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www.risi.com - November 2010

The quest for the recyclable cup

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contents

november 2010 VOLUME 52 nUmber 11

OPINION 3 FROM THE EDITORS Whither the lowly coffee cup 10 FROM THE SUPPLIER

HPIR: The latest step in innovation

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Cover: Looking for a recyclable cup (Cover courtesy Starbucks)

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DEPARTMENTS

IS PAPER FREE REALLY GREEN? Valuable lesson for the paper industry

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IT’S THE ONLY ONE WITH COFFEE

43 ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

SERVICES

THE FUTURE OF PAPER Paper needs to be less expensive

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45 ADVERTISER SHOWCASE

IT’S NOT A TRADE-OFF

46 MARKETPLACE

Technical performance can complement sustainability

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47 ADVERTISERS INDEX

FINDING THE BALANCE Remote monitoring reduces maintenance costs

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IN THE NEXT ISSUE . . .

DOORS OPEN FOR SONOCO

• The Green Issue

New DCS/QCS systems help tempt customers

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WHAT’S NEW

44 SUPPLIER NEWS

Coping with the sustainable spotlight

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48 RISI VIEWPOINT Positive perspectives for the Latin American boxboard markets

• PPI Award Winners

REAL THREATS TO FIBER? New chemical extraction processes may create competition?

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HALF THE ENERGY, INCREASED STRENGTH A new LC refiner at Braviken is part of a very public project

Editorial HEadquartErs 326, Avenue Louise, Box 22 - B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel.: +32.2.538.60.40, fax: +32.2.537.56.26, e-mail: news@risi.com risi CorporatE HEadquartErs 4 Alfred Circle, Bedford, Mass., USA 01730, Tel.: +1.781.734.8900 Editorial Executive Editor ..............................................................................Graeme Rodden Editor .................................................................................................. Mark Rushton Associate Editor ........................................................................................Annie Zhu Contributing Editor ............................................................................. Justin Toland

PPI is the only BPA audited magazine in the pulp and paper sector salEs aNd MarkEtiNg Sales Director, Marketing Services .........................................................Remy Poos Sales Director, Marketing Services (North America) .......................... Misty Belser Sales Coordinator .......................................................................Monica Zaskiewicz Director of Events ............................................................................ Jennifer Freitas Marketing Specialist...................................................................... Jennifer Plourde MaNagEMENt Chief Executive Officer .........................................................................Mike Coffey Chief Operating Officer ........................................................................Iain Murray Senior Vice President, Marketing Services ........Rhiannon James-van Beuningen For display advErtisiNg, plEasE CoNtaCt International - Remy Poos - Sales Director, Marketing Services Tel: +32.2.536.07.35 - rpoos@risi.com North America - Misty Belser - Sales Director, Marketing Services Tel: +1.919.285.2800 - mbelser@risi.com

NEws Editorial Director, International News ..............................................Joanne Potter Editorial Director, North American News .................................................Will Mies © COPYRIGHT 2010, For ClassiFiEd, rEpriNts aNd list rENtals, plEasE CoNtaCt by RISI, Inc. News Editors ......... Greg Rudder, Renata Mercante, Bryan Smith, Jim McClaren, Monica Zaskiewicz - Sales Coordinator Fernanda Belchior, Nick Chang, Jessica Zimbalatti, Irina Van den Neste, All rights reserved. Tel: +1.770.373.3002 mzaskiewicz@risi.com Published monthly. Eva Nyman, Cameron Wilson, Daniela Wortmann, Steven Sachoff ISSN 0033-409X. subsCriptioN ENquiriEs Canadian GST permit Fax: +1.847.763.9541. Tel: +1.847.763.9540 or e-mail ppi@halldata.com. PPI, produCtioN & CirCulatioN no: 124513185. Hallmark Data Services, P.O. Box 2018, Skokie, IL 60076-7918, USA. For change Graphic Design Manager/Online Content Producer .......... Anne-Chantal Bodart Printed by Printed by of address, enclose a label from a recent issue of PPI, showing old address. Production Manager ..........................................................................Stef De Swaef Quad/Graphics, Worldcolor, Subscriptions: $157.00/year in the U.S.; Canada and Mexico, US$187.00/year; Leominster Circulation Manager...........................................................................Marlin Martin all other countries, US$297.00/year. Single copy, US$20.00 Leominster

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from the editors

If you had to choose a kaolin supplier based on one quality, which would you choose? o o o o o o

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FROM THE EDITORS Whither the lowly coffee cup GRAEME RODDEN is Executive Editor, Pulp & Paper International (PPI)

We take a different tack this month than most. the focus is on the end user of paper, whether it be the converter, the retailer or the consumer. as you can see by the cover, one of the main topics is the coffee cup. Jim hanna, director of environmental impact and sustainability, worldwide, for one of the most well-known retailers on the planet, the starbucks coffee company, is a dynamic speaker as many in the industry have had to chance to discover in the past few months. as with any corporation, once it becomes successful, it becomes a target for many. Why? many reasons: jealousy, easily accessible, the perception that if it’s big and successful, it must be corrupt. the article on page 19 touches on these points but focuses on the drive to find a process that can recycle polycoated paperboard coffee cups. the lowly cup, with the corporate logo prominently displayed, becomes the face of the company, not only for starbucks but for other coffee shop chains. and, when people see them on the ground, rightly or wrongly, they identify the litter with the company, not with the person who carelessly discarded the cup. i know that where i live, where the tim horton’s chain dominates, there are often letters to the editor in the local paper decrying the chain for the amount of waste it generates. (these letters are more frequent in the spring after the snow has melted, revealing not only discarded coffee cups, but all sorts of other garbage.) But why do we criticize the retailers? they all provide bins to put the waste in and in every chain i’ve been in, they all provide separate bins for recyclables, organic waste and plain garbage. How far back do we go? so why does a segment of the public blame the chain? if we pursue the argument back through the process, then we can pin responsibility to the converter, which takes us back to the papermaker, which takes us back to pulp producer (if not integrated), which takes us back to the company responsible for planting the trees. Who takes responsibility? Logically, it should be the person who bought the coffee. he/she took ownership of

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the cup when the purchase was made, enjoyed the contents and it is up to that individual to discard of it responsibly and legally. But, it is not so simple anymore, as hanna and others have pointed out. Life cycle analysis and carbon footprint are becoming more and more important for every product. society is changing. “ownership” is becoming a murky point. if perception is reality then the folks at starbucks and others must address it. hence, the drive to produce a recyclable or at least compostable, single serve coffee cup. it’s a fascinating discussion and will surely go on for the next few years. as hanna said, the argument goes far beyond and is far more important than just a coffee cup. Besides the coffee cup, in this issue, we also look at the perspectives of the printer and even a well-known environmentalist. Another sign of the Apocalypse in my last column (september), i mentioned that times were really bad for the newsprint industry and that it was becoming the butt of jokes among comedians. now, i found another one. When i turn my Pc on every day, the home page is msn.com. it has the day’s headlines covering a range of topics: hard news, politics, sports, entertainment, lifestyle and business. recently, in the business/career category, there was an article describing jobs that had no growth potential or future. the picture accompanying the article: a backtender with a roll of paper. of course, one probably can’t expect a website to promote a career making paper but it’s just another knock on our industry’s reputation. of course, the person in the picture was not chinese. Just to show that this industry does have a future, next month we’ll highlight the best and the brightest that the pulp and paper sector has to offer when we showcase the winners from the second annual PPi awards. the gala ceremony is being held in Brussels this month. We had an exceptional number of entries and the judges certainly had their work cut out for them. To read more industry opinions or give your own opinion, please visit our RISI Blog and Forums online at www.risi.com

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Do you need better moisture measurement? Definitely.

Excellent moisture measurement is critical to papermaking because almost every controllable parameter on the paper machine has an impact on moisture. ABB’s new HPIR (High-Performance Infrared) measurement provides the most precise tool available to measure moisture with the confidence needed to maximize control performance and save on both energy and fiber costs. To view a video and whitepaper on HPIR, visit www.risi.com/abb

C p t O T o to D 4 E a m w 1 s a B a T d to w b R in

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Collective bargaining kicks off in Germany’s paper industry A new round of collective bargaining has started in the German paper industry. On October 7, representatives of the mining, chemical and energy industrial union IG-BCE and the employers’ association VAP kicked off negotiations. In the view of increasing production, orders and sales, the IG-BCE called for a noticeable but still unspecified pay raise. The VAP argued that the German paper industry is still in the grips of the crisis and asked for a reasonable collective agreement. It is the first time that a common agreement is being negotiated for western and eastern Germany. In the western federal states, the previous labor contract expired on August 31. The collective agreement in the eastern part of the country was scheduled to run out on November 30. IG-BCE represents more than 220 paper sites with a total of approximately 50,000 employees. The second round of negotiations with VAP was scheduled for November 12.

longview fibre paper makers union approves four-year contract According to The Daily News, by a 367 to 242 vote, union paper makers approved a new four-year contract with Longview Fibre Paper and Packaging, union officials said. Members of the Association of Western Pulp and Paper Workers local 153 will receive an unspecified ratification bonus this year, 1% raises in both 2011 and 2012 and a 2% raise in 2013, the final year of the contract, said Ken Smith, the union’s Southern Washington representative.

stora enso and Neste oil begin environmental assessments of biorefinery sites Stora Enso’s and Neste Oil’s joint venture, NSE Biofuels Oy, is to commence environmental impact assessments for a commercial-scale biorefinery at Porvoo and at Imatra in Finland. The two locations are seen as potential alternative sites for a unit capable of producing approximately 200,000 tonnes/yr of premium-quality renewable diesel from wood biomass. The entire production chain - from raw material, in the shape of wood biomass, all the way to biowax suitable for refining into renewable diesel - has been tested at the company’s demonstration plant at Varkaus. Trial runs will continue at the Varkaus facility until next year at least. C o r p o r at e s t r at e G Y Decisions on the future of the demonstration plant and the possible pCa fears domtar’s power plant project would lead go-ahead for a commercial plant will be taken in the early part to biomass shortage of next year when the relevant business plans and cost Officials from the Packaging Corp of America’s (PCA) calculations have been completed. Tomahawk corrugating medium mill have filed TOP TEN HEADLINES objections with Wisconsin state officials ON THE RISI WEBSITE to a 50-MW biomass power plant at sappi receives amended LAST MONTH Domtar’s Rothschild mill near Wausau, environmental authorisation 1. RISI Viewpoint: China’s new coated woodfree paper capacity – 45 miles south of Tomahawk. for expansion of where will shipments go? Electrical utility We Energies filed Ngodwana mill 2. RISI Viewpoint: Where will China get the recovered paper to meet its fast growing demand? an application to build the $255 In 2003 Sappi Management 3. As world producer stocks rise 4 days, pulp buyers ready another pricing battle million biomass power plant Services commissioned 4. RISI Viewpoint: North American paper packaging markets: Heading with state regulators on March Golder Associates Africa to into a danger zone? 15, saying the project would conduct an Environmental 5. Price erosion likely to resume after pulp producer inventories surge 5 days supply steam to Domtar’s mill Impact Assessment (EIA) 6. Finnish daily clarifies report on Stora Enso, Norske Skog and and create up to 150 jobs. for the proposed expansion Holmen newsprint venture 7. Sun paper discloses illegal trading activity in China But PCA -- which already operof its Ngodwana Mill near 8. August containerboard hike abruptly fails ates two biomass boilers at its Nelspruit, Mpumalanga Prov9. RISI Viewpoint: Are US mechanical coated prices nearing Tomahawk mill -- says the new ince. The EIA was completed their peak or just getting started? development at Domtar’s 147,000in 2006 and its findings were 10. Small Minnesota firm files antitrust suit against major US ton/yr uncoated freesheet paper mill submitted to the authorities for containerboard producers would lead to a shortage of woody consideration and a decision about For more daily news headlines, biomass fuel. A public hearing on the the project. In February 2008, the visit www.risi.com Rothschild project is scheduled for December Mpumalanga Department of Agriculture in Madison, WI. and Land Affairs issued an Environmental

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WHAT’S NEW Authorisation to Sappi to proceed with the construction and operation of the proposed expansion project. Subsequently, three appeals were lodged against the Environmental Authorisation by Trans African Concessions (TRAC), Geasphere and Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA). These appeals have now been resolved and an amendment to the Environmental Authorisation was issued to Sappi Management Services on October 4, 2010.

domtar sells woodland hardwood market pulp mill in maine Domtar announced that it has sold its Woodland hardwood market pulp mill, hydro electric assets and related assets, located in Baileyville, ME, and New Brunswick, to International Grand Investment Corporation (IGIC). The purchase price is for an aggregate value of US$60 million plus net working capital of US$4 million.

merGers & aCQuIsItIoNs troostwijk receives offers for aconda paper’s fine paper mill in spain The auction of the assets of insolvent Spanish fine paper manufacturer Aconda Paper has been postponed until further notice. Troostwijk Auctions, which has been overseeing the planned sale, said it has received offers for the paper mill in Flaçà, Girona, as a whole and now needs some time for negotiations. The firm did not reveal the identity of the potential buyers.

smurfit-stone signs letter of intent to sell idle missoula mill According to The Missoulian, Smurfit-Stone Container has signed a letter of intent with a prospective buyer of its Frenchtown mill site, which ceased operations in January. Details of the deal won’t be forthcoming for another few weeks, as the buyer has asked for confidentiality, said Ron Megna, assistant general counsel for Smurfit-Stone Container.

cALENDAR DECEMBER 2010 1: RISI INDIAN SEMINAR Le Royal Meridien Chennai, India events@risi.com

FEBRUARY 2011 1-3: PAPERWEEK CANADA Fairmont Queen Elizabeth Hotel Montreal, QC, Canada www.paptac.ca

MAY 2011 1-4: TAPPI PAPERCON

Northern Kentucky Convention Center Covington, KY memberconnection@tappi.org

17-19: SPCI

Stockholm International Fairs Stockholm, Sweden www.spcievent.com

OCTOBER 2011 11-14: PPI Transport Symposium 19

Amsterdam, Netherlands www.transportsymposium.com

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Ç gOOD MONTH fOR . . . È BAD MONTH fOR . . . Norampac The Norampac Trenton, ON, mill will receive funding ($83,000) under Canada’s Pulp and Paper Green Transformation Program (PPGTP) to improve the energy efficiency of the mill’s existing paper machine by upgrading its capacity to capture and redirect energy for other uses within the mill. upm The Paster Mate, a tool that improves the efficiency of a gravure press, was awarded the Innovation Prize at the 2010 European Publication Gravure Awards. The UPM Paster Mate allows splicing tape to be used across the whole width of the web, improving quality and reliability. rhein papier In September Rhein Papier Hürth’s PM 1 reached 24 hours at 2,020 m/min - a new world record in newsprint production. “This new world record shows the potential of PM 1 and will encourage ongoing work on improvement of productivity and machine stability,” states Juha Ebeling, general manager, Rhein Papier Hürth.

myllykoski Subsidiary Lang Papier is planning to cut 85 jobs at its Lang mill in Ettringen, southern Germany. General manager Thomas Krauthauf said the firm was in talks with the works council and that a final decision was expected at the end of the year. Norampac Norampac Industries faces $75,000 in fines for the May 12 death of a worker at its Niagara Falls, NY, containerboard mill. The US Dept of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration on Oct. 7 issued Norampac repeat and serious safety violations following the accident in which a worker was crushed by when he became caught between a fixed metal barrier and a large paper roll that was moving.

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holmen Twenty-nine people will be made redundant at the company’s mill in Madrid as part of an ongoing efficiency drive. This drive also includes looking into alternative options for PM 61. The smaller of the mill’s two paper machines, PM 61, is operating at a loss despite active improvement measures.

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WHAT’S NEW p r o J e C t s & o p e r at I o N s Norske skog switches to improved newsprint, sC-B production at renkum Norske Skog is switching from producing standard newsprint to improved newsprint and supercalendered-B (SC-B) paper on the 270,000-tonne/yr PM 1 at its Renkum mill in the Netherlands. The firm will officially recategorize the unit with CEPI next year. PM 1 is the only operational machine at the mill. Norske Skog decided to idle the plant’s 225,000 tonne/yr newsprint PM 2 in June last year. stora enso shuts Varkaus newsprint and directory paper pms Stora Enso has stopped production permanently on PMs 2 and 4 at its mill in Varkaus, Finland. The two units have a combined capacity of 170,000 tonnes/yr of standard and improved newsprint and 120,000 tonnes/yr of directory paper. Stora Enso attributed the move to the catastrophic state of the European newsprint market, which it claimed is massively oversupplied. The closure will result in 175 redundancies at the mill, reducing the workforce to around 330 people. Another 70 jobs at a maintenance firm working at the plant will also be cut. Some employees have been temporarily laid off due to the downtime on PM 2. river Valley paper opens two new facilities to expand its wastepaper business River Valley Paper, Akron, OH, has recently opened two new facilities to complement its ongoing growth in the waste paper business. River Valley’s North division was opened in mid-August in Kalamazoo, MI. This facility will help to service folding carton manufacturers as well as supply its boxboard and tissue mill contacts with recovered fiber. River Valley’s South division, Portside Paper opened in Jacksonville, FL. in October. Located at the Jaxport, Portside Paper will look to increase its joblot/secondary roll business in the Southeast. hamburger wraps up white-top testliner pm upgrade at German mill Hamburger has finalized the rebuild of PM 2 at its Papierfabrik Rieger plant in Trostberg, southern Germany. The upgrade shut down the machine during four days at the end of September. The unit had a maximum speed of 950 m/min and a net production of 133,000 tonnes/yr. Following the upgrade, it will have a maximum speed of 1,100 m/min and a production of around 150,000 tonnes/yr. Mill manager Andreas Noss expects to reach this target in 2013. He reckons the PM will be able to produce some 140,000 tonnes/yr at a Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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maximum speed of 1,000 m/min next year. The total cost of the revamp was Euro 1.7 million ($2.4 million). PMT Italia was the main supplier. The Trostberg mill houses another unit, PM 1, with a capacity of some 27,000 tonnes/yr of uncoated recycled board.

LATEST RISI PULP PRIcE INDIcES RISI European Pulp Price Index

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Get an objective view of pulp and paper markets with the industry’s most trusted prices and market reports. Learn more at www.risi.com/ppmp

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WHAT’S NEW th e m oN t h I N p I C t u res

double a has chosen Italian manufacturer pmt Italia to supply the new pm 3 for its subsidiary company, advance paper mill 3. ahlstrom has invested in a new paper sheeting line at its osnabrück plant in Germany. ahsltrom can now enhance its offering for poster papers because of the new line.

PROjEcTS TO WATcH THIS MONTH

Indian papermaker purvi Bharat paper is to build a new mill capable of producing 50,000 tonnes/yr of newsprint and printing/writing paper. The plant will be built near Choudwar, in the Indian state of Orissa, which is around 100 km from the port of Paradip on the east coast of the country. Trial runs are scheduled to start in October 2012, with commercial production due to begin one month QUOTE later. The PM’s design speed will be 650 m/min Of THE MONTH and it will be furnished with recovered paper. “We’re letting our key suppliers know The grades it will produce will be in a basis that sustainable business practices will weight range of 45-90 g/m². join price, quality and service as a major A 4.5 MW captive power plant will be factor in driving purchasing decisions,” built at the site to provide electricity for said Jevin Eagle, executive vice president the mill. of merchandising and marketing at Staples, the world’s largest office In May 2010, Georgia-pacific said products company, in announcing a it is considering various investments at new corporate strategy to drive its Allo tissue mill in Spain. The regional sustainability innovation in product government of Navarra recently said it would manufacturing, packaging provide approximately Euro 3 million to support and distribution. the group’s investment projects, which the government said could amount to some Euro 43 million. Georgia-Pacific might invest in a cogeneration facility with a capacity of 15 MW, a new production line for napkins and a new rewinder. In addition, the company recently decided to build a biological wastewater treatment plant at the side. However, the company warned that the commitment from the municipality does not mean that the total amount of money quoted will be automatically invested. It continues to be subject to internal analyses, reviews and approvals over a period of time.

papierfabrik scheufelen has published its 2011 wall calendar featuring “peak performances”. among the topics featured month by month are free divers, bold architecture, revolutionary physics and pioneering space travel as well as automotive and aviation.

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Neenah paper was honored with the Best of show award at the annual International arC awards for its 2009 annual report titled what we Believe. the winners were chosen as the best among more than 1,900 entries from 27 countries.

lee & man is seeking approval from the Chinese government to build a 300,000-tonne/yr bleached hardwood kraft pulp mill in Guangxi autonomous region. If it gets the go-ahead, Lee & Man will build the pulp facility despite the sale in June 2010 of its plantations in Guangxi to the US firm Resource Management Service. Lee & Man set up a subsidiary, Guangxi Lee & Man Forestry Technology, in 2007 to establish the eucalyptus plantations, with the aim of developing over 100,000 ha. It also set up a 35-ha nursery in the area. The information above is from RISI’s Global Mill Projects Database, which gives you online access to continuously updated information on thousands of projects worldwide. For more information on RISI’s mill intelligence content, visit www.risi.com/millintel November 2010

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“Premium quality means no weak links.” Metso was charged with the mission of enabling Stora Enso to achieve and maintain the high standards that they set for the new Ensocoat premium graphical and packaging board in 2010. Quality consistency was, and still is, the highest priority across the entire process. Metso’s quality control solutions play a key role in ensuring that quality. Metso offers you the widest quality management portfolio on the market combined with extensive process know-how. You can get the whole package from us, scaled to fit your needs and fully compatible with your existing systems. Let us help you maximise your quality!

www.metso.com/automation

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from the supplier

FROM THE SUPPLIER HPIR: The latest step in innovation By EAMON DEVLIN, Global Marketing & Communication Manager, QCS, ABB

With ABB’s high performAnce infrAred (hpir’s) highly precise moisture measurement, mill operators can confidently use cd control for faster startups and grade changes. papermakers can shift their moisture targets closer to acceptable quality limits, saving energy and reducing fiber costs while remaining within the paper grade’s quality specifications. precision depends heavily on the number of measurements made within each databox. hpir calculates measurements 5,000 times per second. the result is less measurement noise per databox. hpir also continues the excellent accuracy performance of ABB moisture measurement across the full range of a customer’s paper grades. moisture streaks in a paper machine’s cross direction often indicate there are problems with felts, wires, coating stations or cd moisture actuators. high-resolution moisture measurement resolves these streaks, and can also help system engineers define a better process model for improved cd control performance. the hpir sensor measures moisture streaks as narrow as 4 mm and displays them clearly on the ABB Qcs profile displays and contour maps.

Until now, infrared moisture sensors have been designed to mechanically block the measurement beam at high frequency to suppress background radiation. Known as beam chopping, this method reduces the signal-to- noise ratio by a minimum factor of two. in addition, the chopping frequency places a fundamental nyquist frequency limit on the measurement bandwidth. hpir measurement is different – it does not chop. While measuring, hpir continuously measures and simultaneously compensates for background radiation, boosting signal and measurement rate. this combination of high spatial resolution and high measurement rate ensures that hpir does not miss anything while providing an accurate and precise measurement of transient moisture features. Elegant simplicity

A more reliable and robust sensor design means less paper machine downtime for troubleshooting or swapping sensors. hpir is air-cooled and has no continuously moving parts. the sensor’s modular design allows for field replacement of modules, avoiding repairs at the manufacturer’s shop and eliminating the need to stock a complete spare sensor. hpir simultaneously analyzes multiple wavelengths of infrared energy transmitted through the sheet to provide accurate high-speed measurement of percent moisture. the infrared energy is transmitted to three indium gallium Arsenide (ingaAs) channels housed in a temperature controlled chamber while an algorithm computes the percent moisture using the three detected signals and a fourth channel from the paper’s infrared planckian radiation derived from temperature measurement. this algorithm is used to calculate percent moisture, without the need for a basis weight measurement below 350 g/m2 (215 lb/3,000 Fig. 1 - Correlation between HemiPlus and HPir: 24 Hours of sCan averages on unCoated woodfree PaPer. in tHis unCoated woodfree ft2). the measurement is insensitive to sheet temperaaPPliCation, botH tHe HPir and tHe HemiPlus sensors were oPerated ture, furnish variations and moisture layering. in Parallel on tHe same sCanning Platform. in tHis ComParison, eaCH data Point is a sCan average. tHe basis weigHt ranged from the compact optical and electro-mechanical 102 to 290 g/m2 over several grade CHanges. eaCH sensor is using a design is robust and inherently stable, ensuring high single grade-dePendent Calibration (single sloPe and offset) over tHe several grades. a wide moisture range was observed, from 4 performance even in severe environments. the innoto 16%. even under tHese CHallenging Conditions, it is Clear tHat vative optical design doubles the signal to noise ratio tHe agreement between tHe two sensors is exCellent. of the instrument, removing bandwidth constraints

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November 2010

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imposed by chopping to provide an industry leading moisture measurement rate. the network platform service Workstation software monitors the health and performance of the hpir sensor and provides robust diagnostics. HPIR features • High bandwidth response for each wavelength channel (minimum 5,000 moisture calculations per second). each calculation is statistically independent resulting in precise, high resolution measurement that is not affected by scan speed or sheet speed • Continuous measurement while scanning with no beam chopping, ensuring optimum signal-to-noise ratio and maximum measurement rate • High speed, low-noise Indium Gallium Arsenide detector technology • Efficient optics and continuous measurement improve signal-to-noise ratio while unique high-transmission fiber optics deliver the same signal to each channel so that each channel is measuring exactly the same spot on the sheet with minimal signal loss • Small measurement spot size (4 mm) • true edge-to-edge measurement within 1 cm of the edge • Temperature control of detector and source assemblies (no water-cooling), for long life and increased stability • Built-in heated air wipes normalize the temperature in the measurement gap, eliminate condensation and prevent dust accumulation • Linear calibration range and excellent instrument stability minimizes online correlation for fast startups and long-term results • Factory pre-calibration for base curve and interinstrument agreement • ABB diagnostic tools provide easy set-up and detailed service interface. To read more industry opinions or give your own opinion, please visit our RISI Blog and Forums online at www.risi.com

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years of experience and the paper starches of tomorrow. Tate & Lyle is a world leading food and industrial ingredients company, serving a global market from over 45 production facilities throughout Europe, the Americas and Asia. For over 100 years, through our complete starch portfolio, we have delivered strength, smoothness, quality and process efficiency to leading paper and board manufacturers worldwide. We produce paper and board starches in five European plants and support our customer service teams from our Centre of Starch Expertise in the Netherlands. Our starch engineers and application experts can help you bring better paper solutions to your markets, and help you optimize your processes today, for a better bottom line tomorrow. Contact us for more information industrialstarches.e@tateandlyle.com © 2010 Tate & Lyle PLC. All rights reserved.

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By MANDY HAGGITH

The “Don’t print” meme went viral but to what value and how can the paper industry finally learn some valuable lessons?

IS PAPER FREE REALLY GREEN?

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n March 2007, the environmental website www. treehugger.com ran a post asking its readers to “help us start a meme”, with the wording: ‘EcoTip: Printing emails is usually a waste. Make this tip go viral, add it to your email signature.’ It did go viral, and within months the message was circulating on billions of emails, both private and corporate. There were many variants on the exact language, but all exhorted the recipient not to print the email.

There is a general belief that email comes with virtually no footprint cost (photo: iStock)

Memes are units of culture – ideas, practices or concepts – and were originally posited by scientists to provide an evolutionary explanation of the spread of cultural phenomena. Like genes, the most successful are selected through processes of competition, they undergo variation and mutation, and they reproduce. The memes that replicate the most effectively spread

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best and until recently paper has been the ideal meme vehicle. But the 100 billion emails circulating each day constitute an even more powerful medium for the spread of memes, and with 53% of people saying that they print more since they started using email (according to a study by IDC), it has provided a rich environment in which the ‘don’t print’ meme has been able to flourish. What does the widespread adoption of the ‘don’t print’ message say about the reputation of paper versus digital alternatives? Bob Latham, of paper merchants PaperLinX, believes most members of the general public have a distorted impression of them. “There is a fundamental flaw in understanding of the nature of the two mediums,” he says. “On the paper side, sadly, for most people it involves the death of a tree and is therefore perceived as bad. As for digital, there’s a fundamental misunderstanding that it comes with virtually no footprint cost.” Don Carli, director of the Institute of Sustainable Communication in the US, identifies in a recent paper that “feelings of guilt and concern are on the rise about the use of paper and its alleged impact on the fate of trees, forests and the environment.” However, he is critical of the “Don’t print” message as presenting an over-simplistic “false choice” as digital alternatives to paper also have a significant environmental footprint. Joshua Martin, director of the Environmental Paper Network, agrees that there is a widespread perception that most paper products are “dead trees,” but he believes criticism of the “Don’t print” message is misguided. “Why focus on that?” he says. “Common sense dictates that if you’ve already read it online you don’t need to print it as well and incur that additional, unnecessary footprint, not to mention

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additional cost to your business. It’s a simple message about avoiding clear redundancy. It is important to advance our dialogue on this issue, but we should not be confusing people into thinking they are not doing a good thing by not printing their email, because obviously they are.” PA P E R = T R A S H ? Some of the reason why paper has developed a poor public image, particularly in industrialized countries, is because of increasing concern about over-consumption and wasteful behavior. Popular campaigns like the Story of Stuff and the fashion for minimalism and “decluttering” have reduced popular tolerance for low value paper products. Unwanted direct mail has caused controversy in North America and Europe, as people trying to reduce their weekly waste production are exasperated to receive, through their letterbox, paper items that they send directly to be recycled. Government information campaigns, like swine flu advisory leaflets, inadvertently exacerbate the situation both by promoting disposable tissue use and by rapidly ending up in the bin. A sample from a “zen habits” blog gives a flavor of how paper is perceived: “Papers? Be merciless ... Magazines, catalogues, junk mail, bills more than a year old, notes to yourself, notes from others, old work stuff … toss it!” The success, from a paper industry perspective, of big sales to a major buyer, may have an uncosted penalty. Conversion of a sustainably-grown quality paper product into unwanted printed material, creates a legacy of a widespread public association of paper with trash. Latham says that some products have ‘bastardised’ paper. “We could argue that free newspapers have added to the trashing of paper’s image. In the short run it has helped some of the newsprint companies but in the long run it cheapens paper.” The solution, he believes, is that the industry needs to focus attention on increasing value, not just volume sales. “Value not volume” is perhaps a meme whose time has come; businesses that adopt it may be best able to flourish in an environment of falling paper consumption. “Paper industry campaigns that suggest increasing paper consumption saves trees appear superdefensive or just plain silly,” says Martin.

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Instead, efforts to improve the public perception of paper need to address ethical issues more deeply. Human rights abuses by a tiny proportion of the industry have had a significant effect on the public perception of paper. Indonesian forest peoples who have been displaced for pulp plantations have powerful advocates in Europe and North America and the success of the Fair Trade meme has greatly increased the importance that consumers place on social as well as environmental effects. As a result, the market for ethically-traded and environmentally-sound paper products is no longer confined to an environmentalist minority. Companies offering quality products are becoming increasingly sensitive to the risks to reputation associated with producers that cause negative social and environmental impacts. Greenpeace has recently demonstrated, with publication of its ‘Pulping the Planet’ report, that major corporate paper buyers such as Tesco have robust procurement policies and are willing to cancel contracts with companies like Sinar Mas that do not satisfy their standards.

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F WHY DOES ‘E’ SEEM GREEN? By comparison with paper, the digital world seems to generate endless positive perceptions as new, fast, easy, flexible and mobile. As part of their presentation of a green image, electronic information providers have been quick to highlight their products as “paper free”. The name choice for the forthcoming magazine website layout system, Treesaver, is the latest example of how “soft copy” is presented as environmentally more friendly than “hard copy”. The digital revolution, particularly the rise of mobile computing, has made “e” almost synonymous with “free”. The cost of virtual information is no longer paid on an item-by-item basis (though there are some exceptions, notably music), but largely through hardware capital and running costs. This shift in the financial model of information provision has huge implications for the paper industry. For many paper users, such as advertisers, the digital world enables them to make massive savings by shifting from production of multiple copies of their work to release of a single globally accessible copy. In the case of online billing and finance, cost November 2010

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savings are combined with functional improvements. As motivation for finance companies to shift their systems away from paper, Latham is convinced that these factors far outweigh any concerns about public image. “It’s cheaper and reduces human error,” he says. “It’s often nothing to do with the environment.” However, the finance industry has also tapped into people’s desire to be environmentally friendly by associating the shift from paper to online billing with “saving trees”. In the US, a major campaign called Go Paperless, Go Green, targeting finance company customers, used a study by Javelin Strategy and Research to promote environmental benefits resulting from a shift from paper to digital transactions. Even more significantly, a study by Harris Interactive found that 51% percent of customers who have shifted online said the environment was the number one reason why they use e-bills and online payments, and 72% cited reduction of paper waste and clutter as the main benefit. Finance companies have thus exploited a powerful synergy of cost savings and public perception.

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predicts carbon emissions from telecommunications providers will double over the next decade as uptake of broadband trebles to 900 million accounts, used by four billion personal computers. E-book technologies have caused a recent flurry of paper vs digital debates. When my book Paper Trails: From Trees to Trash, the True Cost of Paper was published in 2008 by Virgin Books, I was asked by the publisher’s owner, Random House, to take part in a promotion of the e-book, published alongside the conventional book. I did so, on the proviso that I could ask questions, including “If an e-book reader breaks down, can it be recycled?” and more generally, “What are the lifecycle impacts of an e-book and its reader?” The answers to these questions are still completely unclear.

FA L S E C H O I C E S ? The public perceptions of the environmental benefits of digital alternatives to paper may soon begin to change, however, as some prominent voices are questioning the impacts of cyberspace. In the 1990s, green activists began saying that the internet “runs on coal”, and now the “dirty internet” claim is back. Carli has recently highlighted the heavy dependence of digital providers in the US on energy generated by coal from extremely damaging strip mining and mountaintop removal. “In addition to considering the way digital media can create new possibilities for a better world we also need to consider the less obvious impacts of the purchased energy, embodied energy, dark content and e-waste associated with the growing use of digital media,” he says. In addition, mobile phone and chip technology use rare minerals, the trade in which can be insidious. A recent Greenpeace report has uncovered the huge energy footprint of the “cloud computing” data centres of social networking sites like Facebook, predicting that by 2020 the digital sector will produce 1,034 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. The Climate Group and the Global e-Sustainability Initiative Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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Even limiting the questions to the carbon footprint of e-book readers versus their conventional alternatives is complex, says Martin. “There have been a lot of different studies, but I haven’t felt anything like a consensus. It is hard to find apples-toapples comparison. What’s certain is we need to be advancing sustainability simultaneously throughout both the digital and paper supply chain as rapidly

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as we can because neither is going away.” He agrees with most people in the paper industry that a simple digital vs paper alternative is a false choice. One of the ways that sustainability issues can be addressed is by providing users of paper-based and digital services with clear accounts of the effects of their purchasing choices. For example, global communications company Williams Lea produces an environmental dashboard for clients, which shows the forest, carbon, water and energy footprints of their paper procurement choices in print jobs, helping them to understand the environmental benefits of efficiencies and use of accredited papers. Similar dashboards are needed to make the impacts of digital information use completely transparent. The direct mail sector demonstrates well how paper or digital is not a simple either-or choice. The sector is showing a strong migration from paper to digital marketing with, according to MediaWeek, an estimated increase in email campaigns of 15% in 2009. Yet printed campaigns are still popular and digital information is being used to enable much more personalized marketing that gets a far higher return. Latham says, “Ironically, it seems that there is real hope for paper’s real value to be better appreciated as print is more and more cleverly used by media planners in sophisticated cross media campaigns, with digital and paper complementing each other extremely effectively.” In other words, less volume means more value.

Books epitomize these values. They include aesthetics: the smells and textures of books give sensual pleasure in ways no digital experience can emulate. Good books are shared and durable: libraries are among the most venerated institutions on earth, and books have a unique ability to allow people from the distant past to speak to us in the present. Picture a woman reading a story to her grandchild from an old book: what better way is there to illustrate love and the passing on of wisdom from generation to generation? But it may take more than images like this to regenerate the public’s confidence that trees cut down to make paper do not all die in vain. PPI Mandy Haggith, a former European Environmental Paper Network coordinator, is a freelance writer and researcher based in Scotland,UK. A published author, Haggith has written a book about paper, Paper Trails, and her first novel, The Last Bear, won the Robin Jenkins Literary Award for the best environmental writing in Scotland in 2009.

FUTURE TRENDS? The early optimism of ‘e=green’ is likely to reduce, as the environmental and ethical footprint of cyberspace becomes more widely known. Meanwhile, the paper industry can expect to benefit from the strides it has made towards sustainability, particularly in Europe and North America. Influencing key people is vital. Latham says, “To my mind the key people are those in the public sector and corporate buyers, and those people are getting much better at understanding the issues.’ Martin has this advice. “For the paper industry to really move into the 21st century, its approach needs to be around authentic responsibility and technical innovation that takes advantage of the real values of paper.”

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To read more articles on Papermaking, visit our Papermaking Technology Channel at www.risi.com/ technologychannels/papermaking November 2010

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By GRAEME RODDEN, Executive Editor

The world-famous Starbucks Coffee Company is committed to finding a single serve paper coffee cup that can be recycled

IT’S THE ONLY ONE WITH COFFEE

T Starbucks is working to reduce the number of single serve cups by defaulting to ceramic cups for in-store customers

he pulp and paper industry has made great strides in recent years opening up its doors so to speak to its customers and other interested observers. Perhaps some of this has been forced upon it by the public’s increased awareness and knowledge of environmental and sustainability issues. End users are also becoming much more involved with the industry, responding to their own customers’ demands. No matter the reason, this improved access had led to a number of interesting, even fascinating, presentations at industry conferences. The ubiquitous disposable coffee cup was the

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topic of one such presentation by Jim Hanna, director of environmental impact (worldwide) for the Starbucks Coffee Company, who spoke at the recent RISI North American Forest Products Conference as well as at the TAPPI PaperCon event held in May. As a worldwide retailer, Starbucks goes through a tremendous amount of paper products annually, notably cup stock and tissue. Hanna notes that the company buys three billion hot cups and one billion cold cups annually. It serves 50 million customers weekly at its 16,000 outlets. As perhaps the world’s most famous name in coffee, its success has also led it to becoming a target. One of the problems the company is busily seeking a solution to is the inability to recycle coffee cups. As Hanna said, most communities will not accept them as a recyclable due to food contamination. He added that no cup today is recyclable or compostable in every system. However, convincing the public of this can be a difficult task. During his talk in Atlanta, Hanna described one email he received stating that the problem was something “a kindergarden student could solve”. In a way, with its famous logo on every one, cups become the face of the company. Or, to some, as Hanna said in Atlanta, it is a case of: You can’t recycle this cup; therefore, Starbucks is an evil company. But, the company is working with paper producers to find the Holy Grail of a recyclable cup. In October 2009, Starbucks worked with Pratt’s New York mill. “The cup test with Pratt was a great learning experience for our hypothesis (and hope) that polycoated hot cups could be recycled with OCC,” says Hanna. “Since most of our stores currently have cardboard recycling services, the opportunity to add cups to an existing, robust infrastructure is exciting. Pratt’s mill indicated that adding cups to their mix of OCC

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and mixed waste paper into the pulper did not impact the final product, but did slow down their batch time and did create additional waste that had to be skimmed off and disposed. For a paper mill, time and yield are key to profitability, so Pratt determined that coated paper was not ideal for their operations.” A future trail will be held with a Georgia-Pacific mill in Wisconsin, using cup stock from the Chicago area? “We’ll start that test in January,” adds Hanna. “We’re still aligning all of our waste haulers and the MRFs to execute the test.” And, Starbucks is not working alone. There are projects completed or planned with other major coffee shop chains such as Dunkin Donuts and Canada’s Tim Horton’s. “In Ontario (Canada), we’ve worked closely with Tim’s and other retailers to drive appropriate policies and the city and provincial level,” Hanna explains. “We are also using the same recycling facility for our cups with Tim’s in Toronto. On a broader engagement level, we’ve invited Tim’s, Dunkin, Green Mountain, McDonalds, Havi (supplier to McDonalds and

jim Hanna: an issue much bigger than just coffee cups

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Starbucks) and other brands to provide the necessary commitment toward momentum and material volumes to eventually demonstrate to the recycling industry and end users that their investments in recycling infrastructure will have positive payoffs. We’re still in the discussion stages with other brands on future collaborative projects.” Among the producer companies interested in these projects are Cascades, MeadWestvaco, International Paper and Smurfit Stone. As Hanna notes, packaging is only a small part of the company’s carbon footprint but it is the public’s perception that drives the debate, so, “We need to resolve it.” I t ’ S n o t j u S t pa p e r Actually, about 75% of Starbucks’ carbon footprint comes from its stores’ operations. And, one of the biggest contributors is nitrous oxide, the propellant and emulsifier in its whipped cream used in various coffee drinks. “Seventy-five percent of our controlled carbon emissions (Scope 1 and Scope 2 in the WRI protocol) are from store operations. We haven’t verified our Scope 3 emissions (including cups) with an audited 3rd party analysis, but have performed internal cursory calculations to determine that our cups are a small contributor to our overall footprint, which is typical for most verified studies I’ve seen for other retailers. … emissions from our whip cream exceed the emission from all our roasting plants combined.’ Hanna says the intent of his comment is to remind fellow retailers to verify their assumptions about where their greatest environmental footprints truly live in their companies. “We had no idea whipped cream was such a huge source of our greenhouse gas emissions!” But, it’s still the disposable coffee cup that is the focus. Starbucks has set a goal to be able to recycle these cups by the end of 2012. And Hanna is optimistic it will be achieved. “Given the momentum we’ve created in the paper and plastic industry, the level of engagement and commitment from stakeholders across the value chain, the inclusion of our fellow retailers and competitors into our process and emerging market conditions for recycled pulp, we believe were are on track to develop a solution by 2012.” November 2010

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One way to reduce the effect of the disposable cup is to reduce their use. Starbucks sells four billion cups a year and wants to increase the use of personal mugs to 250 million transactions annually. “Our commitment is to decrease the number of single serve cups we use by increasing the number of transactions in customer personal tumblers (travel mugs) and by defaulting to ceramic cup use for our in-store customers,” Hanna adds. In other projects, Starbucks is aiming to have all its new stores LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)-certified by the end of 2010. Hanna explains, “Starting at the end of this year, all of our new company owned stores globally will be registered for (applied for) LEED certification. The timeline at which the stores actually become certified depends on the speed at which the USGBC processes those applications. “We’re in the process of greening up our existing portfolio with a global lighting retrofit (just completed) that shaved 7% off our energy use. Additionally, as our existing stores come up for renovation, we’ll use that time to incorporate our additional LEED strategies.” a t H r e at t o a l l At Starbucks, Hanna adds, sustainability equals climate mitigation. “Climate change poses a direct threat to our business, and yours,” he told delegates in Atlanta. He makes the business case for sustainability measures: reduced operating costs; greater customer loyalty; prouder, more loyal employees; a hedge against future regulations; a larger share of the emerging demographic; and, Hanna says, a license to operate. That is, it will mitigate negative response to new Starbucks stores, which has become an issue of the present for the company. Why should the pulp and paper industry care about what Starbucks does? Hanna says it’s the reasons are obvious: a good business case; NGO pressure; customer demands and the specter of regulation such as extended producer responsibility. Of this, Hanna says that written well, it is neutral to business, but written poorly, “The public does not share responsibility for waste.” Therefore, the industry will need to be aware of potential legislation and ensure its voice is heard. Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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When done right, Hanna adds, the pulp and paper industry is the “epitome” of sustainability. He notes that in the next few years, the focus will be on end of life, not the amount of recyled content in the cup. But, he adds, this is much bigger than just Starbucks and coffee cups. What about the negative that some of the public holds, not only of Starbucks but of other large chains? Is that being mitigated? Hanna says there has been a change. “The shift in the tone of conversation within the media, stakeholders and our customers has been exciting to see. Two years ago when we announced our 2012 cup recycling goals and commitments to instore recycling for our customers by 2015, the general feedback was either: ‘Why will this take so long to accomplish when brand X down the street is telling us they’ve already solved this issue?’ or ‘There is no way you’ll ever achieve these goals.’ Now we’re seeing headlines and discussion that indicate a growing understanding of the complexities of the recycling infrastructure and are recognizing Starbucks leadership for taking on such a difficult, but achievable task.” Hanna left delegates in Atlanta with one very telling remark: “Save our planet; it’s the only one with coffee.” PPI

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Starbucks now has 16,000 stores worldwide, this one in paris

To read more articles on this topic, search our online magazines archives www.risi.com/magazines

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By Mark rushton, Editor, PPI

Mark Rushton speaks to Gareth Ward, world renowned printing expert and editor of The Print Business magazine

The fuTure of prinT? “PaPer needs to be less exPensive” Certainly printers in the developed world are working in a market which has peaked. The problem is that they are working with increasingly efficient and sophisticated presses which is creating huge capacity problems and driving down the price of print, something that would have happened without recession and without alternative media. This is leading to something of a loss of confidence among typical printers – entrepreneurial businesses established in the last 25 years or so, employing 20-50 staff. Digital print technology is one answer because the ability to segment, sort, customise and personalise print will increase the value of a printed piece, but this is still very much under developed because the print technology is not yet up to the task but most importantly because the data necessary to drive personalisation is not there in sufficient depth, let alone the understanding of how to best use it. So in short, all over the developed world printers are suffering a crisis of confidence and realise that print volumes are very unlikely ever to scale the peaks of the last decade.

Gareth Ward: “Printers want instant service, the lowest price and foolproof quality from their paper suppliers”

PPI: What in your opinion is the condition of the general health of the printing industry worldwide? Gareth Ward: Printing for the first time in 500 years is facing real competition. Television and radio provided alternative information channels, but until the arrival of the internet and on screen words, reading has been unique to the printed word. This does not mean printing is about to disappear, far from it, but it does mean that companies and consumers now have an alternative to print. A prime example is the ebook, such as the Kindle, Sony eReader or iPad. These are read in much the same way as books have always been read, and may be affecting print volumes. But nobody knows for sure - yet. Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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What about in the emerging regions? In the developing world, the situation is different – at least where there is burgeoning middle class with money to spend on cars, vacations, furniture, food and drink and all the goods that define the leading economies. Education too is a driver of print, creating more readers eager to consume newspapers, magazines and books. The overall consumption of print in these countries may never reach the levels of the parts of the world they are trying to emulate, but this is the opportunity. Xu Jianghao, chairman of Shanghai Electric, owner of Goss, a large printing machine manufacturer put it succinctly when

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speaking at the Ipex trade show this year, saying: “When we look at Asia and China and India in particular we see large populations and economies that are developing fast which require better levels of education and during this period of growth newspapers will always be needed and reading habits will develop in these markets. Consequently I believe the global market for print will remain stable at least.” Jianghao might also have mentioned Brazil as a fast developing country drawing the attention of the leading printing press manufacturers. All are starting to develop models that are suited to the demands for more straightforward and versatile presses that the printer in Europe or North America who needs a machine that allows him to make some kind of margin through either being very fast or offering sophisticated inline enhancements like varnishes, foils and other effects.

Modern printing presses now have turned what was once skilled craft into a commodity (picture courtesy of Heidelberg)

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What are the major challenges the industry has to get to grips with over the next 5-10 years? Print’s biggest problem is that its supremacy has now been challenged and the cycle of growth inline with GDP has been broken. This can be traced to the rise of the world wide web which has provided and alternative to print. As the current recessionary cycle eases the biggest challenge for printers will be to win back the customers that have cut back on marketing spends and have tried alternative and seemingly less expensive channels. Printers must show that print has strength, that it is appreciated by end users and that by rethinking how printed products function, that print

has real clout. Printers cannot assume that the work will come back as economic growth returns. Is electronic publishing having a marked effect on the world of print as yet? To date digital forms of reading can only affect those that have access to the required devices. The instant reaction is to say that there is an effect on print, but that so far it is a minor effect. Newspaper circulations in the developed world have been hit more by changing commuting patterns, from public transport to private car, than by the alternative of the electronic reader. But it will have an impact where people have one and some say that once they have switched to electronic devices they will not switch them off. It’s too soon to say whether the “Pad is a fad”, but cleverness alone never made for a secure future. Electronic reading seems to work best in two areas. Firstly where there is a need for instant information in changing circumstances – a sports occasion, political story, or similar, where print is too slow and cumbersome. And secondly where research information is needed, where the ability to search across a mass of information and deliver the most up to date data is markedly better electronically than from a printed document. But reading for pleasure, a magazine or book, holiday or car brochure, remains an area where print is more immersive and provides an experience that current digital devices cannot replicate. Publishers will continue trying, but it will be a long time before ad revenues on the iPad and similar devices overtake ad revenues in magazine formats. What about social media, are there cases where these are generating print? The obvious area where social media is creating a demand for print is in photobooks, or “memory products” as they are more accurately described. Facebook has also created a print function to deliver photos or perhaps a real printed version of its Wall. Flickr has billions of images, some of which have found their way into printed albums, and this is without the print that may be generated in response to a click on a web site or a mobile phone triggering a catalogue or brochure through the post. Indeed one of the biggest drivers of print in the last couple of November 2010

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New inkjet technology is providing high speed, multi pagination print for more and more demanding customers (Picture courtesy of Kodak)

years has been websites selling clothes, sports equipment and so on that send out printed catalogues to customers to encourage them to return to the website to make new purchases. Retailers that exist only in cyberspace are some of the biggest users of print because of the need to drive consumers to make new purchases. There are even magazines spawned by eBay, and Amazon of course is by far the biggest retailer of printed books in the world.

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Could offset printing now be described as a “commodity business�? Unfortunately yes. Print is caught between being a craft business, where everything is bespoke and needs skilled craftsmen to run presses and binding lines, and a manufacturing business where tasks have been automated and are repetitive and where operators require a different type of understanding. The problem is that printers would prefer to be craft people while customers want them to be manufacturers. With the evolution of high speed, highly automated presses, digital workflows and automated finishing, printers have more capacity to fill and that has helped drive prices down and made print a commodity business suffering from tightening margins. The problem is that print is not a manufacturing industry like cars where over production results in a build up of stock and assets which can be sold later, each printed product is bespoke and becomes out of date almost instantly. Some printers have managed to escape this trap through a variety of means and can still sell their skills rather than their capacity. So where are the growth areas in print now?

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What technologies should papermakers be concentrating on? Offset litho remains the dominant printing process, but its time may be ending as at one point letterpress was usurped by litho. The challenger is digital printing and in particular inkjet printing. Electrophotographic color printing has been around since 1993 and while it has made an impact, its relative slow speeds and restricted format mean that it cannot challenge the mainstream of print. But inkjet breaks this ceiling. In theory it is modular, with heads and arrays bolted together to print any format; it is fast, printing at speeds that allow long runs and high paginations to be produced in a short time and cost effectively; and it is young, there is much to come yet and we do not know the limit of what inkjet is capable of. Three technologies exist within inkjet: continuous where a stream of droplets is fired at a substrate and is directed into place by a charge or blast of air; thermal, where rapid expansion of a liquid due to heating forces a droplet of ink from a nozzle and piezo where a piston effect is created in a chamber of ink by the movement of a piezo crystal in response to an electrical charge. The first technologies, dominated by Kodak and HP, currently demand a water-based ink, which can limit quality, but are very fast. The piezo technology can fire a much wider range of fluids, give higher quality prints but is currently slower. Other technologies also show promise, but have had no market impact as yet. These are all technologies in their infancy and will change the nature of printers as much as offset lithography did over the last 50 years. Which areas do you see where papermakers

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F c could be taking advantage of added value applications? This fragmentation in the industry (we have not even mentioned the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the need to be environmentally accountable) does require a matched change from all suppliers. For paper, on the one hand it needs to be less expensive and highly consistent to suit high speed printing, the manufacturing ethos and commoditisation. On the other, printers that have carved niches and are producing higher value print want papers that allow them to deliver enhanced effects. Thus papers that take well to cold foiling, that accept all manner varnishes and have the range of finishes that produce a noticeable effect in the hands of the end user. The CSR value of paper cannot be understated. Printers are under pressure to justify the materials that they use, hence the rise in audited fiber source schemes in recent years. This is going to be followed by demands for carbon footprint data. It is probable that buyers will insist that printers opt for papers with the lowest carbon footprint. Heidelberg, one of the world leaders in press technology, estimates the carbon footprint of one of its presses to be 290 tonnes in manufacture to the factory gate. It estimates that the impact of running this machine for a year could be 280 tonnes through energy and other consumables. The paper this machine consumes in a year could have a carbon footprint of 4,300 tonnes. So environmental considerations are centrepiece – is there anything else suppliers can do make a printer’s life easier? To reiterate, the environment and CSR can only become more important as the recession ends. The trend in the last year or two may have been about restricting spending putting more expensive recycled grades out of reach, but that is coming to an end. The printers are very much in the middle and will be led by their customers in most cases. The demand has been and will continue to be labelling as proof of good behavior, so FSC, PEFC, SFI and other certification schemes will be favoured over non traceable products, even if the product is no worse for the wider environment. No sensible printer can ignore waste segregation as the sums paid for waste, plates, tins

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and different types of paper, can be a big contributor to the bottom line. Printers are moving away from adding alcohol to fount solutions and fitting energy efficient lighting and heating. It is good business practice as well as something necessary to reassure customers and conform with legislation. Carbon footprint is the big coming issue and there will be pressure to attach a real carbon footprint to each tonne and ream of paper. More is expected of recycled papers. They need to be whiter and ever more flawless. The fly in the ointment however is the growth of inkjet. The technology developers have worked hard to ensure that the ink does not come off the paper. The paper industry needs to find ways of making sure that it does, because if inkjet printing cannot be recycled, the whole printing industry is going to have a major problem.

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What are the essential ingredients a printer wants from a papermaker/merchant? Is it all dependent upon price? The requirements that a printer has from his paper supplier have not changed: it’s instant service, the lowest price and foolproof quality. The coming of digital print and especially inkjet throws a new emphasis on the supplier’s knowledge and ability to come up with a product that will work. Inkjet technology in particular needs papers that match its characteristics and this may mean papers that suit only one model of machine. As inkjet develops and there is greater knowledge of what works and how to make these papers in volume, this may change just as early litho papers were poor compared to letterpress papers. That changed and it will change again. PPI

To read more articles on Papermaking, visit our Papermaking Technology Channel at www.risi.com/ technologychannels/papermaking November 2010

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For MWV, technical performance and environmental responsibility can act hand-in-hand in ways that benefit the customer

IT’S NOT A TRADE-OFF

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n speaking with various end users on their perspective of the industry for this issue, PPI also spoke with one of the world’s largest papermakers, MeadWestvaco (MWV), about its view on the evolving paper business. MWV was Number 12 in the recent PPI Top 100 listing (September 2010, p. 13) and is also a member of that list’s Million Tonners Club, producing 2.4 million tonnes of paper and board in 2009. Steven A. Anderson, marketing manager commercial printing for MWV, graciously consented to answer our questions. What are your printer customers asking for now in terms of technical properties (to meet high-speed sophisticated presses) and environmental properties (certification, etc) of your products? Is it difficult to reconcile the two? How does MWV do it? All printers cite runnability at the top of their list for importance factors, yet there is often confusion over what specific paper properties help optimize runnability. Our research indicates the following factors have the greatest impact on runnability: 1. Consistency of product run to run – caliper, moisture, smoothness, and fiber source; 2. Uniformity of coating – optimizes ink holdout, minimizes dot gain, prevents mottle; 3. Sheet stability – ensures high speed feeding, stays in register, lays flat through post-print converting; 4. Cleanliness of product – prevents shutdowns to clean blankets, reduces waste. At MWV, we adopted a six sigma manufacturing methodology a number of years ago, which has greatly enhanced the consistency of our products. We have also developed a proprietary coating design, which has been confirmed through independent testing to provide lower dot gain and better ink holdout. As a result, our products provide better color control on press than the competiPulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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tion and have been shown to actually reduce make ready time and paper waste. And best of all, we can provide this level of consistency and performance using wood fiber that comes solely from certified forest lands. Do you sell products directly to retailers? If so, what are they asking of you? The majority of our commercial printing products are sold through merchant distribution; however, we have strong relationships with many of the major retailers who use our products. Naturally, retailers want products that help them deliver a strong message, enhance their brand identity, and capture the consumer’s interest to drive revenue. Our Tango® Advantage line of coated cover products does just that by providing crisp lifelike images against a unique clean-white shade that grabs attention. Increasingly, it is also important to retailers that the manufacturers of the products they use demonstrate responsible environmental practices. We are proud that we can meet the retailers’ needs for product aesthetics and performance while offering them sustainable solutions to support source reduction or increase their use of post consumer recycled fiber. Environmental considerations have become extremely important over recent times. Is it the number one concern among your customers now? Or is technical performance more important? Technical performance that affects the bottom line is always important to us and our customers. However, we’re looking to incorporate sustainability practices into everything we do that complements and enhances performance…it’s not a trade-off. MWV has been a leader in sustainability long before it came into fashion, starting with our longstanding commitment to sustainable forestland

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management. We know sustainability is a focus for our customers, too. We partner with companies and develop paper and packaging solutions that meet their business needs and sustainability goals. We have a long history of supporting sustainable forestry practices and have the necessary third-party certifications that give our customers and their consumers assurance regarding MWV’s responsible environmental stewardship practices. MWV has received chain-of-custody certification from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) program and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC). MWV has been named to the DJSI for the 7th consecutive year? How does the company regard this achievement? What did it have to do to earn the honor? Is it a selling point? We’re delighted to be recognized by the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index. By leveraging our expertise in materials science, engineering and design, MWV develops optimal packaging and printing solutions for the industry customers’ needs while effectively delivering on the functionality of the package or printed piece – all while helping our customers promote their brand and sustainability promises. Sustainability, in its true sense, requires a focus throughout every step of the package development process – from the sourcing of raw materials to the engineering and design of the product, to the way in which the package is manufactured and transported, used and disposed of by the consumer. MWV scored above its peers in the Environmental dimension, reflecting our commitment to developing innovative processes and solutions that make our operations more environmentally efficient and productive, including reducing greenhouse gases and streamlining our supply chain and operational footprint. As an average, how much recycled content is in your paper/board? If you are using secondary fiber, is finding suitable quality a problem? MWV’s Tango Advantage line is available with 10% post-consumer content for our most popular calipers. Plus, the heft and stiffness of Tango Advantage offers the opportunity for source reduction by choosing a lighter weight cover with comparable tactile feel. MWV does not own or accept wood from old growth forests, rainforests or forests of exceptional

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conservation value. We scrutinize our fiber supply carefully to ensure our products contain only legally harvested, third-party certified fiber and chips from sustainably managed forests. In the development of new products, how much importance do you place on sustainability/recyclability? Can you give an example or two? What does sustainability mean to MWV? Everything. It represents an ongoing commitment to make responsible business decisions that benefit our people, our society, and our environment. As a leader in sustainability, MWV approaches the concept holistically, working with customers to provide solutions that address and optimize each phase of the product’s lifecycle. We incorporate sustainable practices into everything we do, from the sourcing of raw materials to the engineering and design of the product, to the way in which it is manufactured and transported, used and disposed of by the consumer. When using paperboard made from sustainably sourced fiber, you are supporting the use of a renewable resource and helping to conserve acres of sustainably managed forests. Harvesting trees is in fact necessary when done in a sustainable manner and where the measurable environmental impact is seen – it is often needed to maintain forest health, promote wildlife and a host of other environmental benefits. Using certified paper helps save the world’s forests...forests that are under constant pressure from deforestation and conversion to other uses. To resist these pressures and be truly sustainable, forests must continue to provide environmental, social and economic benefit. In other words, these forests must be managed sustainably. Think about this: Using notebooks as an example, a notebook may contain 1/3 of a pound of certified paper. It takes approximately 14 acres of sustainably managed forest to produce one ton of certified paper. So, using this example, every 6,000 notebooks sold helps conserve 14 acres of sustainably managed forest (this is a very general US-based example). PPI To read more articles on this topic, search our online magazines archives www.risi.com/magazines

November 2010

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LA Conf


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November 21 -23, 2010 l Intercontinental Hotel l Sao Paulo, Brazil

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RISI INDIAN SEMINAR December 1, 2010 | Chennai, India

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F Don’t miss this valuable networking and learning experience! Pulp and paper producers, suppliers and end-users will be meeting on December 1st in Chennai at RISI’s second annual Indian Seminar! Don’t miss out on the opportunity to gain insights into the latest trends in this increasingly important market. Topics include: • Global Fiber Issues and their Impact on India • Importance of Recycling and Environmental Issues • Improving Paper Making Technologies at Indian Mills • Cost Structures at Indian Mills: How do Mills Gain Competitive Edge? • Growth Opportunities for Paper and Board End Use Markets in India • Packaging Paper and Board Opportunities • View from the Customers: What Suppliers Need to Improve

Sponsored by:

Pradeep Dhobale Chief Executive, Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division, ITC RR Vederah, Managing Director, Ballarpur Industries Limited

• Forestry and Wood Availability Issues

• Challenges of Government Regulations and Their Impact

Confirmed speakers and panelists:

Raji Philip, Former Chairman and Managing Director, Hindustan Newsprint Limited Rod Young Chief Economic Advisor, RISI Surya Raina Vice President, Mill Intelligence, Pulp & Paper Division, RISI Sandy Lu Economist, Asian Graphic Papers, RISI Beth Lis Consultant, RISI And more to be announced!

Register online now! For program updates, sponsorship information or to register, visit www.risi.com/indianseminar or contact us by email: events@risi.com

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By BEN BLANCHETTE

Remote monitoring helps Cellu Tissue Holdings reduce maintenance costs and improve output

FINDING THE BALANCE

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n the competitive situation in which today’s pulp and paper industry operates, mills must find ways to reduce costs if they are to improve their business performance. With operating expenses on the rise, service and support programs are becoming more scrutinized. Maintenance effectiveness becomes a key instrument in reducing these costs without suffering the eventual impact on production that occurs by simply slashing budgets. In addition, every paper mill knows that insight into critical process control information is important to stable operation. With reduced financial and staff resources, getting information when and where it’s needed is a growing challenge. In processes like re-pulping, fiber conditioning, diluting, drying, creping or cutting – activities executed every day in mills – stringent controls and oversight are required for optimal mill performance. Coupled together, it’s obvious that maintenance

Cellu Tissue has an increasing presence in the retail market

effectiveness and process controls are the foundation of effective paper mill performance. But achieving and maintaining the right balance can be tricky. Case in point: Cellu Tissue Holdings. Cellu Tissue Holdings, Alpharetta, GA, has a strategic focus on consumer-oriented tissue products and a growing presence in the retail market. The company manufactures a combination of internally converted tissue products, machine-glazed paper and tissue hard rolls. Its customers include consumer tissue product companies, national and regional tissue products distributors and retailers, producers of disposable consumer absorbent and tissue products, and third-party converters. Cellu Tissue recently experienced rising maintenance costs at its St. Catharines, ON, mill in Canada. The culprit: The HP 2002 quality control system (QCS) on the No. 2 paper machine. Originally installed in 1986, the aging QCS contributed to rising maintenance costs, and Cellu Tissue found it increasingly difficult to obtain technical support and spare parts for the legacy system. In addition, because the QCS lacked Ethernet network connectivity, technicians had to record data manually, further hampering productivity and overall mill performance. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY Ultimately, the interest of optimizing its mill asset management strategy and the need to reduce annual maintenance expenses prompted Cellu Tissue to seek a replacement for the outdated QCS. The mill sought to replace it with a modern measurement and data collection system and looked to apply a modern QCS system that would offer new insight into both the process and, ultimately, product quality.

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For example, with a modern QCS system, upstream sensors could provide visibility into the quality measurement process. This would replace simply relying on observing the final product through dry end scanners. While increased visibility alone provides a means to optimize the process and improve quality, coupling the new sensors with new developments in multivariable predictive control applications for both machine-direction (MD) and cross-direction (CD) control significantly improves overall quality and productivity. With this in mind, the St. Catharines mill chose to replace the old QCS with Honeywell’s Da Vinci™ QCS to improve production efficiency and quality. The mill saw value in the system’s structure and features, including an open system architecture, advanced multivariable predictive control and precision basis weight measurement for machine quality control. Other appealing features included the QCS’s application server, which supports precision platform and measurement sensors. This would provide supervisory MD, CD and color controls, as well as process information, historical trending, statistical analysis and printed reports — all valuable to the mill in terms of improving quality and productivity. Finally, the new system’s high-precision measurement platform also proved to be a compelling component for optimizing performance. As a result, the mill can maintain scanner accuracy continuously and reliably in demanding papermaking conditions. The system’s signal processing capabilities permit detection of higher frequency process variation, so even the smallest deviations from quality specifications can be detected.

REMOTE SUPPORT Another benefit of Cellu Tissue’s QCS upgrade: The new technology provides a pathway for a remote monitoring service offered by Honeywell, an alternative to traditional on-site support services. The service proactively monitors system performance and, based on thresholds jointly set by the mill and Honeywell team, facilitates problem detection and notification. Remote monitoring capabilities range from continuously monitoring process variable data to pulling trend information and providing recommendations on system performance. The system’s Ethernet network connectivity allows technicians located in off-site offices to monitor the mill’s scanner equipment and diagnose problems using equipment health monitoring tools, ultimately helping to maintain performance. These authorized personnel are permitted to access the network through a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to ensure security. In terms of reporting, a centralized server loaded with monitoring software is responsible for the polling and alerting of potential problems to improve system reliability. Equipment health monitoring tools are accessed daily to log all alerts (including low-priority alerts) and collect trending data, while monthly reports assist the mill in addressing improvement opportunities. The mill and Honeywell also hold periodic meetings to review alerts, trending logs and recommendations to ensure QCS performance monitoring provides maximum value. This proactive system performance monitoring enables technicians to detect QCS problems earlier on, and experts can work to provide the fastest resolution possible, helping to ease capacity and budget constraints and minimize — or even eliminate — system downtime. Early detection of problems helps prevent issues before they actually affect mill processes, so with local or remote technicians able to respond quickly, productivity loss is prevented and problems are rapidly resolved.

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MAINTENANCE SUCCESS Cellu Tissue’s St. Catharines, ON mill, opted for Honeywell DaVince QCS for its No. 2 paper machine

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trend analysis, and performance management reports provide valuable information to help improve system reliability. In 2009 alone, remote monitoring of the QCS helped the St. Catharine’s mill save more than 50% on its maintenance costs. Overall, the implementation of modern QCS technology has increased mill uptime, and Cellu Tissue is now able to convert its maintenance savings and anticipated productivity improvements into overall improved financial performance. PPI Ben Blanchette, Americas Pulp and Paper Business Leader, Honeywell Process Solutions, Atlanta, GA

To read more articles on Automation & IT, visit our Automation & IT Technology Channel at www.risi.com/technologychannels/ automation

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By GRAEME RODDEN, Executive Editor

New distributed and quality control systems for Sonoco’s Hartsville PM 10 has led to new and improved products and new customers

DOORS OPEN FOR SONOCO

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uilt as a pulp plant in 1899, Sonoco’s Hartsville, SC, mill is still going strong more than 110 years later. Of course, it has expanded greatly since then and now runs seven uncoated recycled paper board/medium machines. It has just wrapped up an automation project on its largest machine, PM 10 a semi-chemical corrugated medium machine. Installed in 1958, the unit can now produce about 178,000 tons/yr, mostly lightweight (23 lb) medium. The work was done, according to Mark Hayter, production superintendent, because the machine had an older system that led to control “issues”. “It was difficult to work on,” he adds. “We asked for a quality control system and distributed control system (QCS/DCS) with a new scanner system and a 100% profiling steambox.” Previously, the mill could not separate the gauging system from the old DCS. If one went down, all went down. Also, the mill was having quality issues related to basis weight and moisture. In August 2008, Sonoco decided that ABB met its needs: a Unified 800xA QCS and DCS. ABB also replaced the existing steambox with the SteamPlus Profiler, an SP1200 scanner and Autoslice Aquatrol. The systems were installed during a four-day period in January 2009. Total cost of the project was approximately $2 million. As well as the automation equipment, the mill also upgraded its winder drives and controls, and added a new suction pick-up roll from Voith. The improved moisture control has meant the mill does not need to add water in the dryer section while still meeting CD moisture variation targets. The mill had a rewet shower, but with the new steambox it is no longer needed. The mill has improved its CD moisture variation by 60% percent. There are similar improvements in MD variation. Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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The improved control system will allow PM 10 to produce heavier weight medium

Although the work was done mainly to improve quality as well as to improve control of the machine, there were also energy savings. For example, with the old steambox, PM 10 used 10-12,000 lb/hr of steam. Now, it uses 4-5,000 lb/hr. The new equipment has done its job. “We get much tighter and faster moisture control,” says Rob Shaw, paper process engineer, paper. “We are also achieving more consistent quality.” The new automated controls have also allowed PM 10 to produce heavier medium grades: 30-33, 36 and 48 lb. Historically, all the medium from PM 10 was destined for Georgia-Pacific’s box plants.

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Although G-P is still one of Sonoco’s largest customers, the prior contract to produce exclusively for G-P is planning out over 2010. The change also allows PM 10 to move into heavier weight medium which means that grade changes will have to be done more frequently and the new equipment gives Sonoco a boost.

W H AT ’ S N E X T ? Right now, Sonoco is working to establishing itself in the market as an independent medium producer to new customers. Being a commodity item, price is usually the first thing a customer will ask about. Still, under company policy, the mill aims for a 4% year-over-year productivity improvement. This is very important to Sonoco and the effort out into the program has paid off. Production costs per tonne have fallen. The company has always reached out to employees for their input. All four machine crews from PM 10 were very involved with the process and 213 suggestions were forthcoming in an effort to reduce costs. A lot of smaller projects were done and Hayter notes that more than 50% percent of the goal was reached without having to spend capital. As well as price, the move into high-performance medium has put an added emphasis on strength specs such as ring crush. The product must meet similar property parameters at a lower basis weight. Finally, most customers also look at moisture profiles so CD variability is a third quality they study most diligently. BACK TO SCHOOL

Sonoco has its own recycling division to provide the mill with raw material

The rest of the mill Besides PM 10, Hartsville also has six cylinder machines producing uncoated recycled board for tube and core applications. PMs 1, 3 and 9 are in one Mill 1, while PMs 4,6 and 7 are in Mill 2. Sonoco has its own recycling division that supplies the mill’s raw material, mostly OCC, from numerous cities in the southeast including Columbia, SC, Raleigh, NC and Savannah, GA. While the six cylinders machines use only secondary fiber, PM 10 also uses semi-chemical pulp produced on site. The usual mix for PM 10 is 70% recycled; 30% virgin pulp. PM 10 has its own dedicated OCC line. Sonoco has its own woodlands so the mill is totally integrated. The mill also buys some residual chips from area sawmills.

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The new automation system was quite a change for operators. Some of the electrical and instrumentation staff went to the ABB “university” in Columbus, OH. Machine crews did training on site on a built-in simulator that can also be used for refresher training in the future. This was a very effective tool, according to Shaw. ABB staff was also on site for a month after startup. The training was so comprehensive that machine crews were able to give input on the way they thought the system would be able to work more effectively. As the QCS and DCS started up simultaneously, it was quite involved for the operators but they came through very successfully. The mill is traditionally a “self-maintainer”, says Hayter. Now, it has all the process inputs and data from the QCS and DCS. These can be fed into its plant information system. This data are valuable for process, equipment and cost reduction projects. It also gives operators the opportunity to troubleshoot. It stores all historical data, which can be downNovember 2010

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loaded onto Excel sheets to show trends. The ability to trend is a good feature for all crews, and gives the type of detail that operators did not have in the past. The systems are easy to use and there is extremely fast information retrieval on the screens. Besides the main control room, there is a monitor at the dry end for the backtender as well as one in the quality control room. Parameters can be adjusted while testing samples if needed. PM 10 has continuous online vibration monitoring on the wet end. Shaw says this is an extremely valuable tool that has paid for itself many times over. Crews almost always catch bearing failures before they happen. As noted, the workforce is very involved with operations. Hayter says the mill has a “fairly self-directed� workforce. There are no shift supervisors and a very lean salaried staff. Safety is paramount to Sonoco, with reinforcement messages displayed prominently throughout the mill. PPI

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biorefinery

By SÖREN BACK

Could the organosolv process, by which “platform chemicals” are extracted from wood, create serious competition for raw materials?

Real thReats to fiber supply on the horizon? O R G A N O S O LV - A P R O M I S I N G B I O R E F I N E RY P R O C E S S

Although we have focused on beech and poplar, any kind of hardwood can be used for production of phenols, says Jürgen Puls

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n a German joint project between chemical companies, various universities and research institutes, an organosolv process has been developed for the conversion of beech and poplar wood into platform chemicals. The next step will be the construction of a pilot plant able to convert 1.25 tonnes/ week of wood chips. Beyond that a 400,000-tonne/yr full-scale biorefinery might be a reality. Historically, different industries have used the forest for different purposes during different periods. The early mining industry used wood as pit props to support the mine galleries but even more for the fire-setting used to blast for the ore. The steel industry in those days was also a big consumer of wood as charcoal. Next to cast its eyes on the forests was the forest products industry, first for sawmills and later for pulp and paper production. Having been King of the Hill for almost a century utilizing wood as its raw material, the forest products industry might soon face the chemical industry as a raw material competitor.

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“We are running a project coordinated by Dechema, Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, and funded by FNR, Agency for Renewable Resources, in Germany, says Jürgen Puls, vTI Institute of Wood Technology and Wood Biology in Hamburg. This joint project aims to develop a full-scale process in which wood can be used for production of chemicals. In Germany, beech and poplar are available at reasonable prices while the competition for softwood is stiff. Hardwood species as well as lignocellulosic residues from annual plants are ideal substrates for a lignocellulose biorefinery. The delignification of these raw materials is easier to achieve than lignin removal from softwood. “At the beginning, this was a six-month project but as the results were promising, a two-year project was launched,” Puls adds. “We did a literature study on the organosolv process based on ethanol and chose it as the basic process for component separation. It allows for an effective utilization of all wood components; cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives.” Organosolv pulping processes have been developed to avoid disadvantages in existing processes, especially with regard to the need for extremely large production units due to complicated chemical recovery systems. However, for the time being the Organocell process in Kelheim in Germany, which started its operations in 1992 based on spruce and with a capacity of 430 tonnes/day, is the only commercial plant. FROM 100 G TO 400,000 TONNES Based on a factorial design, the optimal parameters, November 2010

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- ethanol:water ratio, temperature, time, liquor:wood ratio and addition of catalysts - were identified regarding accessibility of the cellulose fraction for cellulolytic enzymes as well as for lignin recovery and hemicellulose fermentability. Optimization of pulping parameters was achieved in the 100-g scale and verified in the 1-kg scale. Plans are now underway to build a pilot plant with a capacity of 1.25 tonnes/week of wood chips. When the process is developed and fine tuned on that scale, it is hoped that the 400,000-tonne/ yr full-scale biorefinery will become a reality. “As far as we have seen, organosolv pulping is one of the promising options for component separation including a material use for lignin,” Puls continues. High saccharification rates of beechwood polysaccharides can be obtained by high pulping temperatures or by addition of acids at lower temperatures. Co-pulping of wood and bark has been systematically investigated. Presence of bark has no negative effect on the sacharification rate and lignin utilization. ALL COMPONENTS CAN BE USED In the process the main components of hardwood; extractives, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin, are separated as shown in Fig. 1. The extractives can be used in pharmacological products. Through enzymatic hydrolyses the main components cellulose and hemi-cellulose are turned into platform chemicals. In Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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this process the lignin precipitates and is separated. It can be used in products like glue and certain plastics but the best value is to break it down (by a pyrolysis process) to phenol monomers, which have very big market opportunities, as they can be used as a raw material for many kinds of plastic. “The chemical industry has a totally different view on wood as raw material compared to the pulp industry,” says Puls. “The pulp industry wants to treat the fibres as gently as possible in order not to jeopardise paper properties like strength and opacity. The chemical industry, on the other hand, is looking for the monomers to be used as building blocs for polymer products like plastic.” “A very important part of the project has been the financial control and calculations to make sure that the end result will be economically viable. That has meant a cost pressure on raw material and process and I am happy to say that the calculations show that the proposed process will be profitable. I am therefore very optimistic about the future potential for the organosolv process as an import biorefinery process,” Puls concludes. PPI Sören Back is with SB Kommunikation, Ornsköldsvik, Sweden To read more articles on Pulping, visit our Pulping Technology Channel at www.risi.com/ technologychannels/pulping

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power and energy

A PPI SPECIAL REPORT

The installation of a new LC refiner at Braviken is part of a very public project to demonstrate dramatic reductions in energy consumption

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Christer Sandberg, development project manager

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e have a goal in this development project to cut power consumption to 750 kWh/t,” says Christer Sandberg, development project manager for Holmen Paper. “Our old TMP line consumed roughly 2,250 kWh/t.”

It should be possible, says Göran Korsfeldt, production manager at Holmen’s Braviken mill in Sweden. Braviken is the site of a new TMP production line that is unique in the world. “Separating fibers in the refining process consumes roughly only one-third of the total energy. The rest is just producing heat. If can reach something like 800-1000 kWh/t, then we will significantly lower our cost of producing pulp.” The concept for the new line at Braviken is a combination of three process steps: RT-pretreatment, high consistency (HC) mainline refining, and low consistency (LC) secondary refining. Not only is the process unique but the huge Andritz TwinFlo LC refiner (72-in.) is a totally new machine and the largest in the world.

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L AY I N G T H E G R O U N D W O R K The groundwork for the development project started 10 years ago, according to Sandberg, when Holmen experimented with HC mainline refining and LC secondary and reject refining in the same line. “We began by using a mobile rig from the Swedish research institute here many years ago,” says Sandberg. The results were so good that Braviken installed its first TwinFlo refiner for LC in 2003. “The big advantage to LC is the low energy consumption,” Sandberg says. “It has about half the energy consumption for a given increase in strength properties compared with HC single-disc refining. Another advantage is that when we put the TwinFlo in the mainline before the screening room, our problems with screen plugging stopped.” The TMP development project received a grant of SEK 40 million (€ 3.8 million) from the Swedish Energy Agency. According to Thomas Korsfeldt, director general of the agency at the time of the grant, “If this project gives successful results, the technology could be employed at other TMP mills in Sweden and produce annual electricity savings of around 1.5 TWh, which is between 1-1.5% of Sweden’s total electricity use.” Because of the grant from the Swedish Energy Agency, most of the results Braviken obtains from the project will be public. “That is fine with us,” says Rikard Wallin, mill manager. “We built bypasses in this line that gives a highly scientific level to our work that you would not normally find in a running mill. I am really proud that the Holmen board of directors had the vision and courage to invest the money to do these extra things.”

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TMP technology when it was built in 1977. Formerly, there were three lines producing 1,300 tonnes/day for three paper machines producing newsprint and directory paper. Now there are two with only a slight increase in production capacity. Capacity of the new line is 800 tonnes/day. The mainline started in August 2008 and the LC refiner was brought online earlier this year. “If you look at our installations, the main driving forces have been production increases and energy savings,” explains Korsfeldt. “This development project with Andritz is very much focused on quality and energy, not so much for a production increase.” “The general trend for HC refiners is that they have become bigger and bigger,” Sandberg says. Andritz accepted the challenge to work with Holmen on producing a large LC refiner. “Energy will not be cheaper,” says Thomas Paar, Andritz’s project manager, “so what is necessary is to drive energy consumption down. We were very positive and very excited to work with Holmen on this project.” Producing the world’s largest LC refiner was not as simple as just scaling up a smaller design. “Each requirement such as gap measurement, rotor stability, sufficient mass, and precision hydraulic control had to be taken into account,” Paar adds. Adaptations to the massive (46 tonne) refiner are ongoing as the unit gains operating time. “There is work to optimize the refiner plate design and to ensure rotor gap stability,” Sandberg says. “Since this is the first LC refiner with gap measurement, we have a PhD student helping learn how to effectively utilize this measurement.” “It’s possible that the TF 72 will produce even greater benefits on the rejects line than the mainline,” says Lennart Nilsson, production manager for TMP and woodhandling. “The refiner is very good, very stable, but I think it needs higher throughput. You can put much more load on reject fibers in LC than is possible on mainline fibers.” “We have the flexibility to try these different ideas,” Sandberg notes. “We will also look very carefully at chemical pretreatments. We are not in a hurry and will do this step-by-step.”

the RT-pretreatment process, although it has never been operated on mill scale before with Nordic spruce. “We have to investigate what benefits we can achieve with it,” he says. Paar explains that the main benefit of pretreatment is an increase in long fiber content and tear strength. The goals of pretreatment are to soften the cell walls of the wood chips to ensure a gentle opening of the fibers and to eliminate potential damage to the fibers before processing the chips in the Impressafiner MSD. The Impressafiner MSD macerates the chips (to expose more surface area for chemical impregnation) and squeezes out pitch and other extractives. “We will make a lot of trials with different chemi-

Göran Korsfeldt, Braviken’s production manager (left), with Thomas Paar, Andritz’s project manager

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power and energy

E see the difference in pulp quality. So, it was a success from the very beginning.” “We knew that we would get a big boost in energy recovery, but we also had some pleasant surprises with the new line,” Wallin says. “the light scattering of the pulp is so high that we have been able to reduce the use of special pigments. We have been able to reduce retention aid chemicals on the paper machine. And, we have reduced the use of kraft pulp to almost nothing in the mill.” CUT IT IN HALF?

Lennart Nilsson, Braviken’s production manager for TMP and woodhandling

The TwinFlo 72: world’s largest LC refiner

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cals,” Nilsson says. “We are modifying the screw in the Impressafiner MSD to increase the compression rate, which should improve pitch reduction and also energy savings.” Nilsson adds, “I have been involved in seven big TMP installation projects in my career. This was the best one as it was so easy to start. Within two hours from startup, the paper machine operators could

“My view is that we must find a way to drastically cut energy consumption – at least by half – to be profitable in the future,” Wallin says. “I don’t know how we’re going to do it, but we have to do it. We have to set aggressive goals, not 2% here and 3% there.” Wallin finds it positive that suppliers such as Andritz want to be part of the solution. “We really want to work with them to make mechanical pulping competitive in an energy sense,” he says. “In this economy, it’s not a walk in the park for anyone, so we really appreciate the commitment and support. “This investment gives us freedom to develop this mill,” says Wallin. “We have a plant that can support conversion into any mechanical printing grade: news, improved news, SC paper, or coated mechanical if we want to go that way.” Wallin thinks that from a practical point of view, “The front line of mechanical pulping research is in Braviken for the next two or three years. If the technologies here can be applied in other places, we can contribute to lowering energy consumption and emissions globally.” Wallin’s team of managers and operators find this development work fun and exciting. “We all have children and grandchildren,” he says. “We think it’s a noble goal to produce desirable products at a profit, without harming anyone or harming the environment. If we can’t do that, we are not very good engineers or business people.” PPI

To read more articles on Pulping, visit our Pulping Technology Channel at www.risi.com/ technologychannels/pulping November 2010

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environmental matters

ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS AUSTRALIA

Environment groups and forestry sector sign agreement over Tasmania’s forests A major breakthrough has been achieved in the long running dispute over Tasmania’s forests. Timber communities, forest unions, industry and environment groups today announced an agreement has been reached to develop a more sustainable timber industry and end logging the state’s remaining valuable native forests. The Tasmanian Forests Statement of Principles sets the state’s timber industry on a new path to economic opportunities through plantationbased forestry, protecting timber worker’s jobs and native forests. The agreement involves industry moving out of native forest logging and into suitable plantation forestry.

forests. With this testing the company wants to fully assess the costs and functionality of the indicators of the new Finnish FSC standard approved by the Finnish FSC association in October. The testing covers the financial, ecological and social impacts of the indicators. FSC forest certification will be in the future also one of the forest service products offered by UPM to private forest owners. The new national FSC standard to be applied in Finland will become effective only after it has been approved by the Board of Directors of international FSC, probably from the beginning of year 2011. The results of UPM’s own testing are expected to be ready by the end of this year. Based on the results UPM will decide whether it will apply for FSC certification in its own forests in Finland. S PA I N

BRAZIL

Suzano moves to set up sustainability committee Brazil’s Suzano Papel e Celulose said it would create a committee to lead the company’s internal and external sustainability programs. Lineu Siqueira Júnior, who last October was named as senior executive consultant directly reporting to Suzano’s forest business unit, will lead the initiative. Lineu will be Suzano’s sustainability committee president who will direct its main missions: use new ideas and concepts to justify Suzano’s environmental actions and incorporate the best environmental business practices into the firm’s sustainability plans. Lineu will also represent Suzano in its dealings with NGOs such as Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Cerflor, World Business Council For Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), Rainforest Alliance, and The Forest Dialogue. CANADA

Domtar becomes founding partner of “Green My Parents” To help children teach their parents about easy ways to save energy, water and waste, Domtar announced it has joined the Green My Parents youth movement as a founding partner. Green My Parents, which was launched on this year’s Earth Day, shows kids how their families can save more than $100 a year through efforts such as turning off and unplugging devices that waste electricity, printing responsibly and choosing to walk or bike instead of driving. The movement has quickly spread and now includes support from many organizations, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ENERGY STAR Program and the National Wildlife Federation and the American Library Association. Domtar will be the exclusive paper and forestry partner for Green My Parents. FINLAND

UPM tests the Finnish FSC-standard UPM has started testing the new Finnish FSC standard in company Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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Torraspapel launches innovative campaign to raise environmental awareness Torraspapel has launched an innovative campaign that reveals the truth about paper and invites users to participate in its reforestation projects. Taking people on an eye-opening journey through the four worlds that describe the life cycle of paper, Torraspapel, at www.thepapereffect. com, unveils how paper contributes to the sustainability of the planet. What do you think is happening to forests in Europe? Does the paper industry produce renewable energy? Is paper consumption in Europe rising or falling? What percentage of used paper is recovered? Learn the answer during your visit to the worlds of the sustainable cycle of paper at www.thepapereffect.com. You will also discover what Torraspapel is doing in each of these areas and how it actively contributes to a sustainable future. By simply answering questions that introduce you to the four phases of the life cycle of paper, Torraspapel offers the possibility of collaborating on a reforestation project in conjunction with the Spanish NGO AccióNatura. SWEDEN

SCA named number one Swedish company for CO2 reporting SCA has been named the number one Swedish company – and the number three in the Nordic region – in terms of carbon-dioxide reporting. These were the results of the annual, global Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) survey. The CDP project acts on behalf of 534 institutional investors, including Merrill Lynch, Goldman Sachs and HSBC, which use the survey as an evaluation tool. In addition to the classification in the general report, SCA has also qualified for inclusion in the Nordic Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index 2010, which documents the 20 Nordic exchange-listed companies that have the most professional and serious approach to corporate governance regarding the issue of carbon-dioxide reporting.

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supplier news

SUPPLIER NEWS AWARDS Greycon has announced that Nine Dragons Paper Industries has been presented with the Rapid Implementation Award for its recent implementation of X-Trim at the Taicang production mill. At a special award ceremony held in October, the Brazilian Pulp & Paper Association (ABTCP) named Buckman located in Campinas, Sao Paulo, as the Best Chemical Supplier of the Year for the pulp and paper segment. FACILITIES VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Kemira are opening a new joint R&D center in São Paulo, Brazil. The R&D center will focus primarily on water chemistry and biomass utilisation applications. The center will start operations in the end of 2010. The new center is a continuum for the Center of Water Efficiency Excellence, which Kemira initially established together with VTT in Finland. Important focus areas will be biomass, bioethanol and pulp and applications. BASF has decided to establish a wholly-owned world-scale production base for water treatment and paper chemicals in Nanjing, China, with the construction of a 40,000-tonne/yr quaternized cationic monomers plant and a 20,000 t/a cationic polyacrylamides plant. AGREEMENTS Innventia welcomes Specialty Minerals (SMI) as a new contract partner. SMI is a subsidiary of Minerals Technologies. SMI goes in as a contract customer and participant in the cluster Applied and Exploratory Paper Chemistry retroactively from 2009. MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS Momentive Performance Materials Holdings and Hexion completed the previously announced combination of Hexion and Momentive, creating a global leader in specialty chemicals and materials. AkzoNobel has finalized the $1.3bn sale of its National Starch business to Corn Products International. The transaction was announced on June 21, 2010. National Starch was taken over by AkzoNobel as part of its acquisition of ICI in 2008, but did not offer sufficient opportunity to create value within the company’s transformed portfolio. ORDERS & CONTRACTS Ningxia Bauhinia Paper has signed a contract with Toscotec for the supply of an AHEAD 1.5-m crescent former

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tissue machine with a daily output of 80 tonnes/day. The new line will be started up in the second half of 2011. Thanks to the installation of Voith’s SkyTop doctor blades on PM 1 in Stora Enso’s Eilenburg mill in Germany, the roughness of the central press roll was increased by 0.1 µm. This led to a better sheet release and lower draw. Metso’s fabrics contributed to a new world speed record for newsprint paper machines, 2,020 m/min, achieved with Rhein Papier PM 1 in Germany on September 9, 2010. During the 24hour record run, the press felt in both the pick-up and 1st press was Metso’s Transmaster Open (TMO). The Pulp and Paper business area of Andritz will supply four PrimeLine high-speed tissue machines, each with a width of 5.6 m and a capacity of approximately 60,000 tonnes/yr, to the Hengan Group in China. Following start-up of the machines in 2011/2012, Hengan will have a total of nine Andritz tissue machines in operation. Thai premium copy paper manufacturer Double A (formerly known as Advanced Agro Public Company Limited) has chosen PMT Italia to supply the new PM 3 to its subsidiary company, Advance Paper Mill, for its mill in Thatoom, Prachinburi province in Thailand. Startup is scheduled for second quarter 2012. Metso will supply two board machines to the Liansheng Paper Industry (Longhai) mill in Longhai City in Fujian Province on the southeast coast of China. The startup of both machines is scheduled for the first quarter of 2012. ABB announced that it recently won an order from Schweitzer - Mauduit International to provide automation and electrification systems for its greenfield specialty paper mill in Batangas, in the Philippines. UPM has finished installing a new Raumaster barking drum at its plant in Pietarsaari, western Finland. The installation took approximately five weeks and was in part done during the mill’s annual two-week maintenance downtime.

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AGREEMENTS China’s Henan Investment Group and Chempolis, a biorefining technology leader, signed a frame agreement aiming at co-operation with respect to biorefinery pulp mill project. The purpose of the agreement is to conduct a feasibility study in order to make a formal agreement.

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SPECIAL SERVICES Reprints Orders Monica Zaskiewicz, Sales Coordinator, Tel: +1.770.373.3002, mzaskiewicz@risi.com List Rentals Walter Karl, 2 Blue Hill Plaza, 3rd floor, Pearl River, NY 10965. Jill Prandstatter, 845-732-7074, Fax 845-620-1885 or 845-620-1886, jill.prandstatter@walterkarl.infousa.com Pulp & Paper International, (PPI), (ISSN 0033-409X), Canadian GST Permit Number 124513185, is published monthly by RISI Inc., 4 Alfred Circle, Bedford, MA 01730 U.S.A.. Periodical postage paid at Concord, NH and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please address changes to Pulp & Paper, P.O. Box 2018, Skokie IL 60076. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product Pub Agreement No. 40612608. Send returns from Canadian Distribution to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2. Copyright 2010 by RISI Inc.. All rights reserved. Subscriptions: PPI is sent upon written request and without charge to Publisher qualified individuals in pulp, paper, board manufacturing firms and paper converting firms. To all others, there is an annual subscription charge of USD $157 in U.S.; USD $187 in Canada and Mexico, and in all other countries USD $297. Single copy rate is USD $20.00. Subscription requests, orders and address changes must include full name and title, name of the mill, plant or office where employed and the exact business or product produced at this location.

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November 2010

Pulp & Paper International (PPI)

10/22/2010 10:20:49 AM 10/25/10 11:16 AM

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ADVERTISERS’ INDEX page # website ABB .............................................................................................. 4 ............................ www.risi.com/abb APP...........................................................................................IBC ............................ www.asiapulppaper.com BTG .......................................................................................... IFC ............................ www.risi.com/btg_tissue Eka ......................................................................................... OBC ............................ www.eka.com Inpro/Seal ................................................................................. 12 ............................ www.inpro-seal.com Metso ........................................................................................... 9 ............................ www.metso.com/automation RISI Annual Review Global Statistics ...................................... 34 ............................ www.risi.com/annualreview RISI Indian Seminar ................................................................. 30 ............................ www.risi.com/indianseminar RISI Jobs .................................................................................... 37 ............................ www.risi.com/jobs RISI Latin American P&P Outlook........................................... 29 ............................ www.risi.com/laconf Ryeco ......................................................................................... 33 ............................ www.ryeco.com SKF ............................................................................................. 17 ............................ www.skf.com/lubrification Sodra .......................................................................................... 22 ............................ www.sodrapulplabs.com Tate & Lyle ................................................................................. 24 ............................ www.tateandlyle.com Tate & Lyle ................................................................................. 24 ............................ industrialstarches.e@tateandlyle.com Thiele ........................................................................................... 2 ............................ www.thielekaolin.com Voith........................................................................................... 18 ............................ www.voithpaper.com Pulp & Paper International (PPI) N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0

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RISI viewpoint

RISI VIEWPOINT Positive perspectives for the Latin American boxboard markets By Patricia Perez, Economist, Latin America Pulp & Paper, pperez@risi.com

In a very posItIve scenarIo, boxboard demand in Latin america has been closely tracking the positive expectations for GDp growth in 2010. year-to-date data has already being showing at least a 5% recovery in demand, after posting a 1.3% decline in demand in 2008 and a further 1% in 2009, falling to 2.3 million tonnes, as a result of the effects of the global financial crisis on local economies which led consumer product companies to work off high inventories. Brazil has the largest boxboard market in the region, accounting for 38% of total demand. Brazil’s production share (51%) is even more substantial than its demand share, reflecting its position as the largest packaging supplier in Latin america. Mexico is also an important market in Latin america, comprising over 30% of regional demand. Both countries’ apparent consumption rose more than 300,000 tonnes over the last five years. Continuing its fast growth even though competition from alternative products has been heating up over the past few years, Latin america will continue to be one of the fastest growth regions in the world. In the coming years, per capita consumption will increase as steady economic growth stimulates growth in consumer goods, allowing demand to increase in the coming years, as rising living standards typically lead to increased spending on consumer goods that would be packaged in folding cartons. currently, Latin american boxboard per capita consumption is 4.2 kg per habitant, higher than the 3.7 kg per habitant experienced in 2000. However, the lack of investments in new capacity will keep Latin america a net importer since domestic suppliers failed to follow developments in consumption in the past several years. During the 1990s, every country in the region was a net importer of boxboard. However, this started to change in 1999 when chile became a net exporter of boxboard following the startup of cMpc’s new boxboard mill in late 1998. Brazil also assumed the position of a modest net exporter in the early part of the last decade. In 2009, Brazil and chile together accounted for roughly 90% of Latin america boxboard exports (or 509,000 tonnes in 2009).

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the local markets could become even tighter in the future since two large consumers - sIG combibloc and tetra pak - have recently announced plans to expand their carton packaging capacity in Brazil. sIG combibloc is building its first carton packaging plant in the country, with a capacity of 1 billion packages per year. tetra pak is conducting viability studies in order to expand its current capacity of 5 billion packages per year in Brazil by 2012. Another new machine for Klabin? the only major project during this decade was the new 350,000-tonne/yr boxboard machine at Klabin’s Monte alegre mill that started up in late 2007. For the coming years, most of the capacity additions will result from assumed rebuilds of existing machines and efficiency gains. Klabin, the largest packaging producer in Latin america, has plans to expand boxboard production at its angatuba mill in Brazil by 30,000 tonnes/yr. the final decision will be made in 2010, depending on market conditions. In addition, the company is conducting viability studies regarding the installation of a new 400,000-tonne/yr boxboard machine at its Monte alegre mill to meet both domestic and external market demand in the future. the appreciation in local currencies, mainly the Brazilian real, has been playing a key role by pressuring local producer’s competitiveness and discouraging new investments, even though regional boxboard demand growth in the coming years justifies a new state-of-the art machine with a capacity of over 300,000 tonnes/yr. We project that capacity expansion for boxboard will accelerate to a 3% average pace over the next couple of years, reaching 2.7 million tonnes in 2012, while consumption will post 4.2% annual increases during the same period, advancing to 2.6 million tonnes.

To read more industry opinions or give your own opinion, please visit our RISI Blog and Forums online at www.risi.com

November 2010

Pulp & Paper International (PPI)

10/21/2010 8:58:40 AM 10/25/10 11:16 AM


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