delay in its indication. Never “chase” the VSI! Sudden altitude changes cause wrong indications too.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 46


Aircraft General Knowledge

Vertical Speed Indicator (2) ď ś Blocking of the Static port o o

Once inside and outside the capsule there is the same pressure, the VSI indication is zero. Action: Alternate static pressure or break the glass of the vertical seed indicator. In the latter case, static pressure applies outside the capsule the VSI indication is reversed.

ď ś Check o o

Zero indication on the ground and during straight and level flight. An alternate static source can be checked by opening it briefly. The VSI needle dips slightly.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 47


Aircraft General Knowledge

Altimeter ď ś Operations o

The altimeter is a barometer. The barometric pressure decreases with increasing altitude. A barometric capsule expands or contracts with altitude changes; the connected needles indicate the altitude. In general feet are indicated. A window calibrated in Hectopascal or inch/Hg shows the altimeter setting according to the QNH, QFE or pressure altitude. (one Hectopascal corresponds to 28 feet of altitude in standard atmosphere).

ď ś Errors o

With a non standard temperature, altitude indication changes. Temperatures below standard temperature cause a higher altitude indication (see altimetry).

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 48


Aircraft General Knowledge

Gyroscopic Instruments (1)  The gyroscope is a rotating wheel (mass) mounted so that its axis can turn freely in one or more directions.  Freedom to Move Around Three Axis o

The axis can take any position around its centre of gravity

 Freedom to Move Around Two Axis o

The axis can take any position while remaining in a level through the spin axis (one pivot is fix)

 Freedom to Move Around One Axis o

The axis is fix can only rotate around this axis (two pivots are fix)

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 49


Aircraft General Knowledge

Gyroscopic Instruments (2)  Inertia o

The resistance of a body to any change of its position in space is called inertia. The greater its mass and its speed, the higher is the masses' inertia. For a gyroscope, this mean rotational speed, mass, and distance from the rotational. because of inertia, a rotating gyroscope has the properties of rigidity and precession.

 Rigidity o

A rotating mass is capable to maintain the same absolute direction in space despite of any other factors. We call this property rigidity in space.

 Precession o

Precession means, that if a force is applied to the gyroscope, the change in direction caused by this force is displaced 90 degrees further on in the direction of rotation.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 50


Aircraft General Knowledge

Gyroscopic Instruments (3)  Gyro Stabilization System o

Mechanical Device to automatically correct a deviation of the gyroscope's vertical axis and to erect the gyroscope.

 Errors o

Mechanical Errors (Manufacturing, Quality, Age, 1° - 20°/H)

o

Movement errors (aircraft movement - earth rotation, 12°/H at our latitude; 0°/H at the equator; 15°/H at the poles)

 Power Sources o

Constant high rotational speed needs to be maintained in order to provide the desired properties of the gyroscope: •

Electrical Power

The gyroscope's rotor is at the same time the rotor of an electric motor running at 20000 – 24000 rpm. Frequently the turn and bank indicator is electrically driven. • Vacuum (Suction) Power An engine driven vacuum pump maintains low pressure inside the housing of the gyro's rotor. The ensuing air stream drives the rotor.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 51


Aircraft General Knowledge

Gyroscopic Instruments (4) ď ś Vacuum System

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 52


Aircraft General Knowledge

Turn indicator (1) ď ś The turn indicator has a rotating mass with freedom to move around two of its three axis and shows movement around the third axis, i.e. a turning movement. ď ś The gyro's precession property indicates the rate of turn. In straight and level flight, the axis of the rotor is horizontal and the needle is vertical. If the aircraft turns (movement around the vertical axis of the aircraft), the rotor makes a precession movement into the opposite direction. The needle by a reversal mechanism indicates the correct direction of the turn.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 53


Aircraft General Knowledge

Turn indicator (2)  Calibration and precision o

The turn indicator is a gauge showing direction of the turn and approximate rate of turn. On the traditional turn indicator, a: • •

4 minute turn corresponds to one width of the needle 2 minute turn (standard rate) corresponds to two widths of the needle

 Check o During Taxi: needle: o o

Before Takeoff: During flight:

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

towards the turn ball: skid needle and ball centered check turn rate with clock and DG

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 54


Aircraft General Knowledge

Turn indicator (3) ď ś Turn Coordinator (Turn & Bank Indicator) o

The more familiar Turn Coordinator shows "rate of turn" and "rate of bank" because the gyro's rotor axis is tilted. The ball indicates eventual lateral forces caused by skidding, slipping or ground movements.

o

On the turn coordinator, a 2 minute turn (standard rate) shows the airplane model tilted towards the instrument marking

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 55


Aircraft General Knowledge

Attitude Indicator  Operation o

Gyro with 3 degrees of liberty and an erection mechanism to keep the axis of the gyro in a vertical position. The plane's attitude is shown through the relative position of a small aircraft symbol and the horizon line.

 Errors o

Prolonged accelerations may produce errors (takeoff, turns). The axis of the gyro tends to align with the vertical axis resulting from acceleration (-> erection system).

 Limits o

Normal attitude indicators limit the indication to about +/30° around the lateral axis (pitch) and to about +/- 85° around the longitudinal axis (bank).

 Checks o

The horizon line must be level and stable on the ground and during flight straight and level, as well as in turns.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 56


Aircraft General Knowledge

Directional Indicator (1)  Operation o o

o

Gyroscope with 3 degrees of freedom. One of the axes is continuously maintained in a horizontal plane. The interior frame (horizontal) maintains horizontal stability. The external frame (vertical) swivels around an axis parallel with the vertical axis of the aircraft. By a transmission wheel, the rotation of the frame is transmitted to the vertical compass card. A levelling system maintains the rotation perpendicular to the axis of the external frame.

 Calibration o

The DI indication can be aligned with the magnetic compass by a turning knob.

 Limits o

For high bank angles (> 55°), the interior frame comes to its stop and causes a precession force with a wrong indication on the compass card.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 57


Aircraft General Knowledge

Directional Indicator (2)  Errors o

The movement error makes a decreasing indication at about 12°/H at our latitudes.

 Limits o

A strong bank angle of more than 55° the gyro's interior frame comes to its stop and create a precession force rotating the compass rose to a wrong indication.

 Check o o o

o

Before taxi: During taxi: Before takeoff: During flight:

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

Gyro - compass Correct indication straight and in turns Gyro - QFU - Compass Every 15 min. and after maneuvers

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 58


Aircraft General Knowledge

Magnetic Compass (1)  Operation o

Floating in a liquid, a compass rose is built around a pivoted bar magnet.

 Deviation o

Errors resulting from environmental factors (electrical equipment, magnetic equipment).

 Variation o

Error resulting from the difference between the geographic and magnetic poles.

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 59


Aircraft General Knowledge

Magnetic Compass (2)

ď ś Errors (Northern hemisphere) o

o

Turning Errors Delayed indication (undershoot) during turns from or to the north. Advanced indication (overshoot) during turns from or to the south [UNOS]. Acceleration Errors On easterly and westerly headings, acceleration gives an apparent turn north deceleration gives an apparent turn south [ANDS].

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 60


Aircraft General Knowledge

Engine Instruments ď ś Constant Speed Propeller o

A constant-speed propeller converts a high percentage of brake horsepower (BHP) into thrust horsepower (THP) over a wide range of r.p.m. and airspeed combinations.

o

the propeller control regulates propeller r.p.m. which is registered on the tachometer. Once a specific r.p.m. is selected, a governor automatically adjusts the propeller blade angle.

o

The throttle controls power output, registered on the manifold pressure gauge. The gauge measures the absolute pressure of the fuel/air mixture inside the intake manifold. When the engine is not running, the manifold pressure gauge indicates ambient air pressure (i.e., 29.92 in. Hg).

ď ś Other Engine Instruments o

Oil pressure gauge

o

Oil temperature gauge

o

Cylinder head temperature gauge

o

Exhaust gas temperature gauge

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 61


Aircraft General Knowledge

Electrical Instruments ď ś Electrical System An ammeter is used to monitor the performance of the airplane electrical system. When the pointer of the ammeter is on the plus side, it shows the charging rate of the battery. A minus indication means more current is being drawn from the battery than is being replaced. A full-scale minus deflection indicates a malfunction of the alternator/generator. A full-scale positive deflection indicates a malfunction of the regulator. o The loadmeter has a scale beginning with zero and shows the load being placed on the alternator/generator. The loadmeter reflects the total percentage of the load placed on the generating capacity of the electrical system by the electrical accessories and battery. When all electrical components are turned off, it reflects only the amount of charging current demanded by the battery. o

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 62


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Glass Cockpit  Garmin G1000 o Integrated monitoring of Flight Data, Engine, Flight o o o

o

Planning, Navigation, Communication, Traffic and Weather Developed on experience with Airliner and Military Equipment, adapted to GA Aircraft Redundancy in light aircraft by mechanical backup Instruments (ASI, AI, Altimeter) Aéro-Sport has two G1000 equipped C172SP: LX-AIE / LXAIO Special Briefing and Training Required -> i.e. checkout for C172SP

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 63


Aircraft General Knowledge

The Glass Cockpit

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 64


Aircraft General Knowledge

Primary Flight Display (PFD) ď ś Garmin G1000 PFD o

o o o o o o o o o

Attitude and Heading Reference System with 3axis solid state gyro, accelerometer and magnetometer ASI Altimeter VSI Trend Indicators EHSI GPS Auto Pilot Coupling COM / NAV Settings Transponder

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 65


Aircraft General Knowledge

Multifunction Display (MFD) ď ś Garmin G1000 MFD o o o

o o o

Backup PFD Moving Map Stormscope Display Altitude alert Engine/Fuel Instruments Flight Plan Display

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 66


Aircraft General Knowledge

Airworthiness (1) Aircraft Documents

ď ś 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Certificate of Airworthiness Radio station Licence Weight and Balance Sheet Registration Certificate Journey Log Approved Pilot Operating Handbook (POH) Noise Certificate (If Applicable)

All these 7 documents

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

must be carried along on each flight

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 67


Aircraft General Knowledge

Airworthiness (2) Other Documents

 o o o

Certificate of Insurance Maintenance Release (attached in the Journey Log) Supplements to the POH (additional equipment like GPS)

Other mandatory documents to be kept by maintenance and not on board of the aircraft:

 o o o

Engine Logbook Airframe Logbook Propeller Logbook

PPL GROUND SCHOOL

AERO-SPORT - LFTA LUXEMBOURG / Reinhard Krommes / 12/10/2011 Slide: 68

Ppl aircraft general knowledge en for ppng member  

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