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Artists in Britain Since 1945 David Buckman

1786 pages in 2 volumes 14,500 artist biographies available to buy from Goldmark Gallery 01572 821424 rrp ÂŁ165 our special price ÂŁ85 including p&p


Andrew SABIN: see SAM

the mid-1980s he was exhibited frequently oneman by the Bruton Gallery, in Bruton, Somerset, from 1986; in New York, 1987; and in Paris in 1988.

Sarah SABIN 1965– Painter who combined collage with Xerox, acrylic paint and other materials. She said that her pictures were “built up layer by layer, and I treat them as maps or areas of land viewed from the air.” She completed a foundation course at Colchester Institute, graduating from Sunderland Polytechnic in 1989, settling in Colchester, Essex, to work in Trinity Studios. A trip to Southeast Asia in 1990 influenced her work. In 1993 she shared a show at Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, in 2002 another at The Minories, Colchester. That stemmed partly from Sabin’s residency, funded by firstsite with the Colchester Archaeological Trust, which celebrated nearly 40 years of the Trust’s existence.

Ben SADLER 1977– Artist who graduated with a fine

art degree from Ruskin School of Fine Art, Oxford, 1995–8. His exhibitions included We are Safe and Well, Elephant Lane, 1999; Island Home Keeps Lonely Vigil, B16, Birmingham, 2000; An Elephant Station, Vilma Gold Gallery, 2001; and No Sleep Till Hammersmith, Central Space, 2002. From 1999, Sadler worked with Philip Duckworth as juneau/projects/ (see separate entry). In 2005, Sadler’s new video piece The Palace was included in BLOC, the inaugural Bowieart show at the County Hall Gallery.

Soni Dalamal SABNANI: see AJNA

Painter, resident in Berwickshire, who studied at Edinburgh College born in Lausanne, Switzerland, who studied of Art. Nature, gardening and travels in France business administration in London and San were inspirations. She exhibited in many group Francisco. Began designing furniture in 1984. He and solo shows, The Strathearn Gallery, Crief, lived in Munich until moving to London in 1994. among the venues. Group exhibitions included Galerie 54, Munich, and Design Galerie, Berlin, both 1990; Neotu, Richard SADLER 1927– Artist and teacher who Paris, 1991; Art to Use, Frankfurt, and Abitare II studied sculpture at Coventry College of Art and Tempo, Verona, both 1994; and Neues Museum later photography. Went on to lecture in creative Weserburg, Bremen, 1995. Had a solo show at photography at Derby College of Art. Exhibitions Wunderhaus, Munich, 1990, then a series in several included Southwell Art Festival, 1969; Midland continental countries, also the London-based Group Gallery, Nottingham, 1971; Repton Arts Collection Gallery, 1994, and Faggionato Fine Arts, Festival, 1972; and Photography into Art, 1997. That exhibition included the installation Hampstead Artists’ Council/Scottish Arts Council Silenced, 200 custom-profiled foam panels which show, 1973. wrapped the gallery walls, warm to the touch but Robert SADLER 1909–2001 Artist born in visually aggressive. Newmarket, Suffolk, who was commissioned into Gilles SACKSICK 1942– Painter, notably of nudes, the Royal Air Force, 1930, retiring to paint in 1954. and printmaker, born in Paris, France. He was He attended Heatherley’s School of Fine Art; awarded the Grand Prix de Portrait Paul-Louis Corcoran Gallery School, Washington, America; Weillor, 1979, and was made a Pensionnaire of the Winchester School of Art; and Cambridge Casa Velasquez in Madrid, 1979–81. From 1977 Technical College. Sadler was a member of numerous albums of Sacksick’s aquatints, Winchester Art Society and The Cambridge Society engravings and woodcuts were published and of Painters & Sculptors. His mixed shows included tapestries, woven by Monique Créplet, were the RI, 1955; John Moore’s Exhibition, Liverpool, completed from 1984. Galerie Le Mur Ouvert gave 1957; CEMA Exhibition, Belfast, 1962; and NEAC Sacksick a solo show in Paris in 1968, and from Centenary Exhibition, 1986. He also exhibited with Patricia SADLER 1946–

Rolf SACHS 1955– Installations artist and designer,

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Trafford and Ackermann’s Galleries, New Vision Centre, Fry Art Gallery in Saffron Walden and widely elsewhere in the provinces. Among his later solo shows was one at the European Commission Gallery, Strasbourg, France, in 1986. Lived in Aldeburgh, Suffolk.

trained as an architect and town planner at Regent Street Polytechnic and was an associate of RIBA. The artist represented India at the Commonwealth Biennale of Abstract Art on three occasions, 1961– 5. Solo shows included New Vision Centre and Biggins Gallery, both 1961; Commonwealth Institute, 1967; and Horizon Gallery, 1991. Public collection in Bradford holds his work, which drew its inspiration from landscape, flowers and the human figure. In 1986 he won the Philip Gooding Scholarship, which enabled him to travel in America, Japan and Australia. Lived in Barton, Cambridgeshire.

Yehuda SAFRAN 1944– Artist and designer, teacher and exhibition organiser. His early experience was in stage design, as resident designer at Alborg in Denmark, 1966–7, then in Israel 1968–9. Safran then studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1969– 71, and the Royal College of Art, 1971–3. He became a tutor at the College in 1976 and also taught in his native Israel. In later years Safran’s interest shifted towards architecture. He was a trustee and consultant with the 9H Gallery, 1986, and was a regular contributor to its magazine. Safran was enthusiastic about the work of Adolf Loos, organising a touring exhibition of his work for the Arts Council. Safran’s Hommage à Adolf Loos, created in 1985–6, was included in Royal College of Art’s Exhibition Road show in 1988.

Anne SAÏD 1914–1995 Painter and draughtsman, born

in Hook, Hampshire. She studied at Queen’s College, London, 1925–30. During the late 1930s she studied periodically in Paris with Amédée Ozenfant before he left for New York. She designed textiles to pay for these studies. From 1941–55 worked in Egypt with her husband Hamed Saïd, creating a student group which showed in Cairo. In England from late 1950s showed New Art Centre and elsewhere and had first solo show at Beaux Arts Gallery in 1957. In 1961 settled in Wiltshire. The Flight, about 12 feet by five feet square, was among Saïd’s most important works, one of many large drawings. Her work was included in the limited-edition English/Egyptian publication The Word & The Image. Early works were signed Anne Cobham. Her daughter was the artist Safaya Salter. Tate Gallery holds Saïd’s work.

Painter in oil and watercolour and illustrator, born in London, who visited Surrey in the 1890s, marrying Kate Stuart in the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Guildford, in 1898. Illustrated Some West Surrey Villages, by E A Judges, 1901. Sage became a well-known figure around Surrey in the first half of the century, standing at his easel in neat suit, hat and bicycle clips. Scenes such as Guildford High Street and Shalford Church were often repeated. From 1911– 52 lived at Bramley, finally at Milford with a son. Guildford House Gallery, Guildford, held an exhibition in 1996, the borough owning examples and publishing a booklet on his work. There was another exhibition there, 2003–4. Previous shows included a major one in 1971. Henry James SAGE 1858–1953

Artist in oil, watercolour and pen and ink, born in Shahjehanpur, India, full name Virendra Sahai. He moved to England after a brief spell working as a draughtsman in Burma, his paintings being first exhibited when he was studying at Central School of Arts and Crafts. Sahai

Engraver and illustrator, second wife of the Vorticist artist Frederick Etchells, for whose firm Haslewood Books she illustrated several volumes, including Hans Christian Andersen’s Hans Andersen’s Tales, 1929. Hester’s father was a Queen Victoria court physician, Dr Harrington Sainsbury, who was married to Maria Tuke, sister of the painter Henry Scott Tuke and author of the 1933 volume Henry Scott Tuke, R.A., RWS, A Memoir. The five-yearold Hester is mentioned in this as one of “three rowdy little Sainsburys”. Maria also painted, so Hester grew up in artistic circles and would have acquired knowledge through association with Hester SAINSBURY 1890–1967

Virén SAHAI 1933–

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Roger Fry, Gwen Raverat and the Omega Workshops group. Hester’s youngest brother was Philip, co-founder in 1921 of the Favil Press, for whom Hester illustrated, as she did for the Cayme, Cresset, Golden Cockerel and Westminster Presses. Sainsbury exhibited 28 prints between 1921–9 at the SWE, of which she was a member from 1926– 32, in the latter year marrying Etchells. After this she seems to have stopped engraving. Sainsbury’s work was included in The Wood Engraving Revival in Britain 1900–1930 at Wolseley Fine Arts, 2000. Her death was recorded at Wantage, Berkshire, where she and her husband were neighbours of John Betjeman, who penned an obituary of Etchells.

National Portrait Gallery, 2000. Among later solo exhibitions were Galerie der Gegenwart, Wiesbaden, Germany, Standpoint Gallery and Betweeness, Colville Place Gallery, all 2001. Marty St James gained many awards and residencies and had works in public and private collections.

Samuel St LEDGER 1979– Artist whose “work deals

with a reappraisal of the world in which we live and various events that have proved pivotal for the human race…. This takes the form of a visualisation of these events as if the world in which they took place was made from paper, plasticine or child’s toys, a world very much under my control. Main influences are school history textbooks, model aeroplanes, in-flight instruction manuals, Things to Make and Do and other childhood activity books.” St Leger was born in Redhill, Surrey, graduated with honours in fine art from Kent Institute of Art and Design, Canterbury, 2001, taught by Mick Finch and Moyra Derby, then attended the Royal Academy Schools, 2001– 4, taught by Alain Miller, Richard Kirwan and Vanessa Jackson. He was artist-in-residence, Weymouth College, 1999, exhibiting works made at the Kent Institute’s foundation department foyer, 1999. He curated A Sense of Scale at the Institute in 2000 and participated in RA Summer Exhibition, 2002. Lived in London.

Loudon SAINTHILL 1919–1969 Theatre designer and

painter, born in Tasmania, who established a reputation in Australia where he also exhibited, moved to London in 1950 and in 1951 had great success with his designs for Shakespeare’s The Tempest at Stratford-upon-Avon. Further Shakespearian designs followed and he also designed for ballet, opera and pantomime, the Old Vic, Royal Opera and Sadler’s Wells using his talents. Just before he died his costumes for a New York musical based on Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales earned him a Tony award. Lived in London.

Marty St JAMES 1954– Artist

and teacher, born in West Midlands, who studied at Bournville School of Art and Cardiff College of Art. He taught fine art and graphics at Camberwell College of Art. St James worked on joint projects with Anne Wilson. Their exhibition at Gallery M in 1994 included cibachromes on canvas and a series of video portraits, the faces comprising, for example, one made of waves with sound effects, another a man silently smoking. Video works were broadcast on British and foreign television. Selected exhibitions included Charting Time, Serpentine Gallery, and Video Exhibition, Tate Gallery, both 1986; Viewing Figures, Camden Arts Centre, 1990; Three Video Artists, Kunstakademeit, Trondheim, Norway, 1993; Electronically Yours, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Japan, 1998; and Painting The Century 101 Portrait Masterpieces, The

Peter SAINTY 1943– Sculptor and teacher working

in range of materials including plaster, wood and steel, born in Liverpool. He attended the College of Art there, 1960–4, then Slade School of Fine Art, 1964–7. From 1970–3 Sainty taught the prediploma course at Liverpool and in Wrexham; worked in the theatre, 1974–80; then as a sculptor and propmaker. Among influences on his work were Henry Moore, Gaudi and Noguchi, John Edkins and Mike Knowles. Took part in group shows at Walker Art Gallery and Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool, and had solo exhibitions at the Academy there and Liverpool University. His abstract sculpture Reading-Piece, of 1982, in welded steel, was made for Heron House near the River Kennet, Reading, Berkshire. Sainty was based in Cardiff. 5


Painter, graphic artist and teacher, born in Hungary, who remained there until the year of the uprising against Communism, 1956. He studied art and architecture at the Academy of Applied Art, Budapest, 1935–41, teaching in the capital until he left. As well as mixed and solo shows in Hungary, Sajó exhibited at RA, Paris Salon and in the English provinces, one-man shows including University of Surrey, which holds his work. Lived in Worthing, Sussex, from 1959 with his wife Erzsbet, also an artist. He founded the Atelier Art Group there. The Daily Telegraph art critic Terence Mullaly wrote that Sajó “was an archetypal master of the Hungarian tradition of painting,” with “a sense of colour rare in British art.” In 1995 Worthing Museum and Art Gallery displayed works it owns by Sajó, as well as showing an extensive privately made video on his life.

studied with the sculptor Karel Vogel at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts. Showed at Woodstock Gallery, Mall Galleries, Upper Street Gallery and elsewhere and lived in High Ongar, Essex.

Gyula SAJÓ 1918–1989

Artist, daughter of artists Michel and Chattie Salaman and sister of painter and teacher Michael Salaman. She worked as a riding instructor, trained as a dancer with Ballet Rambert, then turned to acting, her first professional role being in André Obey’s Noah in 1935 (John Gielgud was in the title role, Alec Guinness, whom she married in 1938, also appearing). After World War II, she studied painting at Chelsea Polytechnic and with Kathleen Browne. Her first book, an ABC for her nephew, Christopher’s Book, appeared in 1941; she wrote and illustrated three more: William & Cherry, 1943; Christopher’s Rainy Day Book, 1945; and Christopher’s New House, 1946. She also created needlework pictures, showing in Hampshire where she lived and at Crane Kalman Gallery, 1965. Others, and some of her autobiographical paintings, The Four Seasons, were included in James Huntington-Whiteley’s show The Salamans at Gallery 27, in 1997. Died in Petersfield, Hampshire. Merula SALAMAN 1914–2000

Hana SAKUMA 1970– Versatile artist and designer,

born in Osaka, Japan, who graduated in industrial design, fashion and textiles at Kobe Design University, 1993; did a postgraduate diploma in textiles at Goldsmiths’ College, 1994–5; and obtained her master’s in fine art, sculpture, at Slade School of Fine Art, 1995–7. Among positions held was illustration and book cover design, 1991–2; interior design consultant at Kobe Design University and assistant for an animation design company, 1992; design research for a shoe company, 1992–3; then research into British art education plus translation for a design company. Group shows in England included Beyond the bounds, Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery and Manchester Metropolitan University, both 1996, and in 1997 Between at The Shooting Gallery, University College London, and Cloth, at Norwich Gallery. There she exhibited exquisite tiny chairs set in fields of flour and made from the covers of old hardback books, her subject being the English attitude to landscape. Had a first solo show at Alternative Art Gallery, 1996. Lived in London.

Michael SALAMAN 1911–1987 Artist in oil, pen and

ink and pencil, and teacher, born in Porlock, Somerset. He came from a family with artistic interests, several members depicted by Augustus John, by whom Salaman had a fine collection of drawings. Salaman studied at the Slade School of Fine Art under Henry Tonks, 1928–31, under Albert Rutherston at the Ruskin School of Art, Oxford, 1930–1, then in 1933–4 in Paris at Académie Ranson. He taught at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts and at Chelsea for about 30 years from the late 1940s and for a period at Royal Academy Schools from 1964. South London Art Gallery and Victoria & Albert Museum hold his work. Salaman was granted a Civil List Pension for services to art Christopher SALAMAN 1939– Painter and sculptor, in 1977, two years after a retrospective at the son of the architect Euston Salaman, born in Morley Gallery. Ben Uri Art Gallery held another Dorking, Surrey. After Bedales School Salaman in 1996. He stood apart from fashion in the art 6


world, did not court success and in his work was often concerned with loneliness. There can be a strong atmosphere of disquiet, as in his masterpiece La Petite Kermesse, included in James HuntingtonWhiteley’s 1997 show The Salamans, at Gallery 27. Lived in London.

Crook, 1998; Groombridge Place Gardens, Kent, from 1999; and Thornthwaite Gallery, Cumbria, 2000. Commissions included Westfield School in Weymouth, and Grey College.

Painter, teacher and administrator, born in Boston, Massachusetts, where he gained his bachelor’s degree in fine arts from the University of Massachusetts, 1972, then his master’s from South Illinois University in 1975. From 1975–7 was an instructor at that University’s continuing education division; was artist-inresidence at Delawater Water Gap National Park in New Jersey; then from 1977–82 was assistant director and then director of Artists for Environment Foundation. In 1990 gained a grant from the British American Arts Association that allowed a residency in Wales, in 1991 moving to Carradale, Kintyre, based in what was the artist William McTaggart’s summer residence. Salins early showed in group exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York City and had two solo shows at Mitchell Museum, Illinois, and Sheldon Swope Museum, Indiana, in 1975. In 1994 his Scottish work was shown at Ewan Mundy Fine Art, Glasgow. Kenneth N SALINS 1950–

Ruth SALAMAN: see Ruth COLLET

Judy SALE 1946– Artist, born in Indiana, America,

who obtained dual British/American nationality in 1993, moving her main residence and studio from London to Triora, Italy, in 2003. Sale graduated Bachelor of Science in Education, majoring in visual arts, from Eastern Illinois University in 1967, studying architecture and design at Chelsea College of Art, 1975. Between 1989–96 she was founding director of the Monagri Foundation Centre for Contemporary Art, Cyprus. Her many group exhibitions included New York International Art Fair, 1981; Mazelow Gallery, Toronto, Canada, 1984; Main Fine Art, Glasgow, and Richard Demarco Gallery at Bath Arts Festival, both 1987– 8; RA Summer Exhibition, 1989; LG, Gulbenkian Gallery, Royal College of Art, 1990; Whitechapel Open Studios, 1994; and Workplace Art, 1998–00. Among later solo exhibitions were Gallery Gloria, Nicosia, 1992; Jeffrey West, Piccadilly Arcade, 2000; and Limehouse Cut Studios, 2002. The Royal Mint; Warwick Arts Trust; Wiltshire County Council; and many corporate collections in Britain and abroad held examples.

Figurative sculptor in metal, born in Kent, who settled in Weardale, County Durham. His first sculpture was made in 1997 as a surprise gift to his partner, Joan, which accidentally led to a commission and local exhibition. When in 2000 he had a solo show, organised by Henry Dyson, at Grey College, Durham University, Sales said that he was “inspired by birds within their natural habitat…. My sculptures seem to develop personalities as they are made. I am considering colour and experimenting with the effects of fire and smoke on smaller pieces.” Among his mixed shows were the Flat Cat Gallery, Lauder, 1997; The Mall,

Alan SALISBURY 1946– Artist and teacher, born in

Peter SALES 1952–

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Preston, Lancashire, who studied at Manchester College of Art, 1965–6, Liverpool College of Art, 1967–70, Royal College of Art, 1970–3 and Cardiff College of Art, 1973–4. He went on to be head of visual art at the University of Glamorgan. Among awards were a Gold Medal for Painting, Stowells Trophy Competition, 1972, the year he won a Royal College of Art Travelling Scholarship to Paris; also gained a John Minton Memorial Scholarship, 1983. Illustrated covers of several volumes of poems by Tony Curtis and Leslie Norris. Mixed shows included Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1969; National Portrait Gallery, 1983; Hill Court Gallery, Abergavenny, from 1986; and Cardiff Arts Festival, 1988. Later solo shows included retrospective at Washington Gallery, Penarth, 1999. Yorkshire, Mid-Glamorgan, West Glamorgan Education Authorities and Cardiff City Council own examples. Lived in Barry, South Glamorgan.


Frank Owen SALISBURY 1874–1962 Painter of historical and ceremonial subjects and portraits. Born in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, Salisbury studied art privately, at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art, at the Royal Academy Schools and widely on the continent. His foreign studies contributed to Salisbury’s rather grand manner of painting, in the Edwardian tradition. Exhibited RA, RI, RP, Fine Art Society and Walker Art Gallery, in Liverpool, which holds his work. Members of the British royal family, church and military dignitaries and senior politicians were among Salisbury’s subjects, along with depictions of state occasions. Member of Garrick Club. Christie’s held a studio sale in 1985. Lived in London.

Bankside Print Show, 1990; RA Summer Exhibition, 1991; LG at Barbican Centre, 1992; and Contemporary Art Society, Royal Festival Hall, 1994. Later solo shows included Morley Gallery, 1994, Lamont Gallery, 1995, and Greenwich Printmakers Gallery, 2000 and 2003. Salmon’s paintings and etchings had a theatrical quality. “The images do not tell stories,” he said. “The stage is set but nothing needs to be explained, and nothing is ever going to happen – but the implication is that it will.”

Graeme SALMON 1933– Painter in watercolour and

oil, born in Tasmania, Australia. He made frequent trips there and was influenced by the landscape of Tasmania, where there was a long tradition of James SALISBURY 1963– Carver, letterer and teacher landscape painting. Salmon first visited England who trained at the City & Guilds Art School, where in 1955, moved to America, 1962–4, in 1965 he later taught, also taking on apprentices. He was returning to Oxford, which became his home. He apprenticed to Richard Kindersley, assistant to studied part-time at Ruskin School of Drawing, Ralph Beyer and Sally Bower and set up his own 1980–96. Was a member of Oxford Art Society workshop in 1992. Salisbury joined the Memorials and took part in group shows with it, RI and RWS. by Artists craftsman register and was a member of He was represented in the exhibition Fifty years Letter Exchange. He showed widely and was of watercolour painting in Tasmania, 1978. Solo included in Stone Words at Pentagram, Wolseley shows included Lloyd Jones Gallery, Hobart, 1964; Fine Arts and tour, in 2002. His commissions Borlase Gallery, Blewbury, 1973; Salamanca Place included a brick-carved mural for Lewisham Gallery, Hobart, from 1976; Halesworth Gallery, Council; an alabaster coat of arms for the Earl of Halesworth, 1980. Lanesborough; and a 150-metre wall decoration James Marchbank SALMON 1916–1994 Painter, in sheet steel for Brockley, south London. draughtsman, printmaker, potter and teacher, born Chris SALMON 1960– Painter, printmaker and in Edinburgh where he studied at the College of musician, born in Dublin, Ireland, but after six Art, also studying at the Academy of Art, Reimann months settled in England. Salmon did an honours School and elsewhere in Berlin. Salmon worked degree in fine art at Canterbury Art College, 1980– as an artist for several years during World War II 3, in 1992–4 gaining his master’s degree with for the Ministry of Information, then resumed his distinction in printmaking at Camberwell College full-time teaching career which included of Art. From 1986–90 Salmon was guitarist with principalships of Lincoln School of Art and a band called Stump, which had a recording Croydon College of Art. He was latterly dean of contract with Chrysalis and recorded three albums fine arts of the University of Calgary in Alberta, (Mud on a Colon, Quirk Out and Fierce Pancake) Canada. Salmon was a member of the Society of and two singles (Charlton Heston Put His Vest On Industrial Artists with a strong interest in art and Buffalo). He was a Galleries magazine education, being president of the National Society prizewinner in 1990; a Rotring prizewinner in for Art Education and chairman of the Association 1991; won a Daler-Rowney prize in 1992; and in of Art Institutions. He exhibited RSA, RSW, SSA, 1993 was Marina Vaizey’s Critic’s Choice in Art RA and in Germany. Lived in South Croydon, for Sale. Took part in many group shows, including Surrey. 8


Ronald SALMOND 1912– Printmaker, painter and teacher, born in London, who studied at Hornsey College of Art. Went on to teach at Preston Manor High School, Wembley. Was elected a member of SGA in 1967, also exhibiting at RA and RE. 20th Century Gallery gave him a show in 1997. Ashmolean Museum in Oxford holds Salmond’s work. Lived in Harrow, Middlesex.

and designer, 1977–8; then moved to north Yorkshire, setting up a workshop and showroom making ceramics and sculpture. Between 1979– 98, when he settled in Norfolk, Salt participated in many group shows, including Strides Gallery, Driffield; John Freeman Gallery, Whitby; Scarborough City Art Gallery; Booth House Gallery, Holmfirth; and Studio 34 Gallery, Burford. Among later venues were the Eastern Open Exhibition, Fermoy Gallery, King’s Lynn, 1999; Ely Cathedral, 1999 and 2001; and also in 2001 Sculptural Ceramics in the Garden, Blickling Hall, for which he was joint organiser, and Court-House Arts, Hunstanton.

Painter and teacher, born in Birmingham, who gained his Diploma in Fine Art from the Slade School of Fine Art, 1958–60. He taught in the west Midlands area before moving to New York in the late 1960s, where he became a founding figure of Photo-Realism. He went on to be a leading proponents of the Super-Realist movement alongside such figures as Richard Estes, Chuck Close, Ralph Goings and Gerhard Richter. Back in England and living in Shropshire, Salt had a 2001 solo show at Mobile Home of paintings made during 1975–99. His pictures of poor mobile homes in the American landscape showed a concern for social commentary, documenting the decaying backwaters of American deep poverty set within idyllic landscapes. They were produced by a laborious process of transcribing photograph to oil on canvas. Also in 2001, Salt had one-man exhibitions at the RBSA Gallery and at the Silk Top Hat Gallery, Ludlow. Previously, he had shown extensively at major galleries and museums in Britain, America and elsewhere abroad. In 2004 Salt was included in The beginning of Ikon, at Ikon Gallery, Birmingham. Tate Britain; Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art; Victoria & Albert Museum; Southampton City Art Gallery; the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, and other public collections hold examples. John SALT 1937–

Versatile artist, designer and teacher, born in Thetford, Norfolk, who made prediploma studies at Norwich School of Art, 1964– 6; graduated with honours in fine art, Chelsea School of Art, 1964–6; and gained his master’s from the University of Reading, 1969–71. After being an adult education tutor in Wokingham, 1972, and Camberley, 1973–4, Salt taught at West Riding Youth Centre, 1975–6; became a freelance artist

Thomas Michael SALT 1982– Painter, born in north Yorkshire, who studied art and design at College of West Anglia, 1998, then graduated in painting at Norwich School of Art, 2000. In 2001 he had a solo exhibition at Court-House Arts, Hunstanton. Rebecca SALTER 1955– Artist

Michael SALT 1948–

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in acrylic on canvas and mixed media on paper, born in Sussex. In 1977 she graduated from Bristol Polytechnic faculty of art and design, then was a research student at Kyoto City University of Arts, Japan, under a Leverhulme Scholarship, 1979–81. From 1981–5 she lived in Japan, returning to London in 1985, when she won a Greater London Arts Award. For the next decade Salter’s abstract work was “involved with the attempt to capture stillness in movement … a stillness with potential, not a passive quiet.” Her pictures employed “the quiet anchor of the grid to give a freedom and independence to the fragmented lines.” Salter took part in numerous group exhibitions in Britain, Japan and elsewhere overseas, including Rijeka Drawing Biennale, Yugoslavia, 1982; World Print Council IV, San Francisco, 1983, purchase prize; Chicago International Art Exposition, from 1987; LG, 1990; and Salama-Caro Gallery, 1993. Had a solo show at Gallery Maronie, Kyoto, in 1981, later ones including Jill George Gallery, 2000, and Hirschl Contemporary Art, 2002. Beardsmore Gallery exhibited Salter’s work at the 2006 London Art Fair, in Islington, shortly after the Yale Center for British Art, in America, showed drawings by her


it had acquired. In addition, the British Museum, British Council and San Francisco Museum of Modern Art are among many collections holding examples.

Safaya SALTER 1950– Artist in gouache, illustrator and designer, born in Cairo, Egypt. Her father was the Egyptian artist Hamed Saïd, her mother the painter and draughtsman Anne Saïd. Salter studied initially with her mother, then on her own. She worked as a freelance textile designer for large London firms until 1979, when she started painting. Among influences were Persian miniatures, J M W Turner, Edmund Dulac, Gustav Klimt and Henri Rousseau. Illustrated Rudyard Kipling’s Just So Stories for Children, 1986, and Aesop’s Fables, 1989. Exhibited in mixed exhibitions and solo in Gloucestershire, also studio. J W SALTONSTALL 1873– Painter and draughtsman,

educated at Sowerby, Yorkshire. Studied at Halifax School of Art with Arthur Whitehead, 1891–2, then Blackpool School of Art, 1897–8, Preston School of Art with Arthur Burt, 1899–1900, and in Doncaster with William Tindall, 1908–9. Showed at BWS and in Lancashire and Yorkshire. Wakefield City Art Gallery and Museum holds his work. Lived near Halifax, Yorkshire. Avis SALTSMAN fl. from mid-1950s– Printmaker, painter and teacher, born in Manchester of mainly Welsh ancestry, her paternal grandfather’s family moving from Germany to Salford in 1879. An

important influence on her was the artist and teacher Terry McGlynn, who ran his home in Stockport as an art centre. Saltsman went on to teach many age groups in schools and adult education centres. Moved to London in 1971 and from 1985 worked full-time as an artist. In the late 1970s she was national librarian of the Artists’ Union and for several years was a member of the Printmakers’ Council committee. She helped Conway Hall to develop a gallery and had a retrospective there in 1995. Other solo shows included Almeida Theatre, 1990 and 1992, and Manchester Royal Exchange, Art of the Theatre, 1994. Mixed shows included Alpine Gallery, 1987, National Theatre, 1990, and Hatton Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1994. Manchester University holds her work. Marcello SALVADORI 1928–2002

Innovative artist,

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designer, thinker and teacher, born in Florence, Italy, a musical prodigy who rejected music as a career. After a classical art education at the Liceo Artistico and Accademia Belle Arti, Rome, he graduated as an architect, worked as a designer in films with such notable directors as Federico Fellini, but chose to be an artist, consolidating the reputation established as a student in 1948, when he began his white period paintings. They were inspired by graffiti left by imprisoned partisans and initiated his life belief that art should reintegrate with society. After marrying the English actress Jenny Rose they settled in London, where Salvadori explored kinetic and light effects and became a proponent of the science and art movement, from 1964 being involved in a research institute, the Centre for Advanced Creative Study, with artists David Medalla and Gustav Metzger and the critic Guy Brett. Its journal, Signals Newsbulletin, prompted Signals, at 38 Wigmore Street, which showed the work of leading international artists and which in 1965 reviewed Salvadori’s work with industrial materials. The Times described him as “probably the most talented foreign artist working in England.” Salvadori showed on both sides of the Atlantic, winning acclaim for his Eclipses, motorised Perspex discs, and Polaroid plastic panels. An important commission was a window for Unilever at Port Sunlight. With his patron the poet Erica Marx Salvadori opened the Centre for the Study of Science in Art, at Chalk Farm. The Light House, using solar power, commissioned by Marx for a site near Ashford, Kent, was designed to implement the Centre’s ideas and the model for this and other projects impressed when shown in London and at the 1967 Milan Triennale, where the Centre’s pavilion was designed by Renzo Piano. After the withdrawal of support by Marx and her premature death, the Light House remained unfinished and the Centre lacked a backer. Salvadori’s last exhibition was at the Hayward Gallery in 1974. After that, his public profile diminished, he abandoned what he termed the bourgeois limitations of commercially based fine art and concentrated on honing his ideas towards the


bridging of the two cultures. The young found him Institute, 1980; Athens Odeon Centre, Athens, an inspirational occasional teacher. Ill-health 1982; Amigo’s Cafe and Gallery, Saskatoon, 1990; dogged his final years. Islington Arts Factory, 1993; and Royal Over-Seas League Open, 1994. She had a solo show there in SAM 1958– Sculptor in a range of media and teacher, 1995. Several Canadian collections and the Greek full name Andrew Sabin, born and lived in London. Embassy, Ottawa, hold examples. He studied at Chelsea College of Art & Design, teachers including Richard Deacon, and from 1984 Michael SAMUELS 1964– Artist who was born and was a sculptor and teacher at Chelsea, Camberwell grew up in Liverpool, later living in north London. School of Art and elsewhere. Sabin’s solo shows Samuels gained his master’s in sculpture from the included Chisenhale Gallery, Battersea Arts Centre, Royal College of Art, 1999–00. From 2000 he took Tate Gallery in Liverpool and Salama-Caro part in many group exhibitions, including Together Gallery. Chisenhale Installation and The Sea of Again at Pump House Gallery and Phusion at Sun, the Battersea Art Centre installation, were Gasworks, both 2000; The Younger Generation, cited as main works. Arts Council, Contemporary Sarah Myerscough Fine Art, 2002; Amalgamate, Art Society and Leicestershire Education Authority with Peter Saville and Brian Eno, Asprey & hold examples. Leeds Museums and Galleries own Gerrard, New York, and Space Open, The Triangle, Sabin’s Penn Ponds in Winter, of 1989, plus both 2003; I Want! I Want!, Northern Gallery for documentary material. Environmentalism was a Contemporary Art, Sunderland, and tour, and theme running through much of this artist’s later Tubeway Army, Keith Talent Gallery, both 2004; work, made for the public domain. The C-bin and Triangle Arts Trust, Hong Kong, and Idylls project, pursued with the artist Stefan Shankland, Today, Kunsthaus Baselland, Basel, and proposed for Europe’s beaches big galvanised steel international tour, both 2005. Among his solo containers which, when filled with detritus flung exhibitions were Paul Smith, Floral Street, 2000; in by passers-by, resembled bizarre sculptures. Bowieart Window, 2002; Indoor Type, Architectural Association, 2004; and Rokeby, Helen SAMPSON 1885– Painter and textile designer, 2006. born in London. After private education she studied at Byam Shaw School of Art, 1907, then at Central Peter SAMUELSON 1912–1996 Painter, draughtsman School of Arts and Crafts, 1925–31, where her and writer, born in Tisbury, Wiltshire, who prided teachers included John Cooper and Bernard himself on being largely self-taught and who was Meninsky. Showed at NEAC, WIAC, AIA, UA, a sporadic worker. After childhood years on a Kent LG and widely in the provinces. Lived in Saltdean, fruit farm and briefly, disastrously attending a boarding school, at 15 Samuelson moved to the Sussex. south of France to live with relations for two years. Stephanie SAMPSON 1959– Figurative painter, Relocated in Paris he made desultory studies at the collagist, printmaker and teacher, using a colourful New York School of Fine and Applied Arts which palette, born in Montreal, Canada. She studied at was based there, supporting himself as an errand Bath Academy of Art in Corsham, Carleton boy. In 1935 Samuelson married a beautiful Dutch University, Ottawa, and the University of woman, by whom he had three children, returned Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. She taught at Alta Vista to his English childhood home and began intensive School in Ottawa, 1985; Ottawa School of Art, painting. After war service in bomb disposal he 1986–8; and University of Saskatchewan, 1989– lived as an illustrator in the Netherlands, music – 91. Among awards were a Canadian Artists’ Grant, a lifelong passion – being a major subject, but after SAW Gallery, Ottawa, 1985, and a bursary, Ionian his marriage broke up moved to England to help Cultural Centre, Chios, Greece, 1984. Group shows his stepmother run an hotel in Torquay, eventually included Mall Galleries, 1978; Commonwealth running a lodging house in Kensington. In the 11


1960s he became an expert on Oriental rugs and skilled restorer of them. Having moved with a daughter to an Oxfordshire village in 1982, where he concentrated on his rugs and earned money labouring on a farm, Samuelson was rediscovered as an artist. In the late 1980s he showed at Leighton House and at St Jude’s Gallery, in 1991 with Roy Miles. His book Post-War Friends, 1987, included portraits drawn from the 1950s. Samuelson also sustained a huge autobiography-cum-diary, which he hoped would eventu-ally be published. Early work was signed Pierre, later pictures Peter, in mirror-writing style. Died in Horton General Hospital, Banbury. The Brewhouse, Eton College, held a memorial show in 1997. Brian Sinfield Gallery, Burford, held a retrospective in 2003.

Edinburgh, later solo exhibitions including a retrospective at The Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie, 1991. Scottish Arts Council and Contemporary Art Society hold examples. Her father was the artist Archibald Sandeman, with whom she was given a joint show at The Scottish Artists Shop, Edinburgh, 1986, her mother being the embroiderer Muriel Boyd Sandeman.

Embroiderer, draughtsman and teacher, born in Glasgow as Muriel Boyd, who married the businessman and amateur painter Archibald Sandeman, their daughter being the artist Margot Sandeman. Studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1904–9, where she gained several prizes, teachers including Anne Macbeth. After her diploma she trained to teach, being needlework mistress of Bearsden School, 1910, and of Rosslyn School, 1913, giving up teaching upon marriage in 1916. Exhibited throughout her career, notably in a show of British and Irish decorative artists in the Louvre, Paris, 1914. Also showed at Glasgow Society of Lady Artists’ annual exhibitions until 1965, winning the Lauder Award, 1955. Art Nouveau greatly influenced her work, which eventually became almost wholly based on flowers and foliage from her garden. Her last piece was completed when she was 77, then failing eyesight made her stop work. In 1932 she and her husband had a joint show at Bennett Gallery, Glasgow, and Glasgow Museums and Art Galleries, which holds her work, had another of it in 1987. Muriel Boyd SANDEMAN 1888–1981

Carlos Luis SANCHA 1920–2001 Portrait painter, born

and lived in London, notable for conversation pieces. He studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts under Rodrigo Moynihan, 1939, then at Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting, 1946–8, where teachers included Patrick Phillips. Was elected RP in 1973, also showing at RA. TRH The Prince of Wales, Duke of Edinburgh and Duke of Kent hold examples, which are also in collections across the continent and in America.

Margot SANDEMAN 1922– Artist

in oil and acrylic used as watercolour whose work had a lyrical, decorative quality. She was born Mary Margaret Sandeman in Glasgow, where she continued to live and where she studied, under Hugh Adam Crawford, at the School of Art. She was the closest friend of the painter Joan Eardley and later collaborated with Ian Hamilton Finlay. Sandeman, who signed her work with initials plus date, won the RSA’s Guthrie Award in 1964; the Anne Redpath and Scottish Arts Council Awards in 1970; and was Scottish Winner of the Laing Competition in 1989. The island of Arran was an influence on her work. Group exhibitions included Scottish Landscapes, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1960; Robinson Gallery, Houston, Texas, 1985; London Poetry Society, 1989; and The Compass Contribution, Tramway, Glasgow, 1990. Showed with Richard Demarco Gallery from 1974 in

Artist, printmaker, designer and teacher, born in Leeds, Yorkshire, but went to school in London. He spent six years travelling in America, Australia and New Zealand, studying for a year at University of New South Wales. On return to England studied at Barking College of Art, where for a time he lectured in graphic design. From 1974 worked as a full-time artist, also designing stage scenery. Sanders’ work was shown extensively around the world and is in public and private collections there, being sold by CCA Galleries. He was a pioneer in developing the technique and style of blending soft colours in silkscreen printing. Bob SANDERS 1945–

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Christopher SANDERS 1905–1991 Painter and teacher,

accepted for the X Biennial of Sport in the Fine Arts, Barcelona, Spain, one being bought for the new Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

born in Wakefield, Yorkshire. He attended the School of Art there, 1922–4, Leeds School of Art, 1924–6, and the Royal College of Art, 1926–9, where he met his future wife Barbara. Was for some years head of painting at Harrow School of Art. Sanders was a solid journeyman painter whose landscapes were often detailed studies of foliage, grasses and flowers. He exhibited regularly at RA from early 1930s, becoming RA in 1961, six years earlier winning a gold medal at Paris Salon. Was also a member of RP. Sanders, known as Sandy, was a bluff character, keen on sport, who lived for some years in Slough, Buckinghamshire.

Botanical watercolourist and printmaker, born in Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, who after Roedean School attended High Wycombe College of Art. Showed at Mall and Westminster Galleries, RA and was a member of Society of Botanical Artists and Devon Guild of Craftsmen as a printmaker. Sanders won the Royal Horticultural Society Gold Medal on several occasions from 1981 plus other awards. The English Apple, 1988, was among many horticultural books in which her work appeared. Lived in Stokenham, Devon, where she created a garden that was the subject of her first book Portrait of a Country Garden, 1984. Jonathan Cooper gave Sanders a solo exhibition, as Rosie Sanders, in 2002. Rosanne

Henry SANDERS 1918–1982 Painter of landscapes, figures and animals in oil and watercolour, lithographer and lino-cutter. Born in Dresden, Germany, Sanders studied art at Hornsey College of Art 1935–9, studies which continued in 1945, tutors including Russell Reeve and John Moody. His work was reproduced in Arts Review and Connoisseur and the Ben Uri Art Society has it in the permanent collection. Lived in London. Sanders’ original name was Helmut Salomon.

Diana

SANDERS

1944–

Rosie SANDERS: see Rosanne Diana SANDERS

Painter who also studied etching and sculpture, she trained at Byam Shaw School, obtaining a scholarship in her fourth year, Jill Cowie SANDERS fl. from 1960s– Sculptor and followed by three years at Royal Academy Schools. teacher producing figurative works, commonly Showed at RA Summer Exhibition from 1970, Wye with simplified forms, in smooth bronze. She was Art Gallery (run by her husband at Wye, Kent), born in London and studied drawing and painting Northern Art Gallery, Cale Art, RWA and Patricia at St Martin’s School of Art, 1948–9, and Chelsea Wells Gallery, Thornbury. Has work in many Polytechnic, 1950–2. From 1959–60 she studied private collections in Britain and abroad. and taught art at Cordova Museum, Lincoln, Violet SANDERS 1904–1983 Painter, wood engraver, Massachusetts. Won scholarships to study clay modeller, heraldic artist and illuminator. She sculpture at Boston Museum School of Fine Arts, was born in Mexico City, her father, who was an graduating with distinction in 1964. She married amateur artist and caricaturist, working for Shell fellow-student John Sanders and they moved to there. She studied at Blackheath School of Art, Spain, where they founded an art colony in the 1922–3, Harrow Technical School, 1923–5, and Roman city of Medinaceli. She eventually set up Willesden Polytechnic during same period under a studio near Tarifa, Andalucia. Jill Cowie Sanders Ernest Heber Thompson. Exhibited RA, NS, SGA showed solo with Artists Associates, Atlanta, in and SWA as well as in the provinces. Signed her 1968, after which several dozen international later work Violet Sanders Mallet (Mallet being her exhibitions followed. From 1984 her bronzes, from married name). She was a keen genealogist and miniature to life-size and larger, were shown by during World War II completed maps for the Jonathan Poole in Britain, with a solo exhibition Cabinet and War Office, working on the D-Day at his Compton Cassey Galleries, Withington, in landings, but was most noted for her wood 1995. In 1992 the sculptor’s three entries were Susan SANDERS 1946–

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engravings. Lived at Perranporth, Cornwall.

woman”. An example was her exhibit Point of Contact in the South Bank Centre’s touring The British Art Show, 1990. Sanderson studied at West Surrey College of Art and Design, Farnham, 1980– 1, and the City Polytechnic, Sheffield, 1981–4, where she settled. Lectured at the University of Central Lancaster, Preston. She showed in many group exhibitions in Yorkshire and elsewhere, including 1986 New Contemporaries at ICA; Black Art: Plotting the Course, at Oldham Art Gallery, with tour, 1988–9; in 1990 North by North West at BBK Gallery, Cologne; and in 1991–2 Norwich Gallery’s travelling show History and Identity. Had a solo exhibition at Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield, and Leeds City Art Gallery, 1994–5.

Lesley SANDERSON 1962– Painter, draughtsman and

Lettice

Charles J SANDERSON 1949– Artist in wide range of media, including oil, pastel and printmaking, born and lived in London. Richly coloured landscapes, townscapes and still lifes were strong features of his work. He travelled frequently to Paris, where he formed a love of the French Impressionists, and latterly to Australia and Southeast Asia. After Millfield School he attended Byam Shaw School of Art, 1967–70, and Hammersmith School of Art, teachers including Ruskin Spear and Maurice de Sausmarez. Mixed exhibitions included the RA Summer Exhibition from 1970; New Ashgate Gallery, Farnham, 1986; Grosvenor Gallery, 1995; and Highgate Fine Art, 1999. Among later solo show venues were the Philip SANDERSON 1935– Watercolourist, born in Century Gallery, Henley-on-Thames, and Crypt what is now Malaysia, a doctor in pathology with Gallery, both 1996. the National Health Service, 1960–99, who began painting in the late 1980s. He attended courses run Christopher SANDERSON 1939– Sculptor, born in by John Yardley, Tom Coates, Colin Ratcliffe and Jerusalem. He studied at Leeds College of Art, Sallian Putman. Sanderson was a member of the 1955–60, then the Slade School of Fine Art, 1960– Hampstead Artists’ Council, Highgate Watercolour 2. After working for two years in Rome, Sanderson Group and Islington Arts Circle. He showed worked and taught in Yorkshire, visited New York frequently at Lauderdale House, the Royal Free in 1964–5, worked and taught in London, 1966– Hospital and with Barry Keene Gallery, Henley8, then was again in New York. Among his awards on-Thames. London Borough of Camden and was the Prix de Rome, 1962, a John Moores numerous private collections hold his work. Travelling Scholarship, 1964, a Peter Stuyvesant Sanderson’s landscapes were in the free-wash Foundation Travelling Bursary to America in 1965, manner of Yardley, Edward Seago and John Singer a Harkness Foundation Fellowship to America in Sargent. Lived in north London. 1968 and the International Symposium for Sculpture, Yugoslavia, 1971. Sanderson began John S SANDERSON-WELLS 1872–1955 Sporting and showing in group exhibitions at John Moores portrait artist in oil and watercolour, educated at Exhibition, Liverpool, in 1961, had a one-man Woodard Schools, Slade School of Fine Art and show at Axiom Gallery in 1967 and was included at Académie Julian, Paris. He was elected RI in in the RA show British Sculptors ’72, where he 1903 and in later years was its honorary treasurer. showed abstract works in metal and resin, coloured Showed at RBA, Fine Art Society, RA, ROI and and with New York as a theme. Arts Council holds at Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and lived for many years in London. his work.

Printmaker, teacher, born in Malaya. The exotic and Oriental draughtsman, publisher and watercolourist, born featured in Sanderson’s work, which she said in St Albans, Hertfordshire. She studied at the employed self-portraiture quite often “to confront Byam Shaw and Vicat Cole School of Art, then at the stereotype, to voice an opinion on racism, Chelsea School of Art, 1926–9, teachers including generally, personally and from the viewpoint of a Graham Sutherland. In 1929 she married 14

SANDFORD

1902–1993


Christopher Sandford – their son was the writer Jeremy Sandford – and they ran the Boar’s Head Press, then the Golden Cockerel Press. Lettice Sandford illustrated several of their fine books; she produced line and wash drawings for two children’s books of her own; and after World War II illustrated Folio Society books with pen drawings. Her finest work has a sensuous, sinuous quality. After the Golden Cockerel Press was sold in 1959 the Sandfords ran a small museum at Eye Manor, near Leominster, Herefordshire, displaying corn dollies, on which Lettice became an expert. Sandford published Decorative Straw Work and Corn Dollies in 1964. She latterly returned to landscape watercolour painting.

Tampere, and Foire Internationale d’Art Contemporain, Paris, all 2003. Among his many solo exhibitions were Galerie Ulrich Fiedler, Cologne, 2004; and Bernier Eliades, Athens, Greece, Living Rooms, Charles Sandison, Cornerhouse Gallery, Manchester, and Yvon Lambert, New York, America, all 2005. Public collections in Finland, France, and Germany hold Sandison’s works.

George Sommerville SANDILANDS 1889–1961 Painter

and writer on art. Born in Glasgow, Sandilands after university studied art widely on the continent. Exhibited at the RA, NEAC, ROI and elsewhere. Was art critic on the Labour newspaper Daily Herald, 1928–39, followed by 10 years as registrar at the Royal College of Art. Wrote a number of books on painting, including titles on the watercolours of J M W Turner, Frank Brangwyn and William Russell Flint and the anthology of pictures Artists’ Country. Lived at Sanderstead, Surrey.

United Kingdom-born artist and lecturer, shown by the Lisson Gallery, who graduated with honours in fine art photography at Glasgow School of Art, 1988–91, gaining his master’s there, 1991–3. He lectured there as an assistant, 1992–5, other engagements including Tampere School of Art and Media, in Finland, from 1995, becoming head of fine art there, 1997–01; professor, Le Fresnoy National Studio of Arts, Lille, France, from 2003; and in 2004 guest lecturing at the Sorbonne, Paris. Sandison gained numerous grants and awards in Britain and abroad. Later group exhibitions included Museum Morsbroich, Leverkusen, Germany, Brussels Art Fair, Belgium (Gallery Frank, Gallery Baronian-Francey), Conversation Pieces (curated by Pavel Buchler), Manchester; Pirkanmaan 1, Triennaali, Museokeskus Vapriiki,

Self-taught sculptor, printmaker, painter and teacher, born Weymouth, Dorset. Studied at Douglas School of Art and Technology, 1951–4, then at Slade School of Fine Art, 1956–9, teachers including Ceri Richards, Lynton Lamb and Anthony Gross. During 1959– 60 Sandle concentrated on lithography in Paris. He then returned to England to teach, initially at Leicester College of Art, 1961–3, during which he formed the Leicester Group, then at Coventry College of Art until 1968. After several years teaching in Canada, in 1973 Sandle became professor of sculpture in Pforzheim, then in 1980 at Akademie der Bildenden Künste, in Karlsruhe. Sandle participated in many influential group shows in Britain and abroad. He had his first oneman show at Drian Gallery in 1963. Later solo exhibitions included Galerie Suzanne Fischer, Baden-Baden in 1979; Kunstverein, Mannheim, 1983; and several with his dealer Fischer Fine Art. There was an important retrospective at Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1988, which toured to Germany in 1989. Mortality and war were key themes in Sandle’s work which was often on a large scale and owed something to the monumental output of sculptors such as Sir Alfred Gilbert and Charles Sargeant Jagger. Sandle was an outsider, but was elected RA in 1989. Arts Council, Imperial War Museum and Tate Gallery hold examples. Among commissioned works were Memorial for the Victims of a Helicopter Disaster, Mannheim, 1985, St George and the Dragon, London, 1988 and the Malta Siege Memorial, built 1992. In 2001, Sandle’s huge Seafarer’s Memorial, for the International Maritime Organisation headquarters, was placed on the Albert Embankment. Sandle was Michael SANDLE 1936–

Charles SANDISON 1969–

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appointed The Kenneth Armitage Foundation’s Hospitals and, after returning to England, trained first sculptor-in-residence in 2005. Lived in as a nurse at the Royal Free, eventually becoming Launceston, Cornwall. a staff nurse at St Mary’s Hospital; worked for a while in British Columbia, Canada; then as a health Ethel SANDS 1873–1962 Painter of Impressionist visitor in the London area until 1979. She continued pictures, born in Newport, Rhode Island, America. to travel and study art, latterly including etching. As a baby she travelled with her family to England, In 1960, Foyles Gallery gave Sandwith a solo where they settled in London in 1879. With her exhibition, Coolibahs to Coconuts. Her mixedgreat friend the painter Nan Hudson Sands studied show appearances included RA Summer with Eugène Carrière, 1896–1901, and with Henri Exhibition, RBA, SWA and Brighton Art Gallery Evenepoel, 1897. She exhibited in Paris, and in and in 1996 the Heatherley School’s 150th England with Frank Rutter’s AAA, Fitzroy Street anniversary exhibition. While in Australia in the Group and NEAC and was a founder-member of 1952 Sandwith had explored the remote Birdsville LG and a member of WIAC. She had a first London Track, and in 2005 the National Museum of show with Nan Hudson at Carfax Gallery in 1912. Australia in Canberra organised the touring show Was naturalized British 1916 and died in London. In Search of the Birdsville Track, using her Tate Gallery holds her work, which was included drawings, photographs and diaries. The National in Camden Town Recalled, at Fine Art Society, Museum, Auckland Museum in New Zealand and 1976. in London the British Museum and Royal Naval College hold Sandwith’s work. Frederick SANDS 1916–1992 Painter and teacher, born

in Liverpool, where he attended Northway School, studying art with his father, James Sands. During World War II, 1940–5, Sands was a cine cameraman for the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough. Taught art for many years at De La Salle College in Jersey, Channel Islands, where he lived at St Saviour. Was a member of RI, also exhibiting at RA, Paris Salon, Bihan L’Art Contemporain in Paris where he won a diploma, and was a finalist several times, 1981–4, in Hunting Group Art Prizes, also exhibiting in North America. Department of the Environment holds his work.

Sculptor in marble and bronze, sometimes producing witty two-dimensional with colourfully delineated features added. She was the daughter of politician Duncan Sandys and was married to the architect Richard D Kaplan. She was born in London, where she began painting in 1970, taking up sculpting five years later. Moved to America in 1978 and then showed on both sides of the Atlantic. Solo exhibitions began with The Spot and Crane Arts, both 1971, later ones including Women of the Bible at Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York, and Cathedral of St John the Divine there, 1986– Noelle SANDWITH 1927–2006 Artist, nurse and teacher, brought up in Carshalton, Surrey, her 7. United Nations, New York, Geneva and Vienna; parents Francis and Frieda Johnson Sandwith, Der Spiegel, London; and a number of American authors and photojournalists. Noelle studied at collections, including Winston Churchill Memorial Kingston upon Thames, Croydon and Heatherley’s Museum, Fulton, Missouri, hold examples. Schools of Fine Art. She showed an ability to Sheila SANFORD 1922– Watercolourist, born in produce a quick likeness and while working in Singapore, who studied at St Martin’s School of advertising her sketches of film stars were used to Art. She carried out book-jacket work and promote new films. A visit to Australia in 1950 magazine illustration. Was a member of RI and introduced her to the island of Tonga, to which she RMS and showed with Edwin Pollard Gallery, returned to teach English, travelling around the Llewellyn Alexander (Fine Paintings) and Pacific. She was a descendant of William Marsden, Miniature Art Society of Florida, which holds her founder of the Royal Free and Royal Marsden work. Lived at Uploders, Bridport, Dorset. Edwina SANDYS fl. from early 1970s–

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Piero SANSALVADORE 1892–1955 Painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born in Turin, Italy, and self-taught. As well as showing in Italy, he exhibited at the RA, Fine Art Society, RP, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His work – which featured extensive use of the palette knife – was given oneman shows at venues including Fine Art Society, 1938, and the provinces. Was extensively illustrated in publications including Colour, Glasgow Evening News, The Times and The Observer. Lived in London. Tate Gallery archive holds his pencil self-portrait.

Painter in oil, born in London, educated at Benenden School, Kent, and English School of Languages, Chateau d’Oex, Switzerland. She studied at Epsom School of Art, attending her husband Reg Sapp’s portrait class for seven years. They met in Provence on a course directed by Peter Garrard. Prue Sapp was a member of Chelsea Art Society. She first had her work hung in Mall Galleries in a SWA show in 1974 and became a full-time painter in 1986, also exhibiting at Wykeham Galleries, Bourne Gallery in Reigate, NEAC, ROI and RA. Solo shows included Charlotte Lampard Gallery and Hyde Park Gallery, from 1991. Lived in Tadworth, Surrey. Prue SAPP 1928–

Audrey SANT 1926– Portrait and landscape painter,

draughtsman and teacher, born in Sutton, Surrey, initially working under her maiden name Audrey Lewis. She studied at Sutton and Cheam School of Art, 1938–41, graduating in illustration and fashion design from the Royal College of Art, 1941–5. Strong draughtsmanship was a feature of her work, Degas, Augustus John and John Singer Sargent all influences. Sant contributed fashion drawings to Vogue magazine at Condé Nast for six years, and freelanced for the agency J Walter Thompson, which included work for the Sunday Times, Tootal Fabrics and the fashion designer Hardy Amies’s autobiography. She was included in William Packer’s 1983 book Fashion Drawing in Vogue. Sant taught an evening class at Camberwell School of Art, then moved to Suffolk with five children, holding a part-time teaching post at Ipswich School of Art. She exhibited in mixed shows at the Haste Gallery, Ipswich, and Frazer Gallery, Woodbridge. Sant accepted many private portrait commissions in England and France and showed often with the RP and PS at the Mall Galleries. She lived in London and Aldeburgh, Suffolk.

Reg SAPP 1904–1996 Painter in oil and teacher, born

in London, husband of the artist Prue Sapp. He studied at Epsom School of Art, where he later taught for many years, his teachers including Will Evans, Bernard Dunstan and Peter Garrard. Showed at RP and ROI and had a solo show at the Thorndike Theatre, Guildford. Lived in Tadworth, Surrey.

SAQ: see Saqib SHEIKH

Francis William SARGANT 1870–1960 Sculptor, born

in London, brother of the artist Mary Sargant Florence. He was educated at Oxford University, then studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1895– 6, and on the continent for several years. Lived for many years in Florence. Exhibited RA and IS. Represented in Tate Gallery. Sargant’s work, in the Italian Renaissance tradition, is to be found in the war memorial chapel of Oakham School, where he completed stone reliefs. Also finished a memorial to Florence Nightingale in the Church of Santa Croce, Florence. Lived finally in Cambridge.

Sculptor, born in London, son of Sir Percy Sargent. Was educated at in Kingskettle, Fife, and who studied at Gray’s Charterhouse and Cambridge University. Exhibited School of Art, Aberdeen, 1978–83, followed by RA and Paris Salon, gaining a gold medal in 1962. Slade School of Fine Art. Was included in Scottish Lived at Great Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire. Print Open Three, 1983, organised by Dundee Printmakers’ Workshop. Peter SARGINSON 1934– Versatile artist, teacher and administrator, born in Marske-by-the-Sea, John SARGENT 1910–

Anne SAPALSKA 1960– Artist who lived for a time

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Yorkshire, who won a scholarship to Middlesbrough Art School, where he was taught by Joe Cole, a lifelong friend and important influence. With Cole, he was included in The Elemental North at Messum’s in 2005. After National Service, Sarginson spent two years at Bath Academy of Art, Corsham, under Clifford Ellis, the staff including William Scott, Howard Hodgkin and Peter Lanyon. Although he won a prize for life painting, Sarginson spent most of his time making ceramics under James Tower. He then taught ceramics and three-dimensional design at Ripon College before becoming art education officer for the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1978, Sarginson was appointed principal of West Dean College, Sussex, retiring in 1995 and returning to Yorkshire to resume his own work. From drawings and photographs taken on beaches there and from global trips, Sarginson developed images using acrylic paints with added textures. His pictures were severely simplified, reduced in most cases to two bands of colour broken by pattern and texture, the dampness of the shoreline and vast distances being key elements.

taught for Jooss; gave dance recitals on the continent and in London; choreographed and danced for Miles’s Mermaid Theatre; choreographed for the Old Vic; and then in 1953 moved to Devon, where she taught at Dartington and the Bristol Old Vic theatre school. She then changed direction to become a sculptor, studying with David Weeks at Newton Abbot Art School and Willi Soukop, whom she met at Dartington. She and Edward Bailey founded what would become the Devon Guild of Craftsmen. In the 1960s she combined sculpture with teaching movement at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and working in experimental theatre. Exhibitions included Whitechapel Art Gallery (in Education in Art); Fieldbourne Gallery; Gallery Lenten, Deventer, Netherlands; Gallery on the Green, Woburn Green; Casson Gallery; Black Boy Gallery, West Wickham; and The Exhibition Gallery, Milton Keynes, where work was bought by the Bucks County Museum, Aylesbury, and College of Architecture, Milton Keynes. Among Sasburgh’s commissioned works was a group in Portland stone for St Margaret’s School, Torquay; a gargoyle for the Merchant’s House, Totnes; and Yoma SASBURGH 1918–1996 Dancer and sculptor, works for churches in Totnes and St Dennis. born in Amsterdam, Netherlands, taught by Ruth Sasburgh died in Cookham, Berkshire, where she Tobi from the age of 10. She gave recitals and in was involved in Trinity Festival Arts Week. 1936 won a scholarship with the Jooss Dance School at Dartington Hall, Devon. After a year she Cecily SASH 1924– Artist and designer in a range of was offered a place with Ballets Jooss, but she media, and teacher, born in Delmas, Transvaal, chose to return home to become a solo dancer. South Africa. She gained her art teacher’s Next, Tobi enabled Yoma to study classical ballet certificate under Maurice van Essche at Technical Art School, in Paris; in 1939 she went back to the Netherlands; Witwatersrand and with the outbreak of World War II with Tobi’s Johannesburg, 1943–6; taught for a year; studied help she returned to Dartington Hall, meeting the at Chelsea Polytechnic and Camberwell Art School composer Clifton Parker, whom she married. They under Victor Pasmore, 1948–9; worked part-time collaborated on the dance Alla Spagnola, which for her bachelor’s degree in fine arts at University she later danced for Charles Cochran. The couple of Witwatersrand, 1952–4, creating mosaic and hit lean times early in the war, but an introduction mural designs in London in 1953; researched to Bernard Miles and through him one to Henry tertiary art education in Europe and America under Oscar, involved in ENSA (Entertainments National an Oppenheimer Grant, 1965; and was awarded Service Association), led to new work. In the busy her master’s (Rand), in 1972. Sash was art mistress 1940s and into the 1950s Sasburgh appeared at at Jeppe Girls’ High School, Johannesburg, 1952– The Night Light night-club; worked with Herbert 8, being appointed a part-time lecturer in art and and Eleanor Farjeon; toured with Ballets Jooss and design at Witwatersrand University, 1954, and 18


became full-time senior lecturer in charge of design, 1960. Early in her career, Sash aroused interest with her stimulating teaching methods. She began to receive commissions for murals, which eventually adorned many public buildings in South Africa, while her easel work moved gradually towards abstraction. She was an original member of the Amadlozi Group. In 1966, Sash was named Best Woman Artist in the last Artists of Fame and Promise competition and in 1968 was awarded a Bronze Medal at the biennial South African Breweries Art Prize. Sash’s international group exhibitions included São Paulo Biennale, 1963 and 1967; Venice Biennale, 1964, 1966 and 1986; and Florence Biennale, 1972. Her extensive solo exhibitions, with a series in South Africa, included latterly the Millinery Works Gallery, 2002 and 2004, and there was a shared exhibition at Duncan Campbell Fine Art, 2003. The National Gallery in Cape Town; Durban Art Gallery; University of Natal, Durban; and University of South Africa are among many public collections holding examples. She latterly lived in Wales.

Kenneth James SATERLAY 1932–1983 Painter of miniatures and small pictures “of wild flowers in their natural habitat”, as he described them, Saterlay was born in London. He studied at the London College of Photographic Arts in the late 1940s. Early on he worked in pastel and watercolour but latterly favoured oils. Exhibited at RA, NEAC, Paris Salon, ROI and elsewhere and lived in Rayleigh, Essex.

Painter and draughtsman who drew on images derived from magazines and postcards, that “often lie dormant until a memory or sense of recognition stirs and they are renewed as the basis of a painting.” One example was the cartoon character Moomin, the subject of her John Moores Liverpool Exhibition contribution in 2004. Sato was born in Japan and studied in London at the City and Guilds of London Art School, 1994– 7. She then attended the Royal Academy Schools, 1998–01, on a Goldman and McAulay Scholarship, becoming a fellow in fine art there, 2001–2. Group shows included Cheltenham Open Drawing Exhibition, from 1998; RA Summer Exhibition, Eyal SASSON 1968– Painter whose picture Untitled, from 1999; Miniature Raid Projects, Los of a huge range of snowy mountains, included in Angeles/Kyubidou Gallery, Tokyo, 2003; and New the 1999–00 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, British Painting II, John Hansard Gallery, was created using such techniques as photographic Southampton, 2004. Among solo exhibitions was computer scanning, colour separation printmaking, domoBaal Contemporary Art, 2005. Sato lived in pouncing and glazing. Sasson was born in Israel east London. and studied at Kalisher College of Art, Tel-Aviv, 1991–2; Belazel Academy of Art and Design, Saki SATOM 1969– Artist, born in Tokyo, Japan, Jerusalem, 1992–6; and the Royal College of Art studying there and at Goldsmiths’ College. Satom from 1998, with a Clore Scholarship. The London- was living in London when the video M. Station Backward was exhibited in 1998 in East based artist also exhibited in Israel. International at the Norwich Gallery, Norwich Eric SATCHWELL 1926– Painter influenced by Old School of Art. Satom wrote: “I have been interested Masters, especially the Venetian School, in his use in mass, its power and emotion. Especially in of colour, who was born in Northampton, attended limited spaces such as tube stations and train the School of Art there and then Institute of stations, everybody uses the same routes to get in, Education in London. Served in the Army and spent go out or go somewhere. There are plenty of 18 months in Venice. Was art master at Salford emotions and movements circulating in these Grammar School and chairman of Salford Arts spaces.” Committee, 1951–3. Exhibited at MAFA and elsewhere in Lancashire. Manchester City Art Isabel SAUL 1895–1982 Artist in watercolour, Gallery has his oil Playing Fields, 1953, Salford tempera and etching, miniaturist and teacher, born and lived in Southbourne, near Bournemouth, Art Gallery The Chip Shop, 1952. Miho SATO 1967–

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Hampshire. She attended Bournemouth Municipal School of Art and went on to specialise in ecclesiastical subjects and portraits. York Minster, Carlisle and Salisbury Cathedrals hold examples. She exhibited at RA 1926–1966, usually portraits or flower studies, and was a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts until 1981. Saul’s work was included by Rachel Moss in her show Stained Glass Designs at the Maas Gallery, 1998.

2002. Arts Council, National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, WAC and Dean Clough Collection, Halifax, hold examples.

Painter, notably in watercolour, born in Colchester, Essex, near where she eventually settled at Copford. Her father was the artist William Francis Burton, her mother the painter Elizabeth Crampton-Gore and for a time she showed as Georgina Williams. Attended Colchester School of Art, having had lessons from her father, but was mainly self-taught. Painted prolifically in Australia, William Russell Flint, Monet and Whistler being influences, but was later influenced by the Symbolists. Showed at Arts Council Gallery, in East Anglia and privately. Georgina SAUNDERS 1946–

Coleman SAUNDERS 1955– Sculptor who worked variously as a prop maker, builder and designer and who was interested in the use of mirrors; he liked their mystery and atmosphere and “differing levels of interpretation”. Saunders studied at St Martin’s School of Art. Mixed exhibitions included Sculpture on the South Bank, 1977; SPACE Studios Open Exhibition, from 1981; and Brixton Gwen SAUNDERS fl. c.1950–1975 Painter in oil and watercolour, born in Dunedin, New Zealand. She Gallery, 1984. studied at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art and David SAUNDERS 1936– Painter, constructions artist, showed at RA, ROI, RBA and at Paris Salon. Lived teacher and musician, born Southend, Essex. He in London. studied at St Martin’s School of Art and Royal Academy Schools, 1956–62, then began teaching, Helen SAUNDERS 1885–1963 Painter of abstracts and including Liverpool Polytechnic. Saunders still life, born in Croydon, Surrey. She studied at produced his first Systematic-Constructive works the Slade School of Fine Art, 1906–7, and Central in 1967, then in 1969 began collaborative work School of Arts and Crafts. Her early work was with composers and co-founded the Systems Group abstract, but shortly after World War I she moved of artists. He was artist-in-residence at Sussex towards a naturalistic style. She showed with Frank University, 1970, and at Stedelijk Museum, Rutter’s AAA from 1912; LG 1916; and latterly Amsterdam, 1972, where he made an intensive with Holborn Art Society in London, near to where study of the works of Piet Mondrian. In 1978 she lived. She was a signatory of the Vorticist Saunders began investigations into colour Manifesto in Blast No. 1, contributed to the functions, in 1985 being co-organiser of the Vorticist show in 1915 and was represented in the exhibition Colour Presentations, a Clwyd Arts & Twentieth Century Art exhibition at Whitechapel Exhibitions Service touring show, while living in Art Gallery in 1914. Tate Gallery holds several north Wales. In 1994 Saunders returned to live in examples of her abstract style. Ashmolean Museum London. In Wales he was a member of the 56 in Oxford held a survey show in 1996. Group. Other group exhibitions included Survey Kay SAUNDERS 1946– Abstract painter, collagist, ’67 at Camden Arts Centre, 1967; Matrix, Arnolfini sculptor and teacher, born in Blackpool, Gallery, Bristol, 1971; Systems, Whitechapel Art Lancashire. She went to Australia in 1968 and Gallery and Arts Council tour, 1972; Four British began painting, attending evening classes in Constructivists, Engstrom Gallery, Stockholm, Sydney. Returning to England she did a foundation 1983; and Mostyn Open Exhibition 5, Oriel course at Wimbledon School of Art, 1974–5, then Mostyn, Llandudno, 1994. Had a solo show at AIA an honours degree in fine art at Kingston School Gallery, 1965, later ones including Janus Avivson of Art, 1975–8. Began teaching adults in 1982 and Gallery, 1995, and Dean Clough Galleries, Halifax, 20


later was a visiting artist at Hardingham Sculpture Workshop, Norfolk, and a visiting lecturer at St Albans School of Art/Hertfordshire University, both from 1986; taught at Open College of the Arts from 1989; was artist-in-residence at Stoke-onTrent Museum and Art Gallery (it holds her work), 1990; and was an artist/teacher at Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1991. In 1982 she won Lambeth Arts Council and Elephant Trust Awards. Took part in many mixed shows, solo exhibitions including Greenwich Theatre Gallery, 1989, and Kepler Gallery, 1992. Lived in London.

LG and RA. He had a solo show at Cadogan Contemporary in 1990. Arts Council holds his work.

Robert A SAUNDERS 1950– Painter and curator, born

in Paisley, Scotland. He studied at Glasgow School of Art and Moray House College in Edinburgh. He twice won the John and Mabel Craig Award as well as a Scottish Arts Council Bursary. Saunders went on to become art director for Paisley Museum and Art Galleries, 1975, then from 1978 deputy director of arts and libraries for Renfrew District Council. He selected and co-ordinated the first big exhibition Nina SAUNDERS 1958– Sculptor, born in Denmark, of Scottish painting in 1983. Saunders’ work was who transformed furniture into sculpture, as in described as “unashamedly hedonist”, featuring Young British Artists VI, Saatchi Gallery, 1996, elegant ladies in fashionable interiors or at Ascot, the critic Sarah Kent commenting that Saunders’ “seductive often sensual, attractive yet sculptures “often encapsulate bitter childhood unthreatening”. He showed at RSA, Glasgow Art memories”. From 1986–91 she gained an honours Club, Edinburgh Arts Club and Duncan Campbell degree in fine art and critical studies at Central St Contemporary Art, where he had a solo exhibition Martins College of Art and Design and worked in in 1992. Typical Robert Saunders works were London. In 1997 Saunders appeared in the BBC2 included in the Summer 2003 exhibition at Television series A Date with an Artist, in which Albemarle Gallery. He shared a show with Jeremy she created an artwork on a beekeeping theme. Her Barlow there in 2004. concrete armchair, Hardback, was sited at The Economist Plaza in 2000; in 2002, at The Kiosk, Roy SAUNDERS 1911– Etcher and teacher, born in Kynaston Road, Saunders’ installation Forever Cardiff, where he studied at the School of Art, fitted out the gallery as a living room; and in 2005– 1929–34, under the painter Wilson Jagger. Showed 6 Saunders’ Autumn Leaves was an installation of RCamA, RWA, SWAS, Swansea Art Society and new sculpture at New Art Centre, East Winterslow. elsewhere, having a number of one-man shows including Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, Lived in London. Pump Rooms in Bath and Royal National Peter SAUNDERS 1940– Painter, draughtsman, Eisteddfod, Wales. Member of SWAS. Lived at muralist and teacher, born in Bicester, Oxfordshire. Rhiwbina, Cardiff. He attended Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1957–61, Slade School of Fine Art, 1961–3, with Ramiro Fernández SAUS 1961– Artist born in a postgraduate year in painting in 1963–4, in 1964 Sabadell, Spain, who graduated from the Facultat going on a private scholarship to Greece. From de Belles Arts, Barcelona, in 1984. Among his 1982 he was a teacher at Sir John Cass arts faculty, awards was a scholarship to work abroad, being a visiting lecturer at Newcastle University. Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona, 1989, which Completed a mural for National Trust. Among his resulted in a year’s residence at Delfina Studios, several prizes were a first prize in the Spirit of London. He took part in many group exhibitions London show at Royal Festival Hall in 1980, in Spain and Venezuela, as well as in Britain, another in The World of Newspapers at Sotheby’s including Paton Gallery, 1989; Olympia in 1982. His other mixed exhibi- tion appearances Contemporary Art Fair, 1990; and Romantic included Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, Spanish Painting, Long & Ryle, and Nature and Whitechapel Open at Whitechapel Art Gallery and Reverie, Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, both 1992. 21


Exhibited solo prolifically from 1979, with a series at Long & Ryle from 1990, including The garden of Edén, 1997, which included lush paintings and polychromed bronze figures. Several Spanish galleries hold his work.

War I Sava was in turn interpreter for the Serbian, French, Italian and British headquarters. In 1920 he settled in London, where he made a living as caricaturist and portrait sculptor, but remained a keen traveller. He had solo exhibitions at the Fine Art Society, 1926 (it featured him in its 1986 exhibition Sculpture In Britain Between The Wars); French Gallery, 1929; and Leicester Galleries, 1938. Sava’s subjects included George Bernard Shaw (offered in The Irish Sale, Sotheby’s, 1998), James Joyce, Haile Selassie the Emperor of Ethiopia, Edith Sitwell, Gilbert Murray and Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson. Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, holds his head of Frank Brangwyn, donated by the then-curator Vincent Galloway, a friend of Sava’s. In 1941 Sava emigrated to Venezuela, where he was naturalised in 1947.

Painter, printmaker, illustrator and poet, son of the artist George Sauter. He was educated at Harrow School, studying art in London and Munich, his father having come from Bavaria. Sauter had strong literary interests, being a member of the writers’ club PEN; he illustrated a definitive edition of works by the novelist John Galsworthy, whom he drew in 1927, Sauter’s mother being Lilian Galsworthy. Showed at RA, RI, PS, in the provinces, in Paris at the Salon where he gained an Hon. Mention and widely in America. Had oneman shows in London and New York. National Portrait Gallery, RWA and Ferens Art Gallery in Hull hold his work. Much of Sauter’s work was destroyed in a fire in the early 1980s, yet a lot is in private hands in South Africa. A great traveller, he celebrated his eightieth birthday with a glider flight. Although Sauter’s work is mainly figurative, late in life he did a series of pastel abstracts. Lived at Butterow, near Stroud, in Gloucestershire. Rudolf Helmut SAUTER

1895–1977

Donald Percy SAVAGE: see Percy SAVAGE

Francis SAVAGE 1908–1985 Painter, born in Wallasey, Cheshire, partly educated at George Watson’s College, Edinburgh. He studied art there and in Bristol. Savage was chairman of Salcombe Art Club, Devon, where he lived, also exhibiting at RA, ROI, RI, at the Paris Salon and elsewhere.

Versatile artist, lecturer, writer and curator who studied foundation at Anastas Botzaritch SAVA 1894–1965 Sculptor and caricaturist, also known as Sava Botzaris or Sava Shelley Park, Bournemouth, then gained an Botzaritch, born in Belgrade. He was the son and honours degree in fine art at University of Wales pupil of Cavaliere Anastas Botzaritch Sava, Institute, Cardiff, with her master’s there, 1999. historical artist, professor at the National Serbian Savage was a member of the artists’ collective, School of High Art and court painter to King Peter Siege. Jennie Savage established, edited and ran I of Serbia. Sava was originally intended for the Skip Magazine, covering contemporary Welsh diplomatic service and took a post in Serbia’s culture, and also wrote for Artists Newsletter; was embassy in Rome. On moving to Athens, Greece, an education and outreach officer at g39, Cardiff; he met the sculptor Ivan and lecturer at University of Wales Institute and Mesˇtrovicˇ, with whom he later elsewhere. Her exhibitions included Pistol, g39, worked in Belgrade, and under his influence turned 1998; Fresh 2, Chapter Arts Centre, 1999; Modern purposefully to art. As well as studying at Naples Fairy Tales, City Gallery, Leicester, 2000; and Art University’s faculty of Oriental languages he was from Wales – A New Generation, Open Space, also a student of the artist Pellegrini in that city Milan, Italy, 2001. Lived in Cardiff. and at the Royal Academy of Arts, Rome, being a Percy SAVAGE 1926– Artist who had a varied career prize winner for portraiture; in France, at the École in the fashion industry, full name Donald Percival Nationale des Beaux-Arts and Atelier Cormon in Savage. His father was employed as a civil engineer Paris; and in Russia. A good linguist, during World Jennifer SAVAGE 1975–

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for the Nizam of Hyderabad, India. Savage was born in Ipswich, Queensland, Australia, and was educated at St George’s School, Hyderabad; at Ipswich Grammar School; and at Knox College in Sydney. Savage’s art education included East Sydney Technical College, in Darlinghurst, New South Wales, 1945–6, and he taught at Knox College in Sydney for a year. He also studied at L’École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1946–9, under Roger Chapelain-Midy, and at L’École du Louvre. In London after World War II, he took part in group exhibitions at the Australian High Commission, Redfern and O’Hana Galleries and also worked with Jean Cocteau on murals at the church of Notre Dame de France, Leicester Place. Savage had solo shows in Italy: at Obeliska Gallery, Palermo, 1950 and in Rome shortly after. Early in Savage’s fashion industry career he was a designer, especially of silk squares, for Lanvin, Paris, 1951, heading the firm’s publicity department, 1952–9. After working as a freelance public relations man at Nina Ricci, Paris, 1960–6, he was in the fur fashion industry, principally with Boris Solomon, Paris, 1958–78, travelling in Russia, Ethiopia and Scandinavia. He worked for Lady Claire Rendlesham, editor of Vogue, London, 1969–73; organised the New Wave exhibition at the Ritz Hotel, London, including designers Wendy Dagworthy and Bruce Oldfield, 1973; London Designer Collections, Montcalm Hotel, London, 1975; and The London Collections, 1975–81. In the 1980s Savage was a contributor to Art and Design magazine and for a time was fashion editor of Mayfair Times. He lived in north London.

Roma SAVEGE 1907– Artist in various media, especially Plaka gouache, born in Christchurch, New Zealand. She attended the College of Fine Arts there, 1926–8, and studied with Cecil and Elizabeth Kelly and their group. In 1928 moved to England to sing, but instead had three years in the theatre, two at Bristol’s Little Theatre, then touring in Middle East. She was a honorary member of NS and a member of Free Painters and Sculptors and the Art Society in Richmond, Surrey, where she settled. Showed solo with Richmond

Hill Gallery, also exhibiting with Contemporary Portrait Society, NEAC and elsewhere. Among her main works was a series of six steel figures, The Listeners, The Warners and The Protectors. Colour relationships, the importance of drawing and simplification were cited as key interests.

Ursula SAVILL fl. from mid-1960s– Watercolourist and draughtsman who meticulously recorded the lives of remote peoples, animals and birds. She was taught as a child by Oscar Thompsett, then studied fine art and ceramics at Brighton College of Art,

1959–64. After living in the Far East and Australia, Savill’s interests took her, in 1978, to Papua New Guinea. She spent four years among the people of the Southern and Eastern Highlands, learning about their customs and making studies of their dress and decoration and natural environment. After two years in England she moved to Africa and from 1985– 90 lived with the Samburu tribe in Northern Kenya, then spent much time with the Turkana and Rendille peoples, engaged in a similar project to that in Papua New Guinea. She was accompanied at all times by guides to protect her from any danger. Savill attended performances and rehearsals of the Royal Ballet when visiting Nairobi, part of a fundraising drive known as Dances for Elephants. The event was to raise money for anti-poaching activities and protection of the endangered Grevy zebra. The auctioning of her pictures raised $10,000. Saville also sought to publicise the plight of the Turkana people who suffered from Hydatid disease. Showed with World Wildlife Fund Exhibition, 1976; Association of British Illustrators, 1983; RBA, 1984; and SWLA, Mall Galleries, 1991. Solo shows included Royal Geographical Society, 1990. Her home was in Storrington, Sussex.

Painter and draughtsman, born in Cambridge, who studied at the School of Art in Glasgow, where she lived, 1988–92. In 1990 she exhibited in the National Portrait Competition at National Portrait Gallery and in the Van Gogh Self Portrait Competition, Burrell Collection, Glasgow; in 1992 she was the critic Clare Henry’s selection in Critics Choice at The Cooling Gallery, exhibited in Art Parcels at Frost & Reed and at SSA. Saville’s contribution to Young British Artists III at The Saatchi Gallery, 1994, gained much critical coverage for her depictions of huge female nudes, covered with slogans and graffiti. In 2003, Saville had her first solo exhibition since 1998, entitled Migrants, at Gagosian Gallery, New York. Jenny SAVILLE 1970–

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This was described as her most sporadic and experimental show so far. “I’ve used many different sources, like newspapers and medical books. I work from photography all the time. But I try to find what paint can do that photography cannot. For me, it’s the surface that makes the difference.” The Saatchi Collection holds her work.

Katherine William-Powlett Watercolour Prize in 1997. Solo exhibitions included The Wykeham Gallery, Stockbridge, 2002, and Panter & Hall, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. In the year prior to that Sawyer travelled extensively while finding time to explore the countryside of his new home in southwest France. He wrote many instructional articles for the national art press.

Artist, born in Saitama, Japan, who graduated in economics at Chuo University, Tokyo, 1986–90, then, at Goldsmiths’ College, gained a certificate for postgraduate fine art, 1998–9, a postgraduate diploma in fine art, 1999–00, and a master’s in fine art, 2000–1. Works by Sawayanagi, using such means as mixed-media installation and video projection, were included in Beck’s Futures 2002, ICA and tour, 2002–3. Among other exhibitions were Young Visitors, Reed’s Wharf Gallery, 1997; Sensation from Goldsmiths’, Uenonomori Gallery, Tokyo, 1998; and Young Observers: Japan, The Albert, 1999. Hideyuki SAWAYANAGI 1966–

Fred SAWYER 1907–1976 Artist in black-and-white;

draughtsman. Brought up in Leicester, he attended the College of Art there. Showed at Leicester Museum and Art Gallery and widely in Nottingham and Leicester area, where he lived at Oadby.

Dorothy SAWYERS: see Dorothy FULLER

Robert SAWYERS 1924– Painter and teacher who studied at Beckenham School of Art, Royal College of Art and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence, Italy, 1952. He taught in Leeds, Middlesbrough and Kingston, Jamaica, 1959–63. His shows included the RA Summer Exhibition. Hove Museum & Art Gallery holds his atmospheric Italian Station Café. Sawyers lived for a time in Lawn, Gillingham, Dorset. The Blue Rider Gallery, Mere, latterly showed his work.

Artist, born in Inowracław, Poland. She studied art in England at the School of Photo-engraving & Lithography and the Polish School of Painting under Professor Marian Bohusz-Szysko. Sawicka exhibited at the RBA Gallery and with the Association of Polish Artists in Great Britain, winning the Garby Prize in 1971. Magda SAWICKA fl. from 1960s–

Painter, commercial artist and teacher, born in Retford, Nottinghamshire. He studied at Stafford School of Art with William Cartledge and with Stanley Smith, 1930–2. Went on to teach at that school, also Wolverhampton School of Art, 1932–3. Showed with NWG, Denbighshire Art Society of which he was a member and elsewhere in north Wales. Lived in Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire.

Richard SAXTON 1909–

Publisher and painter, born in Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham, who was educated at Barnard Castle. After 20 years in advertising he became a publisher, his titles including The Artist and Paris Salon Illustrated. Showed at RI and elsewhere. Lived in London, Harry SAYCE 1918–2001 Artist and teacher, born in later Bournemouth, Hampshire. Islington, north London, who began his training at Harrow School of Art in 1938, also studying David SAWYER 1961– Painter of atmospheric landscapes in Britain and abroad, born in London. under Edward Morss at Colchester School of Art, He graduated from Canterbury College of Art, 1942. During World War II he was a lithographic 1979–83, then spent several years travelling artist with the Royal Engineers Survey through Europe studying and painting. Sawyer was (Reproduction Unit) in North Africa and Italy, a member of the RBA and showed with the NEAC; where in 1945 he took a course at the Instituta delle RI; and Chelsea Art Society, where he won the Arte in Florence. After the war he completed his studies at Hammersmith College of Art under Harold SAWKINS 1888–1957

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Ruskin Spear and Robert Rutter, then did a teachertraining course at Trent Park College of Education. Sayce combined teaching art at secondary level, at Henry Compton School and North Paddington School, where he was head of art, with producing and showing his own work. He retired in 1978. He employed a wide range of media, favouring figure pictures, landscapes and still life. Sayce showed at the RA Summer Exhibition, RBA, New Burlington Gallery, AIA, the Football Association competition Football and the Fine Arts in 1953, at the Piccadilly Gallery, with groups around his home in Chiswick and in the provinces. The Arts Council also toured his work. Sayce was a Chelsea Arts Club member.

of Art, 1936–7. During World War II was a meteorological officer with Fleet Air Arm. Went on to hold various teaching posts, retiring from St Paul’s College of Education, Cheltenham, in 1976. Was a member of RWA and RE, also showing at RA, West Country galleries such as Patricia Wells Gallery, Thornbury, on the continent and abroad. Lived at Sheepscombe, Gloucestershire.

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Kent, who obtained a diploma in fine art from Slade School of Fine Art, 1974–8. Between 1979–81 Sayers was studio assistant to Lawrence Gowing; he was visiting tutor in the drawing schools at Eton College, 1983–4; then taught art part-time at City of Westminster College from 1987. Awards included Winsor & Newton, 1978; Richard Ford, 1979; and The Discerning Eye, Mall Galleries, 1995. Mixed shows included RA Summer Exhibition, from 1986; Riverside Open, Riverside Studios, 1990; The Hunting Art Prizes, London/Glasgow, 1994; and the 6th Oriel Mostyn Open, Llandudno, 1994–5. Had a series of solo shows at London & Ryle, also one at Hohenthal & Littler, Munich, Germany, 1995. Sayers was noted for his meticulously crafted still lifes of domestic objects, not painted before the subject but constructed from memory. His landscapes sometimes alluded to other painters’ works. Lived in London. Brian SAYERS 1954–

Artist and teacher who studied at Chelsea School of Art under Henry Moore and Graham Sutherland, followed by a period at Ben Nicholson’s studio in Paris. After founding the short-lived Mousehole Group with George Lambourn and Guy Allen, Sayer turned to commercial work, engaged in major advertising campaigns and book illustration. At the same time, he exhibited with the Redfern, Leicester and Storran Galleries. Sayer was a natural teacher and by 1966 teaching had become his full-time job, until he retired as head of the Chelsea and Westminster Adult Education Institute. His work owed debts to Nicholson’s and to NeoRomanticism, woman in nature being a key theme. Some of his most sensitive images appeared in small ink and wash form, in which timeless natural forms incorporated the gentle forms of scarcely visible nudes. Sayer produced figurative and abstract pictures, but maintained that the life class was always of central importance. Following a 1994 sell-out show at Hicks Gallery, Wimbledon, The Healing Arts, a Chelsea & Westminster arts project, chose 10 works by Sayer for its permanent collection. Hicks Gallery showed more pictures by Sayer in 2006. Derrick SAYER 1917–1992

Painter, printmaker and teacher, born in Isleworth, Middlesex. He studied at Willesden Art School, 1930–3, Royal College of Art, 1933–6, and Goldsmiths’ College School

Katy SAYERS 1961– Versatile artist who graduated

with fine art honours from Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford, 1981–4, taking part in a group show at the Museum of Modern Art there in 1982, in 1983 taking up a summer scholarship to Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in America. Among other group shows were Winchester School of Art, 1985, and East End Open Studios, at Angel Studios, 1989. In 1986, Sayers was awarded a mural commission by Camden Council.

Painter and draughtsman, notably in pastel, born in London, who studied in Paris in 1921–4. Exhibited RA, Paris Salon and elsewhere. Geological Society of London holds

Molly SAYERS 1904–

Harold SAYER 1913–1993

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her work. Lived in Bramley, Surrey.

Exhibitions. Solo shows included Greenwich Theatre Gallery, 1968; Woodlands Art Gallery, 1978; Royal Over-Seas League, 1985; Obelisk Gallery, 1988; and Old Bakehouse Theatre, Blackheath Village, 2000, coinciding with publication of Scales’ book Visions of Greenwich Reach. His first novel, Bermondsey Boys, appeared in 1999. A Homage to the Working Thames, Terry Scales’ 2003 retrospective, was the largest then held by a contemporary artist at Guildhall Art Gallery. His exhibition Blackfriars Bridge to Shoreham Valley followed at Chapel Gallery, Bexley, in 2004. In 2005, Scales was included in Art in Britain 1945 to 1985 at Harlequin Gallery. Scales’s show The Serene World of Still-Life was at Hall Place & Gardens, Bexley, in 2006. During his years as a docker Scales drew portraits of veteran colleagues in Surrey Docks for the SURDOC magazine, aptly signing them Justice. Examples were shown in A Thames Elegy at Café Gallery, Rotherhithe, 1995. Landmark Trust and Guildhall Art Gallery hold his work.

Norman SAYLE 1926– Painter mainly in watercolour,

and teacher, born in Douglas, Isle of Man, who eventually returned there to live at Onchan. He studied at Goldsmiths’ College, qualifying in 1952, taught in Kent, 1952–4, then was head of art at Isle of Man College of Further Education, 1954–89. Was a member of RI from 1995. Sayle was mainly a painter of landscape, strongly influenced by Archibald Knox and J S Cotman. His aim was “to reconcile complexity and simplicity: structure very important.” Sayle showed extensively in the Isle of Man. In 1994, 1995 and 2002 he won third prizes in the Singer & Friedlander/Sunday Times Watercolour Competitions, at Mall Galleries, gaining the first prize in 1997. At the same Galleries in 1995 he won the RI Medal. Also exhibited at Richard Hagen Gallery, Broadway. Isle of Man Arts Council holds Sayle’s work.

Painter, born in Newark, Nottinghamshire. She studied at Lincoln High School, then went to Nottingham School of Art. She showed at RA, RI, ROI, Paris Salon and at many other venues. Museum of London holds several watercolours of the capital by her. Lived finally at Monks Eleigh, near Ipswich, Suffolk. Edith SCALES 1892–

Ann SCAMPTON 1933– Painter and architect, born

in Shanghai, China, daughter of an architect. Studied at Royal West of England Academy School of Architecture. Was elected RWA and showed at Waterloo Gallery and elsewhere. Lived at Chew Magna, Somerset. Terence SCALES 1932– Painter in oil and watercolour and teacher, born and lived in southeast London. John SCANES 1928–2004 Self-taught artist and He attended Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, teacher, born in Whitechapel, east London. Aged 1946–52, first as a junior, later taking diploma in 14, he began to draw and sketch while working as fine art. His teachers included John Minton, Susan an office boy in the City during World War II. After Einzig, Keith Vaughan and William Coldstream, National Service, he worked in the paper and the last two collecting Scales’ early work. Did his pharmaceutical industries before becoming a fullNational Service in Royal Air Force, 1952–4, then time painter, draughtsman and sculptor in 1959. worked in Surrey Docks as a docker before being He was part of the early-1960s movement to bring invited to teach part-time at Camberwell’s painting art within the reach of everyone, showing at department, where he remained for 32 years from Whitechapel Art Gallery and elsewhere. He taught 1960. The Neo-Romantic and Euston Road strains in the graphic design department at the Central both affected Scales’ work, which eventually School of Art in the mid-late 1960s. After his wife’s moved towards a form of urban realism, the death in 1969 he resigned from the school, Thames being a strong source of pictorial ideas. returning to freelancing and exhibiting until his Mixed shows included Scottish Arts Council, ICA, death, his work being covered in newspaper and Ikon Gallery in Birmingham, Whitechapel Art Sunday supplement articles. Scanes was a member Gallery, Austin/Desmond Fine Art and RA Summer of the Bayswater Road Artists’ Association. He 26


worked in mixed media, juxtaposing low-relief metal sculpture with painting and drawing and experimented with fire and the effects of charring. His major theme was dictated by his wife’s death: Lazarus and the concepts of resurrection, rebirth and material change. Scanes illustrated two poetic cycles to explore this theme: the Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam and the Celtic Tree Alphabet in the Song of Amergin from The White Goddess, by Robert Graves. In his later years Scanes became increasingly reclusive and reluctant to exhibit his major work, wanting an informed audience to see and discuss it with him. He moved to Faringdon, Oxfordshire in 1997, where he continued working and exhibiting until he died. There was a retrospective at Sewell Centre Gallery, Radley College, Oxford, in 2005. It was accompanied by an extensive colour catalogue which included Scanes’ memories of his childhood in the East End.

1953 gained Abbey Memorial Travelling Scholarship and spent a year in Italy. Showed at LG, in mixed shows in Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and RA. In 1988 shared an exhibition at Brunel Gallery, in 1996 having a solo show at Dolphin House Gallery, Colyton. Lived at Nether Compton, near Sherborne, Dorset.

Cartoonist and designer, sculptor, painter and printmaker who was born and lived in London. He attended the Royal College of Art and then established a wide reputation as a cartoonist with strong satirical and political interests. Publications worked for included Private Eye, The Daily Mail, Punch and Time magazine. Was involved with the BBC in animation and film direction; designed and directed animated sequences in the film The Wall, 1982; designed for Who’s a Lucky Boy? at Royal Exchange, Manchester, 1984, for Orpheus in the Underworld, English National Opera, 1985, and The Nutcracker, English National Ballet, 2002. Books included Gerald Scarfe’s People, 1966, Gerald Scarfe, 1982, the autobiographical Scarfe by Scarfe, 1986, televised in 1987, and Scarfeland, 1989. Group shows included Violence in Contemporary Art, ICA, 1964, Grosvenor Gallery from 1969, and Expo ’70, Osaka, 1970. His first solo show was at Horse Shoe Wharf Club, 1966, later ones including Waddell Gallery, New York, from 1968, National Portrait Gallery, 1971, a retrospective at Royal Festival Hall in 1983, and Chris Beetles, 1989. Heroes and Villains: Gerald Scarfe at the National Portrait Gallery was in 2003. In 2005, a Fine Art Society retrospective of Scarfe’s drawings covering the years 1963–04 showed him at his most scathingly savage, targets including major politicians of the period as well as members of the British royal family. Gerald SCARFE 1936–

Robert SCANLAN 1908– Painter, printmaker, mural artist and illustrator, born in Cork, Ireland. Studied art in London and widely on the continent. Worked for Central Office of Information, London Passenger Transport Board and J Lyons & Co. Exhibited Festival of Britain, Leicester Galleries and abroad including North and South America. Imperial War Museum bought his work. Lived in London.

Claire SCANLON 1962– After graduating with honours from Brighton Polytechnic, 1981–4, Scanlon gained her master’s at Goldsmiths’ College, 1987–9. She was included in the Interim Show there, 1988–9, also in Into the Nineties, Mall Galleries, and East End Open Studios, based at Unit 7, Peckham Road, both in 1989.

Painter and teacher who studied painting at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1946–9. Originally she painted under her maiden name of Higson, which changed when she married the poet Vernon Scannell in 1954, after which there was an interlude, while she brought up her family, until 1982. After leaving Camberwell she taught at Wisbech High School for Girls for a year, then from 1950 at Leeds College of Art. In Jo SCANNELL 1925–

Laurence SCARFE 1914–1993 Artist and designer in

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wide range of media, writer and teacher, born in Idle, Yorkshire. He studied at Shipley Art School, then Royal College of Art, 1933–7, specializing in mural painting. Scarfe lectured at Bromley School of Art, 1937–9, then at Central School of Art, 1945–70, and for about a decade from 1971


at Brighton Polytechnic. His murals included the Regatta Restaurant and Dome of Discovery for the Festival of Britain, Coronation Pavilion for Imperial Chemical Industries and for P&O Orient Lines the liners Orcades and Oriana. Scarfe designed extensively for print, including the Royal Coat of Arms for Central Office of Information. He was art editor and a contributor to The Saturday Book and illust- rated for Radio Times. Scarfe’s books included Rome: Fragments in the Sun, 1950, and Alphabets: History of Calligraphy and Typography, 1954. He was a member of the Society of Mural Painters and a fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists. He exhibited at RA, RBA and at the Leicester, Zwemmer and Redfern Galleries. Victoria & Albert Museum, Imperial War Museum and Brighton Museum & Art Gallery have holdings of his work. Lived in London.

Manic Artists, 1990, both at Cane Hill, Coulsdon. Natural History Museum, Bethlem Archive and Bromley Museum hold his work. He lived in Bromley Common, Kent.

John SCARLAND 1947– Artist

in oil, gouache and charcoal, born in Bletchingley, Surrey. He was mainly self-taught by study of previous painters’ work but had a short period working with Charles Bartlett. Scarland’s work was originally mainly landscape, then figurative. In late 1980s he moved towards becoming a full-time artist, having worked for many years in landscape design and in the building industry as a carpenter. Scarland’s work was exhibited at RWS Open, Mall Galleries, Bourne Gallery in Reigate and Cider House Gallery, Bletchingley; at several London art fairs including The World of Watercolours; and he had a series of solo exhibitions, including studio shows SCARIX! 1933– This was the working name of Peter and Horsham Arts Centre, 1997. Francis Iles Nolan Lawrence, born in Edgware, Middlesex, Galleries, Rochester, held A Scarland Summer in who described himself as “half Indian, half Dutch 2005. Limited-edition prints were published by St and half mad, besides being half artist, half scientist James’ Fine Art. Lived in East Grinstead, Sussex. and half wit.” Lawrence studied at Harrow, St Martin’s and Chelsea Schools of Art and, between Eileen SCHAER 1948– Self-taught artist, born in 1971–88, attended fourteen part-time youth Liverpool, who settled in the Isle of Man in 1975, leadership courses. He was a collembolatogist in having started to paint seriously five years earlier. the entomology department at the Natural History As well as painting, Schaer produced lino-cuts and Museum, 1950–84, an expert on the spring-tailed odd creatures and heads from papier mâché. Schaer flea; wrote over 40 scientific papers; and undertook said that she was “surprised by the characters that solo and joint expeditions to the Atlas Mountains, emerge from my doodles”, people, animals and Labrador and the Solomon Islands with the Royal birds that have been described as “often reinacting Society. Diagnosed manic depressive in 1981, a poetic drama.” Art collector, writer and jazz Lawrence was on the national council of the Manic musician George Melly said that: “Once you’ve Depression Fellowship and part of its research taken in her work, you would never confuse it with team. He appeared on the BBC2 television series anyone else’s.” Schaer was included in Obsessive Nuts, describing his illness as “a huge asset”. Visions at England & Co in 2001. Lawrence was president of the Great Britain Rosa SCHAFER 1901–1986 Painter and teacher, born Postcard Club from 1984; his initiative and in Vienna, Austria. Studied at the State Academy collection underpinned Victoria & Albert Museum there. Exhibited in Vienna and in England with PS, exhibitions, including Fifty Years of Postcards, AIA and SEA of both of which she was a member, 1970; and among his publications was The Social and Leicester Galleries, having several one-man Significance of the Picture Postcard, 1975. shows. Member of the Ben Uri Art Society. Signed Lawrence’s art was visionary, intense, whimsical, work RS. Lived in London. quixotic, absurd and loaded with visual puns. Exhibitions included Creative Genius, 1989, and Samson SCHAMES 1898–1967 Artist in a variety of 28


media, born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, who studied painting and the graphic arts there, elsewhere in Germany and in France. From 1920s began establishing a reputation as an artist and stage designer, had several solo exhibitions, but fled to England from the Nazis in 1938. The plight of the Jew and the horrors of war became the core of his output. During the Blitz he created mosaics out of the rubble of buildings. Interned in the Liverpool area for several months and lacking artists’ materials, Schames made a brush with his own hair and used home-made dyes to paint on cardboard; pieces of barbed wire from the fences were used for sculptures. On release he became a civil defence worker. A series of solo exhibitions in London gained good reviews as did work shown in mixed exhibitions including RA. CEMA, the Ministries of Information and Supply and prominent private collectors were among his clients. In 1948 Schames moved to New York and became an American citizen. Exhibited with American Water-colour Society, Pennsylvania Academy of Arts, Jewish Museum in New York, Provincetown Art Association and had a series of solo exhibitions, including Este Gallery, also with Marcel Bernheim’s, in Paris. In 1986 Schames was included in Art in Exile in Great Britain 1933–45 at Camden Arts Centre.

Printmaker and painter, born and worked in London. Her work drew strongly on the architecture of urban areas. Gained an honours degree at Hornsey College of Art, 1970–4, then did higher diploma in printmaking at Slade School of Fine Art, 1974–6. In 1976 worked at Crane Studio for a year, then set up with partners new printmaking studio in Clerkenwell Workshops. Gained an Arts Council Award in 1977, in 1979–81 sitting on the committee of Printmakers’ Council. Extensive mixed appearances included Stowells Trophy, Mall Galleries, 1974; LG at Camden Arts Centre, 1975; RA Summer Exhibition, 1976; Ben Uri Gallery, 1982; and Eighth British International Print Biennale, Cartwright Hall, Bradford, 1984. Solo shows included Everyman Cinema Gallery, 1977;

National Film Theatre, 1979; and Woodlands Art Gallery, 1984. In 2004, Schaverien participated in a four-artist show at The Stables Gallery, Dollis Hill. Victoria & Albert Museum and Ben Uri Art Society hold examples.

Irene SCHEINMANN 1933– Printmaker, painter and

artist in mixed media, born in Baghdad, Iraq. She had a cosmopolitan upbringing, being educated at a French-Jewish school although her mother tongue was Arabic. After a year in an English boarding school from 1952, she studied languages and literature at Brown University, America, returning to England in 1957 where she married and settled. An interest in the visual arts prompted her in 1967 to attend Regent Street Polytechnic, followed by four years of adult education classes in painting, drawing and printmaking; she spent a year with Joëlle Serve at his Atelier 63 in Paris, improving her printmaking techniques, then for a decade from 1978, until his death, worked in Julian Trevelyan’s studio, in 1979 spending another three months at Atelier 63. Was a member of Trace, the Paris printmaking association begun by Serve, and of the California Society of Printmakers. Became a member of the Printmakers’ Council in 1984, in that year organising Contemporary Prints at the National Theatre, followed Print Europe at Barbican Centre, 1991. Took part in many other mixed shows in Britain and abroad. Solo exhibitions included Petworth Gallery, Petworth; Salford University; Radann Gallery, New York; and in 1995 she shared a show with Dania Appel at Ben Uri Gallery, which holds her work. Glasgow University, Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford and University College Hospital in Nottingham are also owners. Lived in London.

Pat SCHAVERIEN 1951–

Tanya SCHERBAKOVA fl. from 1980s– Painter, whose

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colourful work was characterised by exuberance and an almost childlike fantasy, born in Moscow, Russia. She was educated at the 1905 Higher Arts College there, the Moscow Land Improvement Institute and The Ikon College of Moscow Russian Orthodox Church. She received a diploma as a photographic correspondent, in 1988 being elected a member of the International Federation of Artists.


Showed internationally in group exhibitions, solo shows including many in Moscow, 1993–7, and Highgate Fine Art, 1999. The Russian Orthodox Church, Portland, Oregon, in America, holds her work.

Versatile artist, restorer, writer and illustrator, born in Vienna, Austria, into a Jewish middle-class family. Oskar Kokoschka was an early supporter and mentor at Vienna’s Applied Arts School, after which Schick began to earn her living painting backdrops for local theatres. Because of Nazi oppression, her race and left-wing leanings, Schick escaped to London in 1936. Her parents remained in Vienna, then were sent east where Hedi’s father died in a concentration camp, her mother surviving and returning to the Austrian capital. In London Hedi continued scene painting for many theatres, being granted British citizenship in 1947. She met Clement and Wilfred Hill, who ran an Islington art gallery, and became their restorer, using their studio and canvases for her own painting. Working in oil and watercolour, Schick showed regularly with the Islington Art Circle during the 1950s and 1960s. In parallel with her scenes of the theatre front and back stage, she produced a series of powerful, harrowing Holocaust paintings based on her mother’s accounts. The canvases were notable for their multiple layers of vibrant impasto, often built up over a long period. In the 1960s, fascinated by an increasingly multi-cultural London, Schick depicted the life of a mixed-race family, controversial when her work in the Hill Gallery window was smashed in an attack. Her interest in ethnicity was reflected in the children’s book Bush and Billabong, 1945, which she wrote and illustrated. Schick also produced commercial work such as theatrical posters and advertisements for clothes. With her flamboyant dress, thick accent and firm opinions, the sometimes irascible Schick became a well-known broadcaster on art for television and radio. She was a good linguist, speaking eight languages including fluency in French and German. Schick never married and ended life in a Mill Hill flat with two beloved cats,

immortalised in her pictures.

Tai-Shan SCHIERENBERG 1962– Painter, notable for portraits and head studies of an Expressionist type, who studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1981–5, then Slade School of Fine Art, 1985–7. He first came to general notice as National Portrait Gallery’s John Player Portrait Award first prize winner in 1989. In 1992 the Gallery took into its collection a portrait by Schierenberg of the writer and barrister John Mortimer, commissioned as part of the Award. Showed in mixed exhibitions at Diorama Gallery from 1990; RA Summer Exhibition from 1991; and Flowers East Nudes show at Watermans Arts Centre, 1991; then a long series of Flowers shows, latterly including 5 Painters, Flowers East, and 12 British Figurative Painters, Flowers West, Santa Monica, California, both 2002. Solo exhibitions were also with Diorama Gallery, then Angela Flowers, later ones Flowers East, 2000 and 2005, Flowers Central, 2001, and Flowers West, Santa Monica, California, 2002. The National Portrait Gallery, Tate Gallery, BBC, Ernst & Young and other corporate collections hold examples. Lived in London.

Hedi SCHICK 1906–1999

Sculptor, draughtsman and teacher, born in Southampton, younger brother of the actor Austin Trevor, from a musical family and deeply interested in music. Schilsky was a figurative sculptor whose work had a strong spiritual quality. He was educated at Haberdashers’ Aske’s School and then college in Geneva, initially studying art at École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. His sculpture studies at the Slade School of Fine Art, under Havard Thomas, 1914–17 and 1918–19, were interrupted by World War I service abroad in the Gloucester Yeomanry. Schilsky joined the staff of Westminster School of Art around 1932; moved to the Central School of Arts and Crafts in 1939; worked for the government’s Directorate of Camouflage, 1940–5; then was head of sculpture at Edinburgh College of Art, 1945–69. He married the model Bettina Fenton in 1928; after she committed suicide in 1944, in 1946 he married the artist Victorine Foot. Schilsky’s portraits included the actor Ernest Thesiger, the naval commander Eric SCHILSKY 1898–1974

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Earl Beatty and Modigliani’s model Gabrielle de Saone. He was elected RSA in 1956, RA in 1968. His solo exhibitions included Fine Art Society, 1977; Aitken Dott, Edinburgh, 1980; and Bourne Fine Art, 1991. Chantrey Bequest and public collections in Aberdeen, Paisley and Stoke-onTrent hold examples.

working in London.

Anne SCHLEE: see ANSCHLEE

Nick SCHLEE 1931– Painter and draughtsman, born

in Weybridge, Surrey, who won both gold and silver medals for under-18s, Royal Drawing Society, 1947; studied part-time, Art Students’ League, New York, 1955; from 1955 living in London where he continued part-time at Central School, Morley College, Putney Art School and Slade School of Fine Art. Group shows included Sue Rankin Gallery, 1988; Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1993; and Beatrice Royal Gallery, Eastleigh, 1997. Among his solo exhibition venues were The Grange, Rottingdean, 1988; Flying Colours Gallery, Edinburgh, 1992; University of Liverpool, 1996; and Gallery 27, from 1998, in 2000 and 2004 showing forceful landscapes defined with positive brushstrokes. Lived in Upper Basildon, Berkshire.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker and actor, born in Dresden, Germany, his father Gerhard Schjelderup being a Norwegian opera composer, his German mother a concert singer. Leaving school in Oslo in 1918, studied scene painting at National Theatre there, in 1919–23 studying painting in Munich, first at the Heymann School, then the Hoffmann School. In Norway was encouraged by the painter Edvard Munch and had first solo show in Oslo. In 1926 visited London for portrait commissions and in 1927 had solo exhibition at Waddington Gallery, Dublin, marrying the Irish actress Natalie Moya Mullally the following year. Travelled widely in Australia and Pacific Islands; in 1931 had first oneman show in London at Cooling Galleries; and worked on scenery for Ballets Russes. In 1930s– 1960s he painted; taught at Hampstead Artists’ Council; and acted, notably for the BBC, for which he wrote features. Retired in Ireland, he published a biography of his father. Retrospective show at Sally Hunter Fine Art, 1985. Finally lived in West Bantry and in Dublin. Gerik

SCHJELDERUP

1899–1985

using a diverse range of materials, such as potato chips, sponge scourers, tape and wood, born in Kinshasa, Zaire. Schlaegel moved from West Africa to Germany, there studying painting and sculpture with Per Kirkeby and Georg Herold at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Städelschule, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1988–94, gaining a fine art master’s degree at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1996–7. Had a solo show at Galerie Fruchtig, Frankfurt, 1995, later ones including Museum Pfalzgalerie, Kaiserslautern, 1998. Schlaegel was included in the Neurotic Realism series of shows initiated by Saatchi Gallery in 1999, Saatchi Collection holding his work. At that time he was

Hans SCHLEGER: see ZERO

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, designer, performance artist and teacher, born in Berlin, Germany, who emigrated to England in 1938. Schmidt was a thoughtful, versatile artist, his work ranging from abstract programme paintings, based on systems, to a series of later delicate landscapes and still lifes. After internment on the Isle of Wight in 1940, he became a British subject in 1945, starting to paint in 1947. Following National Service, 1949–51, Schmidt studied at Goldsmiths’ College, 1951–3; then at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1953–7; with an Abbey Minor Scholarship in Sicily, 1957–8. Began teaching at Watford School of Art, 1959–60, establishing the foundation course there, 1962, the year that BBC Television made a film, Departure, about Schmidt’s and Ian Stephenson’s work. Schmidt held a first solo show at Beaux Arts Gallery in 1961, another at Curwen Gallery in 1966. In 1967 Schmidt was involved in a number of performances including sound, among the venues ICA and Bristol Arts Centre; in 1968 he was musical adviser at the ICA’s Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition at Critici Kiezen Grafiek Peter SCHMIDT 1931–1980

Andreas SCHLAEGEL 1966– Artist

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(Holland Festival); and in 1969 assembled the Electronic Soupmixes performance at Curwen Gallery, Filmsoundmixes at ICA featuring an animated film. Schmidt was involved in a number of projects with Brian Eno, including the Taking Tiger Mountain sleeve design in 1974 and Before and After Science, 1977. He had several showings of his work at Lisson Gallery, including Programmed Paintings in 1968 and Autobiographical Monoprints, 1970. Schmidt died on a painting holiday in Tenerife in 1980, the year of a retrospective, including works by Eno, at The Paul Ide Gallery, Brussels. The retrospective Remembered Images took place at Watford Museum in 1987.

Sapperton, 2003. She had solo exhibitions at Midlands Arts Centre, Birmingham, 1995; Inside Outside, Tavistock Clinic, 2000; and England & Co, 2003. Lived in London.

Self-taught painter who exhibited widely, including the BP Portrait Award and RP, and won the Carroll Award for Young Portrait Painters in 2001. Schneider’s work concentrated on the cityscape, the interior and the human figure. He was interested in revealing the extraordinary and intense within the ordinary and mundane in pictures always painted from life. Schneider was one of eight figurative artists in Being Present at Jerwood Space, 2004.

Joe SCHNEIDER 1973–

Pam SCHOMBERG 1947– Potter, gallery proprietor

Wolfgang SCHMITZ 1934– Artist, born in Marl, West

and printmaker who was born, and eventually based, in Colchester, Essex, where she ran the Crafts Council-selected Pam Schomberg Gallery. In her early thirties, Schomberg started studying printmaking and pottery at Sligo School of Art, Ireland, for four years, followed by three years at Colchester Institute, studying studio pottery with John Dan, graduating in 1985. She was a fellow of the Society of Designer-Craftsmen, a member of Suffolk Crafts Society and a selected member of East Anglian Potters. Her works were mainly non-functional, unique, sometimes on three legs, often made from metal. Showed widely throughout Britain, including Mall Galleries; The Crypt, St Paul’s Cathedral; Barbican Centre; Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh; and on the continent and in Saudi Arabia. Participated in Making the Connection, firstsite, Colchester/Wolsey Art Gallery, Ipswich, 2002. County education authority collections in Essex and Suffolk held examples.

Germany, who studied in Düsseldorf, 1955–60; Edinburgh, 1960–2; and at Cologne University, 1962–4. He lectured at colleges and universities in his home country and exhibited there and in the United Kingdom. Works by him were included in a sale at Phillips Auctioneers, Leeds, in 2001.

Lithographer and painter, born and lived in London who studied and taught at Central School of Arts and Crafts. Showed at RA and elsewhere. The British Museum holds lithographs by Schmolle, including pre-war works The Bandstand, Hyde Park, and Rehearsal at The Old Vic, also a wartime gouache Army Blood Supply, Bath. Stella SCHMOLLE 1908–1975

Artist, notably a collagist, who “always made objects, piecing together disregarded things, as a child taking inspiration from the natural world”. She did a pre-diploma at Bath Academy of Art and studied for a fine art honours degree there, 1969–71. Between 1989–00 she contributed to 25 craft books, being sole author of 19. Group shows included Made in Paper, Usher Gallery, Lincoln, tour, 1988; Committed to Paper, Sue Williams Gallery, 1989; The Paper Show, Oriel Mostyn, Llandudno, and tour, 1990; Human Interest, Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, 1991; XMIX, Diorama Gallery, 1998; and Presentation, Deborah SCHNEEBELI MORRELL 1950–

Sculptor and decorative artist, born in Muttenz, Switzerland, as Friedel Schorr. Studied at Hoffmanschule, Munich, then went to Paris in 1923 to complete his studies where he met leading School of Paris painters. Helped Jean Dufy with fabric designs and designed dresses for the couturier Robert Piguet. After establishing a reputation as a decorative sculptor of animals he moved to London in 1936, had a solo show in 1937 Raoh SCHORR 1901–1991

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at Redfern Gallery, had a bronze – Bengal Tiger – acquired by Tate Gallery and was commissioned by Royal Doulton to design pottery animals. Exhibited bronzes for many years at RA, but was mainly a commercial designer, which made possible elegant life in Chelsea, retiring in early 1960s. Harrods, Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubinstein had been among his clients. Upon retirement he began producing pottery animals influenced by Chinese ceramics and elegant, botanically accurate flower studies, showed at Cooling Gallery in 1967. Ill-health prompted Schorr’s return to his family in Brunnen, Switzerland, where he died.

Schotz initially studied engineering at the Royal Technical College in Glasgow, then decided to study art at the School of Art there. His first oneman show took place at Reid and Lefevre’s gallery in Glasgow in 1926, Lefevre giving him his first one-man show in London four years later. He was head of the sculpture and ceramic departments of the Glasgow School of Art from 1938. Schotz was elected RSA in 1937 and was appointed HM Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland. He exhibited widely, including the RA, RSA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Owners of his work include the House of Commons, Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Glasgow, the National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, and Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv art galleries, in Israel. Wrote an autobiography, Bronze in my Blood, and lived in Glasgow, where Christie’s held a studio sale in 1997.

Bernard SCHOTTLANDER 1924–1999 Sculptor in metal, born in Mainz, Germany. He moved to England in 1939 and two years later began work as a welder and plater, attending evening classes in sculpture at Leeds College of Art. After war service, 1944–8, he studied at Anglo-French Art Centre, 1948–9, transferring to industrial design at Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1949–51. In the latter year Schottlander started his own metal workshop, active as an industrial designer and metalwork maker, engaging in full-time sculpture from 1963. For a time he taught at St Martin’s School of Art. Schottlander participated in a number of group shows, including Arts Council’s Sculpture in a City, 1968, which toured. He had solo exhibitions at Architectural Association, 1964; Annely Juda (Hamilton Galleries), 1965; and an open-air exhibition at Guinness’ Brewery, 1972. Schottlander’s sculpture was geometric to 1977, when it became organic, steel plate finished with marine paint. Arts Council, Leicester City Art Gallery, Warwick University, Sackler Foundation in New York and City of Toronto are some of the collections holding his work. Schottlander’s large, impressive steel sculpture South of the River stands in front of Ernst & Young’s offices in Lambeth Palace Road. Lived in Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire; died in Oxford.

Juliet SCHUBART 1936– Painter of dynamic, gestural

abstracts based on a wide variety of British and foreign landscapes. Her background was academic, Oxford University and journalism. From the 1970s she was able to pursue a long-held interest in painting, Paul Feiler, under whom she studied in 1955, being “the most important and lasting influence”. She showed in mixed exhibitions at the RA; RWA; Bankside and Mall Galleries; Gloucester City Art Gallery; Wills Lane Gallery, St Ives; Victoria Art Gallery, Bath; and Mercury Gallery, Edinburgh. Schubart had solo exhibitions at Gallery 27, 1996, 1999 and 2000. She was latterly married to the writer and political and corporate adviser Will Camp, who died in 2002. Lived in London.

Jon SCHUELER 1916–1992 Painter, teacher and writer, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, America, son of a comfortably-off tyre manufacturer. He graduated in English at University of Wisconsin, 1938, gaining his master’s, 1940, but plans to be a writer were delayed when he joined the Air Corps of the American Army in 1941. He served as a Benno SCHOTZ 1891–1984 Sculptor and teacher who navigator, but was discharged due to combat fatigue was essentially a modeller of portraits. Born in in 1944, then began writing. In 1945, when his first Arensburgh, Estonia, after coming to Britain wife, Jane Elton, signed for portrait-painting 33


classes, Schueler joined her; from 1947–51 he attended the California School of Fine Arts, taught by Clyfford Still, the abstract painter, who introduced Schueler to the work of J M W Turner. In 1951 Schueler moved to New York, where he encountered leading Abstract Expressionists and was signed up by the dealer Leo Castelli, who gave him a first show in 1957. Inspired by the 1945 film I Know Where I’m Going, and in search of a landscape, in 1957 Schueler left his second wife, Joellen (Jody) Hall, travelled to the west coast of Scotland and discovered Mallaig, where he was to establish a studio at The Old Schoolhouse, Romasaig. He worked prolifically, oils and watercolours drawing on the local environment but close to abstraction. Schueler returned to Scotland periodically from America over the years, exhibiting there, including the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, in 1984. He taught at Yale School of Art, Maryland Institute and University of Illinois. Schueler was married, often tempestuously, five times, his last wife, the art historian Magda Salvesen, editing his extensive memoirs after his death following Parkinson’s Disease. They were published in 2000 as The Sound of Sleat and coincided with a show at Ingleby Gallery, Edinburgh, with another in 2002. There was another exhibition at the City Art Centre, Edinburgh, in 2003. Glasgow Art Gallery, University of Stirling and American collections hold his works.

was included in Around Two Thousand and Three at Messum’s, in 2003.

Randolph SCHWABE 1885–1948 Influential teacher,

draughtsman and printmaker, especially of urban subjects, illustrator and designer. Born in Manchester, Schwabe studied briefly at the Royal College of Art, Slade School of Fine Art, 1900–5, and at Académie Julian, Paris, 1906. Official War Artist during World War I, making drawings of the Women’s Land Army. Went on to teach at Camberwell and Westminster Schools of Art. Was drawing master at the Royal College of Art, then succeeded Henry Tonks as Slade Professor and head of the Slade School of Art, 1930, an apt choice, as Schwabe’s exact draughtsmanship was firmly in the Slade tradition. Schwabe was a prolific exhibitor at NEAC and Goupil Gallery, also showing at Carfax Gallery, Fine Art Society, Leicester Galleries and RWS. Tate Gallery holds his work. Among the books Schwabe illustrated were Walter de la Mare’s Crossings, 1921, several books by the writer on dance Cyril Beaumont and H E Bates’ The Tinkers of Elstow, 1946. A large retrospective was held at Chris Beetles in 1994. Lived finally at Helensburgh, Dunbartonshire.

Imaginative artist and designer who gained a diploma in art and design from North Devon College, 1986–9; graduated with honours in fine art/sculpture from University of East London, 1988–91; then completed a postgraduate diploma in film and television set design at Kingston University, 1991–2. Exhibitions included Air Gallery, 1990; Rebecca Hossack Gallery, from 1991; Young Artists, Zakheim Gallery, 1997; House and Garden Show, Olympia, 2001; National Trust Summer Sculpture Show, The Courts, Bath, 2002; and Art London, with Stephen Lacey Gallery, 2003. There, Schwalm’s works unusually employed optical lenses with such materials as Portland cement, fresco fragments and volcanic rock from Guatemala. In 1999 she shared at two-man exhibition, Warp and Weft, at Harrow Club, in 2001 another at The Woburn Gallery. Rachel SCHWALM 1969–

Countess Elisabeth von der SCHULENBURG: see Tisa HESS

Tisa SCHULENBURG: see Tisa HESS

Andrea SCHULEWITZ 1955– After studying at West Sussex College of Art and Design and learning traditional stone-carving from John Joekes, Schulewitz was converted to conceptual art and Minimalism during a 1985 visit to New York. Nine years in Suffolk from 1989 saw a response to ancient and symbolic art and a return to carving. Abstract and natural forms become prominent in Schulewitz’s work with a move to Arundel, Sussex, with translucent light a preoccupation. Her work Sue SCHWARTZ 1944– Artist in ceramic, notable 34


for her cats. She was born in Bath but spent her childhood in Newcastle upon Tyne. As a student teacher in the 1960s she specialised in pottery, taught for a short time, then worked in art and antiques and rediscovered ceramics. Each of her cats was made using the coil method and was Rakufired. Schwartz’s cats were included in a Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, touring show Cat & Mouse. She also exhibited with Schwartzsackin Fine Art and Primrose Hill Gallery, both 1990, and Castlegate House, Cockermouth, 1991. Lived in Ashelton, Coryton, Okehampton, Devon.

of Fine Art, 1968–72. Mixed exhibitions included Piccadilly Gallery from 1976; Leeds City Art Gallery, 1987; Printmakers’ Council, Barbican Centre, 1989; Galerie La Teinturerie, Paris, from 1992; and National Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries, 1994. Had a solo show with Ian Birksted Gallery, 1980; Camden Arts Centre, from 1984; and Ben Uri Art Gallery and St David’s Hall, Cardiff, both 1985. Henry Moore Sculpture Foundation in Leeds; education authorities in Yorkshire and Leicester; and South Glamorgan County Council hold examples. Lived in London.

Artist in oil and watercolour, sculptor, illustrator, teacher and writer, born in Vienna, Austria, where he attended the Art School, 1937–8. He was expelled by the Nazis in 1938 and moved to Birmingham in 1939, working as a labourer, was interned in 1940–1, then attended Birmingham School Arts and Crafts, 1941–3. As well as joining a commercial art studio, 1943–5, Schwarz began teaching part-time and worked in various art schools until 1966. He was a freelance illustrator from 1945, but gave up graphic design in 1964 to paint and sculpt full-time. He published Figure Painting, Colour for the Artist and Painting in Towns for Studio Vista and a series of art books for Pitman. Schwarz was a member of NEAC, RWS RP, RBA and the Contemporary Portrait Society as well as an honorary life member of the Hampstead Artists’ Council. Schwarz was awarded the Hunting Group Prize for the best watercolour of the year in 1981. His solo shows included a series at Thackeray Gallery from 1982; Compton Gallery, 1983; Ben Uri Gallery, 1985; Woodlands Art Gallery, 1991; Sternberg Centre, 1992; and The New Academy Gallery, 1995 and 2001. There was a studio sale at Bonhams, Knightsbridge, in 2004. His work is in many public collections, including portraits of Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, Lord Soper and Miles Malleson in National Portrait Gallery. His son Julian was also an artist. Lived in London.

Artist and tutor who studied at North Essex School of Art, Stourbridge College of Art and Wolverhampton Polytechnic, where she gained an honours degree in fine art, 1990. In 1995, she was awarded an Artists in Schools diploma of credit (distinction), at Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge. She took part in group shows including Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh, and England & Co. In that gallery’s Art in Boxes show in 1991 Schwegmann-Fielding showed Crushed Consumerism, a typical work created from urban detritus. Schwegmann-Fielding’s work, in mosaic, collage or sculpture, was notable for its rich combination of colour, texture, pattern and imagery, laced with humour. Her ideas stemmed from a range of sources, drawn from several continents, aerial and terrestrial. Her many commissions included Harlow Underground mosaics for town centre underpass and London Garden Show, Alexandra Palace Fountain, screens and flooring. She had a solo show, Samba, Sun and South of Brazil, at Hylands Park, Chelmsford. In 2002, she participated in Making the Connection, firstsite, Colchester/Wolsey Art Gallery, Ipswich.

Hans SCHWARZ 1922–2003

Anne SCHWEGMANN-FIELDING 1967–

Sculptor, collagist, maker of assemblages, publisher and writer, born in Hanover, Germany. He studied at Kunstakademie, Dresden, 1909–14, Julian SCHWARZ 1949– Artist in wood sculpture Kunstakademie, Berlin, 1914, and at architectural and woodcut prints, son of the artist Hans Schwarz, studios in Hanover, 1918. From about that time he born in Birmingham. He studied at Slade School created his first Merz works, built up in layers from Kurt SCHWITTERS 1887–1948

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collaged sections. Was founder and editor of Merz magazine, 1923–32. Schwitters was associated with the Dada movement and incorporated Constructivist elements. He sometimes employed ephemera and rubbish to create his abstract works, which had themes such as crocus, violin or fish or employed geometric forms, and which were always finely crafted and good to look at. Having visited Norway frequently from late 1920s, under pressure from the Nazi regime Schwitters went to live there in 1937. Schwitters settled in England in 1940, where he was interned, then lived in London, 1941– 5. From then until his death he settled in Westmorland where, with help from a Museum of Modern Art, New York, grant he was able to create what was called the Merz Barn. Schwitters showed with Galerie der Sturm, Berlin, in 1920, then built an international reputation. Retrospectives included Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1948, and Marlborough Fine Art, 1972; Tate Gallery, which held a 1985 exhibition, owns his work, as do many other public collections. Lived in Kendal.

incorporation of human characteristics within the animal form.” Born in Enniskillen, Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, Scott gained a first-class honours degree in fine craft and design at the University of Ulster, Belfast, 1988–91, his master’s in ceramics at Cardiff Institute of Higher Education, 1991–3. Exhibitions included The Horse, One Oxford Street, Belfast, 1994; Blackheath Gallery, from 1994–5; Tom Caldwell Gallery, from 1996; Royal Dublin Society, Dublin, 1997 (Crafts Council Award); New Sculpture, Castle Museum, Enniskillen, 1997–8; and The Irish Show, The Wykeham Gallery, Stockbridge, 2003 and 2004. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland and the noted thespians Dame Judi Dench and Daniel Day Lewis acquired Scott’s work.

Painter, printmaker and teacher, born in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, son of the potter George Scott. He studied at Burslem School of Art, then Royal College of Art, 1907– 13. Held several teaching posts, being for many years head of Watford School of Art. Showed RA, Gavin SCOBIE 1940– Sculptor, painter and teacher, RBA extensively, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, born in Edinburgh where he studied painting at the and Paris Salon. Lived in Harrow, Middlesex. College of Art, 1958–62. From 1963–74 he taught art in an Edinburgh school, then left to take up Bernard SCOTT 1918–1990 Painter and printmaker, sculpture full-time, settling in Ross-shire. Scobie’s born in London’s East End into an Orthodox Jewish sculpture dates from the mid-1960s. He had a first background, who won a London County Council solo exhibition in 1972 at Richard Demarco scholarship to study at St Martin’s School of Art Gallery, Edinburgh, two years before he won the with Leon Underwood among others. He also Invergordon Sculpture Prize. Although at first studied at Toynbee Hall School of Art. At St Scobie worked in metal in a Minimalist tradition, Martin’s Scott gained first prize in a mural from the early 1980s he employed mainly competition, carrying out his winning design on a terracotta. An important Scobie series was the wall of the school. As a company director Scott bronze books begun in 1977; the Arts Council was prevented from painting full-time until 1969; collection includes his Untitled Book Sculpture of then his output was prodigious. It ranged from 1981. A major retrospective was held at Talbot witty, colourful pictures inspired by folk art to Rice Art Centre, Edinburgh, in 1984, and a show abstracts. His series of lithographs of the 1960s of Scobie’s Constructivist sculpture at Reed’s concerned with victims of the Korean and Vietnamese wars is notable. Showed at RA, Wharf Gallery in 1994. Whitechapel Art Gallery and Camden Arts Centre, Anthony SCOTT 1968– Creator of ceramic had solo exhibitions at Drian Galleries and Rene sculptures, mainly animals, whose work was Darom Gallery in Tel-Aviv and there was a “inspired by Celtic mythology, although viewed retrospective at Ben Uri Art Gallery in 1995. Scott’s from the perspective of animals”. He believed that wife, Christine, was also a painter, living at Goringwhat made his work “so distinctive is the by-Sea, Sussex. Arthur SCOTT 1881–1953

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Bill SCOTT 1935– Sculptor and teacher, born in Moniaive, Dumfriesshire. He studied at Edinburgh College of Art, 1953–9, and École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1959–60. He went on to teach sculpture at Edinburgh College of Art, head of school 1990– 7, being appointed professor in the faculty of art and design, Heriot–Watt University, 1994. Scott gained the RSA Lothian Region Award in 1978 and travelled widely in Europe in 1981 with a Gillies Bequest Scholarship. He was elected RSA in 1984. He was included in 11 Scottish Sculptors at the Fruitmarket Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1975, and the International Exhibition of Small Sculpture, Budapest, 1981, as well as Virtue and Vision at RSA in 1990. Solo shows included sculpture and drawings at New 57 Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1979, Kirkcaldy Art Gallery and Museum, 1985, and Talbot Rice Gallery, Edinburgh, 1994. Scott’s sculpture had a strong elemental quality. Earlier work was mainly in metal, influenced by Constructivism; the later wooden pieces were more organic. Commissions included sculptures for Cumbernauld Shopping Centre, 1980, and for Gyle, Edinburgh, 1994. The Scottish Arts Council, RSA, Leeds City Arts Gallery and other Scottish collections hold examples. He is sometimes listed as William Scott. Lived in Roslin, Midlothian.

born artist who did a foundation course at the local College of Art, 1964–5; left to paint full-time; in 1966 won Pernod’s National Art Competition; was featured substantially at Bede Gallery, Jarrow, in 1967, and DLI Museum & Art Gallery, Durham, in 1969; after that making his career in London. His work was sold by the dealer Nicholas Treadwell and was admired by collectors including the Beatle Paul McCartney and Prime Minister Harold Wilson, both commissioning portraits. Scott’s former flatmate and childhood friend Dave Stewart, of the Eurythmics, bought many of the artist’s works and in 1985 commissioned Scott to paint the cover for the group’s album Revenge; he also created the animation for its award-winning single Shame. Following a period in America, Scott returned to Europe, from 1992 settling at Esterel, near Cannes, France. Scott showed widely in Britain, France and America. His oils Quiet Day in Clichy and Sexy Sonia were included in a sale at Phillips Auctioneers, Leeds, in 2001, the year of his major London exhibition Close-up, at the Air Gallery. Scott’s works are held in corporate collections, including Saatchi and Saatchi, and by Sunderland Art Gallery.

Painter and teacher whose father was Angus Scott, cartoonist and illustrator. Attended Bromley School of Art and Borough Polytechnic. He took a number of jobs to raise money to continue his art studies, including work with David Bomberg in Spain. Scott trained as a teacher, 1956–8, was a civil servant for a year, then taught until retirement in the late 1980s. He was included in the Borough Group show at Fine Art Associates, 1989. Bomberg remained a strong influence on Scott’s work, which was signed G B S. Garth B SCOTT 1931–

He was born in Madras, India, arriving in England in 1924, and was an electrical engineer until 1950. Then became a fulltime painter and illustrator, living and working in Walberswick, Suffolk, like his son the artist and writer Richard Scott. Eric was self-taught apart from life classes at Bromley School of Art in the late 1940s. He had early success at the RA Summer Exhibition, having two works accepted in 1935, another in 1948. He also showed at the RBA and Ipswich Art Club. Two Walberswick paintings were commissioned by British Railways for reproduction as carriage panels. Two others were exhibited in The Walberswick Enigma exhibition, at Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, 1994. Richard Scott organised a small memorial show at Eric’s former home in Walberswick in 2004. Eric SCOTT 1904–1960

Eric SCOTT 1945–

Sunderland, County Durham-

George SCOTT 1938– Artist,

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designer and teacher, born in Glasgow, where he attended the School of Art under Philip Reeves, 1958–62. Went on to teach adults part-time. Scott was a member of Coventry Art Guild and Coventry and Warwickshire Art Society, showing elsewhere in the Midlands and the provinces. Had a series of solo shows, mainly in his home area of Coventry.


Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, potter, printmaker and teacher, born in Hersham, Surrey. After school worked for a firm of Lloyd’s brokers for seven years, then served in Army, 1941–6, partly in East Africa. After a period as a potter he studied at Kingston School of Art under Reginald Brill, 1946–9, with some time in 1948 at Burslem College of Art, during which Arnold Machin advised him to take up sculpture. This he did at Slade School of Fine Art, 1949–52, under A H Gerrard. Went on to teach: part-time at Kingston, 1950–2, and Hammersmith School of Art, 1951–2; at Southend-on-Sea School of Art, 1952–8; then from 1958 at West of England College of Art (later Bristol Polytechnic), becoming principal lecturer in the faculty of art and design. Showed at RA, ICA, Festival of Britain, RWS, with RBS of which he was made a fellow in 1970, and at RWA of which he was a member. RWA, Bristol Corporation and London County Council held his work. The bird was a recurrent theme in this. His commissioned pieces included much church work, including a life-size figure for St Edmund the King, Pinner; a memorial panel for 501 Squadron, Royal Air Force, in Bristol Cathedral; and a dove in hemlock for a font cover at Lockleaze Church. Lived in Bristol.

Ian SCOTT 1957– Painter, printmaker and designer,

Gerald SCOTT 1916–1977

born in North Shields, Northumberland, but from childhood lived in Wick, Caithness. Scott’s work, noted for its fine draughtsmanship, had a mystical, challenging and elusive quality in which aspects of the sea were a leading feature. As a student he began to make an impact in exhibitions, participating in Scottish Young Contemporaries in 1984 and the RSA Student Exhibition. In 1985 after graduating he was included in Compass Gallery, Glasgow, New Generation show, followed by Mercury Gallery and again in the following postgraduate year. He completed the album cover and artwork for the music and film Tree of Liberty, about Robert Burns. The year 1988 was spent working in Germany and in 1989 Scott had a solo show at Compass Gallery.

Painter and teacher, born in Dunoon, Argyll, who studied at Glasgow School of Art, gaining his diploma in drawing and painting, 1966. He won the Newbery Medal, 1966; a post-diploma scholarship, 1966–7; and a Landscape Scholarship from RA, 1967. Taught at Rothesay Academy, Bute, 1968–75; Dunoon Grammar School, Argyll, 1975–8; was art advisor, Tayside Region Education Authority, Perty, 1978– 96, then returned to painting full-time. He was president and secretary of the Scottish Association of Advisors in Art and Design; a member of the curriculum award panel of the National Society for Education in Art and Design; and a lecturer and demonstrator for Scottish Arts Council. Exhibitions included Ainscough Contemporary Art. Ian McLachlan SCOTT 1943–

Painter and teacher who studied at Croydon School of Art and Royal College of Art, winning a Travelling Scholarship there. Went on to teach at Camberwell School of Art. He showed at RA, LG, RBA, Cooling Gallery, Opix Gallery and in 1980 was included in Figurative Painters at Woodlands Art Gallery. Gordon SCOTT 1918–

Sculptor in a range of materials and painter, born and settled at Ronaldsay, Orkney Islands. He studied with Leo Clegg at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, doing postgraduate work in 1961–2. Among prizes won were the RSA’s Latimer Award, 1965, and its Benno Schotz Prize, 1966. Scott was made a fellow of RBS in 1972. Showed at Scottish Arts Council, Graves Art Gallery in Sheffield and abroad and had solo exhibitions. Oxford University and Scottish Arts Council hold examples.

James SCOTT 1920– Artist

Ian SCOTT 1940–

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in oil, watercolour, pen and wash and metals, born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, where he settled in Belfast. Studied at the local College of Art under John Turner and John Luke. For 30 years Scott was involved in engineering: mechanical, civil design and research at Queen’s University. He was an associate of RUA and took part in many group exhibitions elsewhere throughout Northern Ireland. In 1992 he made and donated a bronze medal, won by the artist Basil Blackshaw, given in memory of William Conor, at RUA. Had several solo shows


in the province, including Centre Art Gallery, France and Italy. She lived in Fakenham, Norfolk, Belfast, 1976. where she took part in 2003 Norfolk Open Studios. Joan SCOTT 1916–1989 Artist in various media and

Kathleen SCOTT 1878–1947 Sculptor of figures and

teacher, born in London, who studied at Warrington School of Art under Bernard Statters, 1937–42, also having private tutors. She went on to teach adults and wrote manuals published by Frederick Warne, including Using Pastels. In addition to several solo exhibitions showed at SWA, NS, RI, PS and at Paris Salon. Lived in Ickenham, Middlesex.

portrait busts, born at Carlton-in-Lindrick, Nottinghamshire. After initial education in France and Italy, she studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, Atelier Colarossi in Paris, 1901–6, and with Rodin. In 1908 she married the Polar explorer Robert Falcon Scott (Captain Scott of the Antarctic, who died there in 1912), then in 1922 Sir Edward Hilton Young (later Baron Kennet of the Dene). She was the mother of Peter Scott, the naturalist and artist. Lady Kennet exhibited at RA, 1913– 47, IS, RMS, SWA and elsewhere; one-man show Fine Art Society in 1934. She was elected a fellow of the RBS in 1946. Memorial exhibition at Mansard Gallery, 1947, and her own Self-Portrait of an Artist appeared two years later. Was an extensive traveller. Tate Gallery holds her work, which is illustrated in the volume RBS: Modern British Sculpture, published in 1939; also in Eric Newton’s monograph British Sculpture 1944– 1946. Among her notable works are the memorial to Captain Scott in Waterloo Place; Earl of Oxford and Asquith; George Bernard Shaw; and the film actor Sabu. Lived in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and London, where she died.

Painter and teacher, born in Beckenham, Kent. He studied, 1953–7, at Reading University School of Fine Art and then held a number of teaching posts, including Denbighshire Technical College School of Art, living in Wrexham. Was a member of RCamA and showed in group exhibitions at RBA and Leicester Galleries, having solo shows at New Art Centre and Kensington Gallery. John SCOTT 1934–

Painter and printmaker who studied at Maidstone School of Art, 1956–8, gaining her diploma at Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1958–62, in the 1980s studying drawing and painting with Dick Lee, starting printmaking in 1997. Scott painted in gouache and oil in the manner of the Euston Road School and produced monotypes of the performing arts, describing her prints as “fin de siècle/German Expressionist.” Group shows included NEAC, Mall Galleries, 1990–5; RWS, 1991–5, prize winner; New Grafton Gallery, 1991–7; and National Print Exhibition, 1999–00. Among solo exhibitions were Cadogan Gallery, 1992; Bircham Contemporary Arts, Holt, 1994–03; and Abbott and Holder, Venice, 1996, and France, 2001. She showed theatrical prints at Sheringham Little Theatre, 2003, as artist-inresidence. Scott won an Abbott and Holder Travel Award, 1995; was shortlisted for The Garrick/Milne Prize, 2000; won a St Cuthberts Mill Prize, National Print Exhibition, 2001; and was highly commended, Alphabet Book Competition, Clarion Press & Fine Press Book Association, 2002. Scott travelled frequently in Judy SCOTT 1939–

Figurative sculptor, born in Potton, Bedfordshire, married to the painter Richard Scott. She studied sculpture at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts under Karel Vogel and Giacomo Baragli, 1959–63 and used materials such as fibreglass, bronze and aluminium. Lived in Walberswick, Suffolk, 1965–85, later dividing her time between Halesworth, Suffolk, and Loscombe, Bridport, Dorset. Scott exhibited several times at Halesworth Gallery, in 1979 sharing a show with the composer William Alwyn’s paintings. Commissioned work included maquettes of gymnasts for Thames Television trophies.

Lesley SCOTT 1941–

Maggie SCOTT fl. from early 1970s– Painter and artist

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in collage, born in Enfield, Middlesex, full name Margaret Elspeth Scott, her father was painter Charles Scott. She attended Carlisle College of Art


and Design, 1973–4, Loughborough College of Art and Design, 1974–7, then Slade School of Fine Art from 1978, where her teachers included Tess Jaray and Bernard Cohen. NS member who also showed in the provinces. Lived for a time in Selkirk, Scotland.

work.” The move to Zambia had a “great effect” on her. After marrying young and living on a farm, she became a compulsive maker of objects, linoprints or drawings based on African legends, and became confident enough to exhibit in Lusaka group shows, with a first solo exhibition at Kunstverein Erlangen e.V Nuremburg, Germany, in 1974. After settling in England, she was “determined to learn to draw and paint properly,” studying for two years, first on a combined arts course in Brighton, then printed textiles in Eastbourne. Having created a portfolio of fashion and furnishing textiles Scott began selling globally, producing “as many as 700 designs a year”. Turning after some years to printing, she began showing with Oxford Printmakers, 1991, in 2000 being joint winner of the Julian Trevelyan Award at the National Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries. Scott’s richly coloured abstract and figurative paintings and prints were shown in numerous other group shows and in solo exhibitions, venues including The Merriscourt Gallery, Sarsden, 2001.

Malcolm SCOTT 1935– Self-taught artist, born in Sudbury, Suffolk, who exhibited under this name, as Malcolm and as Malcolm Richard Longbottom. “I have had very little education and they call my work naïve. It is all about the way I see and I just paint for myself. When I left school we had very little, I had to get a job and we all had to pull our weight. School was not much thought about.” Scott “drifted from job to job. I was in the Merchant Navy when I was young, so put paintings in exhibitions all over the world.” Early exhibitions included South Bay Gallery, Cape Town, and J K Tasker Gallery, Durban, both in South Africa, 1958, and Artists of the North, New York City, 1959. Eventually Scott settled in Harrogate. In 1985 he shared a show there with David Hockney at the Arcade Gallery. Group exhibitions included The Wesley Open, Harrogate, 1984; RSMA at Mall Galleries, 1988 and 1989; (selection for) the RA Summer Exhibition, 2003; and The Keighley Arts Factory, 2004. In 2005 Scott’s picture Trying to Sketch Crows in the Woods was awarded a prize for outstanding work and exhibited at the Mercer Art Gallery, Harrogate. It entered the Mercer collection and was produced as a limited-edition print. Scott’s depiction of George Leigh Mallory’s and Andrew Irvine’s 1924 Mount Everest expedition, also made into a limited-edition print, was later acquired for Leeds City Art Gallery.

Sculptor, painter and teacher, born in Bristol where she studied at the local School of Art. Early in the 1930s she attended Slade School of Fine Art, then was at Royal Academy Schools, 1934–7, transferring from painting to sculpture and winning a silver medal. Married the artist William Scott and, after continental travel, early in 1938 settled in Pont Aven where with her husband and Geoffrey Nelson she started the Pont Aven School of Painting. At outset of World War II left for Dublin, in 1941 settled in Radstock, Somerset to run a market garden. From 1946–51 taught initially at Bath Art School, then part-time at Bath Academy of Art. Manja SCOTT 1945– Painter, printmaker and Mary Scott showed with her husband at Bath designer, born Manja Crnkovic in Zagreb, Croatia. Society of Artists until early 1950s, having shared She lived in Croatia until 1956; Ethiopia, 1956– a show with him at Leger Galleries in 1945. 8; Croatia, 1958–66; Zambia, 1966–81; Kenya, 1981–2; and England from 1982, from 1987 in Michael SCOTT 1946– Painter, born in Peterhead, Oxford. As a visual artist, Scott was self-taught Aberdeenshire, whose figurative work often apart from several courses. She had painted with contained an element of fantasy. Studied political enthusiasm from childhood, then trained as a science at Liverpool, 1965–8; trained as a teacher dancer and choreographer in the Laban method, in Hull for a year, then settled in Glasgow. Did training which “had a crucial influence on my sociological research, then lectured at what became Mary SCOTT 1912–1999

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Glasgow Caledonian University. Studied for many years with the painter John Boyd, including life classes at Glasgow School of Art. In 1989 won the David Cargill Senior Award at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, in 1991 the Paper Tiger Award 1990. In 1990 was elected a professional member of SSWA. Mixed exhibitions also included Smith Biennial, Smith Art Gallery, Stirling, 1985– 7; RA Summer Exhibition from 1988; RSA from 1989; and ROI from same year. Later solo shows included The Contemporary Fine Art Gallery, Eton, 2002, and Portland Gallery at artLONDON, 2004. Several corporate collections hold examples.

Weaver, painter, potter and toymaker, who attended the painting school at the Royal College of Art under Carel Weight, 1959– 64, in 1964 winning a Travelling Scholarship to Italy, Greece and Turkey. She only painted until 1979, under her maiden name Rachel Tripp. From 1964 she was a LG member, showing with it until 1966. Other exhibitions included Stroud Festival and Brighton Art Gallery, both 1964, and Piccadilly Gallery, 1980. She shared an exhibition at Royal College of Art Gallery, 1964, and was in Five Painters there, 1972. Her early paintings “were in earth colours of rooms, passages and staircases, sometimes with one figure sitting in an armchair. By 1970, they were black, white and grey of empty rooms, passages and tunnels,” latterly, “landscapes of Dorset in blues and greens.” During the 1970s, she “had my own kiln and made pinched bowls, plates and cups with horses’, dogs’ and cats’ heads as handles; cups with frogs sitting in the bottom, for children; small pottery farm sets.” These and small toys were in the late 1970s sold through such outlets as Liberty, Heal’s, Naturally British and craft fairs. Scott began spinning and weaving “in 1976 as the stair carpet was wearing out. I spin all my own wool on a spinning wheel that my brother made for me, from a native American design…. My fleeces come mainly from a friend who lives on the Berkshire Downs and has a flock of different breeds…. The wool is spun directly from the fleece and the yarn is not dyed.” Her rugs were “tapestrywoven on an upright wooden frame loom” and she also had “a loom made of scaffolding on which larger pieces have been made”. Work was displayed in many British, Dutch, Belgian and American galleries. Scott had a solo show at Spitalfields Workspace, 1984. Later exhibitions included Tithe Barn, Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire; Horizons ‘99’, The Crystal Glass Centre, Stourbridge, 1999; and Open Studios, Peacock Yard, 2000 and 2001. Lived in London and New York.

Rachel SCOTT 1940–

Michael SCOTT 1954– Painter, born in Lisburn, near

Belfast, Northern Ireland. He studied at Chelsea School of Art, 1977–81. Among his mixed show appearances were New Contemporaries at ICA, 1979–80, and John Moores Liverpool Exhibition from 1982, when he won a prize. He gained a Northern Ireland Arts Council Bursary for travel in Portugal, 1984, and three years later at John Moores showed the canvas Earthquake of Lisbon, All Saints Day 1755. Arts Council acquired this work. Lived for some time in London. Peter SCOTT 1909–1989 Ornithologist, broadcaster

and painter, born in London, son of Robert Falcon Scott the Antarctic explorer whose wife was Kathleen Kennet, the sculptor, as she later became known after her second marriage. Peter Scott’s first wife was the writer Elizabeth Jane Howard. Scott was educated at Oundle School and Cambridge University, the Munich State Academy and the Royal Academy Schools. An Olympic Games-class yachts-man and national gliding champion, he was founder of the World Wildlife Fund and campaigned endlessly for endangered species. He lived for many years at Slimbridge, Gloucestershire, in the grounds of the Wildlife and Wetlands Trust, which he founded in 1946. Knighted in 1973, partly in recognition of his prowess as a bird painter and as the author and illustrator of many books on birds. Showed at RA and elsewhere internationally. There was an eightieth-birthday retrospective at Cheltenham Art Gallery, 1989.

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Rebecca SCOTT 1960– Artist, born in Cumbria, who moved to London, studying at Chelsea School of Art, 1980–3, and Goldsmiths’ College for her master’s, 1985–7. She took part in a Morley


College Selected Student Show, 1983; Group Show, 55 Charlotte Road, 1986; Icon Show, Mario Flecha Gallery, 1987 (it gave her a solo exhibition in 1989); and Air Mail, Artists’ Postcards, at the Air Gallery, The Project Space at The Gymnasium, and Homage to the Square, at the Flaxman Gallery, all 1988. In Decoy, at the Serpentine Gallery in 1990, Scott showed large canvases of lusciously painted flowers, appropriated from photographic calendars. According to the catalogue: “Scott’s position as a painter is determined by her investigations into the area of gender politics. She aims to assert the female gaze by reclaiming territory that has not already been defined by men. Her earlier work dealt explicitly with pornography.” Rebecca Scott: bollock bras was at the Standpoint Gallery, c.2000.

Painter in oil, sculptor and teacher, born in Bromley, Kent, married to the sculptor Lesley Scott, his father the artist Eric Scott. He studied at Lowestoft School of Art, 1954–6, then Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1956– 8, for his diploma, and 1960–1. Taught part-time at Camberwell, 1961–5, also at Suffolk College, 1971–82, then was a full-time lecturer there, 1982– 95, when he took early retirement. Scott was a founder-member of the Suffolk Group, and was a member of Ipswich Art Society and Southwold Art Circle, in the mid-1990s being the president of the latter body. Showed at RA Summer Exhibition in 1984 and at NEAC from 1992 and took part in numerous two- to four-man exhibitions in East Anglia from 1961. Had a solo show at Orpington Civic Hall, 1960, at Belstead Brook Hotel, Ipswich, 1982, and Chappel Galleries, Chappel, 1999. Lived in Walberswick, Suffolk. He made researches into the village as an artistic colony, one by-product being a successful exhibition at Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, in 1994. Scott’s authoritative survey Artists at Walberswick, East Anglian Interludes, 1880–2000 was published by Art Dictionaries Ltd in 2002 and was launched at Christchurch Mansion with his accompanying solo exhibition The Blyth Estuary. Although Scott trained as a sculptor, by the mid-1970s he had

decided to concentrate on painting. Among his sculpted portraits were Norman Manley, prime minister of Jamaica, 1960, and William Alwyn, the composer, 1980.

Painter, muralist, decorative architectural glass artist and teacher, born and based in London, who studied at Croydon College of Art and Royal Academy Schools. Taught at Birmingham School of Art, 1962–4, and lectured part-time at Middlesex Polytechnic (formerly Hornsey College of Art), 1964–91. Scott’s London paintings were mainly still life; pastel landscapes were done in the Languedoc, France; with flower paintings in both countries. Work for films included The Bliss of Mrs Blossom and The French Lieutenant’s Woman, with mural locations including Madame Tussaud’s; Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan; Farnborough and Paris Air Shows; and Hilton Hotels in Britain and abroad. Group shows included regular exhibitions with Alresford Gallery; Society of Botanical Artists from 1992; and NEAC, 1993. Had a solo show at Richmond Art and Ceramic Gallery, 1976, later ones including JK Hill Gallery, 1993, and Le Mimosa, St Guirand, France. From the mid-1980s Sally Scott with David Peace formed a partnership to make decorative architectural glass, sandblasting and engraving. Among works they produced were chapel doors for Lincoln College in Oxford; a screen for Llandaff Cathedral, Wales; and the east window for St Mary’s, Burwell, Cambridgeshire. She also handled independent commissions, including screens for a series of hotels internationally; mirrors for the Royal Albert Hall; murals for the Victoria & Albert Museum; and a fanlight for the Catholic Church of Our Lady and St Michael, Abergavenny, Wales. In 1995 Scott and Peace published Engraved Glass in Architecture. Scott was a member of the Guild of Glass Engravers and the Art Workers’ Guild. Sally SCOTT 1939–

Richard SCOTT 1938–

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Septimus Edwin SCOTT 1879–1966 Painter, poster designer and illustrator, born in Sunderland, County Durham, studying at the local School of Art, then the Royal College of Art. After working as an artist briefly in Sunderland and then for almost


40 years in London, around the start of World War II Scott settled in Brighton, Sussex. As well as poster designs, he illustrated for The Graphic and The Bystander. He was elected an associate of the RBA, 1919; ROI, 1920; and RI, 1927, also showing at RA Summer Exhibition, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and elsewhere. Scott’s work could be painterly in the manner of Sir John Lavery, Mark Senior and Edward Seago. Good examples are beach scenes done at Walberswick, a favourite spot for the artist, examples of which were included in the Spring 2003 exhibition at The Bourne Gallery, Reigate.

residencies at Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery, South Shields Museum and Gateshead MetroCentre and participated in schools workshops. Scott’s steel sculpture Time Line, 1998, was commissioned by the chemical firm Rohm and Haas for its Jarrow factory on Tyneside.

Sculptor and teacher, born in Richmond, Surrey. He studied at Tunbridge Wells School of Art, Architectural Association, 1954–9, and part-time at St Martin’s School of Art, 1955– 9. In the late 1950s showed with Young Contemporaries. In 1959–61 lived in Paris and worked at Atelier Le Corbusier-Wegenscky. He much admired Le Corbusier and Brancusi and wrote a thesis on Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye. In 1961 Scott showed at ICA in 26 Young Sculptors. Began to teach 1962 at St Martin’s School of Art and other schools, becoming head of the St Martin’s sculpture department in 1980. Among his awards were a Peter Stuyvesant Foundation Bursary, 1965, and the position of sculptor-in-residence at North London Polytechnic, 1978–9. His commissions included Peter Stuyvesant Sculpture Project in Liverpool, 1972. He had the first of a string of solo exhibitions at Waddington Galleries in 1966, later showing with Knoedler Gallery. Also exhibited widely abroad, notably in Germany, where he taught and worked from the 1980s. Retrospectives included Whitechapel Art Gallery in 1967, then Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1969. Scott was an abstract sculptor using a variety of materials. Sculptures in Forged Steel was an exhibition at the Poussin Gallery in 2006. His work is held by Tate Gallery and many other international public collections. Lived in Yorkshire and Sri Lanka. Tim SCOTT 1937–

Wendy SCOTT 1965– Versatile artist who studied at

Edinburgh, Loughborough and Sunderland University. From the late 1980s she held

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William SCOTT 1913–1989 Painter, printmaker, sculptor and teacher, born in Greenock, Renfrewshire. Was brought up in Northern Ireland, attending Belfast College of Art, 1928–31, then Royal Academy Schools, 1931–5. Lived in France and Italy for three years, helping to run an art school at Pont-Aven, Brittany. During World War II served in the Royal Engineers, a period notable for some outstanding landscape watercolours, having his first one-man show at Leger Gallery in 1942. After the war Scott taught at Bath Academy of Art, 1946– 56, where he got to know the St Ives painters. He also taught at Royal College of Art and Alberta University’s Banff School of Fine Arts. In America he met Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock and other leading painters and as well as exhibiting at LG, of which he was a member, and showing at Leicester and Hanover Galleries, he began to establish an international reputation. Exhibited at Venice Biennale in 1958 and São Paulo Bienal in 1961, when he won the Sanbra Prize, as well as in Brussels, Copenhagen, Oslo, Paris, Rotterdam and Zürich. Scott’s Scottish-Ulster background is reflected in the rather austere still lifes of pots and pans for which he became famous, although he was capable of employing quite voluptuous colour. Elected RA in 1984, by which time the first symptoms of the Alzheimer’s disease, which prevented him from doing much work in his final years, were becoming evident. The 1950s and 1960s had seen a series of retrospective exhibitions in Zürich, Hanover, Berne and Belfast, and there was one at Tate Gallery, which holds his work, in 1972, others at Bernard Jacobson Gallery, 1997, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Kilmainham, 1998. Archeus Fine Art showed paintings and works on paper in 2001 and A Survey of Prints, 2005; Denise Bibro Fine Art, New York, put on a show in 2004; and Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh, exhibited Scott’s


screenprints and lithographs in 2005. He was Acquavella Gallery, New York, in America. married to the artist Mary Scott. Elizabeth SCOTT-MOORE 1902–1993 Painter and illustrator, notable as a fluent watercolourist, born William SCOTT 1935: see Bill SCOTT in Dartford, Kent, as Edith Elizabeth Brier, which Bill SCOTT-BROWN : see Walter Graham SCOTT- she used to illustrate books published by Blackie, BROWN Nelson and Oxford University Press. Her mother, born Victoria Carruthers, was an illustrator of Walter Graham SCOTT-BROWN 1897–1987 Artist, children’s books. When Elizabeth Scott-Moore’s especially noted for work in pastel, known as Bill Scott-Brown. He was born in London. After Army husband died in 1947 she changed to painting. She service with distinction on the continent in World had trained under Edmund J Sullivan at War I he entered Corpus Christi College, Goldsmiths’ College School of Art in the 1920s, Cambridge, as an exhibitioner, proceeding to St also attending the Central School of Arts and Crafts. Bartholomew’s Hospital where he graduated in In 1957 she was chosen as one of Jack 1925. He became a distinguished ear, nose and Beddington’s Young Artists of Promise, in the book throat surgeon who wrote the classic textbook on of that title. Showed at RA Summer Exhibitions this subject. From 1950 he studied with his friend and RP; RI, RWS and NEAC, all of which she was the artist Paul Maze and with Dunoyer de Segonzac a member; and Paris Salon, where in 1962 her and went on to exhibit in London, Edinburgh and portrait of her artist friend Alfred Hayward won a abroad. Was for some time honorary secretary of Gold Medal. Ministry of Works owned her work. Died in Virginia Water, Surrey. PS. Lived near Alresford, Hampshire.

Elizabeth SCOTT-TAGGART 1927– Artist in wood and stone, born in Penge, Kent. She studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1945–8, then St Martin’s School of Art, 1948–9. Main works were carved in wood, and favoured subjects were athletes and animals. Scott-Taggart, who signed work est, was a member of Free Painters and Sculptors and Buckinghamshire Art Society. Also showed at RA and RBA and locally and had solo shows at Century Galleries, Henley-on-Thames, 1984 and 1987. Lived in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire.

Edwin SCOTTERZ 1930– Painter and draughtsman,

born in the Glasgow and who settled in the area, whose work was much influenced by that of the Scottish Colourists. He graduated from Glasgow School of Art as a mature student and studied design under William Gillies and Anne Redpath. Scotterz’s subjects included the cottages and landscape of Ireland, which he visited regularly, Glasgow waterside scenes and flower still lifes, produced with a mix of water-based paints as well as pastel and chalks. Judy Hines of Holt included the reclusive artist’s work in her 2005 Summer Show of Paintings. Glen SCOULLER 1950– Painter and teacher, born in Glasgow. He studied at the School of Art there, Melissa SCOTT-MILLER 1959– Painter, noted for highly detailed oils of scenes and interiors in 1968–72, and as a postgraduate, 1973, in 1972–3 London, where she was born and lived and attended also studying at Patrick Allan-Fraser School of Art, the Slade School of Fine Art. Showed at RA Hospitalfield, Arbroath. For many years he taught Summer Exhibition, RP, The Spectator Art Prize at Cranhill School, from 1985–9 also teaching at Exhibition and BP Portrait Awards. She won the Glasgow School of Art, then giving up teaching Lord Leighton Prize and the Lucy Morrison Award to paint full-time. In 1989 he was elected to the at the Royal Over-Seas League and second prize Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. He in the South Bank Picture Show. In 1997 was one participated in many group shows and had a series of Four British Artists at Grosvenor Gallery. Solo of one-mans, including John D Kelly Gallery, in shows included Royal Over-Seas League and Glasgow; Scottish Gallery, in Edinburgh; Fine Art 44


Society, Glasgow; and Portland Gallery. Scouller won a number of awards, including the Royal Glasgow Institute’s Scottish Amicable Award and Glasgow Art Club Lauder Award. Scouller used strong primary colours in his landscapes and still lifes, his palette being especially suited to landscapes of Provence, shown at The John Davies Gallery, Stow-on-the-Wold, 2004. Scouller’s work was held by many public and corporate collections, including Argyll County Council; Clydesdale Bank; De Beers; Glasgow School of Art; Leeds Education Authority; Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie; Paintings in Hospitals, Scotland; Scottish Arts Council; and Scottish Office, Edinburgh.

works Locarno Lady and Bingo Bango were included in shows at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park and Landmark Park, Scotland. In the same year he was included in the Welsh Sculpture Trust Margam exhibition Sculpture in a Country Park. Among later shows were a retrospective at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Bretton Hall, in 1986, and Gallerie Wahrenburger, Zürich, Switzerland, from 1997. St Albans City Museum holds his work.

Sculptor and teacher, born in London. He studied at St Albans School of Art and Royal Academy Schools and became principal lecturer in charge of sculpture at Liverpool Polytechnic. Robert Scriven used wood and steel, favouring welded steel for the flexibility of form it offered. His sculpture was positive, optimistic, entertaining and anecdotal, and he sometimes used bright colour to add gaeity and even vulgarity to a piece. In 1979 Scriven participated in Sculpture for the Blind at Nottingham Castle and in 1983 his

achieved a diploma in fine art with distinction; and in 1999 a first–class Open University honours degree, which included philosophy of the arts. Scrivener showed regularly with the Room 10 group. Other exhibitions included Bettles Gallery, Ringwood, from 1993; Laing Art Competition, from 1994; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1998; Summer 2000, Cadogan Contemporary, 2000; and Oliver Contemporary, from 2001. In 2004, Scrivener shared a show with Geoffrey Robinson and Margaret McLellan, entitled Shoulder to

Painter, printmaker and teacher, born in Little Wratting, Suffolk. Studied at Cambridge School of Art and went on to teach, partly in the Midlands, where he showed widely. Lived in Stafford where, after Army service in Audrey SCOVELL 1942–2000 Artist in a variety of World War II, he taught at the County School of media, born in Patna, India, who worked in Arts and Crafts. television production for Independent Television News before starting printmaking, drawing and Kate SCRIVENER 1971– Painter who graduated in painting in the early 1970s. Scovell (emphasize fine art, Surrey Institute of Art and Design, 1992– second syllable) attended life classes at a Royal 5, gaining her master’s in painting at Royal College College of Art art centre as well as etching of Art, 1995–7. Won the TSB Young Artist Award, workshops, although originally she was self-taught 1995, Stephenson Harwood Award, 1997. Group and had her own Rochat press. She was a member exhibitions included DNA, Whiteley’s Atrium of the Greenwich Printmakers’ Association. Gallery, 1994; 11 Billion Demons, Bobo’s, 1997; Showed at RA Summer Exhibition from 1977, RE Wardrobe, Heathrow Airport, 1998; and The British from 1981 and in Whitechapel Open Exhibition, on Paper, Galleria Sonia Rosso, Pordenone, Italy, 1986. Took part in four-man show at Woodlands 1999. In 1999 showed solo at Nylon. Art Gallery, 1989. After a solo show at Tudor Barn, Tony SCRIVENER 1944– Painter, born in London, Eltham, 1982, later one-man exhibitions included whose wife, Elly, was a sculptor. He moved to Liberty’s Picture Gallery from 1985. There was a Dorset in 1970 and from 1972 ran his own business, memorial show at Greenwich Printmakers Gallery an early interest in art being reawakened when his in 2002. She was married to Brian Scovell, for 40 children began their studies. He undertook a course years a senior sports writer on the Daily Mail. Lived in interior design and garden design at in Bromley, Kent. Bournemouth and Poole College of Art and Design; John T SCRIVENER 1907–

Bob SCRIVEN 1943–

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Shoulder, at the Grapevine Gallery, Norwich. Adam Gallery, Bath, also exhibited Scrivener’s work, which “explored the relationship between people, objects and landscape in time and space.” Janet

SCRYMGEOUR

WEDDERBURN

Carfax, Johannesburg, and solo exhibitions Standard Bank National Arts Festival, Grahamstown, both 1998. On return to Britain exhibiting outlets included Flying Colours Gallery, which gave him solo shows from 2000.

1941–

Sculptor and stained glass designer, born in Winchester, Hampshire. After attending Convent of the Sacred Heart, Bridge of Earn, Perthshire, she studied with the sculptor Alastair Ross in the early 1970s, awards including RSA’s Benno Schotz Prize, 1973. She showed at RSA and Paris Salon and was made a fellow of RBS in 1980. The east window of the Episcopal Church of St James the Great in Cupar, Fife, where she lived, was by her.

Louise SCULLION 1966– Artist

who used painting, print- making installations and photography, born in Helensburgh, Dunbartonshire. She showed individually and with Matthew Dalziel as Dalziel & Scullion. She studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1984–8, graduating with a first-class honours degree in fine art (environmental art). Gained the Cargill Travelling Scholarship and went to North America. Between 1989–95 held several residencies, latterly at Banff & Bucan District, 1994–5. Her exhibitions and commissions incuded Reconnaissance Bench, commissioned by Glasgow Garden Festival, 1988; The Lie of The Land, Compass Gallery, Glasgow, 1990; and The Furnished Landscape, Crafts Council Gallery, 1992. Lived at St Combs, near Peterhead in Aberdeenshire.

Artist in sculpture and mixed media, muralist and draughtsman, born in Birmingham, who attended Maidstone College of Art, 1964, and Balliol College, Oxford, 1969. Until 1974, Scull concentrated on painting large murals, then also on sculpture and drawing. Among his murals were ones at 39 Harley Street and 8 Wesley Street, both completed in 1973; one in Wapping Lane, The Three Swedish Crowns, 1979, the year he made a portrait of the choreographer George Balanchine for New York City Ballet; and another mural for the Beaux Brummel Club, 1980. In that year he was commissioned to make drawings for the Oscar Wilde Club, St James’s. Scull’s group and mixed shows included the Michton Gallery, 1971; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1972; 55 Wapping Artists, 1979; and Wapping Artists Open Studios, 1982, to which he contributed the woodcarving Black-Under. British and foreign private collections held examples. Colin SCULL 1948–

Painter whose work included strong, painterly figure studies, born in East Kilbride, Lanarkshire. He gained an honours degree in painting from Glasgow School of Art, 1988–92. Showed in student exhibitions at the RSA in 1990 and 1991 and at the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, from 1991, in 1992 winning the James Torrance Memorial Award; then spent much of the 1990s in South Africa. Later group shows there included Nudes and Nakeds,

Painter and teacher, born in Dublin. After Croydon College of Art Scully studied at Newcastle University, 1968–71, from which he graduated and where he taught for a while in the early 1970s. About this time he also studied at Harvard. Scully further taught at Chelsea School of Art. He had a first one-man show at Rowan Gallery in 1973, from which Arts Council bought its picture, Red, of 1972. Scully took part in many group shows, including Northern Young Contemporaries and Young Contemporaries, 1971; Spectrum, North, 1972; the John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool; and abroad. In 1988–9 Scully was included in The Presence of Painting, the South Bank Centre’s touring review of British abstraction in 1957–88. In 1989 Scully was given a major show at Whitechapel Art Gallery, with a 20-year retrospective at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Kilmainham, 1996. Had a solo show in 2001 at Ingleby Gallery, Edinburgh, in 2003 and 2004, others at Timothy Taylor Gallery. In 2003– 4, L A Louver Gallery, Venice, California, showed Scully’s photographs, which coincided with the Sean SCULLY 1945–

Anthony SCULLION 1967–

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publication by Steidl Verlag of The Color of Time: The Photographs of Sean Scully. Paintings and works on paper were at Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal, in 2005. Scully worked in stripes, broken up into interlocking squares and rectangles; the picture surface could consist of overlapping canvases. He lived in New York from 1976 and became an American citizen in 1983.

Artist and teacher whose life’s work encompassed a range of media and styles, including painting, drawing pottery, construction with found objects, landscapes, figure studies and abstraction. It was documented in the lavishly illustrated catalogue produced by his son Matthew to accompany the retrospective of his work held at 11 De Crespigny Park, Camberwell, in 2004, facilitated by the dealer Rupert Maas. Seaborn was born in London, son of Tom Seaborn a taxi driver, and aged six broke his right arm, causing permanent restriction of movement. He won a scholarship to Dame Alice Owens School in 1936. In 1943 Seaborn was offered professional terms for Luton Town Football Club, the year he began studies at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College, from 1943–6 gaining University purples in boxing, football and cricket, in 1947 his Diploma in Education at the Institute of Education. In 1948 Seaborn taught half-time at Adcroft School of Building and Trowbridge Grammar School in Wiltshire, playing cricket for that county. After marriage to Jean Tas in 1949, he moved to Dordrecht, Netherlands, joining the Pictura group of artists, returning to London in 1950. He was appointed art master at Tiffin Boys School in 1951, a post held until retirement in 1986 when he visited Australia. From the late 1940s Seaborn participated in many high-profile mixed exhibitions in Britain and abroad, including the LG and AIA, both 1952; RBA, 1953; Daily Express Young Artists Exhibition, 1955; and The John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1957. Later ones included constructions at Gallerie Wanda Rieff, Maastricht, 1986, and Seven Painters at The Battersea Arts Centre, 1995. His later solo shows included Queensland House, 1993, and architects

Corrigan Soundy and Kilaiditi, Eton, 1994. Seaborn remained a keen sportsman, playing cricket for Wimbledon Cricket Club, 1951–95, and dying skiing near Altenmarkt, Austria.

Painter, especially of landscape, and actor, born in Upton Park, Essex (his adopted name combined that of his father, Robert Elliott, with his mother’s, Harriet Seabrooke). Seabrooke studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1906–11, with Henry Tonks, then took a remote shed in Westmorland for £2 a year as a studio, putting in his own windows, door and chimney. In World War I Seabrooke – a pacifist – served in the British Red Cross, won Italy’s highest award for gallantry and was an Official War Artist on the Italian front. He was tall and handsome, with a fine singing voice, which led to a thespian career. Did much work with the directors Theodore Komisarjevsky and J B Fagan, and acted with John Gielgud, Lewis Casson, Sybil Thorndike, Wendy Hiller, Charles Laughton and Ralph Richardson. Also appeared in films, including Gabriel Pascal’s Major Barbara, 1941, but preferred the stage, which left the day free for painting. He showed at NEAC, LG of which he was vice-president and president during most of the 1940s, having had a first solo show at Carfax Gallery, 1912. Seabrooke was much influenced initially by Cézanne in both style and palette, Italian Futurism and Pointillism being later influences. Travelled widely in England and on the continent for landscape subjects, after 1930 living often in the Netherlands. Died in Nice and had memorial shows at Leicester Galleries, 1951; Arts Council 1952; 1955 at Matthiesen Gallery; and in 1966 at Upper Grosvenor Galleries. There was a show at Blond Fine Art in 1979. Tate Gallery, Imperial War Museum and Arts Council hold examples. Elliott SEABROOKE 1886–1950

Herbert SEABORN 1925–1998

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Allen William SEABY 1867–1953 Painter, colour woodcut artist, writer and teacher, born in London. Studied under F Morley Fletcher at Reading University’s school of art, where from 1920–33 he was professor of fine art. He exhibited at the Fine Art Society, RSA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and on the continent. He illustrated a


number of books and wrote on a variety of subjects, including Art in the Life of Mankind, 1928–31, British Ponies, 1936, and Blondel the Minstrel, 1951, as well as on Colour Printing with Linoleum and Wood Blocks, 1928. Signed work AWS. His son was the painter Wilfred Seaby. Lived in Reading, Berkshire.

entertaining writer. Books by him or illustrated by him include Tideline, Circus Company, Peace in War, With the Allied Armies in Italy; he often worked with the poet John Masefield, examples being The Country Scene and A Generation Risen. Seago was a lover of East Anglia, the Norfolk Broads and sailing, could be a masterly watercolourist and painter of Broadland. His later, more commercial overseas work has tended to overshadow his quieter, early East Anglian work, also his fine flower-pieces. Richard Green posthumously exhibited Seago’s work, in 1999 the Fine Art Society showed his war paintings and Portland Gallery, in association with Thomas Gibson Fine Art, held wide-ranging shows in 2002 and 2004. Lived at Ludham, Norfolk.

Curator and watercolourist, born in Reading, Berkshire, son of the painter Allen William Seaby. He studied at Reading School of Art, 1926–7, and was from 1962–70 director of Belfast’s Ulster Museum, which holds several works by him. Lived latterly at Solihull, West Midlands. Wilfred A SEABY

1910–1991

Harry SEAGER 1931– Sculptor in variety of media

including glass, and teacher, born in Birmingham, Peter SEAL 1959– Artist and lecturer, born in where he attended the College of Arts and Crafts, Aberfeldy, Perthshire, who graduated in fine art 1951–5. Seager settled in Stourbridge, from Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Worcestershire, lecturing at the College of Art. Dundee, 1977–81; attended Hospitalfield House, Contemporary Art Society, Leeds City Art Gallery Arbroath, 1980; and gained his master’s at and Department of the Environment hold Manchester Metropolitan University, 1981–2. He examples. Had several solo shows at Gimpel Fils was a founder-member of the Manchester Artists’ from 1965. At various times Seager was Studio Association, 1981, was a part-time lecturer preoccupied by figuration, Constructivism, in drawing and painting at Blackpool and the Fylde Minimalism and draughtsmanship. Public College, 1982–4, and a visiting lecturer in painting, sculptures by him include the stylised Youth, in Manchester Metropolitan University, 1984–96. concrete, in Birmingham, completed in 1959. Exhibitions included The Showroom, 1987 (with Robert Welch); Castlefield Gallery, Manchester Edward SEAGO 1910–1974 Oil and watercolour painter and draughtsman. Despite ill-health as a (with Craigie Aitchison), 1992; Abstract Painting, child and parental resistance, Seago painted from The Cornerhouse, Manchester, 1994; and New an early age, studying at the Royal Drawing Society Artists, Martin Tinney Gallery, Cardiff, and and winning a prize when aged only 14. Although Beyond the Endgame: Abstract Painting in substantially self-taught as a painter, he did receive Manchester, Manchester Art Gallery, both 2003. invaluable instruction from the RA Bertram Seal lived in Manchester with his wife, the Priestman, who left a mark on his style. As a young musician Sheila Seal.

man Seago began his association with travelling shows and circuses. Such scenes featured in his first one-man show, at the Sporting Gallery in 1933, where he had an instant success. He was to retain a wide and loyal public following until his death, but did not get much critical favour. He travelled and exhibited widely, showing at the RA, RBA, RHA, ROI, RCamA and in galleries in many countries overseas. Seago was also a lively and

Barney SEALE 1896–1957 Sculptor and painter, noted

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for his portrait sculptures in bronze, but also as an architectural sculptor. He worked with the sculptor William Silver Frith, who taught at Lambeth School of Art and who was also an architectural sculptor. Seale was elected RBA in 1938, also exhibiting at RA, RCamA and RSA and having solo shows in London and New York. He was an associate of RBS. Seale’s striking figure I Write


for the New Kensington Library, one of a series of three and in stone, is illustrated in Arthur T Broadbent’s Sculpture Today in Great Britain 1940–1943, published in 1949. In 1986 the Fine Art Society included him in the survey Sculpture in Britain Between The Wars. Seale, a huge, harddrinking man who was fond of good living, was a noted member of the Chelsea Arts Club. He was commercially astute and produced successful portrait busts of artists Augustus John, Joseph Simpson and C R W Nevinson. Lived in London and Walton-on-Thames, Surrey.

Winchester Schools of Art and Reading, Kingston and Middlesex Universities. Sear took part in numerous group shows and had many solo exhibitions, later ones including, in 1999, Angel Row, Nottingham; Impressions Gallery, York, tour; and Zinc Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden. Impressions Gallery gave her another show in 2003. The Arts Council, British Council, Department of Trade and Industry and corporate collections hold examples. Lived in London.

Adrian SEARLE 1953– Figurative painter, critic and

exhibition organiser, born in Welwyn Garden City, Hertforshire. He studied at St Albans School of Art, 1971–2, Trent Polytechnic, 1972–3, and Winchester School of Art, 1973–5. Among exhibitions he organised were ones for Atlantis Gallery in 1982 and Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 1983. He was included in shows at Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, and tour, 1979; Serpentine Gallery, 1984; and in 1985 he won a prize in John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. Arts Council holds his picture Hubris, of 1984. Lived for a time in London.

Colin SEALY 1891–1964 Painter, muralist and teacher,

born in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, full name Cuthbert Collingwood Sealy. He spent part of his early life in Ceylon, where he was a tea planter for a time. Early in World War I, for which he was medically unfit to serve, Sealy married the artist Doris Vaughan. He worked at the department store Peter Jones in Chelsea, then in the early 1920s studied at the Royal Academy Schools. In 1924 he began teaching life drawing at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, about the time that he painted several privately commissioned murals. Cubism and abstraction influenced him, as seen in works shown with the 7 & 5 Society. During World War II Sealy worked as a camouflage officer for the Directorate of Camouflage, in 1944 being appointed to the American government’s Office of Strategic Services at Leamington Spa as a modeller. Sealy separated from Vaughan by the mid-1950s, a period when his reputation declined. He died unrecognised living at Mousehole, Cornwall. A joint exhibition of Sealy and Vaughan was held at Belgrave Gallery in 1977.

Ronald SEARLE 1920– Artist,

notably a humorous draughtsman, and designer, born in Cambridge, where he attended the School of Art and had first work published in the local daily paper and Granta, 1935–9. Served in Army, 1939–46, being a Japanese prisoner-of-war, 1942–5. Began freelancing for national publications in 1946, including News Chronicle, Punch and New Yorker. From 1995, Searle contributed to the French newspaper Le Monde, politics and business corruption among his targets. After a first marriage to Kaye Webb, by whom he had a son and daughter, Searle left England for France in 1961, marrying Helen SEAR 1955– Artist and teacher using media Monica Koenig in 1967. They lived in Provence. such as prints, light-box installations and video He had collaborated with Webb on Paris projections. She gained a first-class honours degree Sketchbook in 1950 and 1957, one of many at University of Reading’s fine art department, collaborations, particularly on books, in his prolific 1975–9, with a higher diploma from Slade School career. Another was the volume Searle & Searle, of Fine Art, 1981–3. Sear won a number of with Monica Searle, in 2001. Searle’s extensive residencies and awards, including WAC travel publications included Forty Drawings, 1946; grant to Sicily, 1990, and Abbey Award, British Hurrah for St Trinian’s!, 1948; The Rake’s School at Rome, 1993. She taught in Britain and Progress, 1955; Searle in the Sixties, 1964; Searle’s abroad, including the Slade, Chelsea and Cats, 1967; Ronald Searle, 1978; Ronald Searle 49


in Perspective, 1984; and To the Kwai – and Back, 1986. Among films designed by Searle were the animation sequence in Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines, 1965. Five St Trinian’s films were produced, the last being The Wildcats of St Trinian’s, 1980. Searle designed medals for the French Mint and British Art Medal Society and was made a Royal Designer for Industry, 1988. He had extensive international shows, beginning with Batsford Gallery, 1947, a series at Leicester Galleries from 1948, later ones including Imperial War Museum and British Museum, 1986, Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, 1987, and Museum of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 1987–8. Chris Beetles Ltd held a Searle retrospective in 2003. Tate Gallery, Imperial War Museum, British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum and foreign collections hold examples.

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and international corporate collections hold examples. Lived in Gwent.

Helen SEDDON fl. c.1925–1955 Painter who was born

in Chelmarsh, Shropshire. The daughter of a New Zealand sheep farmer, she studied art partly there, but went to school in Worcester. Also studied painting in Edinburgh and Paris and with Charles Simpson and Fred Milner. Settled in St Ives, Cornwall, where she was a member of the St Ives Society of Artists. Exhibited there, at SWA, in Bristol and elsewhere. A keen traveller.

Graham SEATON 1959– Artist whose work drew on

everyday objects and their reference to forms of architecture and urban landscapes. Using basic casting processes he placed objects in new arrangements and context, presenting them in new and suggestive ways, as in his work SPRAWL 1:1, at The Economist Building, 2001, for Contemporary Art Society Projects. Seaton had recently gained his master’s degree from Wimbledon School of Art. He showed solo at Chisenhale Gallery, 2000, later with Hales Gallery, and at Margaret Harvey Gallery, University of Hertfordshire, St Albans, in 2004.

Photographic artist, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, who studied at the University of Ulster and West Surrey College of Art & Design. He won the Glen Dimplex Award, Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin, 1997; Autowerk Commission, B M W, 1998; and Ville de Paris Artist Award, 1999. Seawright took part in numerous group exhibitions internationally and had several dozen solo shows. Later ones included Kerlin Gallery, Dublin, 1999; and in 2000 Maureen Paley/Interim Art; Rena Bransten Gallery, San Francisco, California, America; and Bonakdar Jancou Gallery. The Arts Council, British Council, Ulster Museum in Belfast, Art Institute of Chicago,

Painter, printmaker, draughtsman, teacher and writer, born in Sheffield, Yorkshire. Studied at the College of Arts and Crafts there, 1932–6, then at Royal College of Art design school, gaining his diploma in 1939. Seddon then volunteered for the Army, but after active service – graphically described in his memoir A Hand Uplifted, 1963 – he was released to research history, psychology and aesthetic philosophy at University of Reading from 1943, gaining his doctorate in 1946. Seddon’s two main appointments were as director of Sheffield City Art Galleries, 1948–64, and of art history and complementary studies at Buckinghamshire College of Technology and Art, 1964–80. Among commissions undertaken were the design of decorations in 1952 for the main streets and buildings of Sheffield for the Queen’s coronation. Seddon’s picture subjects were usually British and continental landscapes. Among mixed shows were National Gallery first War Artists’ Exhibition and Pilgrim Trust, both 1941; RWS Gallery, Britain in Watercolours, 1952; Leeds City Art Gallery, Yorkshire Artists, 1954; Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, Paintings of the North, 1987; and RA, NEAC and RBA. A solo show of his war pictures was held at Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, 1941. Imperial War Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum and public galleries in Reading, Sheffield and Southport hold examples. Seddon was art critic for The Guardian, The Birmingham and Yorkshire Posts and The Art Magazine. Among his books are The Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms, with Kimberley Reynolds, 1981, and The Richard SEDDON 1915–

Paul SEAWRIGHT 1971–

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Artist’s Studio Book, 1983. Lived in London.

from 1969; Greenwich Theatre Gallery, 1979; and in 1981 he shared a three-man exhibition at Peter SEDGLEY 1930– Artist who besides painting Woodlands Art Gallery. employed audio-visual means and special light effects to achieve his ends. He was born in London Irena SEDLECKÁ 1928– Sculptor, born in Pilsen, and studied architecture at Brixton Technical Czechoslovakia. Studied at secondary school there School, 1944–6. In the mid-1960s he began to for four years, from 1945–9 attending the sculpture make an impact with several exhibitions at school of the Academy of Creative Arts, teachers McRoberts and Tunnard Gallery and at Howard including Karel Pokorny´. In the years 1945–6–9 Wise Gallery, in New York. In 1966 he was a she achieved an honorary mention and her final prizewinner at Tokyo Biennale. The 1970s saw state diploma work was a portrait. Sedlecká has Sedgley making a considerable impression at work in Prague’s National Gallery and she was exhibitions in Germany. He was commissioned to also engaged for the Monument for the Victims of provide an audio-visual display for the Fascism in Moravia at Velke Mezirˇici. Donaueschingen Music Festival, in 1972. The With two other sculptors (one, Ludwig Kodym, following year he had a retrospective at Ikon became her first husband) she worked on several Gallery, Birmingham. Went on to show with prestigious projects, including reliefs for the walls Redfern Gallery. Was included in The Sixties Art of Lenin Museum, Prague, which won the Museum Scene in London, Barbican Art Gallery, 1993. He competition. Sedlecká moved to England in 1966. had solo exhibitions, Acts of Light, 2000, and Into Her second husband, a paediatrician, decided to Space, 2004, at Austin/Desmond Fine Art. Arts return after the Prague Spring uprising of 1968, Council holds his work. Lived for some years in but she stayed; in 1997 the sculptor Franta Belsky Berlin, Germany. became her third husband. Sedlecká joined SPS and became a fellow of RBS, living in London, Deborah SEDGWICK 1975– Painter who gained a with a studio in Watford. Actors, singers, musicians fine art honours degree at Norwich School of Art, and television personalities became her subjects. 1995–8. Awards included, in 1998, 1st Prize, The Among these was a series of portraits of Callas, Sefton Open, and The William John & Pamela Gielgud, Olivier, Sutherland and others for the Pullen Annual Award for Painting; in 1999, The actor and collector Richard Bebb. Her statue of the University of Glamorgan Purchase Prize winner. singer Freddie Mercury overlooks Lake Geneva Among her exhibitions were Seven, St Gregory’s in Montreux, Switzerland. Church, Norwich, 1996; Art Raffle, Gasworks Gallery, 1998; and Urban Landscapes, Artmonsky David SEEGER 1937– Artist and teacher who studied at Leeds College of Art. He also taught there and Arts, 1999. was included in The Teaching Image, the 1964 Jørgen SEDGWICK fl. from early 1950s– Painter, exhibition of its staff’s work at Leeds City Art printmaker and teacher, notable for atmospheric Gallery. Seeger’s exhibits included pieces in ciment landscapes and seascapes in gouache. He was born fondu; Construction, in wood, metal and glass; and in Copenhagen, Denmark, but settled in London Panel, made of tiles and metal. He was also notable in 1946. Studied at Regent Street Polytechnic and as a potter. Took part in group shows at AIA Gallery, Beckenham Schools of Art and went on to become 1961, and Gimpel Fils. senior lecturer at Croydon College School of Art. Was an extensive exhibitor, including Young Colin SEE-PAYNTON 1946– Painter and printmaker, Contemporaries from 1950; RA from 1952; RBA, also known as Colin Paynton, who studied under 1952; AIA from 1954; Beaux Arts Gallery from Henry Bird at Northampton School of Art, 1963– 1955; John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1959; 5. Among his printed page work were illustrations Reading University and South London Art Gallery for private press publications. He was made an 51


art”. Catharine Patha, curator of Man in the Holocene, in 2005 called him “the most radical artist around”, when asked to nominate artists for the Turner Prize shortlist. The artist believed that “artistic production – like all acts – is always political and critical as well as affirmative towards something in being a performative reaffirmation of, or deviation, from, certain existing circumstances.” Sehgal participated in many international group shows, and these latterly included: I promise it’s political, Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany, 2002; Utopia Station, 50th Venice Biennale, Italy, 2003; Ailleurs, ici, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France, 2004; and 1st Moscow Biennale, Former Lenin Museum, Moscow, Russia, 2005. Among his frequent solo exhibitions were Le plein, Galerie Jan Mot, Brussels, Belgium, and This is right, Wrong Gallery, London, both 2003; Musée des BeauxArts, Nantes, France, and This is competition, Art Basel, Switzerland both 2004; and Galleria Massimo de Carlo, Milan, Italy, and the ICA, London, both 2005. In that year Sehgal showed with Thomas Scheibitz in the German Pavilion at the 51st Venice Biennale. Sehgal won the Kunspreis der Böttcherstrasse in Bremen, Germany, in 2003, and Baloise Art Prize at Art Basel in 2004. His work was in the collections of the Museum Ludwig, Cologne; Institut d’Art Contemporain, Villeurbanne, France; Collection Pierre Hubert, Geneva, Switzerland; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada; and Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

associate of RCamA in 1982 and a full member of SWE in 1984 and of both SWLA and RE in 1986. Also exhibited at RA, RWS and elsewhere and had a retrospective toured by Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, in 1996. Lived in Berriew, Powys.

Artist born in Portsmouth, Hampshire, who gained an honours degree in sculpture and media at Slade School of Fine Art, 1991–5, in 1993–4 going on an exchange programme to Bezalel Academy of Art, Jerusalem, Israel. Awards included Pankerd Jones Memorial Prize, at the Slade, 1993, and a Ray Finnis Award for new work, 1995. Commissions included one on-site for Habitat, 1995, and Beach Life, for Islington Council, 1998. In 1997 Seers had a residency at the Irish Museum of Modern Art, Kilmainham, from 1997–00 an Acme Studios Residency at The Old Fire Station. As well as many group shows in Britain and abroad Seers had solo exhibitions, among later ones being Autocannibal, Laure Genillard Gallery, 1999. In this, using various photographic techniques, Seers disguised herself as cannibal, alien, monster and the possessed. Seers’ exhibition I saw the light was at the Gasworks Gallery in 2005. Lindsay SEERS 1966–

Hyman SEGAL 1914– Painter, sculptor, draughtsman and designer, born in London, who studied at St Martin’s School of Art with Leon Underwood and Vivian Pitchforth. Segal was a member of RBA, a National Registered Designer and saw the founding of Penwith Society of Arts in 1949 and its stormy emergence from St Ives Society of Artists, of which he had been a committee member. He showed at RP, Workers’ Educational Association, Whitechapel and Truro Art Galleries and elsewhere widely in the provinces plus the Paris Salon. Many solo shows included Bankfield Museum in Halifax, Heffer Gallery in Cambridge and Castle Gallery and The Crypt, both in St Ives, Cornwall, where he lived for many years. Manchester City Art Gallery and National Museum of Wales in Cardiff hold examples.

Doris SEIDLER 1912– Artist, notably a printmaker,

born in London, who studied with S W Hayter at Atelier 17, New York, America, where she settled. Seidler received fellowships from Tamarind Lithographic Workshop; The McDowell Artists’ Colony; awards from Brooklyn Museum, which has work in its collection; Potsdam Printmakers; Print Club Philadelphia; Audubon Artists; and the Society of American Graphic Artists, of which was a vice-president. She had extensive group and solo shows in America and abroad, including ICA, Tino SEHGAL 1976– Artist, born in London but later resident in Berlin, Germany, who “did not study Redfern and St George’s Galleries. In 1955 she 52


showed solo at the Schools of Art in Norwich, murals until in 1937 he became head of a studio Yarmouth and Ipswich, with another at Pallant in Lódź. Escaped from occupied Poland House, Chichester, in 1991. Seidler gave a series in 1940 and travelled to Budapest, where he held of prints to Pallant House, including some of the a very successful print show depicting the burning Cathedral Series, done during visits of England. of Warsaw. More travels took him to France where British Museum, Library of Congress, several he enlisted in the French-run Polish Army, was American universities and the Seattle and captured and escaped to Scotland where in 1942 Philadelphia Museums of Art also hold examples. he rejoined the Polish Army. Settled in St Andrews where he became a member of a key wood Adele SEIGAL 1928– Painter and printmaker, born engraving circle and built up a reputation as a book in South Africa, who moved to England in 1959. designer and etcher. From 1957 lectured in Largely a self-taught artist, she concentrated on printmaking at Duncan of Jordanstone College of landscape of Provence, France, where she spent Art in Dundee. Showed with SSA, of which he part of the year, also on Little Venice, London, was elected a member, RE, RA, RSA and where she made her home. Had a solo show at elsewhere. His paintings can show a Cubist Coram Gallery, 1995. influence. Married to the artist Roberta Hodges.

Geneviève SEILLÉ 1951– Artist in various media, including performance, and teacher, born in France. She taught in schools in France and England, 1970– 6, then did a fine art honours degree course at Wolverhampton Polytechnic, 1978–81, following a two years’ foundation course at Stafford College of Further Education. While in Wolverhampton during the period 1979–83 she was engaged in performance work at the Arena Studio. She was also involved in puppet and drama workshops, freelance teaching and was artist-in-residence at Stoke-on-Trent Museum and Art Gallery in 1990, carrying out the same role in schools in Warwickshire in 1990–91 and in a school in Nuneaton in 1991. Seillé took part in many group shows, mainly in the Midlands. She had a solo exhibition at Eagle Work Gallery, Wolverhampton, in 1989, other such shows including England & Co, from 1992. Seillé’s works on paper and her book-works drew on such sources as graffiti, music, medieval books on anatomy and armour to create her own “cosmology”. Victoria & Albert Museum holds her work. From 1993, she worked in France and England.

Painter, printmaker, designer, illustrator and teacher, born in Turek, Poland. Studied medicine for several years but gave it up to study, from 1929–34, at Wilno University’s faculty of fine art. Then painted church

William SELBY 1933– Painter, self-taught, noted for

his painterly still lifes and bar scenes. He was born at Fitzwilliam, Yorkshire, son of a miner. He worked in the mines, 1948–55, did his National Service, 1955–7, then worked in engineering and insurance until he became a full-time painter in 1974. He became ROI in 1982, RBA and RWS in 1992, NEAC in 1994, and RSW in 1997 and won several awards. Took part in group exhibitions at Hallam Gallery, Century Gallery, Linda Blackstone Gallery in Pinner, Adam Gallery in Bath, Catto Gallery and Anna-Mei Chadwick. Had solo shows at Adam Gallery from 1995, with one at John Davies Fine Paintings, Stow-on-the-Wold, 2006. Mappin Art Gallery in Sheffield holds Selby’s work. Lived in Byrom-cum-Sutton, Yorkshire. John SELBY-BIGGE: see John BIGGE

Rosamond SELBY-HALL: see Rosamond BURNETT

Colin SELF 1941– Artist who studied at Wymondham

Józef SE¸KALSKI 1904–1972

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College, Norwich Art School and Slade School of Fine Art. He had strong Pop affiliations, his 1960s work being especially influential. The artist Richard Hamilton called Self “the best draughtsman in England since William Blake”; when he “went through a period painting landscape watercolours, it was as though Cotman had come to life again”. Had many group shows including


Galleria Milano, Milan, 1965; Camden Arts Centre, 1967; Tokyo International Print Biennale, 1969; Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1972–3; China and Hong Kong tour, 1982; Comic Iconoclasm, ICA, 1987; and Chappel Galleries, Chappel, Continuing the Tradition, 1993. Solo shows included Piccadilly Gallery, 1964–5; Alecto Gallery, 1968; Fermoy Centre, King’s Lynn, 1979; ICA, 1986, and Tate Gallery, 1995–6. That exhibition, drawing on the Tate’s large holding of Self’s work in a range of media, indicated how his interests had been redirected since his return to Norfolk in the 1970s, concerned with landscape, his children, the art of the past, politics, money and the unemployed, which the artist termed “works of fusion”. Also showed solo in France and Germany. Later exhibitions included James Colman Gallery, 2004, the year Self’s work was included in Art and the 60s: This Was Tomorrow, at Tate Britain. Mayor Gallery exhibited Self’s collages in 2006, the year he shared a show at Chappel Galleries with John Kiki and Brüer Tidman. Self variously signed work with his name or initials, with or without a date. Arts Council also holds examples. Lived in Thorpe, Norwich, Norfolk.

two at Flowers East, 1996 and 1998; in 2001, others at The Temperate House, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (as its first artist-in-residence), and Redfern Gallery; with another at Redfern, 2003. That comprised richly coloured canvases of flowers. These could be thickly pigmented, to emphasize vibrancy and intensity. A show at the Redfern in 2005–6 included flowers from the garden of the Dalai Lama, in Dharamsala, northern India, where Self had recently spent three months, His Holiness sometimes observing her working. Rothko, Goya and Caravaggio were among her favourite artists. Arthur Andersen, John Brown Publishing, Westdeutsche Landesbank and The Duchess of Devonshire owned her work.

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Sutton, Surrey. After Brentwood School and war service, 1944–7, Self was at Wimbledon School of Art, 1947–9, then Royal College of Art, 1949–52, winning a Richards Travelling Scholarship. From 1957 he settled in Suffolk, where he taught at Ipswich School of Art, having in 1955 joined Colin Moss as his assistant in the life drawing class. Selected group exhibitions were Royal College of Art Painting School, at RWS, 1952; East Anglian Painting Competition, 1963, at King Street Gallery, Cambridge, where he was a prize winner; East Anglian Art Today, at Royal Institute Gallery, 1969; and Laing Art Competition, at Mall Galleries, 1989, where he was an East Anglian Regional Prizewinner. Self also showed at RA from 1956 and NEAC from 1988. His series of solo shows, in which he was distinguished by his meticulous draughtsmanship, began at East Anglian Gallery, Ipswich, 1963. Later ones included Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, and Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-uponAvon, both 1974; and there was a retrospective at Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, 1991. Nottinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Carlisle and Coventry Education Committees hold his work. Lived latterly at Rattlesden, near Bury St Edmunds.

Lawrence SELF 1924–

Jo SELF 1956– Painter, draughtsman and lecturer, who grew up on a rural housing estate in Hertfordshire. Her original aspirations were literary; she wrote for newspapers, had a radio play produced and continued to write poetry. She was married to Jonathan, brother of the writer Will Self. After the birth of her first child, she studied at Wimbledon School of Art, 1985–8, where she won a history of art prize and was nominated for the Picker Fellowship and gained a prize for the work with the most interesting content, with a series of narrative paintings with jumbled images; then she attended Chelsea College of Art and Design, 1988– 9. She lectured at Wimbledon and the Slade School of Fine Art, 1990, and exhibited her work in solo and group exhibitions around London, where she had a studio. In 1996, Self gained a Travel Award, Anglo-Mexican Cultural Institute, Mexico City, Chris SELL 1950– Sculptor, wood-carver, where she had a one-man exhibition; there were printmaker and lecturer, based in Sunderland, County Durham. Sell gained his master’s in fine 54


art from Newcastle Polytechnic, 1985; was artistin-residence in East Sunderland, 1986–90 and rural Gateshead, 1993–5; and taught part-time at Sunderland University. He exhibited at the Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art in Sunderland, at Cardiff University and elsewhere. Sell also contributed to the creation of public sculpture in the northeast, including the carved wood Cockerel and Sun Stile, 1993, and Sign Post, 1996, both commissioned by Great North Forest and erected at Kibblesworth.

Office and British Post Office and painted for The Cyclamen Society. Sellars exhibited in Britain, America, Japan and Denmark, with a solo show at the Kew Gallery, Royal Botanic Gardens, in 1990, and held workshops in botanical illustration in America and the United Kingdom. She was represented in the collections of the British Museum’s natural history section; Moretum Aboretum, Illinois; and in many private collections. Sellars lived in Madley, Hereford.

Dorothea SELOUS fl. c.1905–1960 Painter and potter,

born and lived in London, married to the artist Robert Kirkland Jamieson. After private education she studied at Royal Academy Schools and in Paris. Exhibited RA, RBA of which she was a member, LG, NEAC, SWA and RI. Belfast Art Gallery holds her work.

Robert Gordon SELLAR 1920– Prolific artist in many media and teacher, born at Berwick, East Lothian. An early influence was his father, a marine engineering draughtsman, who on walks acquainted his son with the Belfast locality; a Christian education also encouraged an interest in its symbolism. Studied at Belfast College of Art, 1939–43, teachers including Ivor Beaumont, Newton Penprase and Edward Mansfield. Teaching included Belfast Royal Academy and its College of Art, then Sellar was an adviser in art education, finally with the North-Eastern Education and Library Board, retiring in 1984. He was a member of RUA, Coleraine Art Society and Pastel Society of Ireland. Later solo shows included a series from 1979 at Coleraine University, Northern Ireland, near which he lived. Arts Council holds his work, and he designed a stained glass window for Ballycastle Presbyterian Church.

Painter and teacher, born in Askern, Yorkshire, although as a baby he moved to his parents’ birthplace at Abertillery, Monmouthshire. In 1953–7 he attended Newport College of Art, then after two years’ National Service returned to study at Royal College of Art, 1959–62. In 1962–3 a University of London Boise Travelling Scholarship enabled him to paint in Portugal. He returned to teach at Newport College of Art and became a member of 56 Group for many years. Showed extensively, including Young Contemporaries, Café Royal Centenary Exhibition in 1965, Camden Arts Centre, SWG, WAC and International Arts Fairs in Basel and Düsseldorf. Solo shows were at Roland, Browse and Delbanco, Piccadilly Gallery and elsewhere. He was represented in the WAC touring show The Probity of Art, 1980. There were solo exhibitions at Oriel Washington Gallery, Cardiff, in 2003 and 2005, and Another Kind of Eden at Llantarnam Grange Arts Centre, Cwmbran, in 2004. Newport Museum & Art Gallery gave him a retrospective in 2006. WAC, Arts Council and National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, hold his work. Lived in Abertillery.

John SELWAY 1938–

Botanical painter, illustrator and teacher who participated in A New Flowering: 100 Years of Botanical Art, at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, in 2005. After a rural childhood and schooling, Sellars studied at Hereford and Cheltenham Schools of Art. Although she specialised in printed textiles, she was drawn to the world of nature. When she married, her artist husband shared an interest in plants and she began to record the orchids he collected, drawings exhibited at the Royal Horticultural Society. As a result, she was introduced to Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, for which she intermittently worked. William SELWYN 1933– Painter, especially of Her work was published in other magazines and watercolours, and teacher. He was born in books, she designed stamps for the Jersey Post Caernarvon, served in the Royal Artillery, 1952– Pandora SELLARS 1936–

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4 and attended Bangor Normal College in 1954– 6, later teaching in Caernarvon, retiring in 1990. A member of WSW he showed at Arun Art Centre in Arundel, Albany Gallery in Cardiff, RBA and RWA. Won the Anfield and Everton Prize for Art in 1956; RCamA Saxon Barton Prize in 1961; and was a Royal National Eisteddfod prize-winner in 1974. Albany Gallery and National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, gave him one-man shows, including a 70th Birthday Exhibition at Albany, 2003, also Thackeray Gallery, 2000 and 2002. CASW holds his watercolour A Ferry in Scotland.

Garden Square, at Oriel Contemporary Art.

Carol SEMPLE 1958– Artist whose output included

abstract patterned works with some figuration, as in her solo show at Cree Gallery, Gatehouse of Fleet, 1997. She studied at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, for an honours degree in drawing and painting, 1980–4, gaining her master’s there, 1984–5. In the latter year she won a Pollack Travelling Scholarship. Was artist-in-residence, Dumfries and Galloway Arts Association, 1988. Commissions included Dundee District Council and Dundee University, both 1985; Standard Life, Kirkcaldy, 1986; Edinburgh Book Festival and Scottish Ballet, in Glasgow, both 1989; and Sheraton Caltrust, Belfast, 1990. Group exhibitions included Aberdeen Artists, Aberdeen, 1986; Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, 1989; RSA, 1991; Compass Gallery, Glasgow, from 1992; and Paisley Fine Art Institute, 1995. Lived in Glasgow.

John SEMMENCE 1930–1985 Painter, draughtsman

and teacher, born in Kincardine O’Neil, Aberdeenshire. He was educated at Robert Gordon’s College, Aberdeen, and at Gray’s School of Art there, 1947–52, under Robert Sivell. In 1953 a travelling scholarship took him to Rome, then he had several years painting in Paris, returning to Britain in 1957, settling in London. He taught, becoming head of art at St John’s Comprehensive School, Newham. In 1982 early retirement gave Semmence the opportunity to paint full-time again. His landscapes, townscapes and interiors were distinctive, with an unusual palette and clearly defined shapes, light and shadow. He was a member of UA and showed in group exhibitions at RSA, NEAC, RBA and elsewhere. Had a series of solo shows, including 612 Suffolk Street, Edinburgh Festival, Mall Galleries and Commonwealth Institute. Nuffield Foundation holds his work. Lived in Beckenham, Kent.

Versatile artist, born in London, who studied at Colchester School of Art, 1963, taught plant drawing by John Nash. After briefly studying ceramics at Royal College of Art, drew insects for several years at Natural History Museum, specialising in bird lice, but in the early 1980s began to exhibit her own pen and ink drawings and concentrated on book illustration, contributing to The Celtic Inheritance, 1985, and in the early 1990s moved into printmaking. Showed at first National Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries, and at New Ashgate Gallery, Farnham, both 1994, and in 1995 had a solo exhibition, Within the

Pat SEMPLE 1939– Artist

who was born and grew up in Kintyre, Scotland, pursuing graduate and postgraduate studies at Edinburgh College of Art, 1958–64. In 1980 Semple won the EIS Prize and was elected SSA, elected RSW 1987. Later group shows included Adam Gallery, Bath; Rhue Art, Ullapool; and Lost Gallery, Aldachuie. Had many solo exhibitions, latterly at Riverside Gallery, Stonehaven, 1996, and Brown’s Gallery, Tain, 1997. Scottish Arts Council, Aberdeen Art Gallery, Edinburgh and Aberdeen Universities and corporate collections hold examples.

Painter and printmaker, born in Lisbon, Portugal, where he studied science at the university. In London attended St Martin’s School of Art, 1966–7, his teachers including John Latham, obtaining a Calouste Gulbenkian Scholarship. Exhibited in various international mixed shows, winning first prize in the General Motors Art Exhibitions in Lisbon, 1968, including ICA, London. One-man shows included Lisson Gallery. Lived for some years in London.

Antonio SENA 1941–

Gabriel SEMPILL 1945–

Graham SENDALL 1947– Painter, graphic designer 56

and illustrator, born in Horsham, Sussex, who


studied graphic design and illustration at West Sussex College of Art, Worthing, under Lance Cattermole, 1963–6. He initially worked in London advertising agencies before turning freelance. Together with Alan Kent he formed Kent and Sendall, design associates, moved out of London to Tunbridge Wells in 1975 and continued to work as creative director until leaving the business in 2002. Notable clients included Whitbread, Coral Bookmakers, Groupama Insurances, Phillips, Agfa-Gevaert, Brother and The National Trust. As an artist, Sendall was based at Burwash, Sussex, where he painted “the surrounding landscape and structures. In general, British artists and illustrators between the wars have been my biggest inspiration. Woodcuts by Eric Gill, Gwen Raverat and Eric Ravilious have influenced my pen and ink illustrations, with Stanley Spencer and illustrative poster art by such artists as Frank Newbould, E McKnight Kauffer and Clive Gardiner influencing my colour work.” Among his group exhibitions were Guildford House Gallery, 1979, and The September Art Exhibition, Wadhurst, 2004. He had a solo show at The Artichoke Gallery, Burwash, in 2003.

awards included Greater London Council Spirit of London, 1981, and Druce-Constable, 1986. Senior’s work covered figures, streets, landscape and still life. He had a wide range of solo shows, including Crane Kalman and Fieldborne Galleries, Architectural Association, Richard Demarco Gallery in Edinburgh, Ashgate Gallery in Farnham and abroad, including Ireland, Italy and America. CASW, Nuffield Foundation, Financial Times, Hampstead Museum and Bolton Museum and Art Gallery hold examples. Lived in Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

Mixed-media artist and teacher, born in Yorkshire. He attended Wakefield College of Art, 1958–60, Leeds College of Art, 1960–3, for diploma and postgraduate studies, and Goldsmiths’ College, 1963–4, for a teaching certificate. As well as extensive visiting lecturing experience, Senior taught at Clarendon College of Further Education, 1964–6; Newcastle Polytechnic, 1966–90; then Norfolk Institute of Art and Design. Between 1986–92 Senior took part in exhibitions with the Newcastle Group in Britain and abroad. Other group exhibitions included Tolly Cobbold Eastern Arts 5th National Exhibition, 1985; Nine from Newcastle, Ukrainian Museum of Modern Art, Chicago, 1986; Three Artists from the North of England, RIBA, 1988; and Ten Days, Pyramid Arts Centre, 1991. He had a solo show at LYC Gallery, Brampton, in 1981, later ones including City Art Gallery, Dundee, 1989. Various collections in the United Kingdom hold Senior’s work, the main concern of which “is the relationship between humans and earth … Man is an integral part of nature, not over or apart from nature.” Lived in Norwich, Norfolk. Gordon SENIOR 1942–

John SENDALL 1947– Painter of landscapes and the

female nude, born in Barnstaple, Devon, who studied under John Wonnacott at the University of Reading. Was included in Four British Artists at Grosvenor Gallery, 1997.

Nadin SENFT 1932– Sculptor in a range of materials, born in London. She studied at Leicester College of Art and City and Guilds of London Art School, gaining her fine art diploma in 1968. Showed at RA, Alwin Gallery, Annely Juda Fine Art, Richard Demarco Gallery in Edinburgh and elsewhere. Among her commissions was Seated Bronze Figures for Guildhall Square, Portsmouth. Lived in Tredington, Warwickshire.

Artist using gouache, and oil with wax medium, born and lived in Glasgow, where he attended non-diploma classes in drawing and painting. Hugh Adam Crawford, his teacher, Bryan SENIOR 1935– Artist in oil and acrylic, born commented: “Senior, you are a painter’s painter.” in Bolton, Lancashire. He studied at Clifton Senior’s output of landscapes and still lifes was College, Cambridge University and Chelsea small; he claimed to be “not only unambitious, but School of Art and lived in London from 1957. In very lazy, a Laodicean, as Thomas Hardy put it.” that year he won Clare Prize, Cambridge; other Painting influences were many, and Delacroix’s William SENIOR 1927–

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and Gauguin’s Journals, Sickert’s A Free House, Whistler’s Ten o’clock and Pissarro’s Letters to Lucien were “goldmines”. After returning from Paris, 1947–8, Senior “decided not to starve ever again, so I worked in bookshops, was a farmhand near Mull, became a scene-hand with BBC Television, then went to the Groves of Academe in a television department where I did the graphics and studio sets.” Group shows included Skelmorlie Community Centre, Glasgow’s Iona Community House, Edinburgh’s International House, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and with the New Scottish Group at McClellan Galleries. Had a well-reviewed solo show at Royal Glasgow Institute gallery, 1961, another at John D Kelly Gallery, 1988.

Society, 2004. Commissions included Lord David Cecil and Lord Olivier for National Portrait Gallery, two portraits for Oxford University Press and Sir William Deacon, for St Anthony’s College, Oxford. Sergeant was official artist with HRH The Prince of Wales on his Egyptian and Moroccan tour, 1995, and on his Central Asian Republics tour, 1996. She completed portraits of the Prince and of HRH The Duke of York for private collections.

Carolyn SERGEANT 1937– Painter, born in Monks Risborough, Buckinghamshire, full name Alison Margaret Carolyn Sergeant, who studied at Wimbledon School of Art, 1955–9, then the Royal Academy Schools, 1959–62, taught by Peter Greenham and Charles Mahoney. It was there that she met and in her final year married the artist John Sergeant. Her mixed exhibitions included the RA Summer Exhibition, Leicester Galleries and Roland, Browse and Delbanco. Sergeant had solo shows at the Waterhouse Gallery, 1969; Brian Sinfield Gallery, 1992; Waterman Gallery, 1994; Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox, 1997–99–01; and Fine Art Society, 2003. She lived at Rhulen, Builth Wells, Powys. Emma SERGEANT 1959– Painter and draughtsman,

born and lived in London. She studied at Camberwell School of Art, 1978–9, and Slade School of Fine Art, 1979–83. In 1981 she won the Imperial Tobacco Award and the National Portrait Gallery Painting Competition. She had a first solo show at Agnew, 1984, with others including Paintings from Afghanistan, 1986, a subject repeated at Mona Bismarck Foundation, Paris, 1987, Gods, The Newhouse, Gallery, New York, America, and Agnew, both 1996, Dolphins, Fine Art Society, 1998, From the Sea, Fine Art Society, 1999, Scenes from a Hittite Court, The Prince’s Foundation, 2001, and Shades of Grey, Fine Art

Painter and illustrator, teacher, born in London, the family moving to Faversham, Kent after being bombed out during World War II. He studied at Canterbury College of Art, 1954–7, and Royal Academy Schools 1959– 62. In 1958 he had met the artist John Ward and from leaving the Royal Academy Schools until 1969 Sergeant taught at Canterbury College of Art and Dover and Folkestone Schools of Art, carrying out his own commissioned work while occasionally assisting Ward. Among books he illustrated were Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist and Richard Church’s Portrait of Canterbury. In 1981, inspired by the exhibition Interiors at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox, he concentrated for two years on commissions for interiors, including Castle Coole, Stowell Park and Deene Park, before deciding on a major change in routine, moving two Wales in 1983, where he settled at Rhulen, Builth Wells, Powys. Sergeant also showed at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox in 1996 and 2000. Exhibited at RA, Trafford Gallery, New Metropole Arts Centre in Folkestone, London University and New Grafton Gallery. In 1994 Sergeant’s drawings, with those of his friends John Ward and Jehan Daly, were featured in Three Contemporary Masters at Hazlitt, Gooden and Fox. Sergeant contributed to the Prince of Wales’ book Vision of Britain and accompanied him on an official visit to Prague in 1991. Recent Drawings were shown at The Fine Art Society, 2002, organised by Sir Jack Baer & Co, and there was another drawings exhibition at Colnaghi in 2006. Collections holding Sergeant’s work include the Royal Library, Windsor; The National Trust; and Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His wife John SERGEANT 1937–

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Carolyn Sergeant was also an artist.

held by Tate Gallery, Victoria & Albert Museum, Arts Council and other British and foreign Nicholas de SERRA 1968– Painter who studied at collections. Lived in Penarth, South Wales. Bournemouth & Poole College of Art, 1986–7, and Winchester School of Art, 1987–90. He won a P&O Andrew SETO 1966– Painter, born in Edinburgh, European Ferries travel award, a Daler-Rowney who studied at University of Birmingham; St materials award and a Prince’s Trust financial Martin’s School of Art; New York School of award, all 1993; first prize, Art Show Open, Drawing, Painting & Sculpture; and Slade School Alexandra Palace, 1994; first prize, New Art in the of Fine Art, where he won the Coldstream Prize, South West, 1995; and a South West Arts Annual 1989. Group exhibitions included Portobello Open Award, 1998. Exhibitions included Distortions, IV at Tabernacle Gallery, East London Open Rocket Gallery, 1997; Recent Paintings, Browns Studios, Whitechapel Open at Whitechapel Art Associates, 1998; Touched by Time, Bridport Arts Gallery and Royal Over-Seas League Open, all Centre, 2000; and Six abstract painters, Six Chapel 1994. Row, Bath, 2001. Mark SEVERIN 1906–1987 Prolific and erudite Terry SETCH 1936– Painter and teacher, born in graphic artist, painter and engraver, born in London. He attended Sutton and Cheam School Brussels, Belgium, into a cultured background. of Art, 1950–54, then after National Service in With his parents, the poet Fernand Severin and Germany, 1954–6, was at Slade School of Fine Edith Lutens, he moved to Ghent; the family lived Art, 1956–60, the final year being postgraduate in England, 1914–19, during the German studies. Setch then went on to teach, at Leicester occupation, Mark developing a love of things College of Art, 1960–4; was organising tutor at English; then he entered Ghent University’s Barry Summer School, 1963–9; and from 1964 philosophy and letters faculty, for three years was senior lecturer in painting at South Glamorgan studying the history of art and archaeology. Severin Institute of Higher Education, Cardiff. Among continued to draw, as he had since childhood, Setch’s other appointments was as visiting lecturer contributing caricatures to journals and completing at Emily Carr College of Art, Vancouver, Canada, explanatory murals for the University’s zoological 1981; artist-in-residence at Victorian College of department. During his military service in 1928, Art, Melbourne, Australia, 1983; and in 1987 he he portrayed his officers. After his father’s death was elected to the faculty of British School in Severin moved to Brussels where, at the Galerie Rome. Setch also did extensive work as an external de la Toison d’Or, he had a one-man show visited assessor and examiner for degree courses. For by over 15,000 visitors in one week. Severin moved many years Setch combed the beaches along the to London in 1932 and married Nina, daughter of Severn Estuary and used the detritus of society to Geoffrey Holme, editor of The Studio magazine. create pictures of singular quality. As well as taking He worked as an advertising designer and book part in many mixed shows Setch had an extensive illustrator and created publicity material for clients list of solo exhibitions, starting in 1965 at the including Imperial Airways, London Transport, Grabowski Gallery. More recent ones included Shell, Imperial Chemical Industries, Murphy Radio Nigel Greenwood Gallery; Andrew Knight Gallery, and publishers such as Oxford University Press Cardiff; and in 1992–3 an Oriel Welsh Arts Council and Macmillan, becoming art director of the show which toured Britain. In 2001 the RWA gave advertising agency C R Casson. During World War Setch a show covering four decades of his II Severin returned to Belgium, working for the idiosyncratic productions and there was a Supply Ministry. When hostilities ended he moved retrospective at Wrexham Arts Centre in 2002. In with his family back to England, where he 2004, Campden Gallery in Chipping Campden put continued to work prolifically, developing a on Setch’s show Skateboarders. Setch’s work is reputation as a designer of stamps. In 1948 he 59


became professor of engraving at L’Institut Supérieur des Beaux-Arts in Antwerp, also professor of applied graphic art at L’Institut Plantin des Hautes Études Typographiques, retiring in 1970. During the latter part of his life Severin won many awards, having in 1950 been elected as an engraver to the Royal Belgian Academy.

College there, 1969–70, then at Cardiff College of Art, 1970–3, and Slade School of Fine Art, 1973– 5. From 1987 Sewell was senior lecturer at Canterbury School of Fine Art, showing regularly there in the Herbert Read Gallery and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, including John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1997–8. His Castle (2), encaustic on panel, in that show was one of a series “like magnified etchings with dots and lines assembled and disassembled to describe and deny form”. Sewell showed solo at The Showroom from 1983, and in 1984 at both Bradford University and The Cut Galleries. Forgetting and Remembering was at Mark Jason Fine Art, 2003. Lived in east London.

Joseph SEVIER 1961– Painter of figures and still life

who studied art at University of New Mexico, Santa Fe, where the brilliant, vibrant light left a lasting impression on his work. Moved from America to England and from 1989 lived in Sandwich, Kent, undertaking many portrait commissions. Showed at RA Summer Exhibition and NEAC, both 1993, and at RP, 1994. In 1995 had a solo show at Montpelier Sandelson. John SEXTON 1944– Artist who studied at Hammersmith College of Art, 1966–7, gained a Prudence Eaton SEWARD 1926– Watercolourist and Churchill Fellowship, 1972, and then his master’s etcher, born and lived in London. She studied at from Goldsmiths’ College, 1980–2. Exhibitions Harrow School of Art, 1945–6, with Ernest Heber included Three London Artists, PS122 Gallery, Thompson, then at Royal College of Art, 1947–9, New York, 1987, and in 1989 Mario Flecha Gallery with Robert Austin. Exhibited RA, RE and RBA. and East End Open Studios, with Barbican Arts Group. Sexton had a solo show at Artworks Space, Marc SEWELL 1930– Sculptor, painter and draughtsman whose preoccupation was with 1986.

landscape and the human figure. He was born in Market Deeping, Lincolnshire, was educated at King’s School, Peterborough, 1943–7, then studied photography and sculpture at Nottingham College of Art & Craft, 1949–52, gaining his master’s in fine art at Goldsmiths’ College, 1979–81. In 1984– 6 he was appointed moderator for fine and applied art at degree level. Exhibitions included RA Summer Exhibition from 1981; Willis Poole Gallery, New York and Washington and an LG travelling show, all 1983; and Art ’87, at Peterborough’s Lady Lodge Arts Centre, 1987. Solo shows included one there, 1984. Commissions included Relief Panels, St Vincent House, Glasgow; Sculpture, head office of Walter Lawrence, Sawbridgeworth; Boundary Markers for City of London; and Thiepval War Memorial Model, Arts Council Lutyens Exhibition. Painter and teacher, born in Leeds, Yorkshire, studying at the Jacob Kramer

Painter, born in London, who studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts. Showed at NS, ROI, RA and elsewhere. Had oneman shows at Cooling and Parsons Galleries. Worked as an art therapist in the Middlesex area, where she lived at Hatch End.

Eileen SEYD 1907–

Maria SEYDA 1893–1989 Painter of portraits in oil,

brought up in Poland, she studied art at L’Ecole des Beaux-Arts in both Geneva and Warsaw and at the Atelier Colarossi, Paris. Her husband was Marian Seyda, minister of foreign affairs and wartime minister of congressional works in the Polish government-in-exile, who died in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1967. His wife began exhibiting at RA and RP in the 1940s, and in the English provinces. Lived for a time in London. Figurative painter, born in Belfast, who graduated from the University of Ulster there in 1978, obtaining his advanced

Dermot SEYMOUR 1956–

Robin SEWELL 1951–

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diploma in 1981. His work was widely reviewed and among his awards were the Arts Council of Northern Ireland and An Chomhairle Ealaíon, the Claremorris Open and the Depart-ment of Foreign Affairs, Dublin. Group shows included Clean Irish Sea, Ireland and United Kingdom tour, 1989; and in 1994 Works on Paper and Beyond the Partitions, organised by Queen Street Studios, with which he was associated. Solo exhibitions included Art Research Exchange, Belfast, 1978 and 1981; Paula Allen Gallery, New York, 1987–8–9; and Pentonville Gallery, 1988. Latterly lived and worked in Country Mayo, Irish Republic.

society, and elsewhere, including France. In 1973 Seymour had a solo show at George Room Gallery, Stroud. He latterly painted in France, Spain and Ireland, where he also showed, and from 1994 worked with the Cill Rialaig Project, Ballinskelligs. Lived in Wookey Hole, Somerset.

Linda SGOLUPPI 1948– Artist, born in Northampton,

who gained a diploma in creative textiles from London College of Furniture and one in art and design, Sir John Cass (both London Guildhall University),1985–8; graduated with honours in fine art, University of Hertfordshire, 1989–90; and gained her master’s in European Fine Art, Winchester School of Art-Barcelona and University of Southampton, 1992. She received a Major Financial Award from The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, 1991. Group exhibitions included Roadmender Gallery, Northampton, from 1992; Wellcome Foundation, 1994; Logos Gallery, from 1997; and Beetroot Gallery, Derby, 2002. Among solo exhibitions were Windings, Bugbrooke, 2001, and Roadmender Gallery, 2002. In 2003, she took part in a three-man show at Pilgrim Gallery.

Gabrielle King SEYMOUR fl. from late 1980s– Painter

and decorative artist who studied at Byam Shaw School of Art, 1985–8, graduating with a diploma honours fine art degree. In 1988 Seymour took up specialist decorating, working for several years for individual clients and design studios in London and Paris. A mural for a Pompeian room setting at the Olympia Antiques Fair won first prize. For about a year from 1991 she worked in a WASPS studio in Glasgow, returning to London in 1992, where she occupied several ACAVA studios. Seymour mostly painted oil on canvas, large and boldly coloured works in which animals, especially dogs, figured repeatedly. She was “interested in the dynamic of the relationship between people and animals”. Group shows included Leighton House, 1988; Dumbarton Road Studios, Glasgow, 1991; Chelsea Arts Club, 1995; and A Clear Picture, Collyer-Bristow Gallery, 1997.

Keith SHACKLETON 1923– Painter in oil notable for his interest in wildlife, and writer, born in Weybridge, Surrey. After early years in Australia his education continued at Oundle; served five years in the Royal Air Force; then had 15 years with the family aviation business as salesman and pilot, always painting in his spare time. As a small boat sailor he published two books, Tidelines and Wake, and represented Great Britain in international Jack SEYMOUR 1928– Artist and teacher, born in dinghy meetings. Gradually relinquishing aviation London, producing landscapes and intimate commitments he joined the BBC Television series interiors, responding to “a feeling of time and Animal Magic and illustrated several bird books. place”, and prints in short runs. He studied at Shackleton worked extensively as a naturalist on Harrow School of Art, 1948–52, Gloucester the ship Lindblad Explorer, mainly in the Antarctic, College of Art, gained his diploma, with painting also handling film commentary assignments. In as a special subject, 1952–4, and obtained the the late 1970s/early 1980s he presented Animals Bristol University Advanced Certificate in in Action for Survival, Anglia Television. Education, St Paul’s College, Cheltenham, 1960– Shackleton was mainly known for pictures of the 2. Seymour taught 27 years in state education, 15 sea and seabirds. He was president of RSMA and years as head of department. He showed at the RA, SWLA, of which he was a founder-member, and RWA, National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, CCA was chairman of the Artists’ League of Great Galleries in Bath, with Artists 303, a West Country Britain. In 1983 he was made an honorary Doctor 61


of Laws at Birmingham University. Wildlife and Wilderness – An Artist’s World and Ship in the Wilderness were later books. Showed at Tryon Gallery and Mall Galleries. National Maritime Museum in Greenwich and Nature in Art Museum, Gloucester, hold examples. Lived in London and south Devon.

English Speaking Union. Utrillo, especially his White Period, was a marked influence on Shaeffer’s work. In 1956 he shared an exhibition with Madeleine Pearson at Arthur Jeffress Pictures. Shaeffer travelled widely in Europe, and the show included landscapes of Ibiza, Torremolinos and the Pyrenees. Tate Gallery archive has an ink selfportrait.

Painter, ceramist and teacher, born and lived in Great Harwood, Lancashire, who attended Accrington School of Art, 1948–53, and Liverpool College of Art, 1954– 5. He taught at Bangor Street School and Blakey Moor School, becoming head of art at Pleckgate High School, all in Blackburn. Shackleton’s richly coloured, stylised figurative works were shown in mixed exhibitions and solo shows. These included Four Young Northern Painters, Crane Gallery, Manchester, 1956; A group of somewhat wayward pictures, Crane Kalman Gallery, London, 1964; and Adam und Eva – heute, Ausstellung im Kunstamt Berlin–Wilmersdorf, West Germany, 1972. There were solo shows at Crane Kalman, 1959, Tom Driberg in Reynolds News tipping Shackleton as a “young artist to watch”; and Salford Art Gallery, 1959 and 1974. The expansion of his teaching department in that year eroded Shackleton’s painting time and he had only minor shows. “I worked in ceramics for a while and often gave small personal models to visiting American jazz musicians and sporting personalities,” among them Bud Freeman and Bruce Springsteen. Wildlife and bird life paintings were other preoccupations, and Shackleton and his wife latterly travelled abroad extensively. Salford and Blackburn Art Galleries both hold Shackleton’s work, as do collections in the United Kingdom, America, France and Lebanon. Peter SHACKLETON 1933–

Painter and draughtsman, of American nationality, who won many awards, including first prize in a national oil painting competition and a year’s scholarship to study in San Francisco. Dissatisfied with his studies in New York, because he wished to concentrate on drawing, Shaeffer attended Slade School of Fine Art, 1952, funded by the Kinsman Trust of the Frederick

SHAEFFER

Sculptor, painter and art dealer. His work was shown at Camden Arts Centre in Survey ’68: Abstract Sculpture, where it was remarked that it was “original in the sense that noone else has made such a marriage of minimal abstraction with colour”. Shafrazi was born in Abadan, Iran, and studied at Royal College of Art. He had a solo show at Galerie Swart, Amsterdam. He settled in New York, originally as a painter, then ran the Tony Shafrazi Gallery, which showed graffiti, sculpture and other art. Shafrazi made news in 1974 when he sprayed the words “Kill Lies All” in red paint on Picasso’s Guérnica in the Museum of Modern Art in New York and was charged with criminal mischief. Arts Council holds Shafrazi’s abstract sculpture Tablet, in fibreglass, of the late 1960s. In 2005, Shafrazi, with another New York dealer, Larry Gagosian, was appointed a trustee of the new Bilotti Museum of twentieth-century Italian art, to be housed in the orangery of the Villa Borghese, Rome.

Tony SHAFRAZI 1943–

Artist working in oil and tempera, who studied under Bernard Fleetwood-Walker at Birmingham College of Arts and Crafts. Went on to show at RA, ROI, RP, RBA and RBSA, of which she was made an associate in 1946. Lived in Enville, Staffordshire. Marjorie Kathleen SHAKESPEARE 1899–

Manou SHAMA-LEVY 1947– Artist

1932–

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in watercolour, acrylic, oil and lino-cut, born in Alexandria, Egypt. She obtained a degree in French from University of Warwick, 1965–8; lived and worked in Paris with the painter François Imhoff, 1972–81; and attended life classes run by Gerry Calleja at the Working Men’s College, 1990–5. Shama-Levy was originally concerned with abstract geometrical shapes, work developing through still lifes and


Centre, Dumfries, and Young Glasgow Painters, McLellan Galleries, Glasgow, both 1986; A Gala Celebration, performances with Rotating Dancers at Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery and elsewhere, 1987; V: Photography in Fine Art, Glasgow School of Art, 1990; Contact 552 4813, Transmission Gallery, Glasgow, 1992; and New David SHANAHAN 1939– Born in Carrick-on-Suir, Art in Scotland, Centre for Contemporary Arts, County Tipperary, and raised in southern Ireland, Glasgow, 1994. Shanahan lived for most of his adult life in Devon and Cornwall, finally at Landscove, Ashburton. Stephen SHANKLAND 1971– Mainly figurative However, it was “in the end an Irish sensibility painter and designer, born in Irvine, Ayrshire, who that motivates much of the subject matter in my graduated with first-class honours in design, 1989– paintings.” He studied at Kingston School of Art, 93, then his master’s in art and design, 1994–5, teachers including Reginald Brill and Lionel both at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, where he Bulmer, later as a mature student at Dartington settled. Shankland was interested in “how the figure College of Art. Shanahan produced quirky, uses space and can create tension with the figurative work in a sombre palette, saying that a surrounding environment through its reaction with “tension between Christian and Pagan, myth and colour, line, shape and objects.” He admired “the reality, past versus present has continued to provide draughtsmanship of Waterhouse, Cowie and me with a rich iconic feast of subjects.” Mixed Degas; the composition of Conroy and Degas; the exhibitions included the RA Summer Exhibition, handling of paint in Degas, Guthrie and Lavery 1978; Bon Echo Gallery, Tsuyama, Japan, 1991; (the impasto) and Conroy (chiaroscuro); the Unicorn Gallery, 1999; and Battersea translucent flesh of Ingres; and the still coolness Contemporary Art Fair, 2001. Among Shanahan’s of pearlized light in Vermeer’s interiors.” After later solo exhibition venues was Rainyday Gallery, graduating he worked in Aberdeen as an advertising Penzance, 1994. agency graphic designer, having done similar work in Edinburgh. Harris won the Shell Expro Thomas J SHANAHAN 1945– Sculptor and Employees’ Award, 1996 and in 2004 the £25,000 craftworker who studied at St Hugh of Lincoln BP Portrait Award, with an accompanying £4,000 School, Venerable English College in Valladolid, commission to paint a portrait for the National Spain, and Oxford and Cambridge Universities, as Portrait Gallery’s collection. Other commissions well as spending some time in Nanjing, China. included illustrations for Glenfarclas Whisky, Shanahan came from several generations of craft 1999. Among group shows were: Aberdeen Art iron workers, and studied black- and goldsmithing, Centre, 1992; Aberdeen Artists’ Society, Aberdeen jewellery, ceramics and sculpture. He was a Art Gallery, from 1992; RSA, 1994; and in 1999 member of the Educational Institute of Craft Queen’s Road Gallery, Aberdeen, and BP Portrait Design and Technology, Oxfordshire Craft Guild Award, National Portrait Gallery. and a professional member of the British Artist Blacksmith Association. He worked mainly to Duncan SHANKS 1937– Painter and teacher, born in commission. Showed at 1st RWA Open Sculpture Airdrie, Lanarkshire, where he continued to live, at Crossford, By Carluke. Shanks was a painter Exhibition, 1993. Lived in Tintern, Gwent. inspired by the river and valley close to his home John SHANKIE 1957– Video, photographic, painter and as an artist was highly regarded by his peers. and performance artist, born in Lanark, who He studied at Glasgow School of Art, receiving a attended Glasgow School of Art 1984–89, then post-diploma and travelling scholarship to Italy. 1992–4. Exhibitions included Gracefield Arts He returned to teach at Glasgow School of Art, landscapes compressed into flat surfaces of intense colour, portraits and privately commissioned murals. Exhibitions included Corner Gallery, 1972; FIAP, Paris, 1975; Art et Culture, Paris, 1979; Twopence Coloured Gallery, Whitney, 1987; and Studio Show, 1996. Lived in London.

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eventually becoming a full-time painter. Shanks won an Arts Council Award, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts Torrance Award and the RSA Latimer Award as well as other awards and prizes. He was elected to the Royal Glasgow Institute in 1982, to RSW in 1987 and RSA in 1990. Shanks was included in a num- ber of notable group shows, having solo exhibitions at Stirling University, Scottish Gallery in Edinburgh, Fine Art Society in Glasgow and Edinburgh and in 1998 at Roger Billcliffe Fine Art, Glasgow, works moving towards abstraction. Scottish Arts Council, Arts Council and many Scottish galleries hold his work. Shanks’ wife Una was also a painter.

of Education until 1984, then became a full-time illustrator and artist. She was a member of RSW, also showing with RSA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Talbot Rice Art Centre in Edinburgh and in Glasgow at both Fine Art Society and Roger Billcliffe Fine Art. Showed solo with Roger Billcliffe, also at Scottish Art Shop, Edinburgh. Lived at Crossford, By Carluke, Lanarkshire.

Artist and teacher, born in Gourock, Renfrewshire. He studied part-time at Glasgow School of Art while working as a designer, then in Paris and eventually taught at the Glasgow School between the wars. He was elected RSW in 1925 and RSW in 1933 and was a member of Glasgow Art Club, living in the city but eventually settling in Stirling. Showed also at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, RA, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and elsewhere including Paris Salon, where he gained a Silver Medal in 1922. Walker Art Gallery and several Scottish public collections hold examples.

William Somerville SHANKS 1864–1951

Tom Hovell SHANKS 1921– Artist in watercolour, pen and ink, mixed media; muralist, designer and teacher, born in Glasgow. He left school to become an apprentice carpet designer for Templeton’s, first exhibiting with the firm’s art club. After war service Shanks took the diploma course at Glasgow School of Art. Upon graduating in 1950 he started on a career as a freelance mural painter; was a designer and printer with Edinburgh Weavers’ Dovecot Studios for eight years; stage designer with Rutherglen Rep; and teacher at Glasgow School of Art and in schools in the city and in Renfrewshire, where he settled in Kilbarchan. However, he termed his main occupation “landscape painter”, having been in love with the landscapes of the Western Highlands since his parents took him to the Isle of Skye aged seven. These were portrayed in his Scottish Horizons show at Cyril Gerber Fine Art, Glasgow, in 1994, again at Cyril Gerber in 2004, and previously in solo exhibitions throughout Scotland. He was a member of RSW and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, also exhibiting with RSA, Royal Scottish Society and Glasgow Group. Public galleries in Glasgow and Paisley and Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie, hold examples.

Roger SHANTZ 1944– Shantz began painting while

serving in the Army, then left to study at the Ruskin School of Fine Art, Oxford. After a period dividing his time between Spain and London, from 1976 he based himself in a village in the Andalucian region of Spain. Its landscape and that of southern France, providing subjects with strong outlines and contrasting shadow and light, became key themes. Showed at RA Summer Exhibition, RP and NEAC and various London galleries and was one of four artists in the Autumn Exhibition at Jerram Gallery, Salisbury, 1996.

Hermon SHAPIRO 1933– Painter, sculptor and teacher, born in London. He studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, then from 1956 held various teaching posts including Cardiff College of Art and Bridgend Comprehensive School. Took Una Brown SHANKS 1940– Artist in pen and ink and part in many group shows, including RWA, SEA, watercolour and teacher, born in Bowhousebog, Howard Roberts and Albany Galleries in Cardiff, Lanarkshire, married to the artist Duncan Shanks. RCamA, SWG, WSW and Royal National She studied in the textile department of Glasgow Eisteddfod. From 1970s concentrated on sculpting School of Art, lectured in art at Hamilton College rather than painting. WAC and a number of Welsh 64


education authorities hold his work.

him to Italy and France. Sharp aspired to be a professional sculptor, but family commitments made this impractical, and he became principal of Darlington School of Art, then Wakefield School of Arts and Crafts and lectured on art appreciation for Durham University. His most notable sculpture was The Bather, made when he was a student, shown at the RA Summer Exhibition in 1917 and acquired for Holkham Hall, Norfolk. Sharp is remembered as assisting Charles Sargeant Jagger, who sculpted the great Artillery Memorial, Hyde Park Corner. He also created The Colling Shorthorn Memorial Challenge Cup, for Durham County Agricultural Committee, 1923, and a standing salt for the Hon. Company of Master Mariners. Sharp was chairman, crafts section, of Darlington Society of Arts, with which he exhibited. He also contributed illustrations to the two volumes, 1934 and 1939, of J W Walker’s Wakefield Its History and People. Although he became a solid member of the local community, a freemason and member of Rotary, Sharp remained a singular character in family memory, attending annual Art School award days formally dressed but with no socks.

Anthony SHAPLAND 1971– Versatile artist whose work included photography and site-specific art, born in Pontypridd, Glamorgan. He did a foundation course at Mid Glamorgan Centre of Art & Design, 1990–1, graduating with a first-class fine art honours degree at Southampton Institute of Higher Education, 1993–6. Shapland gained a Valley Arts Board Award, funding a research trip to Florence, Italy, 1991; Jon Award, study trip to Prague, Czech Republic, and Moore & Blatch Purchase Prize, both 1994; and an Erasmus Exchange with Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain, 1995. After two years as technician in the print and photography departments at Mid Glamorgan Centre of Art & Design, 1991–3, Shapland worked at several galleries, latterly Contemporary Temporary Artspace, in Cardiff, where he lived. He also had two German residencies, in 1993 and 1997. Group shows included Der Kunstler Symposium, at Karlskaserne, Ludwigsburg, 1993; Va-Va-Voom, Millais Gallery, Southampton, 1995; Crock, Shoreditch Town Hall, 1997; and Art from Wales – A New Generation, Open Space, Milan, Italy, 2001. Among his later solo shows were KulturNatur, at Stadtsmuseum, Ludwigsburg, and Kunsterhaus am Neck, near Stuttgart, and Return, Cywaith Cymru, Cardiff, both 1997. Edward W SHARLAND

fl. from c.1905–1967

Printmaker and painter who worked for some time as cabinet-maker and carver before becoming a self-taught artist. He did some topographical etchings of Bristol, and its City Art Gallery holds his work. Frost & Reed published much of his output, which included coloured etchings. Showed RA, RWA and Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Lived in Portishead, Bristol, for many years, finally in Cornwall.

Arnold Haigh SHARP 1891–1956 Sculptor, illustrator and teacher, born in Halifax, Yorkshire, father of the artist and designer Paul Spencer Sharp. He studied at the Royal College of Art, graduating in 1920, winning a travelling scholarship that took

Figurative artist, and teacher, born in Lancashire of an English father and Norwegian mother, frequent visits to Norway influencing her work. After qualifying as an agricultural scientist she met her husband at Imperial Chemical Industries, travelling with him to Australia where she began to paint. Later they lived in Brazil, where she attended two art schools and began to show, completing her honours degree in fine art at Winchester in 1990. Sharp “liked the stimulus of live situations, working on the spot and the challenge of responding to changes”, which she found while sketching music lessons at the Prebendal School, Chichester, where she taught part-time; as artist-in-residence at Bedales School, Petersfield; in Chichester Cathedral; and she also painted landscapes. She was a member of art societies in Chichester and Midhurst, Sussex, where she lived, and took part in mixed shows in Sa˜o Paulo, Winchester, Tetbury and in Chichester, where she had solo shows at the Bishop’s Palace, Astri SHARP 1940–

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with another at Oxmarket Centre of Arts, 2002. Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, holds her 1993– 4 Prebendal School Sketchbook. Lived in Midhurst, Sussex.

when she worked it was “a process that rises to engage and combine instinct and emotion with my visual perceptions and the reality of the medium. All the time I am searching for the moment when the piece of work seems to stand alone and Dorothea SHARP 1874–1955 Painter in oil, especially complete.” Lived in Charsfield, Woodbridge, of flowers and seaside scenes with children. Suffolk. Studied art at Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art after initial education on the continent. Miles SHARP 1897–c.1980 Painter in oil and Exhibited prolifically at the RA, RBA, ROI, SWA, watercolour and printmaker dealing with landscape Fine Art Society and other venues, including Paris and architectural subjects. Born in Brighouse, Salon and Commonwealth countries. Her small Yorkshire, Sharp studied art at Bradford School of monograph Painting in Oils illustrates her work, Art, Leeds School of Art, Royal College of Art and which in the 1980s gained new popularity. Her the Central School of Arts and Crafts. He exhibited pictures, idyllic and sunlit, have wide appeal, and at RA, RBA, RI, ROI, RBSA and had a number although her range is limited at her best she is an of one-man shows, including Foyles Gallery. He excellent flower painter. Many British and was principal of Nuneaton Art School, 1925–52. Commonwealth galleries hold her work, including Work in about a dozen public collections, mainly Laing Art Gallery and Museum, Newcastle upon in the north of England, including Rotherham Tyne, and Manchester City Art Gallery. Lived in Museum and Art Gallery, Yorkshire, and Bootle Museum and Art Gallery. Lived at Exmouth, London. Devon. John SHARP 1954– Artist whose media included oil, monotype and collage, born in Bentham, Yorkshire. Nancy SHARP 1909–2001 Painter and teacher, born He studied at Lancaster College of Art, 1971–2, in Cornwall. Her first husband was the artist then Leicester Polytechnic, 1972–6, and supported William Coldstream, her second Michael Spender, himself with a variety of jobs including clerical brother of the poet Stephen Spender and of the assistant, postman and graphic designer. Solo artist Humphrey Spender. Michael, who died in exhibitions included Phoenix Theatre, Leicester, 1945, was a map maker and in that role twice 1976, and Howarth Art Gallery in Accrington and climbed on Everest with Eric Shipton in the 1930s. Nelson and Colne College, both 1979. Wit was an She was educated at Cheltenham Ladies’ College, important feature of Sharp’s work, as in his Deadly then attended Slade School of Fine Art, 1928–31. Sins series at Summer Show 3, Serpentine Gallery, She showed her work regularly in 1930s, including LG and Leicester Galleries. During World War II, 1980. Lived in Blackburn, Lancashire. between 1940–3, she was a driver with the London Marisa SHARP 1956– Painter, printmaker and Auxiliary Ambulance Service. From 1945–77 installations artist, born in London, who graduated taught art at Kinnaird Park School, Bromley, then in fine art/painting from St Martin’s School of Art, at Archbishop Temple School and the Archbishop 1978, gaining her master’s in visual practice and Michael Ramsey School in Lambeth. Nancy Sharp context, University of East Anglia, 2001. She was was a figurative painter in the mainstream English a member of The Suffolk Group, also exhibiting tradition, noted for her flower paintings and with LG, Clockhouse II and Young Blood, portraits. She also showed at AIA, of which she Colchester and Ipswich Art Societies. Sharp was was a committee member for five years; included in Drawings for All, Gainsborough’s Wildenstein’s; WIAC; National Portrait Gallery, House, Sudbury, 1994. She shared an exhibition and elsewhere. Government Art Collection and at Tricycle Theatre, 1988, and had a solo show at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, hold her work. Red Dot Gallery, Ipswich, in 2000. Sharp said that Sharp’s intimate relationship with Louis MacNeice 66


and her collaboration with him on his 1938 travelogue I Crossed the Minch are described in Jon Stallworthy’s biography of the poet. Sharp was a central figure in MacNeice’s long autobiographical poem Autumn Journal, and she appears in Autumn Sequel as Jenny. She lived for many years in north London, but died in Marlborough, Wiltshire. There was a memorial show, organised by Magdalen Evans and Nancy Sharp’s family, with informative catalogue, at The Gallery, 54 Shepherd Market, in 2002.

Artist, designer, printmaker and teacher, son of the sculptor Arnold Haigh Sharp. Sharp, who signed himself variously, sometimes only with his initials, was born at Sowerby Bridge, Yorkshire. After Wakefield Grammar School, he attended Wakefield School of Art and Leeds College of Art. During World War II he spent five years in the Royal Air Force as a radar technician, was demobilised in 1946 and joined the Royal College of Art under Robin Darwin, graduating from the school of graphic design in 1949. After heading the design department of Farnham School of Art, Sharp resigned “in 1960 to work entirely as a designer and illustrator direct with clients and printers.” By this time he had held membership of the Senefelder Group of Artists Lithographers, The Craft Centre and the RWS and shown at the RA Summer Exhibition as well as launching a career in freelance design. Self-employed, with Westerham Press he did a series of illustrated guide books for National Benzole covering the follies, bridges, monuments, castles and sailing tours around England, driving many thousands of miles to collect material. Later, he was designer for the Paul Mellon Foundation for British Art, working with the critic Basil Taylor. He also tackled other exhibition catalogues and brochures for London art dealers, including Inigo Jones for Sotheby Parke Bernet and Henry Moore’s drawings for Thomas Gibson Fine Art, further clients including Spink, the British Road Federation, Taylor Woodrow, the Mermaid Theatre, Royal Doulton, the Science Museum and Alpine Journal. As a designer, Sharp was noted for his

ability to tackle a huge workload willingly, speedily and professionally. Wakefield Art Gallery holds views by him, of which Sharp wrote: “I admit the Paul Nash influence.” Lived in London.

Artist notable for his landscapes in a traditional style, and teacher, born in Liverpool, where he trained at the School of Art. Held a number of teaching posts, from 1930–46 serving as principal of Laird School of Art in Birkenhead. Was a member of Sandon Studios Society, Liverpool Academy, what became RUA and RCamA, of which he was honorary secretary for a time. Showed at Walker Art Gallery, which owns his oil Hilbre, RA, RI and elsewhere. Died in Deganwy, Caernarvonshire. Charles William SHARPE 1881–1955

Paul Spencer SHARP 1921–1998

Leo SHARRATT 1934– Painter and teacher, born in Durham. From 1952–6 studied at department of fine art at King’s College, Durham University, then after National Service was at Slade School of Fine Art, 1958–9. He taught for five years, then in 1963 travelled extensively through the Middle East and Asia, returning to teach in Wales in 1964. Also was at Chester School of Art. A member of Liverpool Academy, Sharratt showed with Young Contemporaries, John Moores Exhibition in Liverpool, RCamA and elsewhere. Solo shows included Westgate Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne and Peterloo Gallery in Manchester. Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation holds his work.

Painter, writer, ornithologist and teacher, born in Stockport, Cheshire. He attended Stockport College School of Art, 1933–7, the College of Technology in Manchester, 1937–9, then after World War II Naval service and a short period teaching at Stockport School of Art was at Royal Academy Schools, 1946–51. Held a number of teaching positions, including lecturing from 1967 at Llandrillo College of Technology. He was well known as a writer and artist concerned with birds and was in 1957 president of the Cambrian Ornithological Society, in 1962–7 being president of RCamA. Mixed shows included RCamA and NEAC and he had several solo exhibitions. National Museum of Alfred Burgess SHARROCKS 1919–

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Wales, Cardiff, holds his work. Lived near Conway, Worcester, 1992; Purdy Hicks Gallery, 1995; and Gwynedd. Cross Currents, Reed’s Wharf at Barbican Centre, 1996. Had a solo show at Original Jazz Café, 1992. Terry SHAVE 1952– Painter, draughtsman and Large, atmospheric abstracts were characteristic teacher, born in Suffolk. He studied at Ipswich of Shavrova’s output, as in Cross Currents. School of Art, 1971–2; Loughborough College of Art, 1972–5; and Slade School of Fine Art, 1975– Arthur Winter SHAW 1869–1948 Painter of the 7. He taught at North Staffordshire Polytechnic; countryside, born in Kent, who after a private Harlow College, in Essex; Portsmouth, Manchester education studied at Westminster and Slade School and North-East London Polytechnics; and Chelsea of Fine Art and in Paris. He was elected RI in 1900. School of Art. Shave showed in many mixed For many years lived in Kent and Sussex, in that exhibitions from mid-1970s, including county working alongside James Charles, William Loughborough University, Ipswich Art Gallery, Estall, Edward Stott and José Weiss. Was a member Thumb Gallery, Aspex Gallery in Portsmouth and of Chelsea Arts Club for a time, being a prolific Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury. After a solo show exhibitor at RI, also RA, RHA, Goupil Gallery and at Framlingham Art Gallery in 1974, he showed elsewhere. at North Staffordshire Polytechnic Gallery and Morley Gallery in 1983 and The Minories, Barbara SHAW 1924– Painter, printmaker and Colchester and tour, 1985. He was included in the teacher, born in London. She studied under Lionel South Bank Centre’s touring show the Presence of Ellis at Wimbledon School of Art, 1940–3, also at Painting, 1988–9. Shave’s pictures had a strong Hornsey College of Art. She was on the staff of Expressionist element, painted in hot, earthy Wimbledon High School for Girls. Medici Society colours. The theme of the garden was a strong one. Ltd published her work, which was also shown at He wrote that the main themes running through RA and NS. Lived in New Malden, Surrey. his work were “order and chaos and the transience Elizabeth SHAW 1920–1992 Artist and writer, born of existence which encompasses both biblical and in Belfast, who attended Chelsea School of Art mythical implications as well as the mundane.” before World War II, studying with Henry Moore The Arts Council’s example Inferno Storms, of and Graham Sutherland. During the war she 1986, is a good example. Lived for some time at established a reputation as an illustrator and Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire. cartoonist, drawing for Lilliput and Our Time, the

Painter, muralist and illustrator, born in Moscow, Russia, who attended a special English school there, 1975–85; had private art lessons with Dmitri Lyon, 1983–7; studied painting and book illustration at Moscow Polygraphic Institute, 1987–90, then moving to England and settling in London. Shavrova had a three-year residency at Florence Trust Studios, 1990–3, a European Artists’ Award in 1993 permitting travel to Weimar in Germany, then gained a Prince’s Trust Go & See Portugal award in 1994. Commissions included a mural at the Leisure Centre, Ross & Cromarty District Council, 1993. After mixed shows in Moscow and elsewhere in Russia, Shavrova showed at Merz Contemporary Art, 1988; Dancefest, City Museum & Art Gallery,

left-wing monthly. In 1942 she married the Swiss sculptor and painter René Graetz and in 1946 they moved to Germany and anticipated a new Communist society in the east. For 20 years she and Bertha Waterstradt produced monthly articles for Das Magazin on aspects of East Berlin intellectual life. She also wrote and illustrated children’s books. Became disillusioned with the political establishment and turned to books on places she had visited and loved, such as Ireland. There were Arts Council shows of her work in Belfast and Coventry. In 1990 her autobiography Irish Berlin was published. Died in Berlin.

Varvara SHAVROVA 1968–

George SHAW 1929–1989 Painter of marine subjects,

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and teacher, born into a seafaring family in


Glasgow. George served in the merchant service until his skill at drawing earned him four years at Wimbledon School of Art from 1947. Although he was a qualified teacher of landscape painting and gave demonstrations for societies, Shaw’s first loves were the sea and sailing craft. Realism and accuracy were of importance in work that focused on the lower reaches of the River Thames during its commercially busiest period until about 1950. Good examples were included in Gladwell & Company’s 2005 Autumn Exhibition.

George SHAW 1966– Painter, born in Coventry, Warwickshire, who graduated in fine art from Sheffield Polytechnic, 1986–9; did a postgraduate certificate there, 1991–2; and gained his master’s in painting at Royal College of Art, 1996–8. His degree show was a sell-out. Shaw obtained a Messier-Dowty Travel Award to Paris, Zürich and New York, and a Paris Studio Award, Cité Internationale des Arts, both 1997, and a TI Group Award, 1998. Group exhibitions included Interesting Painting, City Racing, 1997; New Contemporaries, Tea Factory, Liverpool, and tour, also British Council Window, Prague, Czechoslovakia, both 1998; Landgang, Fabian Walter Galerie, Basel, Switzerland, 1999; and Days Like These, Tate Britain, 2003. Shaw had a solo show at Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, 1992; God Only Knows, Royal College, 1998; Of Innocence: Scenes from The Passion, Anthony Wilkinson Gallery, 1999; with another show there, Ash Wednesday, in 2005. That show was also a sellout, and by that time there was a long list of highprofile collectors seeking Shaw’s work. What I did This Summer was an exhibition at Ikon, Birmingham, 2003. Shaw painted scenes in Humbrol enamel, unpopulated, sometimes bleak views of the Tile Hill estate and surrounding countryside of his childhood. He was a prize winner, John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1999. Tate Gallery, Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery, British Airways and TI Group hold his work. Shaw latterly lived in north Devon, where he continued to depict the Tile Hill of years gone. These pictures were based on numerous photographs which he

had taken furtively like a hunter, as he described it to Andrew Graham-Dixon during his series The Secret of Drawing for BBC2 television in 2005.

Carver of netsuke, painter and jeweller who studied at Bournemouth and Newport Colleges of Art and Design. He was originally a painter of intricate pictures, then made jewellery. In 1978, having admired a neighbour’s collection, he switched to creating netsuke (pronounced netski), the traditional miniature Japanese toggles carved in ivory and depicting insects, birds and animals and other natural forms. Shaw began carving without training. Conservation laws ruling out ivory, he used a range of materials, such as hippo or cave-bear teeth, walrus, mammoth tusk or fossilised dinosaur dung, some particularly difficult to work. His creations, such as spiders, could be alarmingly realistic and could take over two years to complete. Shaw travelled widely, showing regularly in America from 1987; ran an extensive and informative website illustrated with his own photographs; and became an authority on Japanese mythology. He most unusually won a following in Japan and was the only contemporary carver invited to show netsuke at the London specialist Barry Davies Oriental Art.

Guy SHAW 1951–2003

Sculptor and teacher, born in Thame, Oxfordshire. She studied at Chelsea School of Art, 1948–51, her teachers including Bernard Meadows and Willi Soukop. Taught for a while at Westonbirt School in Gloucestershire, later living in Machakos, Kenya, where she was at the Training College. Showed in England with RWA, Guild of Catholic Artists and elsewhere. Hilary SHAW 1923–

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John SHAW 1952– Carver, letter-cutter and designer working in stone, slate and marble who specialised in heraldry and made brush lettering and designs for sandblasting on glass. Shaw attended Derby College of Art; Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, where he studied lettering with Ieuan Rees; and Birmingham Polytechnic, for his master’s. Joined Letter Exchange. Among the sites of his works, which were mainly done to commission, were Westminster Abbey, the Royal Air Force


Chapel and the memorial to Sir Frank Whittle, the jet aircraft pioneer. He was included in the exhibition Stone Words at Pentagram, Wolseley Fine Arts and tour, in 2002.

Gallery, 1997, later ones including Alternatives Gallery, Rome, and Il Gianicolo, Perugia, both Italy, 2003. Among commissions were Gleeson Homes, Bamford Mill, 1998.

Kerry SHAW 1967– Painter in oil and teacher, born in Huddersfield, Yorkshire, who studied printed textiles at Manchester Metropolitan University, 1990–3. She taught printed textiles, worked as a freelance designer and artist and was included in Julia Bawden’s The Art & Craft of Fabric Decoration. Exhibitions included Castlegate House Gallery, Cockermouth. Lived in Shelley, Huddersfield.

Painter, sculptor and teacher who gained an honours degree in fine art, painting, at Slade School of Fine Art, 1977–81, winning his higher diploma in painting there, 1981– 4. He went on to teach at the Slade and at Byam Shaw School of Art. The Islington area of London was a notable feature of Shaw’s landscapes and his grandmother a favourite figure subject. Shaw gained a string of awards, including the Troughton Scholarship in Painting and Steer Medal for Painting, both 1981; J Milner Kite Scholarship, 1982; The Jeremy Cubitt Prize, 1983–4; BP Portrait Award Exhibition, National Gallery, and Hunting/Observer Prize Exhibition, Mall Galleries, both 1992; and Royal Over-Seas League, 10th Annual Open Exhibition Travel Prize (visited Venice and Florence) and East West Solo Exhibition Prize, 1993. Solo shows included East West Gallery, 1994, and Royal Over-Seas League, Edinburgh and London, 1997. Lived in London.

Michael John SHAW 1959–

Margaret SHAW 1917–1983 Painter and lithographer who was born and finally lived in Sheffield, Yorkshire. She studied at the city’s College of Art, 1934–8, then at the Royal College of Art, 1938– 41. Taught at King’s College, Newcastle and at Sheffield City Polytechnic, where she was senior lecturer in the history of art. Showed at RA, NEAC, RSA and in the provinces in mixed shows, being president in 1960 of Sheffield Society of Artists. One-man shows included Calouste Gulbenkian Gallery, Newcastle, and Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield. The Graves Art Gallery there and Ferens Art Gallery, Hull, hold her work. Shaw was married to the English scholar Eric Mackerness, senior lecturer and reader in Sheffield University’s department of English, editor of The Journals of George Sturt, 1967, and author of A Social History of English Music, 1976.

Michael SHAW 1973– Sculptor and teacher who was shortlisted for the Jerwood Sculpture Prize 2003. After gaining his foundation certificate in art and design from Isle College, Wisbech, 1992–3, Shaw graduated with honours in fine art, 1993–6; studying for his doctorate in sculpture, University of Gloucestershire, from 2000. From 2001, he taught at University of Gloucestershire College and Western College at Weston-super-Mare. Later group shows included Burghley Sculpture Garden and Stamford Arts Centre, Stamford; and Made Flesh, Francis Close Hall Chapel, Cheltenham, both 2001. Had a solo exhibition at Leeds City Art

Robert SHAW 1946– Printmaker, born in Edinburgh,

who studied law at the University there, and began printmaking at the original Printmakers’ Workshop in Victoria Street. He moved to Kirkwall, Orkney, where he became chairman of the Solisquoy printmaking workshop. Exhibitions included Scottish Print Open Three, 1983, organised by Dundee Printmakers’ Workshop.

Painter, mainly in oil, and teacher, born in Glasgow. She taught in the Glasgow area for several years during World War II. Studied at Notre Dame Training College in Glasgow and at the School of Art, 1935–9, under Hugh Crawford. Showed at RUA, in Glasgow and Dublin and lived latterly at Whiteabbey, County Antrim. Rosena SHAW 1917–

Rupert SHAW 1950– Artist

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who studied at Harrow College of Art, 1973, notable for his etchings. Showed at RA from mid-1970s, also at RE,


National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, Sweet Veterinary College. Shaw was director of Dovecot Waters Gallery and elsewhere. In 1992 shared a Studios, Edinburgh Tapestry Company, and had show at Sweet Waters featuring etchings of work woven there. Lived in Edinburgh. Cornwall, where he lived for some years from late Simon SHAW 1961– Artist and teacher who studied 1970s. at Wirral College of Art and Design, 1978–9, then Samantha SHAW 1967– Painter and teacher. She was Braintree College, 1979–80. Went on to become in the tradition of English poetic and romantic supervisor, arts, drama and music, Birkenhead. landscape painters and used a rich palette. She did Showed at Acorn Gallery in Liverpool, 1985; a foundation course at City and Guilds of London Williamson Art Gallery in Birkenhead, 1986; and Art School, 1986–7, then from 1987–90 studied in 1986–7 his Snap, Crackle, Rip – slab-built and for a fine art diploma in painting, gaining first- using a coarse Raku clay – was exhibited in Walker class honours. Among her scholarships and awards Art Gallery, Liverpool, touring show Merseyside were the Philip Connard Travel Scholarship, 1989; Artists 3. and in 1990 the Royal Academy Richard Ford Award and Haworth Trust Scholarship. From Tim SHAW 1964– Sculptor and teacher, born in 1991–2 she was visiting lecturer at University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, full name Stephen Reading’s fine art department and in 1992 she Timothy Shaw. He studied the foundation course painted a large triptych for Christ the Cornerstone, at Manchester Polytechnic, 1984–5, with a the City Church of Milton Keynes. She had solo distinction award; then obtained a first-class shows at Talent Store Gallery in 1991 and Cadogan honours degree in fine art at Falmouth School of Art, 1985–9. Shaw was an associate of the Newlyn Contemporary, 1992. Society of Artists. Mixed shows included Otter Sax SHAW 1916– Artist in stained glass, tapestry, Gallery, Belfast, 1985–7; Arts Centre, Falmouth, watercolour and oil, and teacher, father of the glass 1986; and One Oxford Street Gallery, Belfast, painter Christian Shaw, born in Yorkshire. He 1997. Had a solo show at Albemarle Gallery, 1992, attended Huddersfield School of Art, teachers later ones including Duncan Campbell including Reg Napier and Nöel Spencer, and Contemporary Art, 1997, with bullfighting the Edinburgh College of Art, under Herbert Hendrie subject. Metaphysical questions were a key theme and Hubert Wellington; Shaw taught there until in Shaw’s work. Shaw organised art workshops 1984 as head of stained glass. He had been a for the mentally handicapped in Belfast and postgraduate scholar. Shaw won a Travel Falmouth, 1988–91; worked on building and Scholarship to France, studying tapestry at the sculpture restoration projects around the south of Gobelin, Paris. He was elected a fellow of the England, 1989–90; received a Prince’s Trust award Master Glass Painters in 1979. Shaw’s work was to set up a studio in 1990; was visiting tutor at exhibited in London, Edinburgh, the English Falmouth College of Art, 1994–7; and gained a provinces and extensively abroad. There was a Delfina Studios Trust Award for Spain, 1996. In show of his watercolours, 1936–83, at Calton 1998, with the artist Ashley Hold, Shaw set up an Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1984. Among Shaw’s open studios scheme in the Falmouth/Penryn area. stained glass windows were St Andrews, Isle of By 2001, the South West Open Studios brochure Bute; Bell’s Whisky Reception Centre, Perth; and listed 200 artists and 20 galleries and spread across Scottish Experience, Edinburgh. Mural decorations 136 venues. Lived in Mabe, Penryn, Cornwall. included Lady Roberts Memorial Mosaic, Aberdeen; and and University Agricultural Conrad SHAWCROSS 1977– Conceptual artist, born College, Edinburgh. His many tapestries included in London, son of the writer Marina Warner, for Rolls-Royce Guest House, Glasgow; Cappers whom the fine finish of his creations was important. Guild Chapel, Coventry; and Liverpool University He did a foundation course at Chelsea School of 71


Art, 1996; graduated with fine art, honours, from the Ruskin School in Oxford, 1999; and gained his master’s from the Slade School of Fine Art, 2001. He won a Ray Finnis Charitable Trust Award, 2001, and a First Base Acava Free Studio Award, 2001– 2. Shawcross’s inquiring mind prompted him to create objects that explored and clarified ideas about the world and universe. Group exhibitions included Fame and Promise, 14 Wharf Road, 2002; Dead Game, Museum 52, 2003; and After Life, Death, Remembrance. Redundancy. Reanimation, Bowes Museum, County Durham, and New Blood, The Saatchi Gallery, both 2004. Among Shawcross’s solo shows was Entwistle in 2003, from which smaller works sold to galleries including the Sydney Museum of Modern Art, Australia. The centre-piece of that show was a spider-like rope-making machine that spewed a multi-coloured coil around visitors’ feet. This was followed by Galerie Bernd Kluser, Munich, Germany, and Manifesta 5, San Sebastian, Spain, both 2004. Shawcross’s 2004–5 exhibition Continuum was at The Queen’s House, National Maritime Museum, and in 2005 he had shows at The New Art Gallery, Walsall, and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Victoria Miro represented him.

and illustrator, born in Birmingham, where aged 12 she attended the Moseley Junior Art School, then studied industrial design at Birmingham College of Art. She moved to London where she was a technical illustrator and graphic designer and art editor of several trade journals. After marriage to a scientist she gave up commercial art to become a sculptor, using her four sons as models, sketching and sculpting them every day. Capturing and expressing form and movement were key themes which led her to work with theatre companies, observing dancers, mime artists, clowns and actors. She had her first solo show at the John Whibley Gallery in 1971, exhibiting elsewhere in the United Kingdom, including the RA, Mall Galleries and RWA and several theatre galleries, also in America and on the continent. Shaw-Hastings received commissions to sculpt many well-known people, including the jazz violinist Stephane Grappelli, racing driver Sir Stirling Moss, Tate Gallery director and writer Sir John Rothenstein and actress Zoë Wanamaker. She was made an associate of the RBS in 1988. ShawHastings worked in France and Germany and was latterly based in Stroud, Gloucestershire.

Neil SHAWCROSS 1940– Painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher, born in Kearsley, Lancashire, who studied at Bolton Junior Art School, 1953–5, Bolton College of Art, 1955–8, and Lancaster College of Art, 1958–60. He went on to lecture part-time there and elsewhere in Lancashire, later teaching at Belfast College of Art and Ulster College of Art and Design. Shawcross was notable as a Colourist and figure painter who was interested in the work of Matisse, Braque and primitive artists, popular art and ephemera. Among his commissions was one from Arts Council of Northern Ireland, which with Ulster Museum holds his work, for a portrait of the painter Colin Middleton. Showed at RUA, Tib Lane Gallery in Manchester, New and Tom Caldwell Galleries in Belfast, RHA and Oireachtas, Dublin. Lived in Hillsborough, County Down. Amelia SHAW-HASTINGS 1924–

Sculptor, painter

Figurative sculptor in a variety of materials, painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born in Ogies, Transvaal, South Africa, sister of the writer Olga Levinson and of the artist Alma Hayden. For a time she acted, danced and sang on the stage and in films in Britain and Africa. Aged 16, Shawzin travelled to England to act, appearing in the 1939 film The Lambeth Walk, with Lupino Lane. In New York she studied at the Art Students’ League, teachers including Yasuo Kuniyoshi, George Bridgeman and Du Mond, and at the Pratt Institute with Ponce de Leon; in London she was taught by Martin Bloch and Tony Harrison. In the handling of metals, carving in stone and marble and use of semi-precious stones and wood Shawzin was mainly self-taught. Although she lived in Cape Town and in the south of France, Shawzin spent much time in the marble yards of Carrara, Italy, where she could work with the local artisans. Group exhibitions of paintings and Stella SHAWZIN 1923–

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sculpture included many in South Africa, Rhodesia, America, Britain and Italy. Solo exhibitions included Argus Gallery, Cape Town, 1953; Lidchi Gallery, Johannesburg, 1970; Crane Kalman Gallery and Goodman Gallery, Johannesburg, both from 1972; and Kunskamer, Cape Town, from 1977. In 1996 Shawzin was invited to participate in a show of sculpture at Chichester Cathedral cloisters, in 2000 having a solo exhibition at the nearby Pallant House Gallery, another at Rymans, Apuldram, 2002. Showed bronze and marble sculptures at Robert Sandelson, 2003, with another exhibition there, 2004. She is represented in several South African collections, including Willem Annandale Art Gallery, Lichtenburg, and in America at Fordham University Collection, New York, and The National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington. She lived in a Gothic folly in Berkshire.

Hilliard Society, SM and SWA, also exhibiting at RA and in the provinces. Lived at Two Bridges, Yelverton, Devon.

Sandra SHEEHY 1965– Artist who produced exotic,

patterned embroideries, as in the exhibition Obsessive Visions, England & Co, 2001. Sheehy was born in Norfolk and studied illustration at Maidstone College of Art, but did not pursue that career. She began her embroidered pictures soon after moving to London in 1988. Having bought her first box of threads and excited by the colours, she “could not wait to get home and try them. When I began to work I realised that this was the medium my hands had been waiting for. It was like taking a large breath of air.” Without a plan, “I start at the centre and the work unfolds to me.” Saqib SHEIKH 1984– Artist, born in Quetta, Pakistan,

who worked under the name SAQ. He did a foundation course at Epping Forest College under Robert Bramich. Sheikh did a variety of jobs, such as fundraising and working in a video shop, while continuing to practise as an artist. His work focused “on representations of the human form and the relationship of paint to the figure, influences including Frank Auerbach, Luc Tuymans and David Bomberg.” Sheikh was included in the Corpus Fine Art exhibition Hard Bodies at Arndean Gallery in 2005. He lived in east London.

Charles SHEARER 1956– Painter, illustrator, printmaker and teacher, born in Kirkwall, Orkney, who graduated from, and did a year’s postgraduate studies at, Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, 1975– 80, gaining his master’s at Royal College of Art, 1980–3. In 1984 he won a Major Travel Award to the Philippines. Taught at several art schools in London, where he was based. Illustrated for the literary magazine Ambit and for the Cadogan travel guides. In his adapted hearse, Shearer travelled through Ireland, Scotland and Wales, lyrically capturing the lonely landscapes of the Celtic fringe and its inhabitants. Had a series of exhibitions at Kilvert Gallery, Clyro. Trevor SHEARER 1958– Artist who attended Chelsea

School of Art, 1976–7, and Bath Academy of Art, 1977–80. In 1989 he participated in Colour in Context, Serpentine Gallery, Interim Jeune II, Interim Art; and East End Open Studios, at Beck Road.

Marcelle Dorothy SHEARS 1926–1997 Artist in a variety of media, including watercolour on vellum and silhouette, born in Croydon, Surrey, her father an artist, George Tozer, with whom she studied. She was a member of RMS which holds her work,

Prolific American artist raised on a dairy farm near the Canadian border who then worked in the financial world on Wall Street and in London. She was originally company secretary of Mocatta Metals Corporation, then a consultant. Sheinman graduated from State University of New York at Albany, gaining her master’s from Hunter College, New York, tutors including Tony Smith and Robert Morris. She lived in Britain from the 1980s, eventually based in Nottingham. Group exhibitions included Coventry Museum, 1992, the year she won a Major Award, Dowty Group, first prize, and an East Midlands Arts Council Grant; Royal College of Art, 1994; West Midlands Arts, 1996; and Arts Council of England Year of the Artist Award, 2001. Sheinman Sally SHEINMAN 1949–

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participated in two-man shows at Milton Meynes Exhibition Gallery and Leicester University, both 1991. Later solo exhibitions included Sacred Vessels, Rugby Art Gallery (originated with Northampton Museums), 2003. In that year, Sheinman worked with Public Arts on a commission for the new Arts Council England offices in Nottingham.

for CEMA and the Arts Council; 1947–9, art teacher at Wealdstone Grammar School; 1947–50, part-time teacher at Harrow School of Art; 195766, was on the panel of London County Council Art Institutes for life, illustration, design and fashion drawing; and from 1965–9 was head of art, The Hall School, Hampstead. She showed at the NEAC and elsewhere, solo exhibitions including Everyman Cinema, Hampstead. Sheldon-Williams was remembered by her daughter Frances Hickox as “greatly influenced by Paul Nash, Eric Ravilious, Henry Moore and Ben Nicholson and she received much encouragement from Lord Clark.” SheldonWilliams lived principally in London, dying in Edinburgh.

Edyth May SHELDON 1897–1988 Painter, printmaker

and teacher, born in Reading, Berkshire. Studied at University College there under Allen Seaby, and like him specialised in colour woodcuts. She taught at several schools and ended up as principal of St Nicholas School, in Earley, near Reading. Exhibited with Archer Gallery, Colour Woodcut Society and extensively with societies in the Reading area. Prints in many galleries in England Ina SHELDON-WILLIAMS 1876–1956 Landscape, and abroad. figure and flower painter, maiden name Ina Maud Thomson, born in Ardrishaig, Argyll. She was Harry SHELDON 1923–2002 Figurative artist, one of married to the artist and writer Inglis Sheldona line of painters, stained glass designers and Williams, their daughter being the painter Eve draughtsmen, born in Marple, Cheshire, who Sheldon-Williams. Ina studied at the Slade School studied at Manchester School of Art and Salford of Fine Art under Fred Brown and Henry Tonks, Technical School under L S Lowry. In 1943, during 1895–8, and in Paris. She exhibited extensively at World War II, while waiting to be invalided home Walker’s Galleries, London Salon, RA, NEAC, from Karachi Military Hospital, Sheldon, a captain Kensington Gallery, RMS and elsewhere. The in the 8th Gurkha Rifles, was having a solo show Royal Collection holds her work. She travelled of work which was seen by General Sir Claude widely in England, Scotland, Italy and India and Auchinleck. The Commander-in-Chief India, also died in London. Her husband (Henry) Inglis a keen painter, persuaded Sheldon to stay on to Sheldon-Williams, 1870–1940, a military figure paint officially. The result was a series of portraits and landscape painter and illustrator, came from a of senior Indian Army commanders and Victoria line of painters, his father being the painter and Cross holders. The Gurkha Museum, Winchester, engraver Alfred Sheldon-Williams, the artist A and many Indian Army and Pakistani military Oscar also being related. Inglis studied at the British museums hold examples. Sheldon went on to have Museum with Thomas Brock, 1893, then was solo exhibitions from Delhi to Cairo and in London. entered from Canada at the Slade School of Fine He also showed with the RWS and RP. Art under Brown and Tonks, 1896–9, also studying in Belgium and Paris. He was an extensive traveller Eve SHELDON-WILLIAMS 1916–2001 Painter and lecturer, born in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, daughter in Britain and abroad. During the Boer War, Inglis of the artists Inglis and Ina Sheldon-Williams. She worked for The Sphere, then was preoccupied with attended the Central School of Art, 1937–40, being the Delhi Durbar, 1902, and Russo-Japanese War, a William Atkinson Scholar, 1938, among her 1904. He was an Official War Artist for the teachers William Roberts, Bernard Meninsky, Canadian front in France, 1917–18. With his Morris Kestelman, John Farleigh and John brother Rolf Sheldon-Williams he wrote The Skeaping. From 1941–59 she was a guide lecturer Canadian Front in France and Flanders, 1920, 74


and he was also author of A Dawdle in France, 1926, and A Dawdle in Lombardy and Venice, 1928. Sheldon-Williams was a prolific exhibitor in group and solo shows, venues including Fine Art Society, Walker’s Galleries, RA, RI, Ridley Art Club, London Salon, NEAC and abroad. British Museum; Imperial War Museum; India Office Library; Hastings Museum and Art Gallery; Towner Art Gallery, Eastbourne; and public collections in Canada and South Africa hold examples. He died in Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

School of Art, discovered Shelton when he was working as a railway station ticket collector and encouraged him to study at Wallasey, 1934–6; from 1936–9 he was under Malcolm Osborne and Robert Austin at Royal College of Art. After World War II he worked for a short time for Grafton Furnishing Fabrics as a designer, then was principal of Carlisle School of Art. As principal of Hornsey College of Art Shelton experienced the 1968 students’ sit-in; this was an attempt, supported by some staff, to make the College more democratic and to end academic examinations. Shelton, who retired in John SHELLEY 1938– Painter, born in Margate, 1977 as assistant director of art, the College having Kent. He studied at Wimbledon School of Art, become a Polytechnic, was a subtle administrator, 1953–8; won a British Institution Fund Award in seen by some as an empire-builder, who wanted 1957; and studied at Slade School of Fine Art, Hornsey to have university status. One of his 1958. His teachers included Gerald Cooper. achievements was the establishment of a visual Showed at Trafford Gallery and elsewhere and Tate research department, inspired by his wife Joanna, Gallery holds his work. who had been a popular teacher of plant drawing at Carlisle Art School. She predeceased him. Len SHELLEY 1964– Artist in mixed media who had experience of puppet animation film-making. He Shelton, who lived for many years in Enfield, studied at Maidstone College of Art and film and finally had a stroke and died in Colchester, Essex. television at Bournemouth and Poole College of Elaine SHEMILT 1954– Artist using a wide range of Art and Design, 1986–9. He mainly used found media, notably sculpture and printmaking, and objects from Sussex beaches for his constructions, lecturer, born in Edinburgh, who in 1960 moved such as Peter won’t go to the Barber, included in to Northern Ireland. She studied at Brighton the 1992 Norwich Gallery/Kent Institute of Art Polytechnic, foundation course, 1972–3; gained a and Design East & South show. Shelley was also first-class honours degree from the department of “interested in illustrating stories based on sculpture at Winchester School of Art, 1973–6; overheard snatches of conversation, chance and gained her master’s in printmaking, Royal remarks and people’s family legends”, as in his College of Art, 1976–9. She was artist-printmakersolo show at England & Co, 1994. Had a previous in-residence, South Hill Park Arts Centre, 1980– one-man exhibition at Booth Museum in Brighton, 2, then was a visiting fellow in fine art–printmaking 1993. Took part in many group shows in London at Winchester, 1982–4. She was a visiting lecturer and southeast of England and gained South East there, and at Berkshire and Chelsea Schools of Art, Young Artists Award, 1991, at Maidstone. In 2004, at Hull Further Education Centre and at Newcastle he curated The Undercliffe Ball & Other Stories and Middlesex Polytechnics. Exhibitions included at Tunbridge Wells Museum & Art Gallery. Shelley Serpentine Gallery, video work, 1976; Bradford was the first husband of the artist Samira Abbassy. Print Biennale, 1978; Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, Kent County Council and South East Arts, Towner sculpture/photography, 1980; and Fellows of the Gallery in Eastbourne, hold examples. Lived in St Winchester School of Art, Winchester Gallery, Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 1983. Her contribution there, mainly figurative in Teacher, painter, designer and printmaker, born in St Helens, Lancashire. William Green, principal of Wallasey Harold SHELTON 1913–1994

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origin, was influenced by early historical/megalithic and mythological symbolism. She likened her work “to a language where each


separate image is carefully selected and placed to form a visual statement”.

SHEN Yuan 1959– Artist, born and educated in Xianyou, China, who lived and worked in Paris, France, from 1990. Her mother and father were both illustrators and her husband was the artist Fuzhou Xiamen. Like him, Shen studied at the traditional Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts, graduating in 1982. As they both began to experiment with Western artistic ideas, they came under scrutiny from the Chinese Communist authorities. Using sculpture and installation, Shen’s work ranged from monumental site-specific creations to intimate objects. She transformed everyday things into poetic, often disturbing meditations, focusing on topics such as migration, memory and language. She took part in many international group exhibitions, later ones including Paris pour escale, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2000. Solo shows included Diverged Tongue, Centre of Contemporary Art, Kitakyushu, Japan, 1999; Sous la terre, il y a le ciel, Kunsthalle, Bern, Switzerland, 2000; and Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol (following a residency there in 2000), and Chisenhale Gallery, both 2001; and Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool, 2001–2.

Sculptor and teacher, who attended St Martin’s School of Art, specialising in sculpture on the advanced course. Went on to teach as a regular and visiting lecturer at various art colleges, including Canterbury, Ravensbourne, Stourbridge, East Ham Technical and Cambridge. Although she worked for some time in London, eventually moved to a studio near Cambridge where she produced abstract works made of forged, cut and welded steel. Group shows participated in included New Contemporaries at RA, Whitechapel Open, Air Gallery and Ikon Gallery, Birmingham. In 1985 she shared a three-artist show at Woodlands Art Gallery. Solo exhibitions included The Minories, Colchester, 1979. Various private and public collections hold Shemilt’s work. Mary SHEMILT 1953–

Anwar Jalal SHEMZA 1928–1985 Painter, writer and

teacher, born in Simla, India, into a cultured family. He studied at Mayo School of Art, in Lahore, Pakistan, 1943–6, and set up a commercial art studio in Simla, but had to give this up during Indian partition, when he joined his family in Lahore. While conducting career as a writer he worked towards several group shows in Lahore, 1953–6, also founding the Lahore Art Group. British Council scholarship took him to Slade School of Fine Art, 1956–9, after which he did postgraduate research in graphic arts at the Slade in 1960. After a return to Pakistan in that year, where he had several shows, Shemza returned to England, settling in Stafford, where he taught. Grounded in Islamic abstract art Shemza also absorbed Western influences, although he had some problems in establishing a distinct identity along the way. Participated in many international group shows, and one-man exhibitions in Britain included New Vision Centre Gallery, 1959 and Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1964. Retrospective at Canberra Playhouse, England, 1987. Bradford Museum and Art Gallery holds his work. Was a participant in The Other Story, Hayward Gallery and touring, 1989–90. Shemza was given a retrospective at Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in 1997–8.

Clare SHENSTONE fl. from late 1970s– Artist notable

for her figure drawings and cloth relief heads. She did a foundation year at Central School of Art & Design, 1972–3, gaining a degree in painting from Chelsea School of Art, 1973–6, then her master’s at the Royal College of Art, 1976–9. Commissions included drawings for Oxford Playhouse Company and Manhattan Theatre Club Theatre, New York, both 1981. Among mixed shows were Artist of the Colony Room Club: a Tribute to Muriel Belcher, Parkin Gallery, 1982, and Whitechapel Open Exhibition, Whitechapel Gallery, 1983 and 1984. In 1998 Michael Parkin held an exhibition, Portraits of Francis Bacon, which stemmed from Shenstone’s close connection with Bacon after he had enthused about her degree show at the Royal College in 1979. The National Portrait Gallery holds a Bacon portrait by her.

Artist in watercolour, pen and ink and oil; exemplary illustrator of almost 100 books. Born in London, Ernest Howard SHEPARD 1879–1976

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his father was a keen amateur watercolourist, his mother’s was the Dicksee family, which produced several painters. His sister, Mary Shepard, married the Punch editor E V Knox (“Evoe”), and was notable as the illustrator of P L Travers’ Mary Poppins books, a job declined by E H Shepard because he was too busy. Shepard studied at Heatherley’s Art School from 1896, then entered the Royal Academy Schools on a scholarship, 1897–1901, and first exhibited at the RA in that year. His painting Followers was bought from the RA by Durban Art Gallery in 1904. Punch took his first drawing in 1906, he joined its staff in 1921, became its senior political cartoonist in 1945 and did his last drawings for the magazine in 1958. In 1924 Shepard illustrated A A Milne’s When We Were Very Young, to be followed by Winnie-thePooh (1926), Now We Are Six (1927) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928). In 1931 his status as an illustrator for children was enhanced when he drew for Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows. Shepard was the true professional, whose drawings have a light, sure line and meticulous attention to detail. He wrote two delightful books of reminiscence: Drawn From Memory and Drawn From Life. Lived at Lodsworth, Sussex. Chris Beetles Ltd and Sally Hunter Fine Art latterly exhibited Shepard’s work. There was a large show drawn from the Shepard archive at Guildford House Gallery, Guildford, 2002, others at The Holburne Museum of Art, Bath, in 2005 and The Fine Art Society in 2006.

Draughtsman and actress whose artistic reputation was revived by an exhibition at Jonathan Poole’s Compton Cassey Gallery, Withington, in 1996, after a concealed trunk of work was found after her death. Shepeard trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and performed in numerous plays at leading theatres along with John Gielgud, Jack Buchanan, Anthony Quayle, Peggy Ashcroft, Sybil Thorndike and Lewis Casson. In 1942 she appeared as Mrs Briggs in the film Thunder Rock with Michael Redgrave and went on to make many more films with Boulting Brothers. Such personalities and such

artist friends as Vanessa Bell and R O Dunlop were astutely depicted by Shepeard, who in 1929 showed with Francis Bacon in his Queensberry Mews studio, the year she exhibited at the Redfern Gallery with Augustus John, Lucien Pissarro, Paul Nash and Eric Gill. The year before, Shepeard had joined the Emotionist Group, founded by R O Dunlop, consisting of painters, musicians, philosophers, poets and actors. In 1933 the News Chronicle art critic Gui St Bernard urged readers “with a few spare pounds” to “rush and buy Jean Shepeard’s drawings”.

Rupert SHEPHARD 1909–1992 Painter, draughtsman

and teacher, born in London, where he continued to live. He studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1926–9, and began to show with LG, Cooling Gallery and with Euston Road School painters, with whom he shared a style. Had first solo show at Calmann Gallery in 1939, the year he painted two portraits of Dylan Thomas, later bought by National Portrait Gallery. During World War II Shephard worked as a draughtsman in industry. He was appointed an Official War Artist in 1945, the year he joined NEAC, about this time also showing at Leicester Galleries. Shephard taught part-time at Central and St Martin’s Schools of Art, 1945–8, then from 1948–63 held the post of professor of fine art at University of Cape Town, showing there and in Johannesburg. On his return to England Shephard became a full-time painter, struggling to re-establish his reputation, which he did with a long series of solo shows, including Agnew, Patrick Seale Gallery, National Museum of Wales in Cardiff and Sally Hunter Fine Art. In 1972 he was elected RP. By then he had been married seven years to Nicolette Macnamara, widow of the painter Anthony Devas and herself a writer and painter.

Jean SHEPEARD 1904–1989

Painter in oil and writer, full name Richard David Shepherd, born in London. After failing to become a game warden in Africa, Shepherd moved to painting, but was turned down as “not worth training” by first art school he tried to enter. Then studied privately, 1950–3, with Robin Goodwin and began career as

David SHEPHERD 1931–

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an aviation artist, being a founder-member of Society of Aviation Artists. Began painting African wildlife in 1960; his picture Tiger Fire raised £127,000 for Operation Tiger in 1973; and in 1985 he founded The David Shepherd Conservation Foundation. Shepherd was also known for his portraits, including HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, 1969. Many military paintings were commissioned by the Royal Navy, Parachute Regiment, Green Howards and Special Air Service. Shepherd bought two mainline steam locomotives, Black Prince and The Green Knight, in 1967, and founded The East Somerset Railway. Among films on his work was the BBC documentary The Man Who Loves Giants, 1971. Shepherd’s books included Artist in Africa, 1967, and his autobiography, The Man Who Loves Giants, 1975. Showed RA, RP and had a series of solo shows in London, Johannesburg and New York. Lived at Hascombe, Godalming, Surrey.

University, 2003.

Prolific painter, born near Yeovil, Somerset, educated at Rugby School and Oxford University. Studied at Slade School of Fine Art for several years around 1900. He was elected to NEAC in 1912, also exhibiting at RA, Colnaghi, Goupil and Chenil Galleries, RHA, RSA and els where. Settled in London. F H S SHEPHERD 1877–1948

James Affleck SHEPHERD 1867–1946 Illustrator and

painter, notable for his perceptive, amusing animal studies, born in London as William James Affleck Shepherd. He studied with the draughtsman Alfred Bryan and at Zoological Gardens for several years. From the 1890s he was on the staff of the magazine Punch for a long time, and illustrated many books, including a series of his own beginning with ZigZag Fables, 1897, later ones including Animal Caricature, 1936. In 1911 won a gold medal at International Exhibition of Humorous Art held in Rivoli, Italy. Showed at PS, Baillie Gallery and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and had an exhibition of watercolours at Paterson’s Gallery in 1928. British Museum holds his work. Shepherd was a keen huntsman who lived for a time at Charlwood, Surrey, also near Cirencester, Gloucestershire.

Sculptor, constructions artist and teacher, born in Wigan, where he attended the School of Art, 1961–5, followed by Goldsmiths’ College, 1965–6. Then began teaching, a series of appointments including Leamington Spa School of Art and Cardiff College of Art. He was a member of the 56 Group and showed at Chapel Gallery in York; RBSA Gallery in Birmingham; Midland Group Gallery in Nottingham; and John Moores Exhibition in Liverpool. One-man shows included Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool; Serpentine Gallery, 1971; and Ikon Gallery, Birmingham. David SHEPHERD 1944–

Katy SHEPHERD 1961– Artist who graduated in fine art from Sheffield Polytechnic, 1980–3, attending the Royal College of Art for her master’s degree in 1989. Group appearances included Inner Language at Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, and tour; Dominic SHEPHERD 1966– Artist, born in Poole, Pacesetters, Peterborough Art Gallery; and East Dorset, who studied at Bournemouth and Poole End Open Studios, at Angel Studios, all 1989. College of Art & Design, 1984–5, and Chelsea Among Shepherd’s solo exhibitions were Mall College of Art, 1985–8 and 1994–5. In 2004, the Galleries, 1985, and Poole Arts Centre, 1987. year when he shared an exhibition at the Michael Mark SHEPHERD 1948– Painter and animation Naimski Gallery, Shepherd won the first Visitors’ artist, born in Farnborough, Hampshire, who Choice Prize at the John Moores Liverpool attended West Surrey College of Art & Design, Exhibition with his oil on canvas Piper at the gates 1965–71, winning year prizes for painting. of dawn. He participated in Art in the 90s, Pure Shepherd worked in animation, 1971–99. Group Fantasy, at Oriel Mostyn, Llandudno in 1997, shows included artLONDON, Chelsea; Art on becoming artist-in-residence there, 1998. From Paper, Royal College of Art; Galerie Martin du 2000, Shepherd exhibited solo at Clapham Art Louvre and Pavilion des Antiquaires, Jardin des Gallery, also at Atrium Gallery, Bournemouth 78


Tuileries, both in Paris; and Palm Beach, Miami, 2004. Among solo shows were View Gallery, Thames Ditton, and Holman, Fenwick & Willan, 2004. Logica, Herbert Smith, Kroll International and private collections in England, France and America held examples. Lived in southwest London.

Liverpool College of Art, 1972–5; and Royal College of Art, 1975–8. Exhibitions included Northern Young Contemporaries, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, 1974; Riverside Open, 1988; and John Moores 1995–6 Liverpool Exhibition, where his oil on calico After Picasso appeared. Lived in Norwich, Norfolk.

Chesterfield, Derbyshire, who attended Carlisle College of Art, 1952–6; did his National Service, 1956–8; then studied at the Royal College of Art, 1958–61. In that year he gained a J Andrew Lloyd Travelling Scholarship for landscape painting. He exhibited in an Arts Council travelling exhibition, 1959; with Young Contemporaries, from 1959; and with the LG and in the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, both 1961. In 1962, he participated in Image in Progress at Grabowski Gallery, when he was living and teaching in London, married with one child. Among the other artists were Derek Boshier, David Hockney, Allen Jones and Peter Phillips. Of his large, gestural oils on canvas in that show, Shepherd wrote: “Something seen, something experienced provides me with the cue for a painting…. The images are not intended as equivalents of or comparisons with nature. Their power lies, I believe, in their self assertion, despite their loose but haunting relationship with the landscape.”

illustrator and sculptor. Born and lived in London, he studied at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art. Exhibited at RMS, of which he was for a time president. Also drew for books and magazines.

Max SHEPHERD 1936– Painter and teacher, born in

Scott SHEPHERD 1892–c.1973 Painter of miniatures,

S Horne SHEPHERD 1909–1993 Painter, printmaker

and teacher, born in Dundee, Angus. He studied at Glasgow School of Art, 1927–30, teachers including Maurice Greiffenhagen, and also taught there. Later taught at Shoreditch Training College and St Martin’s School of Art. Showed at RSA, SSA, NS, Free Painters and Sculptors and abroad. Victoria & Albert Museum holds his work. Lived latterly at Rudgwick, Sussex.

Sculptor and teacher who studied building and architecture and from 1949 worked as an exhibition designer. After National Service Sheppard worked as a designer in natural history section of British Museum and studied sculpture at St Martin’s School of Art, 1952–5, working with Anthony Caro. After five Philip SHEPHERD 1927– Painter and printmaker, years at the Abbey Art Centre Sheppard spent notable for architectural perspectives, born in several years acting as assistant to the sculptor London, who trained at Harrow and Birmingham Henry Moore, teaching at art colleges in Colleges of Arts and Crafts. He spent 11 years as Bournemouth and Hornsey and going as visiting an advertising artist. Shepherd was a member of artist at Washington University, in America. He the RWA, becoming a fellow of RWS in 1982. At returned to teach in Britain in 1967, finally at the Paris Salon he won a bronze medal in 1969, Sheffield Polytechnic School of Art and Design, the gold in 1976. Commissions included a large whose gallery gave him a retrospective in 1974. oil of the Magnus North Sea platform for AMEC, Sheppard was an artist primarily concerned with held at its head office in Cheshire. Shepherd also the image, to which surface and material were had work in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, incidental. He pursued themes periodically through and Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. Lived his career, broken forms seen in car crash photographs leading to powerfully brutal bronzes. Wilmcote, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. Arts Council holds his work. He was married to Richard SHEPHERD 1952– Artist, born in London, the artist Liz Sheppard. who studied at Lincoln College of Art, 1971–2; Clive SHEPPARD 1930–1973

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Painter, notably of marine pictures, born in London. She was the daughter of the artist Nancy Huntly, with whom she studied, also at Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting, Royal Academy Schools and Chelsea School of Art. Exhibited at RA, ROI, RBA, Chelsea Art Society and at Paris Salon, where she won a Silver Medal, 1975, and a Gold Medal, 1978. Several of her paintings were published as prints and HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother owned her work. Lived for many years in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire.

in mixed exhibitions at RA from 1971; Agnew; New Grafton Gallery; Salon de Mai, Paris, 1975; and West Coast Watercolour Society of America, 1975. Was for a time president of RWS, of which he became a full member in 1977, elected to the NEAC in 2000. Continued to exhibit in mixed shows at many private and public galleries in Britain and abroad, with solo exhibitions at New Grafton Gallery, 1979; The Aldeburgh Cinema (Mrs Letty Gifford), 1981; and Christopher Wood Gallery, 1989. Sheppard also undertook a number of special projects, which included The Golden Valley, a painting for the 1993 film Shadowlands, about the life of the writer C S Lewis; The Resurrection of the Earth, a mural for St Martin’s Church Hall, Haverfordwest, in Pembrokeshire, where Sheppard lived; and Miss Jones’s Cottage, Hook, an edition of etchings for the restoration of the great organ in St Mary’s Church, Haverfordwest. Victoria & Albert Museum and National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, hold his work, other notable owners including HM The Queen, the British Museum, National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth and international corporate and private collections.

Faith SHEPPARD 1920–

Liz SHEPPARD 1933– Printmaker, painter in oil and

watercolour and teacher, born in Tonbridge, Kent, married to the sculptor Clive Sheppard. She studied at St Albans School of Art, 1950–2, St Martin’s School of Art, 1952–55, and London University Institute of Education, 1955–6. Her teachers were Anthony Caro, Derrick Greaves, Peter de Francia, Frederick Gore and Alistair Grant. In 1954 she won the Pratt Bequest scholarship to Italy. From 1976 she held a number of teaching appointments including College of Art Design, Barnfield, Luton; Middlesex Polytechnic; and Mount St Joseph, Connecticut, and Lansdowne College. She worked at Digswell House Arts Trust before moving to Woburn, Milton Keynes. In 1990 she was artistin-residence at Bedford School. Took part in many mixed exhibitions including Bear Lane Gallery in Oxford, RA Summer Exhibitions and Cartoon Gallery. Later solo shows included Leighton Buzzard Arts Centre and Bedford School, 1990. HRH Princess Margaret, Open University and Bedfordshire Education Committee hold her work.

Michael SHEPPARD 1936– Painter of abstracts, born

in Yorkshire, who attended Wakefield College of Art, Leeds College of Art and Nottingham University. Group exhibitions included Scarborough Art Gallery, Scarborough, with the ceramist Sutton Taylor, 1996; another with Taylor at The University Gallery, Leeds, 1999; and at Hart South West, Cornwall, 2000. The Hart Gallery gave him a series of solo exhibitions from 2000, one in 2004 shared with Taylor. Public and private collections in the United Kingdom and Germany held examples.

Painter in oil and watercolour, born in Llangwm, Pembrokeshire. He studied at Loughborough College of Art, 1966– 7, Kingston College of Art under Alfred Heyworth, Nancy SHEPPARD: see Nancy HUNTLY 1967–70 and Royal College of Art, 1970–3, where his teachers included Donald Hamilton Fraser, Raymond SHEPPARD 1913–1958 Painter and blackRobert Buhler, Carel Weight and Ruskin Spear. and-white illustrator, notably of natural history Among his awards were British Institution Award, subjects. Born in London, he studied at the London 1970; David Murray Landscape Award, 1971; and County Council Bolt Court art school. Exhibited Geoffrey Crawshay Memorial Travelling RA, RSA, RBA and elsewhere. Appeared in such Scholarship, 1973, University of Wales. Showed magazines as Lilliput, Picture Post and John Bull Maurice SHEPPARD 1947–

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and produced several books on how to draw Woodlands Art Gallery, 1978. Lived in Norwich, animals and birds. Lived at Harrow Weald, Norfolk. Middlesex. Annie SHERBURNE 1957– Versatile artist and Stephen SHEPPARD fl. from early 1950s– Painter and teacher, born and lived in London, who studied at draughtsman who studied at L’École des Beaux- Hertfordshire College of Art and Design, 1976–7; Arts, Paris, 1946–8, then Camberwell School of St Martin’s School of Art, 1977; and Goldsmiths’ Arts and Crafts, 1949–52. Went on to teach art at School of Art until 1980, when she graduated with Greenwich and Frobisher Adult Education first-class honours. “Notable gurus were Kaffe Institutes. Sheppard exhibited in a number of Fassett and Jean Muir.” Sherburne taught leading mixed shows. Had solo exhibitions from extensively, including foundation at Maidstone 1972 at Court Lodge Gallery, Kent; in 1975 at (Kent Institute of Art & Design), 1994–6, and Galerie d’Ars, St Montan, and Galerie Gigondas, London Guildhall University, degree projects and Gigondas, France; in 1977 at Galerie ML, Paris; second-year students, 1995–8, and she was an and in 1979 at Woodlands Art Gallery. His works external assessor for Staffordshire University. In are in many private collections in England and 2001, Sherburne won the textile category in the France. Peugeot Design Awards and was a finalist in the Homes and Gardens Classic Design Awards, in Sydney SHEPPARD 1905–1991 Sculptor, painter and 2002 gaining a European Union development fund teacher, born in Cairo, Egypt. After education at grant to develop ceramics through the Ceramic Marlborough College he attended the Slade School Industry Forum. She was a fellow of the Royal of Fine Art under Henry Tonks, then briefly studied Society of Arts and Manufactures, a member of with André Lhote in Paris, starting what he called the European Textile Network and a member and his abstract phase, and through his friendship with trustee, 1997–8, of Contemporary Applied Arts. the sculptor Aristide Maillol became sympathetic Group shows included Contemporary Applied Arts, to the classical tradition. This made Sheppard 2001; Sotheby’s Applied Art Show, 2002; and hyper-self-critical, reluctant to exhibit. Unfit for Collect, shown with Fiberart Gallery, Victoria & military service in World War II, Sheppard began Albert Museum, and Designers Block, teaching at Lancing College and King Edward’s Smithfield’s, both 2004. Among her solo School, Oxford. His great period as a teacher was exhibitions were Fiberart Gallery, St Ives, at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, which Cornwall, where she exhibited felt, beaded textiles, he joined in 1946, retiring in 1970 as senior lecturer. furniture, ceramics, spoons, jewellery and rugs, He continued to develop as a painter, using colour and Inside Design, at Pia Strelle, Amsterdam, to establish form, and his last pictures were said Netherlands, both 2003. The Victoria & Albert to be his best. Died in London where a first show Museum, Crafts Council, British Council and of any size was held at Sally Hunter Fine Art in Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, hold 1994. examples. Patricia SHEPPERSON 1929– Artist

notable for her Clare SHERIDAN 1885–1970 Portrait sculptor, painter pictures of animals and birds in pastel, born in and writer. Born in London, she was educated at London. She studied life and portrait drawing under the Convent of the Assumption, Paris, and in Patrick Larking, first at Heatherley’s School of Darmstadt, Germany. Studied art at the Royal Fine Art and then at Sir John Cass School of Art, College of Art and with John Tweed. After the 1959–67, having studied drama at the Guildhall death of her husband a week after the birth of her School of Music and drama, 1946–9. Was elected son Richard, in 1915, Sheridan spurred a career as a member of UA in 1978, mixed exhibitions a professional sculptor by commissioning her own including RA, PS and abroad. Solo shows included portrait from Jacob Epstein and watching him 81


work. Exhibited at the RA and overseas. She produced many portrait busts of famous people, including Lord Oxford and Asquith for the Oxford Union, Lord Birkenhead, Winston Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi and Lenin and Trotsky, for the Soviet government. Sheridan’s visit to Communist Russia led to her being briefly ostracised, so she went to America, was a journalist on the New York World, travelled to the west coast and became friendly with Charlie Chaplin. Although she returned to England in 1922, she was now restless, before World War II living in M’cid, Biskra, Algeria, and after the war in Galway, Ireland, where she was received into the Roman Catholic church and exhibited in Dublin. Among her books were Russian Portraits, 1921, My American Diary, 1922, Nuda Veritas, 1927, and To the Four Winds, 1954. Leeds Museums and Galleries hold archive material.

Osborne at Royal College of Art in late 1920s and with André Lhote in the late 1930s. She first exhibited at RA in 1917, a powerful picture of Liverpool Street station, and she continued to show at the Academy for over 50 years. She admired continental painters, notably German and Baroque, but could be astringent in her comments on English artists. Although her own painting bore traces of Camden Town influence, that school was reckoned “good, but very English, no depth of feeling”; of Osborne, who greatly improved her etching technique, which can be very fine, she remarked: “good, up to a point.” Travelled widely after unsuccessful marriage to an Army officer, publishing Indian Etchings, 1932, which followed Egyptian Etchings, 1925, and German Etchings, 1929. Also worked widely in America. For final 30 years of her life lived in obscurity at Oxenways, a rambling house near Axminster, Devon, on little money, keeping chickens, helping to found Axminster Art Society in 1947, and occasionally travelling abroad with her friend Orovida Pissarro. Had no one-man shows during her life, but there was a retrospective at Maltzahn Gallery in 1973. Bristol City Art Gallery, museums in Stockholm, Copenhagen and Amsterdam hold her work.

Rachael SHERLAW-JOHNSON 1938– Artist in oil, watercolour and etching, born in London, whose main themes were “landscape, weather, Oxfordshire places, bells, bell towers and musical instruments”. Her mother, Eularia Clarke, and brother, James Kenelm Clarke, were both artists. After studying music, Sherlaw-Johnson switched to painting, studying with Jane Dowling at Ruskin College, Oxford, in the 1970s, then became a member of Oxford Printmakers, where she studied in the 1980s. Was also a member of Oxford Art Society. Among her main works were the Oxfordshire Sketchbooks series (she lived in the county at Stonesfield, near Witney), produced by Senecio Press. Showed at RA Summer Exhibitions from 1977; Discerning Eye, Mall Galleries, 1991; Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1992; and New Academy Gallery, 1995, as well as in many other group exhibitions elsewhere. Had a solo show at Woodstock County Museum, 1997. Marjorie SHERLOCK 1897–1973 Painter, etcher and

draughtsman in pencil, born in Wanstead, Essex. After early education in Cambridge, Sherlock studied art under Walter Sickert and Harold Gilman, the Camden Town Group painters, shortly before World War I. Also studied with Malcolm

Painter, born in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, whose family moved to Wales when she was 11. Her Indian heritage contributed to richly coloured, organically effervescent pictures in which “childhood memories, entrances, new beginnings, journeys and nature’s sense of healing” were central themes. Gained a distinction in a foundation course at Swansea College of Higher Education, 1988–9, obtaining a good honours degree in fine art at University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1989–93. In 1992 she won the Bartlett Travelling Scholarship for India, in 1993 a prize for the most outstanding graduate at Newcastle. Took part in many art workshops, some with Baha´’í links. Group exhibitions included Khunduchi Gallery, Dar es Salaam, 1986; Welsh National Eisteddfod, 1989; and Christie’s, selected graduates, 1994. Solo shows included Duncan Campbell Contemporary Art, 1995, in 2006 as She

She She SHERWANI 1970–

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She Oza.

master’s in painting, Chelsea College of Art, 1998– 9. Group shows included Cookies, Kingsgate Gallery, 1998; How the West was Lost and Won, British Council, Prague, Czechoslovakia, and New Contemporaries 2000, touring to Manchester and Edinburgh, both 2000; and Club, Beaconsfield, 2001. In that year Shiba had a solo exhibition, Racing Queens, at Laurent Delaye Gallery, a sequence of oils on aluminum depicting glamorous mascots of the race-tracks. His work was characterised by short thematic and highly focused series.

Frank SHERWIN 1896–1985 Painter in oil and watercolour, born in Derby where he studied at the School of Art, later attending Heatherley’s Art School, under Henry Massey, in 1920. Sherwin, a rather military figure, became a member of RI in 1950 and RSMA in 1967, last exhibiting there in 1981. He also showed at RA and elsewhere, the public gallery in Derby holding his work. Sherwin was widely reproduced by Frost & Reed Ltd, British Railways and the Medici Society. He published articles in The Artist magazine and lived Derek SHIEL 1939– Artist, writer and teacher of Irish in Cookham, Berkshire. origin who studied at Edinburgh College of Art, Guy SHERWIN 1948– Film-maker, photographer moving to London in 1962. He taught art history and teacher, who attended Chelsea School of Art, and painting at art colleges, including the City 1966–70. He taught film, photography and allied Literary Institute. Shiel worked as a subjects at the North East London Polytechnic, psychotherapist and was involved in the Men’s 1970–5, in the latter year becoming workshop Movement. Later collaborated with percussionists, organiser of the London Filmmakers’ Co-op. He puppeteers and performers on interactive projects was included in the big British Council exhibition involving his sound sculptures, as well as writing English Art Today 1960–76, at the Palazzo Reale, for the theatre and on the painting and poetry of Milan, Italy, 1976. By then, Sherwin’s films, which David Jones. He was the first artist-in-residence all involved performance or unorthodox projection, at the Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, included Falling Rider and Window, both 1974, with a sound sculpture solo show there in 2000. and Jan and Paper Landscape, both 1975. Prototypes had emerged in the mid-1980s after finding and recycling scrap metal from his family’s Noah SHERWOOD 1976– Sculptor and draughtsman, born in Montreal, Canada, who obtained a Dublin electrical distribution business. Luigi foundation diploma in art and design at Parc Menai, Russolo, John Cage, Harry Partch and Cornelius Bangor, 1996; gained a first-class honours degree Cardew were composers whose names were in fine art University of Kent, Canterbury, 1999; mentioned in connection with Shiel’s work. Shiel and his master’s in sculpture, Royal College of wrote authoritatively on the work of the artist and Art, 2002. In that year he had work sited in Paul writer David Jones, co-writing David Jones The Smith’s shop, Covent Garden, also in The Old Maker Unmade, 1995, and edited David Jones: Library, West Dean Estate, near Chichester, Sussex. Ten Letters, 1996. In 2001, his Arthur Giardelli: Sherwood was shortlisted for the Jerwood Paintings, Constructions, Relief Sculptures Sculpture Prize in 2003, in the same year appeared, launched at Giardelli’s retrospective at participating in The Ida Branson Memorial Bequest England & Co.

Exhibition, Millfield.

Tim SHEWARD: see James WHITE and Tim SHEWARD

Hideatsu SHIBA 1973– Artist, born in Japan, who graduated with honours in fine art, Byam Shaw School of Art, 1994–7; gained a postgraduate diploma, Goldsmiths’ College, 1997–8; with a

Sculptor in a variety of materials, and teacher, born in Leicester. Graduated with Bachelor of Science degree from University College, Leicester, then studied at the College of Art there, 1948–52. Held several teaching posts, eventually becoming head of Mexborough Grammar School in South Yorkshire, living at

George SHIELD 1919–2001

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Conisbrough. Showed at RA, RI, SSA and elsewhere, and Paisley Museum and Art Gallery holds his work. Member of Leicester Society of Artists.

further exhibition of paintings and drawings in 2005. In 2004 and 2005, Shields’ work was also shown at the Basel Art Fair. Ulster Museum in Belfast, Arts Council for Northern Ireland and National Self-Portrait Collection of Ireland, Dennis SHIELDS 1947– Sculptor in wood and paper, Limerick, hold examples. He lived in Dundonald, painter and teacher, born in Liverpool. He attended Belfast. evening classes at the city’s College of Art while he was still at school. Shields emigrated to Canada Anthony SHIELS 1938– Painter with an interest in in 1964 and it was there that he took up his Surrealism, born in Salford, Lancashire, who education again to enable him to study full-time studied with Gilmore Roberts at Heatherley’s at Ontario College of Art until 1973 and his return School of Fine Art, 1954–6. He was a member of to Britain, concentrating on sculpture. He gained AIA and Penwith Society of Arts, also showing the Art Directors’ Club of Toronto Award for elsewhere in the provinces and abroad. Had solo Sculpture for Time magazine advertisements and exhibitions at Rawinsky and Mingus Galleries. the Governor General of Ontario’s Medal for Settled in Ponsanooth, Truro, Cornwall, later in Sculpture in his final year at college. In Britain Ireland. There was a retrospective: Paris, St Ives, Shields began to teach, but worked at his abstract Cork, at Mariners Gallery, St Ives, in 2003. wooden and paper sculptures and paintings and had solo shows at Compass Gallery, Glasgow, and David SHILLING 1954– Artist producing mainly Third Eye Centre. Was included in The Compass three-dimensional works: hats, then paintings and sculptures. He was born in London, full name Hugh Contribution at Tramway, Glasgow, 1990. David Shilling, and was educated at Colet Court Mark SHIELDS 1963– Painter and draughtsman, and St Paul’s School, having “no formal art whose acrylic on linen paintings and charcoal education.” Shilling initially became famous for drawings, portraits and still lifes, in their attention his hats, brought to public attention by his mother to detail, craftsmanship and fine finish indicated at Royal Ascot when Shilling was at school, later a debt to the Old Masters. Shields gained a fine collected as art works. From 1993 he produced his arts honours degree at the University of Ulster, three-dimensional, all-white canvases, from 1999, 1981–5, adding a teaching certificate, art and his mirror-polished, stainless steel sculptures. design, 1988–9. He won an Ulster Television award Shilling also worked with various branches of for outstanding work by an artist under 30, 1990; government on art and design projects and as a was a Winsor & Newton Young Artist Award senior consultant on art and design with United finalist, 1992; won an Abbey Stained Glass Studios Nations agencies. Mixed shows included the Award, RHA, Dublin, 1994; and in 1995, the year Victoria & Albert Museum, Science Museum, he gained his associated diploma from the RUA, Philadelphia Museum of Art in America and obtained the Anderson’s Auctioneers & Valuers Redfern Gallery. Among his numerous solo Prize there. Group shows included RUA from exhibitions were Ulster Museum, Belfast; Chester 1987; Cavehill Gallery, Belfast, from 1990; RI, Museum; Angela Flowers Gallery; British Council 1992; ROI from 1992; RA from 1993; and BP in Cologne, Germany, and Bombay and Delhi, Portrait Award Exhibition, National Portrait India; Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh; Gallery, from 1994. Had a solo show at Otter Salama-Caro Gallery; Sotheby’s, Stockholm, Gallery, Belfast, 1986, another at Grosvenor Sweden; British Embassy, Dubai; National Gallery, 1997. Inhabitants of the Dream Courtyard Horseracing Museum, Newmarket; and Hatworks there, in 2001, was accompanied by an illustrated Museum, Stockport. In 1986, Shilling’s book booklet of the works with a mystical text. It was Thinking Rich appeared. Collections holding his followed in 2003 by 40 Small Paintings, with a work included Metropolitan Museum, New York; 84


Ulster Museum; Los Angeles County Museum; Richmond, Surrey. Victoria & Albert Museum; Philadelphia Museum of Art; and the British Government Art Collection. Kumiko SHIMIZU 1948– She created art from rubbish, painted and made outdoor murals. Shimizu Lived in Monaco, Monte Carlo, and London. was born in Osaka, Japan. She came to London in Alan SHILLINGFORD 1932– Printmaker and teacher, 1975 to learn English as a secretary, discovered born in London. He studied at Hammersmith modern art through a friend, joined classes at the School of Art and at Brooklyn Museum in America. City Lit which gave her a perspective on the subject From 1966 had regular mixed show appearances, and joined Reading University, taking her degree including RA Summer Exhibition, AIA Gallery, in 1982 in fine art. She was artist-in-residence in Arnolfini Gallery in Bristol and Eastern Region Osnabrück, Germany, in her graduation year, which Print Competition, where he won first prize for a involved a project decorating 200 trees. screenprint. He was included in Arts Council Far Participated in group shows, notably at Brixton East tour in 1967 and several international print Art Gallery, and had a number of international solo biennales in 1970s. Had a solo show at Gallery exhibitions. In 1989 she gained a commission to 273 in 1966, later ones including a retrospective decorate façade of Manchester City Art Gallery. at Beecroft Art Gallery, Westcliff-on-Sea, 1992. Participated in The Other Story, Hayward Gallery That gallery, Essex University, Smolin Gallery in and touring, 1989–90. New York and Tamarind Gallery, Sydney, hold his work. Shillingford retired from South-East Essex Harold SHIMMELL fl. from 1930s– Landscape painter, College of Arts and Technology in 1992. Latterly printmaker and teacher who studied at Woolwich Polytechnic School of Art and Royal College of lived in Norfolk. Art. He went on to teach at Woolwich Polytechnic, Felicity SHILLINGFORD 1960– Artist in mixed media Medway and Sidcup Schools of Art and at North and teacher who obtained a first-class honours London Polytechnic in the School of Architecture degree in fine art printmaking at Manchester and Interior Design. Showed at Foyles Gallery, Polytechnic, 1980–3. She was granted a Ford 1934; Chas Hammond, Sloane Street, 1964; North Foundation Scholarship at the School of the Art London Polytechnic, 1965, Ranger’s House, Institute of Chicago, 1984–6, gaining her master’s Blackheath, 1972; Park Gallery, Chislehurst, 1973; degree. Had varied teaching and workshop Court Lodge Gallery; Horton Kirby, 1975; and in experience in Britain and America. Her many group that year was one of Four Greenwich Watercolour appearances included John Holden Gallery, Artists at Woodlands Art Gallery. Also showed Manchester, 1981; Young Contemporaries at with RA in Summer Exhibition, RBA, NEAC and Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, 1983; SWE. Lived for some years at New Eltham, Printmakers’ Council Members Shows, southeast London. Manchester, from 1987; and Young Printmakers, Blenheim Gallery, 1989. From 1992 Shillingford Audrey SHINER 1900–c.1980 Painter, especially of had a series of shows with Le Chat Noir Gallery, portraits, and teacher, born in Grays, Essex. Studied which represented her. Her 1993 exhibition, The at Central School of Arts and Crafts and Slade Little Nipper, on the theme of babies, used cast- School of Fine Art, her teachers including Henry off pieces of wood upon which she painted, Tonks and Tancred Borenius. Also studied on continent. Taught at Winterbourne Collegiate collaged and embellished her ideas. School in the early 1950s. Showed RWA and at Claude Percival SHILTON 1887– Painter and other venues in the west of England. Lived in commercial artist, born in Stoke Golding, Chipping Sodbury, near Bristol. Leicestershire. Attended Leicester School of Art. Showed at RI, PS and elsewhere. Lived in Anne SHINGLETON 1953– Painter, draughtsman, 85


etcher and sculptor, born in Salisbury, Wiltshire. After graduating Bachelor of Science in zoology at the University of Wales, Swansea, in 1976, she turned professional artist, moved to Florence, Italy, in 1980 to study with Nerina Simi for two years, then stayed on in Tuscany between Florence and Siena. Group exhibitions of her two-dimensional works in Italy, the United Kingdom and America included L’Età dell’Acquario in Florence, RP, SWLA, PS and The Grand Central Galleries, New York. Among later solo exhibitions were flower paintings at The Jane Neville Gallery, Aslockton, 2001. She was elected RBS in 1997. Sculpture group shows between 1995–01 included La Biennale di Scultura, Padua; The Garden Gallery, Stockbridge; The Peter Hedley Gallery, Wareham; and C’Arte d’Indentità, Pietrasanta. Among later solo exhibitions of bronzes in England and the Netherlands were The Dorset County Museum, Dorchester, 1999, and De Twee Pauwen Gallery, The Hague, Netherlands, 2000.

Council House. In 1977, he was invited by the publisher John Sansom to contribute pen and ink illustrations to his Bristol Impressions; they later collaborated again in Frank Shipsides’ Bristol, 1984. Other publications with Shipsides’ illustrations were Bristol Profile, Bristol: Maritime City and Quayside Bristol. His son Pat Shipsides also showed marine subjects locally.

Painter for whom economy and aptness of means were important, as in his spare, abstract acrylic on canvas Apolenaris in the 2004 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. He was born in Edinburgh and studied at its University, 1974–8, then St Martin’s School of Art, 1978–9. Other later group shows included Notes from Underground, Dostoyevsky Museum, St Petersburg, Russia, 1999; Absolut Open, Inverleith House, Edinburgh, from 1999; and Director’s Chair, Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh, 2004. Among Shipway’s solo exhibitions were Third Eye Centre, Glasgow, 1984; The Minories, Colchester, 1985; Michael Lawrence SHINN 1934– Painter and teacher, 369 Gallery, Edinburgh, 1991; and Talbot Rice born in London, where he studied at Wimbledon Gallery, Edinburgh, 2002. School of Art, 1951–5, then Slade School of Fine Art, teachers including William Coldstream. Went Yuko SHIRAISHI 1956– Abstract painter, born in on to teach at Gloucestershire College of Art and Tokyo. She studied in Vancouver and at Chelsea Design/Arts and Technology. Showed at RA, RWA School of Art. Was included in a number of mixed of which he was a council member and elsewhere shows, including South Bank Centre’s 1988–9 in west of England. RWA and the Art Gallery and touring exhibition The Presence of Painting. Had Museum in Cheltenham, near where he lived at a solo exhibition at Curwen Gallery in 1984, another at Edward Totah Gallery in 1988. Shiraishi Southam, owned examples. was one of the six finalists for the Jerwood Painting Frank SHIPSIDES 1908–2005 Artist, notable for Prize in 1994. Lived in London. marine paintings and illustrations of Bristol, born in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire. He studied at the George SHIRLAW 1932– Painter and draughtsman, College of Art there, 1923, then with Joseph Else born in London. He travelled widely, spending at Nottingham College of Art, 1925. Shipsides was several years in the Far and Middle East and for a leading member of Bristol Savages, showing some years lived in Australia. Then settled in widely in west of England and had a series of solo Blackheath, southeast London, and had a series of exhibitions at Alexander Gallery in Bristol, where shows in the capital and the provinces, including he lived. His work was popular locally, queues Woodlands Art Gallery, 1977. Also exhibited in forming on private view nights, which often many mixed exhibitions, including RBA and ROI. seemed like rugby scrums. Reproductions of his British Museum and overseas collections hold his paintings were widely displayed in Bristol homes pictures. and offices. Among many commissions, paintings Ralph Oakley SHIRLEY 1918– Artist in wide range by him of seven HMS Bristols hang in the city’s Alan SHIPWAY 1956–

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of media and teacher, born in Doveridge, Derbyshire, who studied at Derbyshire College of Art, 1936–40, including basic education there, then at Royal College of Art, 1941–5, where teachers included Gilbert Spencer and Percy Horton. Went on to teach at North Staffordshire Polytechnic. Showed in London and the provinces. Southampton University holds his work. Lived in Foston, Derbyshire.

Printmaker, designer and teacher, born in Colombo, Ceylon. Studied at Hastings College of Art, where his teachers included Vincent Lines and Henry Martyn Lack, and Brighton College of Art. Went on to hold several teaching posts, including Bath Academy of Art and Croydon College of Art. Sussex University and Brighton College of Art hold his work. Lived for some years in Punnetts Town, Sussex. Jack SHIRREFF 1943–

Raymond SHIRLEY 1930– Self-taught artist, notable

Camilla SHIVARG 1953– Sculptor, born and lived in

for still life, born in Coventry, full name Sidney Raymond Shirley. He was an associate member of Société des Artistes Français, gaining a Silver Medal at Paris Salon in 1981; a member of Coventry and Warwickshire Society of Artists; and showed at RA, ROI, NEAC and elsewhere. Had a series of solo exhibitions at Nuneaton Museum and Art Gallery from 1968 and lived at Bulkington, Warwickshire.

London, married to the dealer Jonathan Ross. She was “a modeller rather than a carver and my favourite mediums are clay and wax. My work is either cast in bronze or bronze resin, or fired at a high temperature”. She trained at Chelsea and Wimbledon Art Schools, graduating in fine art, painting, afterwards studying with the sculptor Karin Jonzen. Of Shivarg’s sculpture, Jonzen said that it “shows neither the modern taste for the Richard SHIRLEY SMITH 1935– Painter, muralist, idiosyncratic self-exhibitionism nor the imitative collagist, printmaker and teacher, born in London. realism of the figure, but a real fusion of the subject While at Harrow School he met David Jones, who and the artist. There are no figures just like hers”. influenced his own work as an engraver and painter. Shivarg’s exhibitions included her husband’s 286 Was at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1956–60, Gallery; Edith Grove Gallery; Henry Wyndham under Anthony Gross, then studied for two years Fine Art; Carlos Lozano Gallery, Cadaques, Spain; in Rome. Merivale Editions published his wood Art for Youth, Mall Galleries; Nine Elms Group; engravings. His notable work as a book illustrator and Chelsea Festival. included titles for the Folio Society and Limited Editions Club and his Selected Engravings were Nahem SHOA 1968– Figurative artist who did a published in 1983 by Cuckoo Hill Press. In 1985 foundation course at London College of Printing, a major retrospective was held by the Ashmolean 1987–8, gaining an honours degree in fine art, Museum in Oxford and RIBA Heinz Gallery. As painting, at Manchester Polytechnic, 1988–91. Was a muralist he handled prestigious commissions for granted The Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation sites such as Kensington Palace and Guardian Award for painting, 1994. Shoa won first prize, Royal Exchange. Taught at St Albans School of Manchester City Art Gallery Under 30s show, Art, later being head of art at Marlborough School. 1989; was highly commended, Holden Gallery, In 1992 a wide-ranging exhibition at Maas Gallery Manchester, Group Show, 1991; won first prize, in which Shirley Smith’s abilities as a creator of RP, 1992; and first prize, NatWest Young Artists Arcadian worlds was highlighted, with others at of the 90s, 1995. Other mixed exhibitions included Chris Beetles Ltd: 1999 and one in 2002 which Lord Leighton Prize, Leighton House, from 1991; launched the book Richard Shirley Smith The RA Summer Exhibition and BP Portrait Award, Paintings & Collages 1957–2000. Whimsical National Portrait Gallery, both from 1992; and The details, visual puns and Surrealism all played a Sacred Body, James Colman Fine Art, 1996. In 1999 Shoa shared an exhibition put on by Colman part. Lived in Blewbury, Oxfordshire. at Montpelier Sandelson. Lived in London. 87


Ernest SHONE-JONES 1899– Sculptor, especially of portraits, son of the artist William Jones. Born in Oldham, Lancashire, he studied at Liverpool City School of Art, 1915–22, under George Marples; Manchester School of Art, 1922–3, Kennington Art School, 1923, under Thomas Tyrrell; at the Royal Academy Schools, 1925–30, with Henry Poole; then finally, in 1931, in the sculptor John Tweed’s studio. Showed at RA, RBS, RBA and at Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. Made fellow of RBS in 1961. Lived in London.

Ramsbottom, Lancashire. He studied at Accrington and Manchester Schools of Art, 1938–43, when he obtained his art teacher’s diploma, teachers including John Holmes. Shore was a prominent member of RCamA, showing elsewhere in north Wales and north of England. Solo shows included RCamA, Conway, 1980, and Oriel Gallery, Bangor, 1984. There was a retrospective at the RCamA in 2002. Bury Art Gallery holds his work. Shore was head of the College of Art in Chester, where he lived, 1960–81.

Yinka SHONIBARE 1962– Artist who was originally a painter, but later concentrated on sculptural installations and photographs. Shonibare was born in London to Nigerian parents. He was raised in Lagos, Nigeria, where he studied at a strict private school built on the British system in which only perfect English was spoken. His family spent summers in England and when he was 16 he attended an English boarding school. After a threeyear struggle with a rare infection that left him temporarily paralysed, he went to Byam Shaw and Goldsmiths’ College of Art. He took part in Byam Shaw School of Art final year show, 1989. Other mixed exhibitions included Black Art New Directions, Stoke-on-Trent City Museum and Art Gallery, also 1989; SPACE Studios Open Exhibition, 1993; The Art of African Textiles: Technology, Tradition and Lurex, Barbican Centre, 1995; Painting, Stephen Friedman Gallery, 1996; Pledge Allegiance to A Flag?, London Printworks Trust, 1996–7; and the Saatchi Gallery-related Sensation, RA, 1997. Had solo shows at Byam Shaw and Bedford Hill Galleries, both 1989, later ones including Stephen Friedman, 1997, and Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 1998, the year Shonibare won a Paul Hamlyn Foundation Prize. In 1999– 00, Shonibare’s Diary of A Victorian Dandy was toured by the Institute of International Visual Arts and in 2003–4 textured paintings based on crosscultural fabrics were shown at Stephen Friedman Gallery. Shonibare was shortlisted for the Turner Prize in 2004. Lived in London.

Rose SHORROCK 1974– Painter and teacher who attended Withington Girls’ School, Manchester, and Marlborough College before an art and design foundation course, Mid-Cheshire College of Further Education, 1992–3. She graduated with honours in fine art (painting), from University of Northumbria, Newcastle, 1993–6, gaining her master’s in art and ideology in Europe 1917–1968 at Winchester School of Art, 1996–7. After between 1995–8 working for several galleries, in the art department of Manchester Grammar School and at the auctioneers Christie’s, she was artist-inresidence at Marlborough College, 1998–9, from 1999 teaching art and history of art there full-time. In her felicitously coloured acrylics, abstracts with allusive titles and landscape-abstracts, Shorrock used “colour and marks to manipulate the pictorial space. My intention is to create an atmosphere evoking a sensation, or several sensations…. The titles are meant to be atmospheric equivalents… it is open to the viewer to make his/her own interpretation.” Shorrock’s many group shows included Summerleaze Gallery, East Knoyle, 1998; Blyth Gallery, Manchester, and Aldeburgh Cinema Gallery, Aldeburgh, both 1999; The Arc, Chester, 2000; Foss Fine Art, 2001; The Fry Gallery, Saffron Walden, 2002; and Bedales Gallery, 2003. DakinPoole, in Marlborough, where she lived, gave her an exhibition in 2002.

Amanda SHORT 1958– Painter and draughtsman in oil, pastel and watercolour born in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, in 1958. In 1979, she gained an Jack SHORE 1922– Artist in various media, honours degree in fine art from Manchester including collage, and teacher, born in University. She exhibited at the RA Summer 88


Art, Dundee. She won the George Duncan of Drumfork Award for Painting there, 1999; in 2000, the Rootstein Hopkins Foundation Project Grant, John Kinross Scholarship from RSA and the Caroline Fitzmaurice Trust Award; and in 2001 the Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Award. In 2001, Short was a part-time teaching fellow at Duncan of Jordanstone. Mixed shows included the RSA, Art Exposure Gallery in Glasgow and Paton Gallery, all 2000; Leith Gallery, Edinburgh, and The Arches, Glasgow, both in 2001; and Three New Artists, Scottish Gallery, Edinburgh, 2002. Short had solo shows in 2001 at Centre Gallery, Loch Gelly; Glasgow Project Room; and Visual Research Centre, Dundee Contemporary Arts.

Exhibition, Hampton Court and in Art on Show, The Gallery in Cork Street, 2001, where her striking night scene of St Paul’s Cathedral and the River Thames, Endurance 2001, was included.

Sculptor and teacher, born in Bideford, Devon. He studied at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1948–53. After some years teaching in junior schools Short taught for a while part-time at Goldsmiths’ and at Hornsey College of Art, living and working both in London and in Pontypridd, Glamorgan. He won a gold medal at Royal National Eisteddfod and showed at John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool; Serpentine Gallery; and SEA and WAC. WAC, CASW and National Museum of Wales in Cardiff hold his work. In 1974 had solo show with WAC at Oriel, Cardiff. Susan SHORT 1955– Artist, designer and lecturer, born in Yeovil, Somerset, who completed an art Joanne SHORT 1967– Versatile artist and lecturer foundation course, Amersham College, 1972–3, notable for pastel-coloured landscapes and flowers obtaining her master’s in fine art, print, at with a strong pattern quality, as in the exhibition Wimbledon School of Art, 1997–00, among Italy, Luce e Colore, organised by the Falmouth notable teachers Peter Matthews and Bruce gallery Beside The Wave at Gallery 27, Cork Street, McLean. She became a visiting lecturer at 2003. This brought together work by Short, her Westminster and Goldsmiths’ Colleges and a husband the artist John Dyer and her father-in-law freelance designer. Short wrote that her work the painter Ted Dyer. Short was born in Oxford included “print, painting and installation. A and, after completing a diploma at Falmouth recurring theme is the link between people and School of Art and Design, 1988, after a four-year their environment, particularly landscapes and course gained a first-class degree in decoration at townscapes. I am influenced by artists such as the Academy of Fine Art, Frosinone, Italy. During Richard Long and Andy Warhol.” She was a the course, Short was chosen to represent the member of Artichoke Print Workshop. Group college in several Italian exhibitions and in an shows included the RBA at Mall and Atrium international demonstration with 15 other young Galleries, both 1993; Sugar Rush, The Tannery, artists. After graduating, she had a solo show in 1996; Access all Areas, postgraduate show at her adoptive Italian town Cassino, where three- Morley Gallery, and Conceal/Reveal, John Moores dimensional pieces remained on permanent University, Liverpool, both 1999; and Laing exhibition. Short lectured at Falmouth College of Seascape and Landscape Exhibition at Mall Arts and Cornwall College, 1994–9. From 1997, Galleries and the RA Summer Exhibition, both she concentrated on painting, exhibitions including 2002. Fiction, London N8, was a solo show in RWA; Newlyn Orion Gallery; and Beside The 1997. Lived in London. Wave, which issued limited-edition prints of her work. The Art Group published two fine art posters Tanya SHORT 1955– Painter, illustrator and printmaker, born in west Yorkshire. After living in 2000. for three years in Melbourne, Australia, she Linda SHORT 1978– Artist and teacher, born in St returned to England and moved to Dorset in the Andrews, Fife, who graduated with first-class early 1970s, married and had two children. In the honours from Duncan of Jordanstone College of mid-1980s Short studied natural history illustration Denys SHORT 1927–

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Schools. He obtained a Goldsmiths’ College teaching certificate. Shortis was one of the artists commissioned by the National Trust’s Foundation for Art to show the effects of the Great Storm of October 1987. His work was included in The Long Perspective, Agnew, 1987; in Stormstruck, Petworth House, 1988; and in the Agnew exhibition The Broad Horizon, 1990, where his meticulous style was shown to good effect in drawings of the Great Storm and the storm of February 1990.

as a mature student, having an interest in botanical drawing. She subsequently developed an interest in watercolour painting, also silkscreen and etching. Short wrote that her “passion for flowers never diminishes as I am always amazed at the wonderful variety of their colour, pattern and texture. I try to capture their character in a lively, vibrant and decorative way using lots of colour and pattern. My paintings are rarely pre-planned but develop naturally”. Many of Short’s pictures were issued as limited-edition prints, posters, greetings cards and calendars by major publishers. Exhibitions included the CCA Galleries throughout England and in Tokyo, Japan; Dorchester Gallery, Dorset; John Davies Gallery, Stow-on-the-Wold; Parkview Paintings, Clifton; Angel Gallery, Tiverton; and Gordon Hepworth Fine Art, Newton St Cyres, at ART2002. With her husband, also an artist, Short latterly settled in the Loire Valley, France, where they created a fine garden.

Dorothy SHORTLAND 1908– Self-taught painter who

was a member of Free Painters and Sculptors and an associate of Société des Artistes Français, showing at Paris Salon, RI, SWA and elsewhere. She had a series of one-man exhibitions, including Mall Galleries, the provinces and in France. Lived in Rothwell, Northamptonshire.

Abstract artist and teacher, born in Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland. Studied at Loughborough College of Art and Newcastle University. Went on to teach painting at Newcastle Polytechnic. Among her awards were a travel award to America and a Northern Arts Award to India in 1986. Her exhibitions included Hatton Gallery, Newcastle, 1976; Four Women Artists at Newcastle Polytechnic Gallery, 1983; Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh, 1988; and DLI Museum & Arts Centre, 1990, the Newcastle Group show The Northern Lights. She lived in Newcastle upon Tyne and its University holds her work. Linda SHORTT 1951–

Artist in watercolour and acrylic and teacher, born in Bolton, Lancashire, where he settled at Heaton. He studied at Bolton College of Art, 1975–6; Preston Polytechnic, 1976– 9; and Leeds Polytechnic school of education, 1979–80. He gained an honours degree in fine art and an art teacher’s certificate. From 1980 he taught art in Altrincham, Cheshire. Shorten, full name Edwin Timothy, showed regularly with Colin Jellicoe Gallery, Manchester, also with ICA in New Contemporaries; Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, in Northern Young Contemporaries; Grundy Art Gallery, Blackpool; and Haworth Jamie SHOVLIN 1978– Artist who was “interested Gallery, Accrington. Had a solo show at Octagon in the tension between truth and fiction, reality and Theatre, Bolton. invention”, noted for painstakingly researched and Arthur Charles SHORTHOUSE 1870–1953 Portrait executed works, who was featured in Art Now, at painter who, after private education in the West Tate Britain, in 2006. For this, he created a new Midlands, studied art at Birmingham College of piece which employed “the conventions of Art and RBSA. From the early 1890s he became museological display and wildlife documentaries. a prolific exhibitor at the RBSA, also showing at Using drawings, collage, text, sound recordings RA and elsewhere. Lived at Moseley, Birmingham. and projections, the installation explores the juxtaposition of his mother’s subjective view of Martin SHORTIS 1959– Artist, notably a the wildlife in her suburban garden with the draughtsman, who studied at Ruskin School of scientific rigour of Charles Darwin”. Shovlin was Drawing and Fine Art, Oxford, and Royal Academy born in Leicester, gained a diploma from Tim SHORTEN 1957–

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Loughborough College of Art and Design, 1997– 8; graduated with honours in fine art painting from Loughborough University School of Art & Design, 1998–01; and was awarded his master’s in fine art painting at the Royal College of Art, 2001– 3. He won an AstraZeneca Purchase Prize in 2000 and a Stanley Smith Scholarship in 2001. Shovlin took part in many mixed exhibitions, later ones including Inside Out – Investigating Drawing, Milton Keynes Gallery, 2003–4; Galleon and Other Stories, Saatchi Gallery, 2004; and After the Fact, Tullie House Museum, Carlisle, and touring, 2005. His solo exhibition Naomi V Jelish in 2004 at Riflemaker was followed by another there in 2005: Fontana Modern Masters. Other one-man shows included For Some Other Cause, at IBID Projects, Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; A History of the Modern World, at Central Space, 2005; Trivium, at Galleria Zero…, in Milan, Italy, and Lustfaust: A Folk History, at Volume Gallery, New York, in America, both 2006; and Aggregate, ArtSway, City Gallery, Leicester, and Talbot Rice Gallery, Edinburgh, 2006–7. Shovlin’s work, which received considerable press coverage, was held by Saatchi and other private collections.

2002, another in 2004. Took part in International Summer Academy, Salzburg, Austria, from 1968, winning watercolour prizes in 1968 and 1970. She gained the Arts Club Prize in 2002 and the Manya Igel Travelling Award, 2003. Sir Brinsley Ford and Mitsubishi owned her work. Lived in Richmondupon-Thames, Surrey.

David SHRIGLEY 1968– Creator of photo-based art

and quirky, humorous draughtsman, born in Macclesfield, Cheshire, who attended Leicester Polytechnic, 1987–8, then in 1988–91 the School of Art in Glasgow, where he settled. Exhibition and publication projects included Head Shrinker, Glasgow Green, Glasgow, 1990; Guard Dog, Wills Tobacco Factory, Glasgow, and the publication Slug Trails, both 1991; In Here, Transmission Gallery, Glasgow, and the publication Merry Eczema, both 1992; Billboard, for Tramway, Glasgow, 1993; New Art in Scotland, Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 1994; and Err, London Book Works, 1995. There were solo shows at Stephen Friedman Gallery, 2001 and 2004, and Camden Arts Centre, 2002. In 2003, Shrigley’s book Who I Am and What I Want appeared, charting the journey of a tiny, evil-looking creature with hollow eyes. At the same time, his photographs were on show at Gloucester Road Tube Station as part of London Underground’s Platform for Art. These events followed a video for the group Blur and preceded the showing of Channel 4’s television documentary on the artist on which he declined to appear, disliking media exposure. “I want my work to be seen, but I want to be anonymous.” He was then living in Glasgow.

Jack SHOTBOLT 1948– Painter and teacher, notably

of birds and fishes, born in Leicestershire. He said: “Scale, image and metaphor are central to my concern.” Shotbolt studied at Loughborough and Hornsey Colleges of Art, 1966–71, and at University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 1972–3. He was a research fellow at Sussex University, 1974–6. Went on to teach at South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education. His mixed shows included WAC and John Moores 1985 Liverpool Exhibition, where he was a Rupert SHRIVE 1965– Figurative painter mainly in prizewinner. In 1984 he shared a show at Chapter oil, sometimes watercolour, born in West Runton, Gallery, Cardiff, and lived locally at Pontcanna. Norfolk. He studied at Norwich School of Art for his foundation course, 1983–4, graduating with Ann SHRAGER 1948– Painter of atmospheric honours in fine art from St Martin’s School of Art, landscapes, born in London, who studied at Byam 1984–7. From 1989 Shrive shared his time in Shaw and Royal Academy Schools. Showed at RA Valencia in Spain, London and Norfolk. He Summer Exhibition, was elected to NEAC in 1975 considered himself “in the British figurative and had a series of solo shows at Michael Parkin tradition, keen to innovate and influenced by Gallery, 1976–96, with one at New Grafton Gallery, School of London painters”. Took part in extensive which had included her in mixed exhibitions, in mixed exhibitions in Spain, with solo shows there; 91


Cambridge, who studied at Bath Academy of Art; graduated in fine art from Manchester Polytechnic, 1983, a sculpture specialist; and gained his master’s from Wimbledon School of Art, concentrating on site-specific work, 1993. He assisted the sculptors Antony Gormley and Anish Kapoor, undertook residencies and worked with the Freeform Arts Trust. Exhibited widely, venues including Grand Hall, Albert Dock, Liverpool; Castlefield Gallery, Manchester; Cupola Gallery, Sheffield; Sun & Doves; and Southwark Open Studios. Shutter completed work for the Bradford Urban, Chiltern and Perth Riverside Sculpture Trails and widely elsewhere in Britain, including London’s Hyde Park Underpass; Main Street, Failsworth, Greater Manchester; and the canal towpath at Longford, commissioned by Groundwork Coventry. Lived in east London.

also in 1993 at Caleta Palace, Gibraltar, and 1995 at Danan Gallery, International House. In 2002, Zwemmer’s Gallery showed Shrive’s intimate portraits and interiors “from his dilapidated studio.”

Christopher SHURROCK 1939– Artist in various media, including construction and early in his career printmaking, and teacher, born in Bristol. He attended the painting school at West of England College of Art there, 1955–9, then Cardiff College of Art/University of Wales, 1960–1. Shurrock was art adviser to University Settlement, Bristol, 1961– 2, then was a member of Cardiff College of Art staff, 1962–91, directing the foundation course in art and design. Shurrock showed extensively in group exhibitions including Axiom Gallery, National Museum of Wales in Cardiff and Whitechapel Art Gallery. He was variously a member of Printmakers’ Council, 56 Group and RWA. Solo exhibitions included Old Hall Gallery, Omra SIAN 1967– Largely self-taught painter and Cowbridge, 1994. National Museum of Wales, draughts an whose work, commonly on a large WAC, National Gallery of Slovakia in Bratislava scale, included Surreal, abstract, Dadaist and and other public collections hold examples. Lived figurative works. Sian showed exceptional talent in Rhiwbina, Cardiff. when he began drawing aged three. He left secondary school at 16, continued to paint partDavid SHUTT 1945– Artist and teacher who did a time, then full-time. After 10 years, in 1997 he held foundation course at Manchester College of Art his first major exhibition, Diverse Innovation, at and Design; graduated with first-class honours in The Gallery in Cork Street and Gallery 27 there. Fine Art, Leeds University, 1968; then did a Lived in Dartford, Kent. postgraduate diploma in painting, Slade School of Fine Art, 1978. From 1968–71 Shutt made Matthew SIBLEY 1958– Painter in oil on canvas, documentary films and lectured part-time at Leeds born and lived in London, a late developer who University; was full-time lecturer in art history, did an art foundation course at Middlesex London College of Printing, 1971–6; resigned to University and his bachelor’s degree in fine art, do more painting and attend Slade, 1976; taught Kingston University, 1982–5. Painted full-time part-time, mainly in London colleges, from 1978, from late 1992 He took part in BP Portrait Award from 1988 part-time at Brunel University Arts at National Portrait Gallery from 1992, also Centre. Mixed shows included LG from 1973; RA showing at Royal Over-Seas League and Towner Summer Exhibition, from 1981; National Portrait Art Gallery in Eastbourne. Solo shows included Gallery Imperial Tobacco Award, 1985; and Barbican Centre, 1994. Beaumaris Arts Festival, awarded first prize, 1988. Later solo exhibitions included Histon Gallery, Fletcher SIBTHORP 1967– Painter and draughtsman Cambridge, 1988. The CASW acquired his work, who graduated with honours from Kingston School chosen by Diana Armfield. Lived for some years of Art in 1989. Sibthorp was mainly a figurative painter, drawing inspiration from sources such as at Arenig, Gwynedd. books, music, travel and particularly dance and Tim SHUTTER 1954– Prolific sculptor, born in sport. He said: “To interpret weight, form, light 92


and then the flow and line of the human form is the challenge. To be able to create the body with as much economy of line as possible, like Gustav Klimt’s drawings, is the ultimate goal.” After his 1982 London exhibition In Motion, in 1985 Sibthorp was approached by Sadler’s Wells to produce a painting for the Flamenco troupe Paco Peña. He had a solo show at the Medici Gallery in 2006.

RWA and NEAC. Solo exhibitions included two at the New Gallery, RWA, 2000 and 2004 and Salisbury Playhouse, with mixed shows elsewhere. Awards included 1st Prize in Laing National Painting Competition in 1988, the RWA’s Artistic Excellence Award, 2003, NEAC in 1988, 2000 and 2004. RWA, Avon Art for Schools and Cardiff Polytechnic hold examples. She lived in Portishead, near Bristol.

Naomi SIDERFIN 1962– Artist and writer on art who

Painter, notably of abstracts, born in London. She attended Bath Academy of Art, Corsham, 1967–9. Received a number of grants, including Southern Arts, Northern Arts and Victoria & Albert Museum purchase grant for Abbot Hall, Kendal. She began to appear in mixed showed from the early 1970s, including Westward Television Open Art Exhibition, Dorchester, RA and Thumb Gallery. Had a solo exhibition at Selwood Gallery, Frome, 1974. Later exhibitions included Half Moon Theatre and Thumb Gallery, 1989, and Austin/Desmond & Phipps, 1992. Alice SIELLE 1950–

attended the University of Newcastle upon Tyne from 1981, in 1985 gaining a first-class honours degree and participating in the graduation show at Hatton Gallery, Newcastle. During her time at Newcastle Siderfin participated in A Time Sculpture performance by Andrew O’Hanlon, at Gulbenkian Studio Theatre, 1981; won a John Christie Scholarship, 1982; and in 1983 designed and built sets at that theatre for a production of Bertold Brecht’s Man is Man. In 1986, Siderfin was included in a three-artist show at Linton Court Gallery, Settle, writing that her aims then were “to amplify aspects of sensual perception and experience by isolating fragments of the organic or manufactured world which present compelling shapes and colours and using them to create visual entities which have ‘reality’ as their inspiration and paint as their matter – traditional painter’s aims.” Siderfin participated in the Royal Academy Schools postgraduate diploma show in 1990 and in Cottage Industry, Beaconsfield, 1995.

Elisa SIGHICELLI 1968– Artist whose work included

photographic prints in partly lit boxes, born in Turin, Italy, who settled in London. She gained a higher diploma in textile design, Polimoda, Florence, 1988–90; did a fine art foundation course, Chelsea College of Art, 1991–2; gained an honours degree in sculpture, Kingston University, 1992–5; and her master’s in fine art, Slade School, 1995– 7. Her awards included Picker Fellow Travel Scholarship, 1995; First Base, ACAVA studio award, 1997; and in 1998 Pareti ad Arte, shortlisted finalist, and Torino Incontra…L’Arte 2, first prize, both Turin. Among Sighicelli’s group exhibitions were Italians II, Pieve di Cento, Bologna, 1996; Art By Design, APT, 1997; and In Vitro, Galerie Zurcher, Paris, 1999. Laure Genillard Gallery gave her a solo show in 1998.

Vera Ethel SIDERY 1916– Artist,

notably in pastel, who studied with the portrait painters Leonard and Margaret Boden. She was a member of PS and Enfield Art Society and lived in Enfield, Middlesex.

Dawn SIDOLI 1933– Painter and screenprinter, born in Gosport, Hampshire. She studied at Northampton School of Art, 1949–52, and gained her bachelor of education degree from Manchester Training College. She was a Vice-President of Clifton Arts Club. Elected to RWA in 1981 and to NEAC in 1990. Regular exhibitor at the RA Summer Exhibition 1977–2005 and annually at

Artist, born in Iceland, who graduated in painting at the Icelandic Academy of Art and Design, 1997–01, gaining a master’s in fine art from Glasgow School of Art, 2001–2. Sigurdardottir’s work was included in BLOC, the inaugural Bowieart exhibition at the

Sigga Bjorg SIGURDARDOTTIR 1977–

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life, musical figures and landscapes whose pictures reflect an enjoyment of life. She studied in Paris and at the Byam Shaw School of Art, in 1955, marrying and moving to the west of Scotland. Her mixed shows included RA Summer Exhibition, RSA and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. After a solo show at NB Gallery, Gartocharn, 1978, she had two successful one-mans at Malcolm Innes Gallery, Edinburgh, 1983 and 1987, with a retrospective there, 1999.

County Hall Gallery in 2005, disquieting drawings and animations “motivated by the stories told to the young artist growing up in the darkness of Iceland.” Later group shows included International Drawing Research Institute Show, Central Academie of Fine Arts, Peking, China, 2003, and in 2004 The Dreams of Dystopia, Klink and Bank, Reykjavik, and The Other People Show, Three Colts Gallery. The artist had a solo exhibition at Gallery Vesturveggur, Skaftfell (Cultural Centre), Seydisfjordur, Iceland, in 2004.

Oil painter and illustrator; commercial designer. Born in London, Sillince studied art at Regent Street Polytechnic and the Central School of Arts and Crafts. After a period in advertising in the 1920s and 1930s, Sillince went freelance, drawing for Punch and other periodicals. He also began to exhibit widely, including RA, RBA, RWS, NEAC, RSA and on the continent. His work is held by the British Museum, Imperial War Museum, Science Museum and provincial collections. Sillince taught at Brighton College of Art, 1949–52, then until 1971 at Hull Regional College of Art. Lived in Hull, Humberside. William SILLINCE 1906–1974

Painter, stained glass artist and writer, son of the painter Louis Silas, was born in London. He studied painting with his father and Walter Sickert and is notable for his landscapes and marine studies. Was a war artist for the Australian government during World War I, one of his books being Crusading at Anzac. Also travelled extensively in Papua, featured in his volume A Primitive Arcadia. Member of UA, Ridley Art Club and London Sketch Club; showed with RA, ROI and RI, and had one-man shows at Fine Art Society and Hereford City Museum and Art Gallery, which holds his work, as does the British Museum. Lived in London. Ellis SILAS 1885–1972

Norman SILLMAN 1921– Sculptor, designer of coins

Henry SILK 1883–1947 Painter in oil and watercolour, noted for interiors and still life, who lived in London’s East End. Silk was gassed during Army service in World War I. Views done then in France and on holiday and Edinburgh were among his non-London works. He was an unmarried basket-maker who worked for a time for an uncle who had a factory. Silk was the brother of the artist Elwin Hawthorne’s mother and lived with the family in Bow. Like Hawthorne he showed at Lefevre Gallery with the East London Group, started by John Cooper through his classes at Bow and Bromley Evening Institute; at Agnew; and he had a solo exhibition of watercolours at Walter Bull & Sanders in 1931. The poet and artist Laurence Binyon was among collectors of Silk’s work.

Painter mainly in oil of house portraits, people in interiors, flowers, still Caroline SILLARS 1933–1988

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and medals and teacher, born in London, whose family farmed in Australia, 1924–34. Studied under James Woodford at Blackheath School of Art from 1935–40, began studying at Royal College of Art in 1941, but Army service interrupted; during this, in 1946, studied at the Accademia in Florence; then completed Royal College studies under Frank Dobson and John Skeaping, 1946–9. As well as freelancing, 1949–56, Sillman taught part-time, then was on the staff of Nottingham College of Art/Trent Polytechnic, 1956–84. Sillman was a fellow of RBS, a member of Midland Group and joined Fédération Internationale de la Médaille. He exhibited at RA, RBA, SEA, LG, Arts Council Sculpture in the Home and elsewhere. He designed an extensive range of coins, mainly for foreign governments, from 1959, but also including Britain’s Empire Games commemorative £2, 1986. There was a similar large range of award/commemorative medals, including a series


for RIBA, Prince of Wales investiture, royal jubilee and wedding subjects. Sillman had strong interests in ancient history and mythology and art history, mainly in the ancient and tribal areas. British Museum and Royal Mint hold examples. Lived latterly in Eye, Suffolk.

visiting lecturer at his old art school in 1965, but retired from all teaching in 1967. After showing locally, Simcock began exhibiting at Piccadilly Gallery in 1956, after which it became his agent; he had more than 50 solo shows, including overseas. Because of ill-health, from 1979 Simcock could not paint for a while, then in 1980 he began to produce small, brightly coloured abstracts, “which caused longstanding admirers much confusion”. These were exhibited by his new agent, John Hunt, in 1997. Simcock also exhibited in many mixed exhibitions, including John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1957, where he was a prize winner. The autobiography, Simcock, Mow Cop – the mountain village where he lived for many years on the Staffordshire/Cheshire border – was published in 1975, along with his first volume of poetry, Midnight Till Three. Tate Gallery, Contemporary Art Society, many provincial public galleries, education authority collections and foreign art galleries hold examples.

Mike SILVA 1970– Figurative painter of hard-edged works, born in Sandviken, Sweden, who attended Hastings College of Art, 1988–9; gained a degree in fine art at Middlesex University, 1989–92; with his master’s at the Royal College of Art, 1992–4. Group shows included BP New Contemporaries, 1993–5; Face to Face, Victoria Miro Gallery, 1996; and Galerie Barbara Thumm, Berlin, 1999. Silva showed solo with Anthony Wilkinson Gallery from 1995. Howard SILVERMAN 1946– Artist and teacher, born

in New York, America. Attended the High School of Art and Music and Art there and San Franciso Art Institute, graduating in 1969. Lived and showed in Britain from 1972. He took part in Cleveland International Drawing Biennale from 1981; Brewhouse Open, Taunton, 1983 onwards, winning first prize in 1985; and John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1987. Solo shows included Bath University, 1982, Brewhouse, Taunton, 1985, Woodlands Art Gallery, 1986, and Artsite, Bath Festival Gallery, 1987. An exhibition at RBS in 2003 featured three-dimensional installations stemming from Silverman’s fascination with the flexibility and resistance of paper. Lectured parttime at Somerset College of Arts and Technology. Provincial Insurance and the London Boroughs of Hammersmith and Fulham and of Hounslow hold his work. Lived in Clifton, Bristol.

Painter, teacher and poet, born in Biddulph, Staffordshire, son of a coal miner. Simcock was for many years noted for bleak, sombre landscapes, which are instantly identifiable. He wrote that he “began to paint in 1945, more seriously in the Army in 1948.” He attended Stokeon-Trent School of Art periodically, 1949–55. “I began painting ‘Simcocks’ in 1954.” Started teaching at a private school, 1953, and was a

Margaret SIMEON 1910–1999 Designer and teacher, daughter of the ceramic designer Harry Simeon, who studied at Royal College of Art, becoming an associate in 1933 and a travelling scholar the year after. She taught at the College, 1936–40, and at Wimbledon School of Art, 1934–84, her special subjects being textile design, printing and art history. Among her books was The History of Lace. Showed for many years with Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, at Victoria & Albert Museum’s Britain Can Make It show of 1946 and five years later in Festival of Britain. Lived for many years at Stoke D’Abernon, Surrey.

Painter and teacher, born in Antwerp, Belgium, of Irish parents. He lived for 10 years in Navan, County Meath, and Drogheda, County Louth, in Ireland. He moved to England at the start of World War II and began adult life as a technical draughtsman and worked in industry in Scotland. For about 10 years he painted at home and attended art classes in the evening, then Glasgow School of Art, 1968–72, and went on to teach at Garrian Academy, Lanarkshire, 1973–5. Won an Arts Council Award.

Nicholas SIMINGTON 1930–

Jack SIMCOCK 1929–

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From 1970s began to show in mixed exhibitions 1992; Green Gallery, Aberfoyle, 1994; and City throughout Britain, including Trumpington Gallery, Gallery, 1995. Had solo exhibitions at Flying Cambridge; Norwich School of Art Gallery; and Colours, Edinburgh, from 1989, and Macaulay The Minories, Colchester. Had a solo show at Art Gallery, Stenton, from 1991. Ainscough Centre, Motherwell, in 1968, with another at Contemporary Art, Castlegate House Gallery in Buxton Mill, Norfolk, in 1977, and one in same Cockermouth and Kingfisher Gallery in Edinburgh, year at Manor Gallery, Royston. Later shows all 1997, were followed by one at The Gallery in included Fermoy Gallery, King’s Lynn, 1988, and Cork Street in 2005, comprising pictures done at Southey Fine Art, Lewes, 1989, Workshop Gallery, home and abroad. Norwich, 1995, Thompson’s Gallery, 1995, Buckenham Galleries, Southwold, 2003, and Gary SIMMONDS 1971– Painter who studied at the Chappel Galleries, Chappel, 2004. Lived in University of Central England, Birmingham, 1990– 3, gaining his fine art master’s at Goldsmiths’ Norfolk. College, 1997–9. Group shows included Cluster Dorothy SIMISTER fl. from late 1970s– Artist in various Bomb at Morrison Judd and Whitechapel Open at media and teacher. She studied at Chester College Whitechapel Gallery, both 1998, and Chainstore, of Further Education, 1972–5, graduated with Trinity Buoy Wharf, 1999. Simmonds’ first solo honours from Camberwell School of Arts and show, at Laure Genillard Gallery, 2000, mixed Crafts, 1975–8, took an art teacher’s certificate at formal abstraction with domestic colour and Brighton Polytechnic, 1978–9, then taught pattern, using semi-transparent acrylic paint to handicrafts for four years for Southwark Social describe the shape of a star. Simmonds also Services. After travels in India and South Asia in exhibited at One in the Other in 2002. Lived in 1984 returned to a series of teaching posts, London. including part-time tutor at Putney School of Art. Simister’s work was allied to a number of causes, Jackie SIMMONDS 1944– Artist, notably in pastel, such as anti-apartheid and strike support and she whose work reflected extensive travels to several drew on her travel experiences. In 1978 gained the continents. Born in Oxford, she studied at Harrow Adrian Trefell Fund Award. Showed at South School of Art. In 1989, won the Willi HoffmanLondon Open Exhibition; New Moon Group Guth Award, at the PS; in 1992 1st Prize, The Shows, including Woodlands Art Gallery, 1987; Chevron Art in Nature Award. Books included and had solo exhibition as part of Lewisham 14 Pastel Workshop, Learn to Paint Gardens in Pastel and Pastels Workbook, with six videos produced Days Festival. by Teaching Art Ltd. Art Marketing Ltd and Connie SIMMERS 1941– Artist in oil and gouache, Modern Art Editions published prints of her work. born and lived in Glasgow, who attended the Many mixed shows included PS, RI, RWA, School of Art there as a non-degree student, 1981– Birmingham Pastel Society, RBA and The Medici 3. She was elected an artist-member of Glasgow Society. Simmonds showed solo at Linda Society of Women Artists, 1983 (she won its Blackstone Gallery, Pinner, from 1991. Scottish Amicable Award, 1994); Glasgow Art Club, 1987; and SSWA, 1989. Later awards William George SIMMONDS 1876–1968 Sculptor in a included Visual Arts Scotland, Morton Fraser variety of materials, painter of pictures and murals, Award, 2002, and Scottish Arts Club Award/RSW, designer, and carver and operator of marionettes. 2005. Held a number of council appointments, Born in Constantinople, Turkey, where his father including Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, was working as an architect, Simmonds was 1983–9. Group exhibitions included RSA; encouraged to draw and make cut-outs from Sotheby’s, Glasgow, from 1984; Barclay Lennie childhood. On leaving school he was trained in his Fine Art, Glasgow, from 1987; William Hardie, father’s office for five years, studying part-time at 96


Windsor School of Art. Then attended Royal College of Art, 1893–9, under Walter Crane, and Royal Academy Schools, 1899–1904. Was an illustrator for a time, then became assistant to the painter Edwin Abbey, at Fairford, carrying out many of the designs for State Capitol at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1905–10. During World War I he worked as a draughtsman engaged in tank and aircraft design. While nursing his father Simmonds began seriously to carve puppets, having earlier made just one, of the comedian Dan Leno as Widow Twankey, and was encouraged to give a performance before village children. Simmonds moved to Gloucestershire in 1919, eventually settling at Far Oakridge. Although he had intended to be a painter, Simmonds now devoted himself to carving marionettes and figures of animals, often on a big scale. Tate Gallery and Gloucester Museum and Art Gallery have good examples of his work. Simmonds became internationally known as an expert on marionettes and their operation. An exhibition celebrating the work of Simmonds and his designer and embroiderer wife Eve was held at Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museum in 1980.

minister Lady Thatcher for the Members’ Lobby at the House of Commons. This was vandalised in 2002, but was repaired and back on display at the Guildhall Art Gallery in 2005. Simmons also created figures of monarchs and saints at the Houses of Parliament for the same client. His many other commissions included twentieth-century martyrs on Westminster Abbey, for the Church of England; Osborne House and Westminster and Durham Law Courts, for the Department of the Environment; Princess Diana Memorial at Althorp, for Earl Spencer; new Privy Gardens statuary at Hampton Court Palace for the Historical Royal Palaces; as well as work at Woburn Abbey and Sizegh Castle.

Neil SIMMONS 1952– Architectural

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman and teacher, born in Trieste. He was the son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat and served in the Empire’s cavalry on the Russian frontier in World War I. Studied in Romania and at Budapest Academy of Fine Art, 1918; in 1919 in Milan; then from 1920 lived in Paris, attending Académie Julian and L’École des Beaux-Arts and being a pupil of Antoine Bourdelle. Between 1923– 36 exhibited in Budapest and Switzerland, then moved to London, where in 1937 he married an English wife. Prior to World War II there were further shows in Budapest and Switzerland and a

Artist in wide variety of media, notable for paper-cut bas reliefs, novelist and historian, addicted to painting and writing from childhood. Studied at Slade School of Fine Art from 15, later Central School of Arts and Crafts from which she dropped out to become a member of AIA. Wrote for Time-Life and Encyclopaedia Britannica; novels including The Chosen, The Golden Hand and The Great Forgery; and history: The Piebald Standard, The Making of Frederick the Great and The Anglo-Saxon Manner. Sculpted and painted full-time from mid-1970s, serious and witty work, showing with SSWA, Glasgow Group and elsewhere. Had a solo show at Galerie Balans, Amsterdam, 1971, and after many others in 1994 at Student Centre, Edinburgh, where she lived and was a frequent International Festival exhibitor. Edith SIMON fl. from 1950s–

Sculptor, born in New Zealand, educated in Bideford, Devon, where she studied at the School of Art, also attending Hammersmith College of Art and Royal Academy Schools. She was an associate of RBS and showed at RA, AIA, Nicholas Treadwell Gallery and abroad. Lived in London. Fay SIMMONS 1938–

and figurative sculptor, based in London. Having achieved skills in sculpture clay modelling, Simmons trained as a carver at St Paul’s and Chichester Cathedrals, completing his apprenticeship with Carlo Nicoli in Italy. He was regularly retained by the National Trust and English Heritage as a consultant and to create publicly significant sculptures at sites of national importance. Simmons also received private commissions for clients in the United Kingdom, continental Europe and America. In 2001, he was asked by the Palace of Westminster to complete a marble statue of the former prime

Jean-Georges SIMON 1894–1968

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career was with Unilever, Whitbread, Saatchi and B Sky B. Group exhibitions included Artists of Ireland tour, solo shows the Guinness Hop Store, Dublin. Simonds-Gooding’s artistic focus was “mainly faces and places in the west of Ireland,” where he lived at Glenbeigh, County Kerry. Private collections held his work.

Chelsea studio exhibition in 1939. In 1940 Simon won the Zichy Mihaly Graphical Prize Hungary. From 1942 lived in Yorkshire for the rest of his life, apart from a period in London, 1956–63. He lectured at Harrogate College of Art under Lincoln Jenkins and at Bradford College of Art. There was a solo exhibition at Redfern Gallery, 1943, and later showings included Mercer Gallery, Harrogate. Wakefield City Art Gallery gave him a memorial show in 1973, other posthumous exhibitions including Bartley Drey Gallery, 1998.

Vera SIMONE 1898– Painter who was by profession

a dress designer, born in Petrograd, Russia, her father being a senior government official. Studied at Petrograd Imperial Institute of Art. Exhibited at Naomi B SIMON fl. c.1895–1965 Painter, miniaturist NEAC, SWA and Paris Salon. Lived in London. and artist in black-and-white, born in Sydney, Australia. She was educated in London, partly at Antony SIMONON 1934– Painter and teacher, born King’s College for Women, then Hammersmith in London, father of the artist and musician Paul School of Arts and Crafts and the Byam Shaw and Simonon. After service in the regular Army, 1952– Vicat Cole School of Art. She belonged to Ridley 5, and various manual and clerical jobs, 1955–66, Art Club and Campden Hill Club, for a time being Antony qualified as a teacher at Thomas Huxley, its honorary secretary. Showed at RA, SWA, Acton, taught in a number of schools in London Cooling Galleries, ROI and elsewhere. Lived in and Ramsgate from 1972, but, while a passenger and asleep, was badly injured in a car accident, London. 1983. This caused brain damage and stopping him Robert SIMON 1926– Sculptor and painter producing teaching. A clinical psychologist advised change, work, often in stainless steel for landscape siting, so Simonon and his young daughters moved north, which explored “the reflection of ambient colour although homesickness droved him south again, and the continuous changes in daylight.” Simon to settle in 1998 in Brighton, Sussex. With his brain studied mechanical engineering at Loughborough “in overdrive” and keen to get back to work, he College, then worked for 25 years with many artists took a certificate in 1990 to teach English to at Curwen Press, being a founder of Curwen Studio speakers of other languages, gained an Open and Gallery. His mixed shows included To Earth University honours degree in 1998 and a Higher and Back, Tea Centre Gallery, 1964; Modern National Certificate in public art in 2001. By that Sculpture, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1969; time, although he had had no formal training, Kiko Gallery, Houston, America, 1972; Marjorie Simonon had considerable experience as a Parr, 1975; and Victoria & Albert Museum, 1977, practising artist. He had shown in group exhibitions the year he had a solo exhibition at The Minories, in London and the provinces; had painted at a Colchester. Among Simon’s commissions were kibbutz in southern Israel, 1966–7; and, while in ones for Essex County Newspapers, 1970; British Sheffield, had been encouraged to create murals Steel Corporation, 1971; Henry Ford International, and paintings for hospitals and other venues. These 1974 and 1980; and Pembroke Tourist Centre, were to include Genesis Arts for All Centre, 1993. In 1998 Simon was joint winner of a Broomhall, 1989, Nether Edge Hospital, 1995, and competition organised by Orange, the mobile the Northern General Hospital, 1997. Among phone company, for a sculptural solution to its further such works were St George’s Hospital, Hornchurch, 1995–00, Southlands Hospital, aerial problem. Shoreham, 1999, and Central Middlesex Hospital, Anthony SIMONDS-GOODING 1937– Self-taught Harlesden, in 2001. His solo exhibitions included artist, born in Dublin, Ireland, whose business three of richly coloured local scenes at George 98


Street Gallery, Brighton, in 2002, 2003 and 2005.

Exhibition, RBA, RE, NEAC and Paris Salon, winning a bronze medal for engraving there, 1960. He last showed in Sally Hunter Fine Art’s Summer Exhibition, 1996. There was a joint show of Simons and Stephen Chaplin at Strang Print Room, University College London, in 2001.

Paul SIMONON 1955– Painter and musician, born in Brixton, south London, son of the artist Antony Simonon. He studied at Byam Shaw School of Art and became known in the 1970s as the “japester, the ball of energy” bassist of the band the Clash, according to the writer Garry Mulholland, which “blended hard rock, reggae and soul-influenced groove.” Tensions and drug problems saw the band split up as it was poised for Rolling Stones-type success. Q magazine voted the shot of Simonon smashing his bass on stage the greatest Rock ’n’ Roll image. In 1990, Simonon formed a group called Havana 3am in Los Angeles with his best friend, Nigel Dixon. When Dixon died from cancer and Simonon’s first child was born, this was “a shocking wake-up call” and he returned to art and London, giving up music completely. Simonon worked on the basics of drawing at the British Museum, in the capital’s streets and evening classes and showed with such fashionable artists as Tracey Emin and Damien Hirst, although he was “not really interested in conceptual art. I’d like to be in the line of British painters, with Leon Kossoff and Constable.” Simonon devoted five years to a colourful series based on the River Thames, shown in 2002 at Hazlitt Gooden & Fox.

Marine and landscape artist, born in Basingtoke, Hampshire. Studied for a time at Bournemouth College of Art. Showed extensively in mixed exhibitions including RSMA and International Society of Marine Artists, both of which he was a member. Also exhibited at Edwin Pollard Gallery in North America and at Linda Blackstone Gallery, Pinner. He did an amount of commissioned work for Poole Harbour Commissioners, Royle Publications, Abbey National Building Society and Bournemouth Polytechnic. Lived in Wimborne, Dorset. Alan SIMPSON 1941–

Born in Wigan, Lancashire, Simpson was employed in industry and education before becoming a full-time artist in 1980. He worked in various media, including collage, welded steel, stone- and wood-carving, painting, printing and box constructions. In the constructions he often used discarded materials, recycling the objects into icon-like images that referred to issues such as colonialism, literary and art history subjects or simply jokes. Simpson took part in many exhibitions around Britain and was included in the group shows Boxes & Totems, 1990, and Art in Boxes, 1991, 1992 and 1993, at England & Co. He lived in Staffordshire. Alex SIMPSON 1937–

James Andrew Wykeham SIMONS 1930–1997 Versatile

artist and teacher who studied at the Whitgift School under F H Potter, joining evening classes at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1945– 7, teachers including William Coldstream, Claude Rogers, Rodney Burn, Elliott Seabrooke and John Dodgson. He was accepted by Randolph Schwabe for the Slade School of Fine Art, 1947–50, attending University of London Institute of Education, 1950–1. After two years’ service with the Royal Artillery, from 1953 taught at Plaistow County Grammar School, studying art history parttime at the Courtauld Institute, passing in 1954. In 1959, Simons moved into further education, joining the department of painting and graphic design at Twickenham College of Technology (later Richmond upon Thames Tertiary College), retiring in 1990. He exhibited at the RA Summer

Painter, especially of flowers, born in Norwood, Middlesex. Part of her education took place in Dresden, Germany, where she studied music. Showed RBA, SWA, in Ireland and on the continent. Member of Sussex Women’s Art Club and lived in the county at Bishopstone. Alice Mary SIMPSON 1867–

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in London. Her work was figurative, often with a humorous element. She studied at South-West Essex School of Art, Walthamstow, 1962–4, then for a teacher’s certificate at Battersea

Audrey SIMPSON 1946–

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College of Education, 1967–70. After a time at Wimbledon School of Art, 1975–8, Simpson studied for master’s degree in fine art at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1979–81. From 1978 she taught widely in London area, including Goldsmiths’. Took part widely in group shows from late 1970s including RA Summer Exhibition; Imperial Tobacco Portrait Award at National Portrait Gallery, where she gained a Special Commendation; André Malraux Theatre, Gagny, France; Joe Klaffki Gallery, Minden, Germany; and Look Gallery, York. Undertook portrait commissions. Her solo exhibitions included Woodlands Art Gallery, 1983, and Stanley Picker Gallery, Kingston University, 2000. Lived for a time at New Malden, Surrey.

Charles SIMPSON 1885–1971 Painter in oil, tempera and watercolour mainly of landscapes, marine pictures, animals, hunting scenes and birds; writer. Born in Camberley, Surrey, a riding accident prevented Simpson from pursuing a military career. Studied art in Paris at the Académie Julian and privately. Married Ruth Alison, a portrait painter. They moved to St Ives, Cornwall, in World War I, where they ran a painting school before moving on to London in 1924, and returning to Cornwall in 1931. Exhibited at RA, RI, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and Paris Salon. His work is owned by the Laing Art Gallery and Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne, and by galleries in Doncaster, Derby, Bournemouth and abroad. In the 1920s rodeo displays at the Wembley Empire Exhibition inspired Simpson’s lively book El Rodeo. He went on to publish a number of other titles, including Leicestershire and its Hunts, The Harboro’ Country, Animal and Bird Painting and an autobiography, The Fields of Home. Simpson won a silver medal at the Paris Salon in 1923 and gold medals at the Panama International Exposition at San Francisco, in 1915, and at the exhibition of sporting paintings held in Paris connected with the Olympic Games in 1924. As a painter of wildfowl Simpson can have few rivals. In 2005, Penlee House Gallery, Penzance, held a major exhibition, Charles Simpson: Painter of Animals & Birds,

Coastline & Moorland, Sansom & Company publishing the accompanying book by John Branfield. Lived at Alverton, Penzance, Cornwall.

Designer and artist educated at Alloa Academy, who graduated with an honours degree in graphic design from Glasgow School of Art, 1970–5. He was a graphic designer at Queen Margaret College, 1975–6, then with Terston Design Studios, 1976–7, both in Edinburgh; designed for the medical publisher Churchill Livingstone, 1977–82; was graphic manager with County NatWest, Edinburgh, 1982– 90; then moved to the Borders and freelanced as a designer and artist. Mixed shows included RSW; Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh; Macaulay Gallery, Stenton; and Ancrum Gallery, Ancrum. Later solo exhibitions included Ainscough Contemporary Art, 1997, and luminous, atmospheric and painterly views of Venice and Scotland at Panter & Hall, 2003 and 2004. Charles SIMPSON 1952–

Colin SIMPSON 1953– Painter, born in Hertfordshire,

who studied at St Albans School of Art, 1971–2, Falmouth School of Art, 1972–5, and Royal College of Art, 1976–9. From 1983–5 he was Harkness Research Fellow at Yale University’s faculty of art in America. Smith was joint first prize winner at the Royal Over-Seas League and his canvas Wardrobe 14, one of a series, was included in 1993–4 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. Had a first solo show at Nicola Jacobs Gallery, 1982, later ones including Anderson O’Day, 1991, and Gallery Three-Zero, in New York, 1993.

Painter, muralist and installations artist, born in Plymouth, Devon, who gained a fine art honours degree at Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, 1982–5. He won a South West Project Art Award in 1988; a South West Arts Marketing Grant in 1989; and a three-month studio placement award with Delfina Studios Trust, Bristol, in 1993. In 1989 he carried out a mural for Television South West, followed in 1995 by murals for Exeter City Council. Group shows included Laing Landscape and Seascape Painting, at Pelter Sands Gallery, Bristol, where he was a prize winner David Ralph SIMPSON 1963–

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in 1990 (he won the South West Regional Prize in 1994); Gordon Hepworth Gallery, Newton St Cyres, from 1991; and High Point Fair, North Carolina, America, 1996. Solo exhibitions included Gallery Gilbert, Dorchester, 1997 (where he was incorrectly listed as David Ralph-Simpson), and Oliver Contemporary, 2005. That show, Under Cloud Nine, included allusive landscapes, painted with an economy of means, for which the artist was noted. He lived in Hartland, Devon.

school to the engraving school under Robert Austin, and was outstanding enough to be given a twoyear appointment as a junior tutor, showed at the RA and was commissioned by patrons including the Duke of Westminster. After teaching at Leicester College of Art from 1931, from 1934 until his retirement in 1967 Herbie, as he was known, became an inspiring tutor at Sunderland College of Art. Deafness prevented him joining the Royal Air Force in World War II, so he became a dispatch rider with Civil Defence. A love of boats D J SIMPSON 1966– Artist, born in Lancaster, who and old Sunderland are apparent in Simpson’s gained a fine art honours degree from Reading work, which is characterised by a sure sense of University, 1986–90, his master’s at Goldsmiths’ pattern and line. Showed locally and had work College, 1996–8. Group shows included Take A bought by Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery, Break, KSS, 1996; Proposition Gallery, Belfast, which gave him an exhibition in 1995. His son was and Underbelly, Cosmopolitan Cinema, Adelaide, the artist Ian Simpson. Australia, both 1998; and Formerly, Jerwood Gallery, 1999, in which Simpson showed carefully Ian SIMPSON 1933– Artist, writer and teacher, born constructed monochrome panelled surfaces on in Loughborough, Leicestershire. He studied at which he had used a router to expose complex Sunderland College of Art, 1950–3, then Royal layers exploding into complex doodles; these were College of Art, 1955–8, in latter year being an hung on the wall or leaned like architectural Abbey Travelling Scholar. Then taught at several fragments, having been embroidered with graffiti. art colleges and was principal of St Martin’s School His solo shows included Site, Düsseldorf, of Art, 1972–88. Was also a course consultant for Germany, and Morrison Judd, both 1999. He shared Open College of the Arts. Simpson wrote for an exhibition, Synthetic Sublimation Party, with several publications, presented a number of David Burrows at Nylon, in 2001. There was television series on art and published many books, another one-man exhibition of abstracts at Modern including The Challenge of Landscape Painting, Art in 2005. Simpson lived in London. 1990, in which some of his own pictures appeared. He was a fellow and one-time president of the Edna Gertrude SIMPSON 1900–c.1955 Painter and National Society for Art Education. Showed at RA qualified art teacher, born in London. She studied Summer Exhibitions and elsewhere and had several at Croydon School of Art under Walter Wallis, solo shows, including Chappel Galleries, 1994. 1915–21, then at Goldsmiths’ College School of Glasgow Museums and Art Galleries and several Art under Harold Speed. Exhibited RA, until 1955 education authorities hold examples. Lived at at Croydon Art Society of which she was a member, Clare, Suffolk, and was a member of The Suffolk and with Royal Horticultural Society, winning a Group. A continuing subject was cityscapes and gold medal. Lived in Coulsdon, Surrey. landscapes seen from a high viewpoint, with skyline high and characteristic interlocking shapes Herbert SIMPSON 1907–1972 Versatile artist – especially printmaker – and teacher, born at Hud and colours. His father was the artist Herbert Hey, Haslingden, Lancashire, who won a Simpson. scholarship to Accrington Grammar School, attended the local Art School and was its first student to gain a scholarship to the Royal Academy of Art. There he transferred from the painting

Sculptor, who transformed everyday domestic things into uncommon creations, imparting them with a new presence. She was born and lived in London, where she Jane SIMPSON 1965–

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graduated from Chelsea School of Art in 1988, then attended the Royal Academy Schools. Mixed shows included Some Went Mad, Some Ran Away, Serpentine Gallery, 1994, and Sensation, Young British Artists from the Saatchi Collection, RA, 1997. Had solo shows at Laurent Delaye Gallery, 1996, and Asprey Jacques, 2000. Tableau was a Simpson exhibition at CAC Malaga, in Spain, 2004–5.

Painter and teacher, born in Dorset. He studied at Bournemouth College of Art, 1958–60, and Royal College of Art, 1960–3. In 1963, Simpson won a travelling scholarship to the Soviet Union. He went on to be associate lecturer in painting at Bath College of Higher Education. Among mixed shows in which he participated were Northern Ireland Arts Council Open, in 1968, when he shared first prize; British Drawing at Hayward Gallery, 1982; and John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, 1989, and in 1991– 2, when he was a prizewinner. His first solo show was at Piccadilly Gallery in 1964, others including Serpentine Gallery, 1986, and Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, 1996. Hymn-song-psalm-prayer: bench paintings was at the Tithe Barn and Old Gasworks, Bradford-on-Avon, in 2005. Simpson’s work was in many public collections, including those of the Arts Councils of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Sussex and Oxford Universities, and Bristol, Carlisle and Ulster Museums and Art Galleries and Leicester and Yorkshire Education Authorities. Lived in Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Michael SIMPSON 1940–

Portrait painter and teacher who moved to Newlyn to study at Stanhope Forbes’ school shortly before marrying the artist Charles Simpson in 1913. During World War I they went to live in St Ives, where they ran a painting school, moved to London for seven years in 1924, returned to Lamorna in 1931 and finally lived at Alverton, Penzance, Cornwall. Exhibited at SWA, IS and elsewhere, but latterly did not paint due to illness. She was represented in Painting in Newlyn 1880–1930 at Barbican Art Gallery, 1985. Ruth SIMPSON 1889–1964

Steve SIMPSON 1946–

Artist and teacher born in

Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, who attended the Art College there. In 1969, he became assistant lecturer in printmaking at Newcastle Polytechnic, and three-and-a-half years later moved to Wakefield District College, becoming head of visual studies. Wakefield Art Gallery holds his colourful and expressive mixed media on Xerox Russian Altarpiece II, of 1991, bought from his show at Waterside Art Gallery.

Representational painter, working on a small scale in meticulous detail in oil on panel or watercolour on paper, producing still life and portraits. She was born in London and studied at Chelsea School of Art, 1967–71, and Royal Academy Schools, 1971–4. She showed at the RA Summer Exhibition, Hunting Art Prizes and elsewhere, with work in British and foreign private collections. Lived in Pulham Market, Norfolk.

Carolyn SIMS 1948–

Painter of hard-edged, tonal abstract works, sculptor, printmaker, teacher and art critic whose pictures incorporated visual ambiguity and humour. Among the practitioners Ron Sims admired were the Cubist painter and sculptor Georges Vantongerloo and architect Frank Gehry, Dutch 1920s De Stijl movement and American 1960s hard-edge artists. Ron Sims began a four-year diploma course at Colchester School of Art in 1961, completing a one-year postgraduate course at Manchester School of Art in 1965, followed by three years’ postgraduate studies at the Royal Academy Schools, 1967–70, where the teacher Roderic Barrett was an influence. Sims was awarded a one-year teaching fellowship at Gloucester College of Art, 1970. He was a parttime adult lecturer at Braintree Community Centre and art mentor for trainee teachers in art, Homerton College, also a Colchester Art Society selector and a committee member for it and Gainsborough’s House Print Workshop. He contributed an art criticism column to the Essex County Standard. Sims’s numerous mixed exhibition appearances included Hayward Gallery, sponsored by the Greater London Council, where he was a prize winner, work acquired for the Council collection, Ronald SIMS 1944–

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1969; Federation of British Artists Younger Generation touring show, with prize, 1970; Young Contemporaries, 1971; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1972; Essex Museum, 1978; Past Royal Academy Students, Maddermarket Theatre, Norwich, 1986; Fellowship Exhibition, Gloucestershire College of Art, Axiom Gallery, Cheltenham, 1997; and Eastern Open Postcards, King’s Lynn, 2000. Later solo shows included Chappel Galleries, Chappel, 2001, and Over-theSofa Gallery, Wivenhoe Bookshop, 2005. He lived in Coggeshall, Essex. Dorothy SIMS-WILLIAMS 1909–2003 Artist in oil and

pastel and teacher, born in Disley, Cheshire. She studied 1926–8 at Stockport School of Art under G H James, then Royal Academy Schools, 1928– 33, teachers including Walter Russell and F E Jackson. Was for a time a member of SWA, also showing at RP and RWA. Her work was mainly portraiture “influenced by Holbein”, and landscapes and still life “influenced by the French Impressionists and Cézanne”. Gained an Hon. Mention at Paris Salon and had a series of exhibitions with one or two other artists. St Matthew’s Church in Stockport and St John’s at Hopwood, Lancashire, hold her work. Lived in East Harting, Petersfield, Hampshire. Andrew SINCLAIR 1935– Historian, novelist, film-

maker, teacher and artist, educated at Eton College; Trinity College, Cambridge, graduate and Doctor of Philosophy; and Harvard and Columbia University, in America. He served as ensign, Coldstream Guards, 1953–5. Sinclair was Harkness Fellow of the Commonwealth Fund, 1959–61; director of historical studies, Churchill College, Cambridge, 1961–3; fellow of the American Council of Learned Societies, 1963–4; lecturer in American history, University College, 1965–7; director/writer, ACCT/fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, 1973; and fellow, Society of American Historians, 1974. Sinclair’s highly publicised novel The Breaking of Bumbo, 1958, was followed by many, ranging from Prohibition, 1962; Concise History of the United States, 1966; Adventures in the Skin Trade, 1968; Dylan Thomas:

poet of his people, 1975; Sir Walter Raleigh and the Age of Discovery, 1984; The Sword and the Grail, and Francis Bacon: his life and violent times, both 1993; Arts and Cultures: the history of the fifty years of the Arts Council of Great Britain, 1995; Dylan the Bard: a life of Dylan Thomas, 1999; and The Secret Scroll, 2001. He won the Somerset Maugham Literary Prize, 1966, and directed the film Under Milk Wood, 1971. Paris before World War I and Surrealism of the 1920s were Sinclair’s particular preoccupations as an artist. He chronicled his life and period he lived through in a series of colourful boxes, shown at the Redfern Gallery in 2002. Lived in London.

Beryl SINCLAIR 1901– Painter, designer, printmaker and administrator, born in Bath, Somerset. Studied at Bath School of Art, then Royal College of Art under William Rothenstein, completing her studies in 1925. In the 1930s and 1940s she was closely involved with the work of AIA, WIAC and Central Institute of Art and Design. Exhibited RA, NEAC, WIAC, AIA, Leicester Galleries and LG. Arts Council and London County Council bought her work. Lived at Amersham, Buckinghamshire.

Artist who studied, 1983– 4, at the School of Art in Cambridge, where she lived, gaining a fine art honours degree at Central St Martins School of Art, 1984–7. In her wideranging work, Sinclair was “intrigued by the natural process of reduction and regeneration; by the effects of natural forces, such as water, on wood, stone and metals…. There is often great beauty in naturally eroded materials”. Her many group shows included Johnson’s Wax Kiln Gallery, Farnham, 1990; Postmorality, Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 1991; Cambridge Society of Painters and Sculptors, from 1992; Broughton House Gallery, Cambridge, 1997; and Wilson Stephens Fine Art, 2000. Wilson Stephens gave Sinclair a shared exhibition at Archeus, 2002, and she had another, with Jan Pawlowicz at The John Russell Gallery, Ipswich, in 2006. Later solo exhibitions included Broughton House, 1996; and Lynn Strover Gallery, Fen Ditton, 1998. She carried out many commissions. The Portuguese Embassy; Sir Clive Sinclair; Nancy Carol SINCLAIR 1945–

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Balfour; and Dr Wendy Baron owned her work.

Chris SINCLAIR 1931– Painter and etcher who studied at Wimbledon School of Art and for his diploma at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1953–5. With his artist wife, he was a founder-member of the Suffolk Group and showed regularly in the county. They held annual exhibitions in their riverside studio in Walberswick, where they lived for many years. Sinclair participated in The Walberswick Enigma, Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, 1994; Walberswick Post-War to Present, Chappel Galleries, Chappel, 1998; and Walberswick Portrayed, in the village hall, 1999. St Catherine’s College, Cambridge, holds his work.

her interest in classical music. She sponsored many London concerts. Sinclair also published poems, including the volume The Walnut Tree and other poems, 1988. Showed between 1959–63 (as Ruth Sinclair) at Leicester Galleries and WIAC. Also exhibited at Century Galleries, Henley-on-Thames, 1982: Osborne Gallery, 1986; and Edith Grove Gallery from 1992, having a solo show there in 1996. Lived in London.

Sculptor, born in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire, who studied at Dyfed School of Art, 1972–3, then Wimbledon School of Art, gaining an honours degree in fine art, sculpture, 1973–6. In 1988 she set up Sculpture Culture, designing and making limited-edition pieces and David SINCLAIR 1937– Painter, printmaker and one-off sculptures on commission. She was teacher, born in Glasgow. He studied at the School commissioned to make a series of classical torsos of Art there, winning a Major Travelling and wall reliefs for the Grand Theatre, in Swansea. Scholarship and studying in London and on the Exhibitions included 1990 Chelsea Flower Show, continent. He then taught in schools and colleges, The Heifer Gallery in 1993 and Flying Colours spending some years in special education, notably Gallery, from 1997. Sinclair’s work was exported with blind children. In 1992 he took early to the continent and America. retirement and moved to Paxton, Berwickshire, with his wife, also an artist, to create an art studio Ross SINCLAIR 1966– Artist, born and lived in and workshop. Sinclair showed at RSA, SSA, Glasgow, who obtained an honours degree in Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and environmental media at Glasgow School of Art, elsewhere in Scotland. In 1992 he shared an 1984–2, then gained his master’s there, 1990–2, exhibition at Duncan Campbell Fine Art. He also in 1992 studying at California Institute of the Arts, showed with Bourne Fine Art, Edinburgh. Work in America. Sinclair won a Paul Hamlyn Award, of the Italian artist Morandi was latterly an 1998–00; Arendt Oetker Atelier Stipendium, influence. Sinclair was elected RSW and was Galerie für Zeitgenossische Kunst, Leipzig, chosen for an Edinburgh International Festival Germany, 1999; and Baloise Prize, Art Statements, Basel, Switzerland, 2001. Sinclair’s work was Exhibition by the Randolph Gallery, 2003. extensively covered in the art press and several Gillian Ruth SINCLAIR fl. from 1950s– Sculptor, monographs. He participated in numerous painter and draughtsman whose style evolved from international group exhibitions and had many solo studying painters of the Italian Renaissance, Van shows, later ones including, in 2002: The Agency Gogh, Picasso and Modigliani and in sculpture Contemporary; a room installation at Kunstalle especially Lynn Chadwick and Hubert Dalwood. Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Galerie Yvon Sinclair’s paintings included people during Lambert, Paris, France; Galleria Raffaella Cortese, moments of repose and reflection, isolated in their Milan, Italy; Wewerka Pavillion, Münster, thoughts. The sculptures, in bronze and resin Germany; and Nuova Icona, Venice, Italy. bronze, were figurative and abstract, and she had over a dozen portrait heads commissioned. As well Ruth SINCLAIR: see Gillian Ruth SINCLAIR as groups of figures and bird studies, Sinclair produced non-representational works reflecting Wendy SINCLAIR 1932– Painter and etcher who Helen SINCLAIR 1954–

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studied at Wimbledon School of Art and the Slade School of Fine Art and whose early career was as a sculptor. She was a founder-member of the Suffolk Group like her artist husband Chris Sinclair, holding annual shows in a riverside studio at Walberswick, where they lived for many years. She was represented in Walberswick Post-War to Present, Chappel Galleries, Chappel, 1998, and Walberswick Portrayed, in the village hall, 1999.

Bernard Ralph SINDALL 1925–1998 Figurative and portrait sculptor and teacher, son of the illustrator Alfred Sindall. Studied at Brighton College of Art, 1946–50, in the latter year winning Prix de Rome. During the next two years in Italy he was much impressed by the work of Manzù and Rosso. On his return to England Sindall taught at City and Guilds Art School, 1953–6, and at Canterbury and Maidstone Schools of Art, 1956–65. Sindall first showed at Palazzo Venezia, Rome, in 1951, later exhibiting solo at Bedford House Gallery in 1972, Birmingham University, 1974, and Rye Art Gallery, 1988; interspersed were solo exhibitions in Switzerland, America and Norway. His group shows included RA and NEAC. Jonathan Clark Ltd in 1999 held a memorial retrospective of Sindall’s work, which is in the collections of Royal Mint and Birmingham University. Lived in Wittersham, Kent.

Tony SINDEN 1946– Versatile artist, born in Brighton, Sussex, who in 1985 was a foundermember of Housewatch, a collective using film, video, performance and installation. Sinden began independently to produce experimental films and expanded media events in 1966. In the 1970s and 1980s his installation and time-based work was seen at such galleries as the ICA, Hayward, Serpentine and Arnolfini in Bristol, National Film Theatre and Edinburgh International Festival, as well as events held on the continent and in America. Arts Council, British Film Institute, British Council, Scottish Arts Council, America’s National Endowment to the Arts and the Contemporary Music Forum of Kyoto were among funding bodies. Later works included Approaching the Dissolve, Durham Cathedral, 1995. Sinden was

artist-in-residence at Durham Cathedral, 2001–2. In 2003, he had a solo exhibition at University of Sunderland and another entitled Everything Must Go, inspired by department store closing down sales and by Marcel Duchamp, at Bonington Gallery, Nottingham.

With her inseparable identical twin Rabindra, or Bindy, Amrit produced intricately detailed paintings modernising the classical Indian miniature tradition. An example was the portrayal of Diana, Princess of Wales, as a Hindu goddess with six arms. The twins were born in London and at Liverpool University College of Chester completed a combined studies honours degree in religion, ecclesiastical history and twentieth-century Western art in 1987, followed by postgraduate research in Sikh religious art at Manchester University. Visits to India enhanced their output. They won many awards, especially from the city of Chester, MAFA of which they were members and RI at Mall Galleries. They carried out many commissions, privately and for publishers such as Cassell, Hodder and Stoughton, Collins Educational, Sussex University Press and Heinemann Educational. Solo shows included enTwined, touring from Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery in 1999; Leeds City Art Gallery, 2001; UCR Sweeny Art Gallery, Riverside Art Museum, California, in America, 2003; McMaster Gallery of Fine Art, Hamilton, Toronto, Canada, 2004; and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, near to where they lived, in 2005. At that time they had works on loan to the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, and were the only British artists after Henry Moore to have been offered a solo show at the National Gallery of Modern Art, Delhi, India. They lectured on their work internationally. The Singh twins were artists-in-residence for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Interviewed by The Independent, the twins said that they dressed identically, “not because we are freakish or faddish. In terms of our art it is a political statement. It is part of our image as artists. When we were at college, the be-all and end-all of modern art was to express individualism…. On Amrit Kumari Dhigpal Kaur SINGH 1965–

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the Asian front, this idea of individuality is quite master’s in painting, Manchester Metropolitan an alien concept. We focus on family. There is no University, 1991–2. Awards included a Coopers & such thing as ‘I’ or ‘me’.” Lybrand Deloitte European Award, 1991; Artist’s Residency, Gijon, Spain, 1995; and Individual Rabindra Kumari Dhigpal Kaur SINGH: see Amrit Development Award, North West Arts Board, 1998. Kumari Dhigpal Kaur SINGH Group shows included Unveiled: Possibilities in Abstract Painting, Cornerhouse, Manchester, 1994; SINGH TWINS: see Amrit Kumari Dhigpal Kaur SINGH Delicate Dissidence, Woodlands Art Gallery, 1998; Beginnings, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, Sushila SINGH: see SUSHILA 2000; and Beyond the Endgame: Abstract Painting Kevin SINNOTT 1947– Painter and teacher, born in in Manchester, Manchester Art Gallery, 2003. Wales. He was a natural painter, notable for his Among Sitar’s later solo exhibitions were Mind often complex figurative compositions and Breaths, Turnpike Gallery, Leigh, 2000, and Eagle watercolours of great delicacy. Sinnott studied at Gallery, 2004. Manchester House, North West Arts Cardiff College of Art, 1967–8, Gloucester College Board; British Midland Airways, Manchester of Art, 1968–71, and Royal College of Art, 1971– Airport; and DLA Law Firm (Dibb Lupton Alsop) 4. He went on to teach at Ruskin School in Oxford, owned examples. Sitar’s studio was in Salford, Canterbury College and St Martin’s School of Art. Lancashire. He made notable appearances at John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, in 1978, 1980 and 1991–2, Pauline SITWELL 1916– Artist and designer in a in the second winning a prize. His first solo show variety of media, poet and teacher, born in Malta, was at House Gallery, 1980, after which he married to the artist Peter Stebbing. Her early exhibited regularly in Oxford, London and education included training as a dancer and America. In 1990 he had simultaneous exhibitions choreographer. Studied at St John’s Wood School at Bernard Jacobson and Anne Berthoud, in 2001 of Art, 1930, and Royal Academy Schools, 1933– and 2003 shows at Martin Tinney Gallery, Cardiff, 7. Sitwell was a member of SWE, also showing at with one at The Museum of Modern Art, Wales, SGA and RSMA, Paris Salon and elsewhere. A in Machynlleth, in 2005. In 2004, Sinnott shared series of solo exhibitions included one sponsored an exhibition at The Riverfront, Newport, with by Westminster City Council in 1973. Her poetry Peter Prendergast. Lived in East Barnet, included Train Journey to Deal and Other Poems, 1981. Lived in London for many years. Hertfordshire. Francis SISLEY 1921– Painter and sculptor, born in

London, who studied art at Woolwich Polytechnic. He showed at Redfern Gallery, AIA and with Free Painters and Sculptors, of which he was a member. Had a series of solo exhibitions at Loggia Gallery from 1974, later ones including Victoria Hotel, Bognor Regis, Sussex, the town where he lived. Sisley’s ink and watercolour portrait drawing of the artist Alan Reynolds is held by the Tate Gallery archive.

Rebecca SITAR 1969– Painter who graduated with honours in fine art, Winchester School of Art, 1988–91, with an Erasmus European Exchange, University of Barcelona, Spain, 1990; gaining her

Robert SIVELL 1888–1958 Painter and teacher, born

in Paisley, Renfrewshire. Sivell left school at 14 and worked as a Clydeside shipyard apprentice engineer. After two years in North America he attended evening classes at Glasgow School of Art. World War I saw him serving as a ship’s engineer, but afterwards Sivell determined to work as an artist full-time, after studying in Paris and Florence. From 1940–55 he was head of drawing and painting at Gray’s School of Art in Aberdeen, then returned to Kirkcudbright, where he had painted before World War II. Sivell showed at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and RSA, to which he was elected in 1943. He was noted for his sensitive portraits, of which Elspeth, held by

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Aberdeen Art Gallery, is a good example. Scottish and at the Victoria & Albert Museum, which holds Arts Council held a memorial show in 1960. his work.

Sculptor in wood, stone, terracotta and bronze, draughtsman and teacher, born at South Woodford, Essex. Skeaping – son of Kenneth Mathieson Skeaping, the painter – studied at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, the Central School of Arts and Crafts 1917– 19 and the Royal Academy Schools, 1919–20. In 1924 Skeaping married Barbara Hepworth the sculptor, marriage dissolved 1933, and won the Rome Prize. His first one-man show was held, with Barbara Hepworth, at Alex Reid and Lefevre, Glasgow, in 1928. Was a member of the 7 & 5 Society 1932, LG 1928–34 and became an official war artist during World War II. After the war he lived in Mexico for a time, also in France and exhibited widely abroad. First exhibited at the RA in 1922 and was elected RA in 1960. Taught sculpture at the Royal College of Art from 1948 and was professor of sculpture 1953–9. Among his books were Animal Drawing and How to Draw Horses. Skeaping’s autobiography, Drawn from Life, was published in 1977. His work is notable for its depiction of animals, in its simplicity of line and elemental quality resembling the prehistoric cave drawings found in France and Spain. Skeaping lived in France and at Chagford, Devon. John Rattenbury SKEAPING 1901–1980

Walter M SKEENS 1886–1969 Artist and teacher, born in Portsmouth, Hampshire. For many years he taught in Bristol, latterly at Cotham Grammar School. Showed views of old Bristol at Bristol Savages and at RWA.

John SKELTON 1923–1999 Sculptor in a wide range

of materials, letter-cutter, watercolourist, draughtsman and teacher, born in Glasgow. After Norwich Cathedral Choir School and Bablake School in Coventry Skelton was one of his uncle Eric Gill’s last apprentices, 1940. In World War II he served in the Army in the Far East. Studied at Coventry School of Art and Architecture under Victor Candey and Walter Ashworth, also studying widely on the continent and in Asia. Skelton set up his own workshop and studio in 1950. He showed at RA, Alwin Gallery, Chichester Museum, elsewhere in England and abroad. His work is in many cathedrals, including St Paul’s, Chichester, Hereford, Lincoln and Portsmouth. Bodleian Library in Oxford, Chichester Museum and Herbert Art Gallery in Coventry hold examples. A major retrospective for Skelton’s seventieth birthday was held at Streat, Hassocks, Sussex, where he was based, in 1993. A Cut Above the Rest, sculpture and letter-cutting by members of the Skelton Workshop, including John, his wife Myrtle and daughter Helen Mary, was held at Worthing Museum and Art Gallery in 2005.

Artist in various media and teacher. She studied at Camberwell School of Art and on English National Opera Theatre Design Course. In 1987 she was a finalist for the Athena Art Award and was joint winner of the City of Birmingham Fine Art Award. From 1990 was a senior lecturer at Central St Martins School of Art, three years after being artist-in-residence at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. In 1992 was a member of a team of artists which produced an eight-week experimental workshop for Bauhaus School, Weimar. Skelton showed widely in Britain, France and Germany. Group shows included Somatic States at Quicksilver Place Gallery, Middlesex University, 1992. Solo exhibitions included Groundplans at Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, and Benjamin Rhodes Gallery.

Pam SKELTON 1949–

Designer, born at Fenton, Staffordshire. Skellern studied art at Hanley School of Art, Burslem School of Art and the Royal College of Art. He became chief designer and art director for the pottery firm Josiah Wedgwood & Sons, retiring in 1965. Details concerning Skellern and his development of wares and designs at Etruria and Barlaston are detailed in Maureen Batkin’s book Wedgwood Ceramics 1846–1959, notably his work on freelance design in the 1930s. He exhibited RA, widely overseas Mary SKEMPTON 1914–1993 Wood engraver, Victor SKELLERN 1908–1966

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painter, bookbinder and teacher, brought up in Scarborough, attending its School of Art, then Royal College of Art. Exhibited RA, RBA, AIA and in the provinces. Lived in Watford, Hertfordshire, later in London.

Painter and draughtsman whose work highlighted the extraordinary in everyday life. She did a foundation diploma course at Loughborough College of Art and Design, 1993–4; graduated with honours, Slade School of Fine Art, 1994–8, teachers including Roderick Tye; then a postgraduate diploma in painting at the Royal Academy Schools, 1998–01. Skertchly won a prize in the William Coldstream Painting Competition at the Slade in 1998; at the Schools, the Eric Kennington, Band & Dooley & Vincent Harris Prize, 2000, in the Premiums Show; also there, the British Institution Fund Prize for Drawing, 2001; in the same year gaining a prize in the First Royal West of England Academy Open Painting Exhibition. In 1998, Skertchly was commissioned to travel to Hong Kong for its Tourist Association and in 2001 she had drawings exhibited at the Venice Biennale as part of Mark Wallinger’s installation. Group exhibitions included Proud Galleries, 1998; Albemarle Gallery and RA Summer Exhibition, both 2000; and The Figure Show, Jill George Gallery, and Affordable Art Fair, with Katrina Valentine Fine Art, Bishop’s Stortford, both 2002. Rebecca

SKERTCHLY

1975–

Maria SKIBIŃSKA : DOWLING

see Mańka

Mark SKILTON 1954– Sculptor and teacher, born in

London. He attended St Martin’s School of Art, 1974–7. Gained a Greater London Arts Association Award in 1979. After teaching at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, 1979–80, from 1982 Skilton taught at St Martin’s. His group exhibitions included New Contemporaries at RA and St Martin’s on the South Bank, both 1977; Cannizaro Park, 1979; and in 1983 Have You Seen Sculpture from the Body?, at Woodlands Art Gallery.

Alistair SKINNER 1947–2002 Artist and teacher, born in Prestwich, Lancashire, studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1965–8, and Royal College of Art, 1968–72. He gained an exchange scholarship to Falmouth School of Art, 1967, and a scholarship to Cité des Arts, Paris, 1971. In 1982 he was included in Artists in Adult Education at Woodlands Art Gallery. Other shows included Polytechnic of the South Bank, 1967; Young Contemporaries at RA, 1970; then a joint project with Horst Reichert and Margaret Maier for redevelopment of Tiergarten Quarter, West Berlin, 1974. At the Royal College, Skinner absorbed aspects of Pop Art and Abstract Expressionism into his colourful work. After initial success in West Germany at the Galerie Stangl, Munich, Skinner decided to jump off the treadmill, took up freelance work as an illustrator and taught in adult education. In the early 1990s, having left teaching and returned to painting, and after a stay in Saskatchewan, Canada, Skinner returned to teaching, latterly at the University of East London and at Camberwell, and co-operated with Katharine Meynell on expanded-media and installation work. Cyril L SKINNER fl. from c.1930–1970 Artist, notably

a printmaker, and teacher who studied at Bristol Municipal School of Art, gaining a British Institute engraving scholarship in 1928. In the mid-1930s he left

Bristol for Luton School of Art; became headmaster in 1946 and died just before retirement during a visit to Bristol. He had joined the Bristol Savages in 1930 and retained his membership 35 years. Was from 1931 an associate of RWA, exhibited in Chicago and was a key figure in annual art exhibition in Luton. Showed only once at RA. Bristol City Art Gallery holds his work, his Restoration of Bristol Cathedral being reproduced in City Impressions: Bristol Etchers 1910–1935, by Sheena Stoddard. Freda SKINNER 1911–1993 Sculptor in a wide range

of materials, letter-cutter and teacher, born in Limpsfield, Surrey. She studied at Royal College of Art from the age of 17 with Henry Moore and Alan Durst. In the early 1940s began to teach at Kingston School of Art, and after war service, during which she was involved in relief map work, she became head of the sculpture department at Wimbledon School of Art, 1945–71, setting high

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standards. In 1961 she published a standard book on wood-carving. She was a fellow of RBS and a member of SPS’ council. Skinner’s work was representational and she completed numerous commissions. These included The Risen Christ in Glory, 1960, for St Paul’s Church, Southwark, the foundation stone for the Barbican Centre in 1972 and in the same year the Virgin and Child for the Lady Chapel of St Elphege’s Church, Wallington. A retrospective was held at Bruton Street Gallery starting just before Skinner died. Lived latterly at West Amesbury, Wiltshire. Ivy G M SKINNER: see JACQUIER

John SKINNER 1953– Painter and draughtsman of figurative, near-abstract works, born Chatham, Kent. His group exhibitions included Stowells Trophy at RA and LG at Camden Arts Centre, both 1976; Cyprus Summer School, Paphos, 1977; and North-Eastern Artists’ Co-op at Newcastle Polytechnic, 1978. Had solo shows at New Gallery, Haringey Park, 1980, and Woodlands Art Gallery, 1982. Mark SKINNER 1957– Painter and teacher who said

that “the starting point for much of my work is physical and ideological conflict.” He was born and lived in Liverpool, studied at the Polytechnic there, 1976–7, then at Birmingham Polytechnic, 1977–80. He taught at Edgehill College and Wrexham College of Art. His shows included Sainsbury Centre, Norwich, 1981; Bluecoat Gallery, 1983 and 1988; Merkmal Gallery, Liverpool, 1991; John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1991–2; and Bluecoat Artists, Williamson Art Gallery & Museum, Birkenhead, 1992.

Painter whose work contained a strong pattern-making element. She gained an honours degree in history and politics at Exeter University, 1981–4; a fine & decorative arts diploma with distinction from Victoria & Albert Museum, 1984–5; did a foundation course at City & Guilds of London Art School, 1988–9; then obtained a first-class fine art degree there, Sabrina SKINNER 1962–

1989–92. Won the NatWest Villiers David Travel Award, 1992, and in 1996 the Daisaku Ikeda Award, Tokyo, and the first prize in the Oleum Art Competition, Accademia Italiana. Exhibitions included Art For Youth, Mall Galleries, 1992; Paperworks at Seagate Gallery, Dundee, 1993; PS, Mall Galleries, 1995; and NatWest Art Prize, 1995 and 1996, being a finalist in both years. Had a solo show at 172 Walton Street in 1995 and was included in a four-woman exhibition at Cadogan Contemporary, 1997.

Birgit SKIÖLD 1923–82 Printmaker and teacher, born in Stockholm, Sweden, where she studied at the Konstfackskolan, settling in England in 1948. Studied at the Anglo-French Art Centre; in Paris at L’Académie de la Grande Chaumière; and at Regent Street Polytechnic. In 1957 she started the Print Workshop, providing facilities for artists. Skiöld was a visiting lecturer in printmaking at Bradford, Hammersmith and Wolverhampton Colleges of Art, and a visiting teacher of lithography at University of Wisconsin, 1964. Was a member of the Senefelder Group and its secretary, 1958–60; was a founder-member of the Printmakers’ Council; and a member of Grafiska Sallskapet, Sweden, and of AIA. Took part in international mixed shows and had several solo exhibitions, including Curwen Gallery, 1968, and Oxford Gallery, Oxford, 1971. In 1970 her Chimes, relief etchings with seven poems by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, won the award of the Aigle d’Or (Prix de la Bibliophilie), published by Circle Press Publications. There were memorial shows at Galerie Aronowitsch, Stockholm, 1982, Cartwright Art Gallery, Bradford, 1984, a tribute at Fermyn Woods Contemporary Art, Brigstock, 1999, another exhibition at The Morley Gallery, 2002, and Paintings and prints, New Hall, Cambridge, 2003. Arts Council holds her work. Raymond SKIPP 1921–2001 Portrait painter, born in

Chingford, Essex, into a comfortably off family. Began reading English at Christ’s College, Cambridge, then was called up in 1941 during World War II, serving as a sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, initially in the

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anti-submarine trawler Arab, then as a lieutenant in Ceylon, Malta and Sicily, where he painted landscape watercolours. Back in England, Skipp caught polio and, while recovering and studying art techniques, was inspired by Philip de Laszlo’s portrait style and dynamic symmetry in Greek vases. After studying under William Coldstream at the Slade School of Fine Art, he learned his favoured egg tempera and oil emulsion technique from Pietro Annigoni, to whom Skipp was introduced by his lifelong friend Beatrice (“B”) Henderson, whose house in Hampshire he eventually inherited. From 1950 to the 1990s Skipp, a painstaking worker, completed over 150 portraits, many of notable sitters, including ViceAdmiral Lachlan Mackintosh; Frances Sweeny (later Duchess of Rutland), shown at the RP and reproduced on the cover of Tatler; and the merchant banker Dudley Scholey, which led to some of his family, views of Venice, more of notable bankers and members of the Woolworth family. Skipp worked regularly abroad, in 1963–4 in Monaco, painting Prince Rainier and Princess Grace. King Hussein of Jordan commissioned his portrait from Skipp for the Royal Air Force Club. The portrait of the jockey Lester Piggott, shown at the RA Summer Exhibition in 1982 and reproduced as a limited-edition print, was one of the few pictures shown by Skipp, who disliked personal publicity. He died in Southampton. Skipp had been a keen sailor, plying his yacht Cayenne between the Solent and the Mediterranean.

demobilised. In 1948, as George Skolli, his Zoocuts, a Story Book from which Animals come to Life, was published and patented, having success on television. In London Skolimowski worked as an architect and commercial designer, clients including Science Museum, where he designed the iron and steel gallery, and Farnborough and Paris Air Shows, doing work for British Overseas Airways Corporation. Also had a period in South Africa, designing for De Beers and AngloAmerican. He designed tapestries for his wife Stanislawa and with her produced a technique for unusual three-dimensional fibre sculptures. Was included in the exhibition of Polish Paper Sculpture, of which he was an acknowledged master, at Polish Cultural Institute, 1995. George SKOLLI: see Jerzy SKOLIMOWSKI

Kim SKOVGAARD 1927– Artist

in watercolour, oil and acrylic, architect and teacher, born in Manchester. He followed in the family tradition of at least five generations of artists, some of his pictures being included in the Skovgaard Museum, Viborg, Denmark. Skovgaard studied architecture at Manchester University, 1943–8, eventually obtaining his doctorate. From 1955 he had his own practice as an architect, working in parallel as an artist, lecturing from 1962–90 at Manchester Regional College of Art and Liverpool College of Building and Liverpool Polytechnic. He was a member of the Society of Architect Artists. Showed at RCamA, Manchester City Art Gallery, Colin Jellicoe Gallery in Manchester, Royal Danish Jerzy SKOLIMOWSKI 1907–1985 Sculptor, designer, architect and graphic artist, one of the Polish paper Embassy, RIBA and in Paris, Luxembourg and sculptors who made an impact in Britain after Frankfurt. Solo shows included Skovgaard World War II. While studying at Warsaw Institute Museum, Warrington Art Gallery and elsewhere. of Technology, from which he graduated in 1935, Skovgaard painted in Denmark, Wales, Italy, Skolimowski freelanced as a graphic artist and Mexico, France, Spain, Cyprus and elsewhere designer so successfully that he exhibited posters overseas. Lived at Moore, Warrington, Cheshire. internationally, gained a Diplôme d’Honneur at Ian SKOYLES 1964– Artist born in Great Yarmouth, the Paris Exhibition and eventually had posters on Norfolk, who attended the College of Art and permanent display at Warsaw’s Museum of Posters. Design there, 1983–5, then Birmingham Saw active service in the Polish Army and Special Polytechnic, 1985–8, graduating with honours in Operations Executive in the war, for which he was fine art, obtaining his master’s at University of decorated, in 1945 being evacuated to England and Central England, 1996–8. Exhibitions included 110


Midlands Art Show at Dudley Museum and Art Gallery and Coventry Open at Herbert Art Gallery, both 1992; Sevenfold Warehouse Exhibition, Birmingham, 1993; Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, 1994; and Gallery 101 in Ottawa, Canada, and Pacesetters at Peterborough Museum and Art Gallery, both 1995. Among later shows were: Take Five, Axiom Gallery, Cheltenham, 1998; Transfiguration, Roadmender Gallery, Northampton, 2000; Be Simple, Via Tempini, Brescia, Italy, 2001 and Mappin Open 2002, Sheffield. On that occasion, Skoyles explained that what he made was “produced through assembling a single piece of work from a number of readymade commercial puzzles, purchased at car boot sales, second-hand shops, etc.” He was “concerned with ideas on the interaction between places, systems and boundaries or meeting points and the way in which these are constructed.” The solo exhibition, Convergence, was held at Catto Contemporary, 2003, and Unchecked, at University of Hertfordshire Galleries, in 2004. Skoyles lived in Birmingham.

tunnel with a confection of coloured lights and recorded dialogue.

Painter, illustrator and teacher who studied at Glasgow School of Art, Iain SLACK fl. from mid-1980s–

1982–6. Among his various positions over the next few years were a period as an illustrator and graphic artist for Strathclyde Regional Council in 1988, following engagements in America working as a general counsellor with mentally handicapped and as an art specialist at Camp Lindenmere, Pennsylvania. From 1989 he began work as a full-time artist, but found time to teach art in Lowmoss Prison. Among Slack’s awards were the Greenshields, James Torrance and Arthur Andersen. He showed at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, RSA, SSA in mixed shows. After solo shows at Langside Galleries, Glasgow and Greenock Arts Guild in 1990, had one at Compass Gallery, Glasgow, 1992. McLean Museum and Art Gallery, Greenock, holds his work, which included fantastic and Surrealist elements. Richard SLADDEN 1933– Sculptor and teacher, born

in Clevedon, Somerset. His mother was a painter, Hilda Scott. Educated in Taunton, he attended the Royal West of England Academy school of architecture in Bristol, but was principally selftaught as a sculptor. Came into prominence in the 1960s with one-man shows at the New Vision Centre Gallery, Alwin Gallery and at Arnolfini Gallery, in Bristol, as well as showing with groups such as LG. From New Vision Gallery in 1965 Arts Council bought his stone sculpture Gangile. Went on to teach sculpture at Croydon College of Art.

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Morpeth, Northumberland. She studied with the watercolourist H Dawson Barkas at Reading School of Art, Berkshire, and in London. Lived and taught in the Reading area, notably at the Blue Coat School. She exhibited with Reading Guild of Christine SLADE 1943– Artist in pastel, born in Artists, of which she was a leading member, and Hertfordshire, who after training as a visualizer in the local art gallery. worked for a London advertising agency. She moved to Colchester, Essex, in 1981 and became Stephen SKRYNKA 1962– Sculptor and installations a full-time pastel painter, her family sailing artist, born in London, using various materials, background and weekend cottage at Maldon having who left Manchester University in 1983, and fostered an interest in yachts, sailing barges and Glasgow University in 1991. He created a number east coast scenery. Slade was a member of the East of unusual works in Glasgow. With Peter Anglian Group of Marine Artists and Guild of McCaughey, in 1990 he completed Borrowed Norwich Painters and showed regularly with Haste Light, pavement installations cleverly exploiting Gallery, Ipswich, after a first solo show there in city centre basement skylights. His 1995 elongated, 1990. onion-shaped Calvay Milestone, in copper-covered concrete, was made for the Calvay Housing Co- Lionel John Charles SLADE 1924– Painter, designer, operative and stands in the Barlanark Road. For draughtsman and teacher, born in London. Studied several weeks in 2000 Skrynka’s Tunnel at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1939– entertained walkers and cyclists using the Clyde Eleanor May SKRIMSHIRE 1886–1978

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40 and 1948, where his teachers included Victor Library, Llewellyn Alexander Gallery and New Pasmore and John Minton; St Martin’s School of Designers Exhibition at Business Design Centre. Art, 1941; and Brighton College of Art, 1948–50. Lived in Sale, Cheshire. Taught for a time in Sussex and was a member of the Association of Sussex Artists. Showed at UA, Humphrey SLATER 1906–1958 Writer, painter and RI, RBA and elsewhere. Lived in Hatch End, military strategist who spent the early years of his life in South Africa, where his father remained, Middlesex. Humphrey, his mother and brother returning to Roy SLADE 1933– Painter, notably in acrylic, England. Attended Tonbridge School, then Slade administrator and teacher, born in Cardiff, where School of Fine Art, 1923–6, leaving mysteriously he attended the College of Art, 1949–54. Was at halfway through a term. Slater was taken up by University of Wales, 1953–4. Slade held a number Lucy Wertheim, who showed him in her first of teaching posts in Britain, then in 1967–8 became exhibition in 1930 and afterwards, figurative and professor of painting at Corcoran School of Art, abstract works. He appears in her memoir in Washington, when his career took an American Adventure in Art, with his work illustrated. Slater direction; became an American citizen in 1975. joined the Communist Party and is believed to have Wrote for Studio International and other art visited the Soviet Union, but he became magazines. Took part in many group exhibitions disillusioned during the Spanish Civil War, in in Britain and America and one-man shows which he served with the International Brigade, included Howard Roberts Gallery, Cardiff, 1958, from 1938 as chief of operations, XV Brigade Staff. several at Jefferson Place Gallery in Washington, (During the war Slater took to using Hugh, his and elsewhere. Arts Council, Contemporary Art third name, instead of Humphrey, as he felt Hugh Society and Westinghouse Corporation hold his sounded more proletarian.) Slater’s experiences work. Lived latterly at Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. led to his being chosen in 1940 to help form the Home Guard in World War II and to select officers Noël SLANEY 1915– Artist mainly in oil, full name for training. After the war Slater’s continuing Margery Noël Slaney, born and lived in Glasgow, interest in art had an offshoot in his editorship of married to the artist George Frederick Moules. She the short-lived magazine Polemic. Its contributors studied at Glasgow School of Art under Hugh were distinguished, including George Orwell and Adam Crawford, gaining her diploma in 1937 and Bertrand Russell, reflecting Slater’s wide range of post-diploma in 1939, both with distinction. Was intellectual friends. Slater latterly developed a at various times a member of RSW, Royal Glasgow career as a writer, factual books and adventure Institute of the Fine Arts, SSA and SSWA, also novels. In 1949 Conspirator was filmed, starring showing at RA. Lillie Art Gallery in Milngavie Elizabeth and Robert Taylor. The film, which drew and galleries in Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee on Slater’s life with the first of his four wives, hold her work. In 1992 she had a solo show of Elisabeth Robertson, whom he had met at the Slade, drawings, paintings, pastels and Batiks at The made its author money, which he enjoyed spending College Club, University of Glasgow. at venues such as L’Étoile, although circumstances eventually made him an undischarged bankrupt. Alison Jane SLATER 1967– Artist and designer, working in gouache on paper, whose main themes Slater was a multi-faceted eccentric and man of were English landscapes and streets in Spain. She secrets; a brilliant talker who invented an ingenious was born in Manchester and studied textiles at the racing game, fondly remembered by friends such Polytechnic there under Alan Holmes, graduating as A J Ayer and John Davenport, but never with honours. Slater was a member of the Chartered commercially marketed; capable of irrational Society of Designers and showed regularly at Colin behaviour, such as firing a revolver through the Jellicoe Gallery in Manchester, also at Altrincham ceiling of a private house; who had in him a vein 112


of self-destruction. He died in La Linea, Spain, where he had gone to write his autobiography. William Coldstream though him “a very gifted and rare artist”.

Merz Contemporary Art, 1988–90; Oxford Art Society Centenary Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, 1992; Eastern Open, King’s Lynn Arts Centre, 1995; and Norwich Print Fair, Norwich, 1998. Among her later solo shows were John Richard SLATER 1927– Painter, draughtsman, Russell Gallery, Ipswich, from 1996, and RONA printmaker, collagist, illustrator and teacher, born Gallery, 2004. Leicestershire Collection for in London, who attended Hornsey School of Art, Schools and Colleges, Bedfordshire County 1944–51, part-time 1951–4. After nine years Council, Queen Elizabeth II Law Courts, teaching art in Dagenham and London Schools, Birmingham, and other public and corporate and printmaking at the Working Men’s College, collections hold examples. he was appointed to the College of St Mark and St John, 1960, transferring with it from Chelsea to Rosemary SLATTERY 1927– Artist, notably a Plymouth in 1973, retiring as head of department printmaker, born in Peru. She studied at Croydon in 1980 to paint full-time. During the 1960s, Slater School of Art and with the wood engraver Gertrude did book illustrations for Cambridge University Hermes at Central School of Arts and Crafts. Press; made several lithographic editions at Showed at Victoria & Albert Museum which holds Curwen Press for Consolidated Fine Arts, New her work, RBA, Crafts Centre and elsewhere and York; and completed mural and ceramic mural lived in London. commissions. A romantic, dreamlike quality pervaded much of Slater’s work, which often James Sinton SLEATOR 1885 (some sources say 1889)– involved figures in landscape. He participated in 1950 Versatile painter and teacher, born in County numerous mixed shows, including RA; RI, to Armagh, Northern Ireland. He studied at Belfast which he was elected, 1999; RSMA; Alresford School of Art, in 1910 gained a scholarship to Gallery in Alresford; Cowfold Gallery at Cowfold; attend Dublin’s Metropolitan School of Art where Savage, St George’s and John Whibley Galleries, William Orpen was among his teachers, went to and elsewhere. Awards included first prize in the the Slade School of Fine Art and then worked in Drake 400 competition, sponsored by Plymouth Paris. From 1915 taught at Dublin’s Metropolitan City Council, 1980; first prize in the watercolour School, went to Florence in Italy and then in the competition sponsored by Becton Dickinson, late 1920s to London, where he became a noted Plymouth, 1982; first prize, South West Open portrait painter. The painters Orpen, John Lavery Figurative Art Competition, sponsored by Western and Jack B Yeats were among his subjects. Among Morning News, 1991; and RI Medal for most his pupils was Winston Churchill. In 1941 Sleator outstanding painting by a non-member, Mall settled in Dublin, soon becoming president of the Galleries, 1992. Showed solo with John Whibley, RHA, continuing until he died. Also showed at 1974, later exhibitions including Sterts Arts Centre, RA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and Cornwall, 1992. In 2001, he shared a show with RP. In 1951 Victor Waddington Galleries, Dublin, Roland Collins at Duncan Campbell Fine Art. held a memorial show. Ulster Museum holds his Prince Albert Museum in Exeter, Nuffield portrait of the novelist Forrest Reid and Dublin’s Foundation and several local authorities hold National Gallery of Ireland a self-portrait. examples. Lived in Landrake, Saltash, Cornwall. Colin SLEE 1946– Artist and designer who in the and designer, born early 1960s studied at Newton Abbot College of in Coventry, Warwickshire, where she attended the Art, specialising in printmaking. He then worked Technical College, 1979–81, and Polytechnic, in design studios in Devon; in the 1970s was 1982–6. She produced greetings card, brochure employed by advertising agencies in Bristol as a and other designs. Her many mixed shows included graphic designer, typographer and studio manager; Nicola SLATTERY 1963– Artist

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in the 1980s established and ran his own design and artwork studio; and in 1996 moved to Suffolk to be a full-time artist, settling at Woodbridge. Landscape was a strong feature of his work. Slee was a member of Ipswich Art Society. Other group shows included On the Border, Minories, Colchester, 1997; Halesworth Gallery, from 1998; Taplin Gallery, Woodbridge, 1999; The Discerning Eye, Mall Galleries, 2000; PS, Mall Galleries, 2001; and The Linda Blackstone Gallery, Pinner, 2002. Among his solo exhibitions were The Haste Gallery, Ipswich, and Tudor House Gallery, Aldeburgh, both 1999.

Bernard SLEIGH 1872–1954 Wood engraver, painter,stained glass artist, cartographer, muralist and teacher, born in Birmingham. He studied at Birmingham School of Arts and Crafts and then taught there, specialising in wood engraving and book illustration. He was a notable visionary engraver, working for many Birmingham School artists and producing a manual, Wood Engraving. One of his major tasks was to cut 100 illustrations by A J Gaskin for the two-volume Hans Christian Andersen edition of 1893. He also worked for The Quest magazine and for Essex House Press. Fairies and elves were a feature of his work, as in his 1920 Faerie Calendar. Showed RA, RBSA of which he Richard SLEE 1946– Ceramic sculptor and teacher was made a member in 1928 as well as extensively whose work drew on an extensive knowledge of abroad. Birmingham City Museum and Art Gallery ceramics through the centuries, the work of the holds his work. Lived in Edgbaston. American artist Kenneth Price being an influence. Slee studied at Central School of Art & Design and Sylvia SLEIGH 1916– Painter in oil on canvas and Royal College of Art and in 1998, when he was teacher, born in Llandudno, Caernarvonshire, who featured in Atlantic Crossings at Barbican Centre, studied at Brighton School of Art and later settled was a professor at the London Institute and director in New York. She became a member of the of the ceramics degree course at Camberwell Women’s Caucus for Art and was on the selection College of Arts. In 2003, he was included in committee for Women Choose Women, New York Painting Not Painting at Tate St Ives, when he Cultural Center, 1973. Her teaching posts included presented a unique installation of eighty multiples. Kreeger Wolf Distinguished Professor, Slee was noted for his fantastic sculptural ceramics Northwesten University, 1977. In 1982 she gained using colourful glazes in hues associated with a National Endowment Arts Visual Artists’ decorative porcelain of the eighteenth and Fellowship Grant, in 1985 a Pollock-Krasner nineteenth centuries. His animals and vessels were Foundation Grant. Group shows included described as “an ironic reconstruction of ceramic American Landscapes, Bryony Gallery, 1965, and practice.” The Victoria & Albert Museum and Portraits from the American Art World, The New foreign collections held the work of Slee, who also York School of Social Research Center, 1966, both in New York. Had a first solo show at Trafford showed with Barrett Marsden Gallery. Gallery, 1962, later ones including G W Einstein, Keith SLEEMAN 1921–1987 Painter and teacher, born New York, from 1980, and Zaks Gallery, Chicago, in Bristol. Studied at Willesden and Hornsey 1985. Sleigh’s singular portrait of members of the Schools of Art, at Hornsey gaining his teacher’s Situation Group was included in The Sixties Art diploma. Sleeman taught at South Hampstead Scene in London, Barbican Art Gallery, 1993. High, a girls’ school, for nine years to 1981, leaving Depicted among the sitters was theoretician and to concentrate on his own work. He was critic Lawrence Alloway, Sleigh’s husband. remembered for “his original approach to life at the school” and the “congenial atmosphere” he Lizzie SLEIGHT 1946– Versatile artist and teacher created. Set up Sleeman Studio where he taught who attended Medway College of Art, 1963–5, for in Hampstead. Showed in mixed exhibitions in intermediate and foundation studies; graduated in London, including Nicholas Treadwell Gallery, art/printmaking from Falmouth School of Art, 1965–8; and gained her teaching certificate, and had a solo show at Foyles Gallery, 1961. 114


London University Institute of Education, 1968– 9. Sleight had wide experience as an art teacher at school and adult level, latterly at Islington Adult Education/City & Islington College. She illustrated Paul Buck’s Pimot, 1968, also working for magazines and on packaging for several studios. Exhibited at Whitechapel Gallery, 1977; Lauderdale House, 1978; and latterly in the annual Contemporary British Art shows at The Millinery Works. Among Sleight’s painting series preoccupations were the cliffs of the Isle of Thanet, gardens, sheds and gasometers. Lived in north London. Souheil SLEIMAN 1952– Sculptor using a variety of

materials, such as plaster and knitted fabric, born in the Lebanon. He attended Salford Technical College, 1971–2, North East London Polytechnic, 1972–3, and the Royal College of Art, 1975–7. Between 1978–81 Sleiman worked in play leadership in the London Borough of Waltham Forest, in 1979 gaining a Tower Hamlets Arts Association Bursary for artists living and working within the borough. Group and mixed exhibitions included Tower Hamlets Art Show, Bethnal Green Library, and Bursary Exhibition, Tower Hamlets Central Library, both 1980, and Wapping Artists Open Studios Exhibition, 1982. Kevin SLINGSBY 1950– Artist in various media, born

Arts Association hold examples. Lived in Dorchester on Thames, Wallingford, Oxfordshire.

Abstract sculptor, born in Essex, who worked in steel and cast iron. He studied at Norwich School of Art, 1973–6, under Katherine Gili and David Nash, then worked as assistant to John Foster, 1976–80. In 1985 began working at Foster’s studio complex, Hardingham, Norfolk, living in Norwich. Exhibited in Hardingham Workshop Exhibition at Sainsbury Centre, Norwich, 1986; Painting and Sculpture, Audun Gallery, 1987; East, at Norwich Gallery, 1991, and in that year was invited to participate in Thupelo International Artists’ Workshop, Broederstroom, South Africa, contributing to a show at Fuba Building, Johannesburg. Several notable private collections in Britain and America hold examples. Andrew SLOAN 1954–

Sculptor, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where he studied at the College of Art, then at Central School of Art, London. He took part in numerous group shows, including the Women of Ulster Arts Council touring show, 1975– 6; Waterman’s Art Centre, Brent, 1986; Fenderesky Gallery at Queen’s, Belfast, 1990; and Solomon Gallery, Dublin, 1993. Had a solo show with Tom Caldwell and Arts Council Galleries, Belfast, both 1982, then a touring exhibition in 1991 including Garter Lane Arts Centre, Waterford. Participated in many conferences, seminars and workshops, being on the organising committee of the International Sculpture Conference, Dublin, 1988. Awards included RUA Silver Medal in 1983, its Gold Medal in 1988, elected academician of RUA in 1990 and a member of its council, 1992. From 1988–91 Sloan was director, Sculptors’ Society of Ireland. Ulster Museum in Belfast, Northern Ireland Arts Council, Arts Council of Ireland and Belfast Newsletter hold examples. His mixedmedia self-portrait is in the National Self-Portrait Collection of Ireland, University of Limerick. Lived in Portadown, Armagh.

Bob SLOAN 1940–

in Guiseley, Yorkshire, who attended Bradford School of Art, 1965–8. He gained Southern Arts Awards in 1986 and 1990 and an Arts Council Award in 1990. Slingsby was a member of LG, also exhibiting in groups at staff exhibition, Ruskin School of Drawing, Oxford, 1982; Oxford Printmakers at Reading City Art Gallery and Five Artists at Oxford Polytechnic, both 1985; Oxford Artweek Billboard Project, 1989; and in East at Norwich Gallery, 1991. Had a solo show at Bradford University Gallery, 1983, later ones including Morley Gallery, 1993. Slingsby said that his paintings “contain a visual vocabulary of symbolic objects. These objects act out visual dramas commenting on social and political conditions.” Bradford City Art Gallery, Bradford Christine Scott Paterson SLOAN 1887–1975 Painter University, several Oxford colleges and Yorkshire and teacher who was born and died in Glasgow, 115


attending its Art School, 1907–15. During World War I she was a member of the Voluntary Aid Detachment, serving in France. She taught in Glasgow at Laurel Bank School and in 1927 joined the Glasgow Society of Lady Artists. Chrissie Sloan also exhibited with the RSW, RSA and the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts.

Versatile artist, designer and lecturer, born in Motherwell, Lanarkshire, who studied interior design at Glasgow School of Art, 1967–72, winning the Sam Mavor Bequest, 1971. In subsequent years Sloan designed sets for the BBC, was a community artist and, from 1977, taught art and design at Central College of Commerce, eventually based in Hamilton. Over many years he exhibited at the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and carried out public sculpture commissions in Scotland, his 1995 Apotheosis, in Kilmarnock, gaining a Civic Trust Award. There was a notable series in steel in Glasgow, including, in the 1990s: the stylised Prometheus: The Gift of Science to Liberty, at the University of Strathclyde; the St Rollux Monument, at Cobden Road, Sighthill; and his History of Scottish Theatre series at Hospital Street, Gorbals. Jack SLOAN 1950–

Sculptor, poet and teacher, born in Warrenpoint, County Down, Northern Ireland, who “as a self-taught artist am indebted to the sculptors Brian Burgess, Clifford Cundy and James Osborne, who were my mentors.” Sloan’s career began in the professional theatre. His teaching included wood engraving at the Camden Arts Centre, 1983–4, and Exploring Sculpture, Ateliers Fourwinds, Provence, 2004. Music and movement were strong themes in Sloan’s sculpture, in which he “endeavoured to push out the boundaries…, exploring different techniques of working with the figurative image.” Highlights of his career included Award for “Best Sculptor” at Kilkenny Arts Week, 1990; ONE Air Corps Memorial, Baldonnel, unveiled by Mary Robinson, the Irish president, 1992; Commission for Allied Irish Banks Export Awards, 1991–3; Peter Dix Prize for Poetry, St Columba’s College, Dublin, Joseph SLOAN 1940–

and Mair Lewis Fenn Memorial Prize, County Cork, both 1994; Invited artist, An t’Oireactas, Dublin, 1995; Gold Medal, 5th Salon d’Arts Plastiques, Cavaillon, Prix Prévot, 6th Salon d’Arts Plastiques, Cavaillon, and Silver Medal, 16th Salon d’Arts Plastiques, Chateau-Arnoux, all 1996; Invited artist, An t’Oireactas, Belfast, and Commission for Groupe Chabaud, Noves, both 1997; Prix du Public, 9th Salon d’Arts Plastiques, Cavaillon, 1998; Invited artist, RHA, and Invité d’Honneur, 16th Salon d’Automne, Sorgues, both 2001; Commission for EuroPAWS MIDAS TV Drama Awards, 2001–4; Silver Medal, 25th Salon d’Arts Plastiques, Chateau-Arnoux, 2002; Invited artist, XIV Biennale Internazionale Dantesca, Ravenna, Italy, 2003; and When Nora took the Train, Bloomsday centenary exhibition, Kenny’s Art Gallery, Galway, 2004. Group exhibitions included Royal Festival Hall, Colin Jellicoe Gallery in Manchester, Solomon Art Gallery in Dublin, RE and Camden Arts Centre. Kilcock Art Gallery, Kildare, gave Sloan a Millennium Exhibition, with extensively illustrated catalogue, in 2000. Hugh Lane Municpal Gallery of Modern Art and the National Concert Hall, both in Dublin; Bolton Museum and Art Gallery; and other international public and corporate collections hold examples. Sloan lived in Chateaurenard, France. Victor SLOAN 1945– Artist combining photography,

printmaking and painting, born in Dungannon, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. He studied at Belfast and Leeds Colleges of Art, 1964–9. Took part in many mixed shows, including Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 1986; Douglas Hyde Gallery, Dublin, 1987; Ulster Art in the Eighties, Gallagher Gallery, Dublin, 1988; Open Eye Gallery, Liverpool, 1991; Bradford Print Exhibition, Cartwright Hall, 1993, and widely abroad. Later solo shows included International Baltic Arts Centre, Ustka, Poland, 1994, and Borne Sulinowo, Orchard Gallery, Londonderry, 1995. Arts Council of Northern Ireland and Ulster Museum in Belfast hold examples. Lived in Portadown, County Armagh. Painter, illustrator and printmaker, born in Leicester, who

Mary Annie SLOANE fl. from c.1890–1961

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after initial studies there attended Herkomer’s RA and in the provinces. Smithsonian Institution School in Bushey and then Royal College of Art. in Washington, America, holds her work. She was made an associate of RE, a member of SWA and of the Leicester Society of Artists and Phyllis Maud SMALE 1897– Painter and teacher, born settled in Enderby, Leicestershire. Also showed in Darlington, Yorkshire. She studied at School of with Ridley Art Club, RA, RI and at Alpine Club Art there and Regent Street Polytechnic School of Gallery. Victoria & Albert Museum holds her work. Art. Showed extensively at ROI, also at RA, SWA, NEAC and elsewhere. Lived in Esher, Surrey. Stephen SLOCOMBE 1972– Artist, born in Bristol, who gained an economics degree at Manchester Sophie SMALLHORN 1971– Artist producing painted University, in the mid-1990s studied at Central St wall reliefs, brightly decorated with bands of Martins College of Art & Design after Clifton colour, and installations, who gained a degree in School of Art. Group exhibitions included King furniture (wood, metal, plastics and ceramics) at Sturge Art Exhibition, at London Institute of Higher University of Brighton, 1991–4. Mixed shows Education, and Royal Over-Seas League Open, included National Theatre, part of Ron King’s both 1996. Slocombe examined popular myths, Circle Press retrospective, 1996–7; Installation for stereotypes, pre- and misconceptions that hovered Comme des Garçons, Aoyama Headquarters, Tokyo, Japan, 1998–9; and Painting Zero Degree, around what was popularly known as Art. curated by Independent Curators International, Alison SLOGA 1961– Painter, born in Toronto, New York, for tour of major American venues, Canada, where she attended Ontario College of 2000–1. Smallhorn’s installation at Concept House, Art, 1980–4; doing a postgraduate painting course Pierre d’Avoine Architects, was a competition at Royal College of Art, 1996; and gaining a winner, 1999. Later solo exhibitions included postgraduate fine art diploma from City & Guilds Francis Graham-Dixon Gallery at Hiscox Art Café, School of Art, 1996–8, with commendation. From 1999, and Pentagram, 2000. Smallhorn carried out her move to London, in 1989, Sloga was fascinated commissions in Europe and America, public ones by its architecture and monuments, which imparted including Arts for Health Projects, at Chelsea and a grandeur to her work. Her pictures of Edwin Westminster Hospital, 1994–5 and 1998, and Lutyens’ Battersea Power Station before alteration Sculpture at Goodwood, Goodwood, 1999. Lived were historically important. She won awards in London. including, in 1998, the New Grafton Travel Scholarship for Painting and The City & Guilds Anthony SMART 1949– Sculptor and teacher, born Prize for Gilding & Decorated Surfaces. The New in Yorkshire. He attended Hull College of Art, Grafton Gallery gave her solo shows from 1999. 1967–70, and St Martin’s School of Art, 1970–3. Mixed exhibitions included the RWS, 1990; The He worked at Stockwell Depot, 1973–6, then Blue Gallery, 1997; and Royal College of Art Greenwich Studios, 1976–8. Smart taught at St Norton Rose Show, 1998. London Contemporary Martin’s and Wimbledon Schools of Art. Art and Royal Caribbean International granted Participated in many group exhibitions, including commissions. The Royal Institute of International Platform ’72, in 1972, at Museum of Modern Art, Affairs and Department for Employment and Oxford; Six Sculptors, at Chelsea Gallery, 1974; Education hold her work. Lived in Haslemere, The Condition of Sculpture, Hayward Gallery, 1975; Contemporary British Sculpture, Battersea Surrey. Park, 1977; Cannizaro Park from 1978; and Have Vikki SLOWE 1947– Printmaker, born and lived in You Seen Sculpture from the Body?, at Woodlands London, who studied at London College of Fashion Art Gallery, 1983. Arts Council holds his work. and Camden Arts Centre. She was a member of Lived for some years in Beverley, Yorkshire. RE and Printmakers’ Council, also exhibiting at 117


Watercolourist and printmaker who studied with Frank Short. Exhibited RA, RI, RE, Cooling Galleries, Fine Art Society and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, hold his work. Lived in London, then Lee-on-the-Solent, Hampshire.

Douglas I SMART 1879–1970

Jeffrey SMART 1921– Painter and draughtsman, born

in Adelaide, South Australia, where he studied at the School of Arts early in World War II. After the war, in Paris he attended L’Académie de la Grande Chaumière and Académie Montmartre, with Fernand Léger in 1948–9. As well as Whitechapel Art Gallery and Tate Gallery Smart had a series of solo exhibitions at Redfern Gallery from 1967. Major Australian galleries including Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide hold examples. Lived for a time in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy.

Painter and draughtsman, born in Kingsbridge, Devon. Studied at Plymouth School of Art, 1897–1900, at the Royal College of Art, 1900–01, then privately with Julius Olsson at St Ives, Cornwall, where Smart died. He was art critic for the Western Morning News for 10 years from 1903 and while in the Army in World War I drew on the Western Front. After the war settled in St Ives and began exhibiting regularly at the RA, RBA, ROI, Fine Art Society and elsewhere. One-man shows included Penwith Gallery, St Ives, 1949 and 1981, and City Art Gallery, Plymouth, 1950 and 1975. Borlase Smart was closely associated with the St Ives Society of Artists, and the Penwith Society of Arts was founded as a tribute to him in 1949. Although a traditional painter himself, Smart encouraged Peter Lanyon to start painting and some of the more radical artists to exhibit in St Ives. Designed railway posters and wrote The Technique of Seascape Painting. R Borlase SMART

1881–1947

Artist, designer, craftsman and teacher, brought up in Maidstone, Kent, where his father had a shop involved in the watch and clock trade, an interest Carlyon retained. Carlyon SMEDLEY 1901–1993

Smedley studied at the School of Art there and at the Royal College of Art and was on the staff of Gravesend School of Art, 1927–61, where he became head of design. Although Smedley had a congenital deformity, one hand being merely a stump, he was a superb craftsman, with a special interest in egg tempera, lacquer and stained glass. He was revered as a teacher and old-fashioned gentleman, with impeccable manners. Among Smedley’s output was a fine painted, lacquered and gilded fourfold screen (see The Fine Art Society spring 1996 catalogue). The Smedleys were keen churchgoers in Meopham, Kent, for which he designed the British Legion memorial window, installed 1951. Other Kent churches hold his work. In 1938 Gravesend Grammar School for Boys received new library windows designed by Smedley. After retirement, the Smedleys lived in Yopps Green, Plaxtol, then after Bertha Smedley’s death in 1982 Carlyon moved to Abbeyfield Trust accommodation in Tonbridge, dying in Plaxtol Nursing Home.

Non-representational sculptor and draughtsman, and teacher, born in London, who studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts and Slade School of Fine Art. He was senior lecturer at Portsmouth College of Art, 1956–8; head of sculpture at Portsmouth Polytechnic, 1968–78; visiting artist at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, 1977–8; and from 1978 professor, department of fine arts, at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Group exhibitions included Experiment in Form, Grosvenor Gallery, and WAC touring show Structure ’66, both 1966; Systems, Lucy Milton Gallery, and Systems touring show from Whitechapel Art Gallery, both 1972; Open Field, Reading Art Gallery, 1973; and Nature as Material, Arts Council, 1980. Solo exhibitions included AIA, 1965; Agnes Etherington Art Centre, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, 1978; Vancouver Art Gallery, 1982; and Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Bretton Hall, 2000. Arts Council holds several works by Smedley, in various materials, and his Columns, 1975, in aluminium with a steel base, is

Geoffrey SMEDLEY 1927–

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in Victoria Park, Portsmouth.

Painter, designer, printmaker and teacher, born in Bournville, near Birmingham. Studied at the School of Art there, 1940–3, then at Birmingham College of Art, 1947– 9. He went on to teach at several art schools in the Midlands, eventually becoming vice-principal of Bolton School of Art, then the head of the school of art and design at Tameside College of Technology. Lived in Stalybridge, Cheshire. Gordon Owen SMEDLEY 1925–

painter and architect, born in Poland, who studied architecture at the Universities of Cracow and Warsaw. He fought for the Tatra Mountains Regiment during World War II; was captured by the German Army and interned in Yugoslavia; escaped, retrained as an officer, and served under British command. After settling in England, Smigielski gained rapid promotion, moving from a professorship at Polish University College to head of town planning at Leeds Polytechnic, then city planning officer for Leicester. During that time with his sculptor and ceramist wife Avice he lived in Cold Ashby, Northamptonshire. He retired as a private consultant in 1972 and moved to Hinton St George, Somerset, where he painted methodically and prolifically (“it seemed better than stamp collecting”), having been encouraged by winning a competition in The Artist magazine in 1976. Smigielski, an excellent linguist and widely travelled, disliked criticism and chose not to exhibit, giving some works to friends, selling a few others for the price of “an honest day’s work by a coalminer.” He was known as the Somerset Surrealist, producing highly accomplished and whimsical works. Lawrence Fine Art Auctioneers, of Crewkerne, sold the studio of both Smigielskis in 2000.

Michael SMEE 1946– Painter, scenic artist and theatre designer and teacher who studied at Colchester School of Art, 1961–5. He became scenic artist and resident designer at Birmingham Repertory Theatre, 1965–7; scenic artist at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, 1967–8; then had a decade working as a scenic artist for Thames Television, London Weekend Television and various film production companies. From 1978 Smee was senior lecturer and head of visual studies at Colchester School of Art and Design, Colchester Institute. Mixed exhibitions included Bankside Gallery, 1987; Quay Gallery, Sudbury, 1990; and New Grafton Gallery Christmas Show and Artists of Today and Tomorrow, both 1994. Had a solo show at Compendium Gallery, Birmingham, 1966, later ones including Minories Gallery, Colchester, Lavinia SMILEY 1919–1991 Artist in pen and wash 1987, and New Grafton, 1995. and writer, born in London, grand-daughter of the first Viscount Cowdray. She grew up in a privileged Avice SMIGIELSKI 1913–1991 Sculptor and ceramist atmosphere, described in her book A Nice Clean of British nationality, unmarried name Avice Goode, married to the Somerset Surrealist painter Plate, inheriting the family shyness but great love of Polish birth Wladislaw Konrad Smigielski. She of historical buildings. She was educated in London worked exclusively in glazed earthenware, and Paris and after World War II with her husband producing experimental and ambitious pieces, Major Michael Smiley was given Castle Fraser, in influenced by Picasso, Cocteau and the inventive Aberdeenshire, which they restored and in 1977 ceramists of the period after World War II. made over to the National Trust for Scotland. She Although she was self-effacing about her work, wrote the Trust’s book on the house, a volume pricing it modestly, it was well regarded by her called The Frasers of Castle Fraser, and published contemporaries. There was a studio sale of it with a number of children’s books with delightful pictures by her husband at Lawrence Fine Art illustrations. Died in London.

Auctioneers, Crewkerne, in 2000. She lived latterly Alan SMITH 1941– Artist and teacher. He employed at Hinton St George, Somerset. a range of media, including ceramics and photolithographic installations. Born in Biggar, Wladislaw Konrad SMIGIELSKI 1908–1999 Untrained Lanarkshire, Smith studied at Edinburgh College 119


of Art, 1960–4. He was in Nigeria, 1966–7, taught in 1986. Smith attended the local College of Art, from 1967–9, then from 1969–75 was co-founder 1972–6, and was resident artist in Mannheim, West and chairman of the Ceramic Workshop in Germany, in 1985–6. Group shows included one Edinburgh, where he settled after working in Italy with Jane Phillips and Peter Prout at Swansea Arts for two years. In Italy he had a solo show in 1977 Workshop, 1979, part of a continuing series there. at Studio la Citta and Galleria Ferrari, Verona, and He also exhibited with groups in West Germany, he showed in mixed exhibitions in Italy and Britain. including Kunstverine Gallery, Mannheim, 1985. Was included in Painters in Parallel at Edinburgh Among his solo exhibitions were several at College of Art, 1988. In 2005–6, at the Ikon Swansea Arts Workshop, also University College, Gallery, Birmingham, Smith showed In Perpetuity, Swansea, 1981; Colini Centre, Mannheim, 1985; described in The Times as “An installation piece and Cross Gallery, Pontardawe, 1986. presented as a black, executive-style briefcase alongside an oil painting illuminated by a flickering Alan Partridge SMITH 1922– Painter, born in London. candle.” The Council and Scottish National Gallery He studied at Hornsey School of Art, 1946–50. In early 1950s showed three pictures at RA Summer of Modern Art, Edinburgh, hold his work. Exhibition, landscapes of Essex. Also showed Alan SMITH 1952– Artist and lecturer, born in Brighton Art Gallery and RBA, and loaned work Nottingham, who graduated with first-class to AEB and Arts Council. Lived at Rochford, honours in fine art, painting, from Cheltenham Essex, and signed his work P S. School of Art, 1974, gaining his master’s at University of Reading, 1976. He became senior Andrew SMITH 1960– Sculptor with a special interest lecturer, painting, at University of Gloucestershire in monumental figurative and decorative carving. school of fine art. Group exhibitions included He trained under a three-year apprenticeship with Whitechapel Open, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1985; W J Laffords as a stonemason carver. In 1989 Cheltenham Open Drawing International, 1996; gained first prize in the National Association of Fassbender Gallery, Chicago, America, from 1996; Monumental Masons Sculpture Award for Estate, Colour and Space, Malvern Theatre, 1998; and a marble head and shoulders depicting Summer. RCA Secret, Gulbenkian Gallery, 2000. Smith Took part in mixed shows at Black Boy Gallery, showed his Interior Series at Fassbender Gallery West Wycombe; Towner Art Gallery, Eastbourne; in a 1996 solo exhibition, his Orme Series there in and Linda Blackstone Gallery, Pinner. His solo 1998, in that year also having a one-man show, shows included Cow Byre, Ruislip, 1989; Arts Council, Combe Lodge Studio, in Malvern, Uxbridge Library, 1990; and Beck Theatre, Worcestershire, where he lived. Of his Ellipsis Hillingdon, 1991. Public commissions included Series, at Worcester City Art Gallery and Museum Mother & Child, 1989, Marlow Churchyard; and in 2003, Smith said that he was “making paintings 1991, two life-and-a-half-size figures of Adam & where the subject is outside of the painting. My Eve, London Borough of Hillingdon. fascination is with what is at the edge of our vision, Andrew SMITH 1962– Sculptor and designer, born sensed as well as seen”. Almeida Theatre; in south Wales, who attended art courses locally Spitalfields Workspace; and College of St Paul and and at West Surrey College of Art and Design, St Mary, Harper College, Chicago, hold his work. where he graduated with honours in threeArtist whose output included gestural abstracts, as in Messages to Extra terrestrials, exhibitions of work by Uta Molling and Alan Smith, Swansea/Mannheim Artists Exchange, at Glynn Vivian Art Gallery and Museum, Swansea, Glamorgan, Smith’s birthplace, Alan SMITH 1956–

dimensional design specialising in metals. He gained his master’s on a two-year course in the metalwork department of the Royal College of Art. After research courses in Germany, France and Iran, Smith designed street furniture and exhibited widely in Britain and abroad from the mid-1980s.

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Smith gained public commissions in London and the provinces, running a freelance practice. His colourful, idiosyncratic sculpture Lollipop Be-bop stands in front of Bristol’s Royal Hospital for Children, inaugurated in 2001. Andrew SMITH 1963– Painter and printmaker, born

in London, who did a foundation art diploma, Buckinghamshire College of Higher Education, 1981–2; graduated in fine art, painting, from Norwich School of Art, 1983–6; and obtained his master’s in fine art, printmaking, from Camberwell College of Arts, 1994–6. In 1989, Smith established Moreia Studio in Harlech, Gwynedd. He was coorganiser of the Harlech Biennale from 1994 and initiator and organiser of Harlech Printmaking Open 2000 in association with Theatr Ardudwy. Awards included a Sir Phillip Reckitt Travel Assistance Award, 1984; Oppenheim-John Downes Memorial Award, 1987; and a WAC Career Development Grant: major new screenprint project, exploring the surface of colour, sponsored by Gibbon Inks and Coatings Screen Division, 2001. He took part in numerous group shows, later ones including 8th Welsh Contemporaries Annual, Riverside Studios, 1998; Art Studios International, Melbourne, Australia, 1999; Hay-on-Wye Festival Exhibition, Globe Gallery, 2000; and University of Glamorgan Purchase Art Prize shortlist exhibition, 2001. Later solo exhibitions included Works on Paper, deliART, 2001. Of that, Smith wrote: “My work is a dynamic synthesis of colour and shape: the size of colour, colour contained and colour extended.”

Draughtsman and illustrator who originated in the Keighley area of Yorkshire, attending Keighley School of Art and the Royal College of Art. He was a contemporary of the artist Robert Lee, who remembered him “as a remarkable draughtsman of insect life who worked even in College days at the Natural History Museum.” Smith joined its staff as an artist in the entomology department, being appointed an experimental officer in 1959. The Museum in its archives holds a large collection of Smith’s drawings for diverse publications, the entomology Arthur SMITH 1916–1991

department his unpublished autobiography. Recalled by Lee as one who “kept on smoking like a chimney and drinking heavily,” Smith died within a few years of his retirement from the Museum.

Audrey M SMITH 1933– Artist, illustrator and teacher, born in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, who trained initially as an illustrator at Stockport School of Art and Birmingham College of Art. She illustrated children’s books early in her career, then began exhibiting paintings in 1967 while teaching, mainly part-time, in special schools, hospital and in the home. Smith was a member of the MAFA and the Free Painters & Sculptors. She worked with colour and line, mainly with pen, watercolour, indian inks and acrylic inks, usually representational pictures, although abstract images were used. Much of her earlier work had a strong social content, with a debt to the northern tradition of people and their environment. The countryside of Cheshire, north Norfolk and north Yorkshire were also subjects. She was winner of the North West Laing Painting Competition, 1989, work included in the firm’s 1990 calendar. Mixed exhibitions also included RA Summer Exhibition, RBA, SWA, RI, RWS and elsewhere in London and the provinces. By 2003, Smith had had over two dozen solo exhibitions, later ones including Grundy Art Gallery, Blackpool, 1985; Dee Fine Arts, Heswall, 1989; and Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport, 1997–8. The Bank of England; Ruskin College, Oxford; and Bolton and Stockport Art Galleries are among collections holding examples. Lived in Runcorn, Cheshire.

Versatile artist, designer and illustrator, born in Sydney, Australia, who graduated from the University of Melbourne in history (honours) and English, 1962–7. Smith’s design work included cards, RA and Camden Graphics, both 1981, and Royle Publications, 1983–4; toys and puzzles for Galt Toys, 1983–4; tapestry for Permin, Copenhagen, 1987; and ceramics for Pilkington Tiles, 1987, and Wade, 1989. He illustrated many children’s books for publishers including Pavilion Books, Viking and Puffin Paperbacks, Tango Books and Dorling Barry SMITH 1943–

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Kindersley. Smith took part in group shows, including Battersea Contemporary Art Fair, 2001, and among his solo shows were Traverse Theatre, Edinburgh, 1980; Galerie Much, Nantes, France, from 1980; Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh, from 1983; and Hard Rock Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. Smith gained first prize, drawing and watercolour section, in the Tia Maria Art Award, 1974; prizes, Greater London Council Art Award, 1978–9; finalist, Hunting Prizes, watercolour section, 1980; prize, RA Christmas Card Competition, 1981; finalist, Images of Today, sponsored by J Sainsbury plc, 1982; Cumberland Road received the American magazine Parents’ Choice Honour in Illustration, 1990; and A First Puffin Book of Bible Stories was chosen for the Book Trust Children’s Book of the Year 1994. Betsy SMITH 1971– Painter, printmaker and producer

of three-dimensional work in various materials, who gained a fine art, painting, honours degree at Wimbledon School of Art, 1990–3, studying printmaking at Morley College, 1995–8. Through her three-dimensional pieces, as in the exhibition Conversation Pieces, Hammerson plc, 1999, Smith “explored dualities of weight and weightlessness, presence and absence, light and shadow. The viewer’s perception of what is there and what is not is called into question.” Other shows included Hot Sand, Royal Pavilion Contemporary Gallery, Brighton, and Art Market, Contemporary Art Society, Royal Festival Hall, both 1995; Burr, The Wharf, Mill Street, 1997; and Open 98, ASC Studios, Camberwell, 1998. Bob and Roberta SMITH: see Patrick BRILL

Bridget SMITH 1966– Artist employing photography,

born in Southend-on-Sea, Essex, who attended Central School of Art, 1984–5, and Goldsmiths’ College, 1985–8. In 1991 gained a GLA Women’s Photography Award. Smith was known for her highly coloured photographs of floodlit curtains in cinemas, vacated spaces and landscapes. Group shows included Hit & Run, Tufton Street, 1992; Time Out Billboard Project, 1993; Institute of Cultural Anxiety: Works from the Collection, ICA,

1994; Something Cheap, Custard Factory, Birmingham, 1995; and British Art Show 4, and tour, 1995–6. Had solo shows at Entwistle Contemporary, 1995; Frith Street Gallery, 1997; and Gallerie Barbara Thumm, Berlin, Germany, 1998. In 1999 the Tate Gallery awarded Tokyo Residencies to Smith and collaborative artists Stephanie Smith and Edward Stewart for 2000. In 2003, Smith was selected for the £15,000 De La Warr Artist Commission, the largest commission so far by the Bexhill-on-Sea Pavilion. This was to enable her to respond to the changing nature of the building throughout its 18-month, £6 million refurbishment. Cosmos was at Frith Street in 2005. Bridget Smith’s work was held by the Arts Council, Contemporary Art Society, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh and Government Art Collection. She lived in London.

Carlton Alfred SMITH 1853–1946 Painter, notably of

genre works, born and lived in London, married to the artist Martha Sarah King, who also showed under her married name. His father was the steel engraver Alfred Smith. He studied at Slade School of Fine Art, winning gold and silver medals. For seven years from 1916 he visited India, painting portraits and landscapes. He was a member of RBA, RI and ROI, also showing at RA and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His pictures such as When Little Ones Grow Weary and The Close of Day were illustrated in magazines including Illustrated London News. National Gallery of South Australia in Adelaide bought his picture Dawn and National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne acquired Christmas Eve. Charles SMITH 1913– Painter in oil and watercolour,

born in Chislehurst, Kent. He attended Brixton School of Building and Architecture, serving for a time in Royal Air Force in World War II. Studied art at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art and Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, teachers including David Ghilchik. Smith’s main works were marine pictures. He was a member of Wapping Group of Artists, Chelsea Art Society and Croydon Art Society, and also exhibited in provinces. National Westminster Bank and Sutton

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and Leamington Borough Councils hold examples. He had over 60 solo shows in Britain and abroad, Lived in Peasmarsh, Sussex. later ones including retrospective at Evesham Arts Festival, 1990; a major show at Sogo Art Gallery, Clive SMITH 1967– Figurative painter, born in St Yokohama, Japan, 1991; and a retrospective at Albans, Hertfordshire, who gained a general design Bankside Gallery, 1996. Smith sold well in Japan, diploma locally in 1985 and fashion degree from where he painted all the major harbours. He was Kingston Polytechnic, 1985–8. From 1988–91 he official artist to the British Antarctic Survey, 1975– worked in New York, Paris and Naples for fashion 6, with a second voyage in 1979–80. In 1982–4 he companies, from 1991–6 as designer of men’s was invited by Trinity House to record the clothing for Gap’s division Banana Republic. lighthouses of England and Wales. He illustrated While in New York, 1995–7, Smith studied Richard Woodman’s book View from the Sea and painting and drawing under Peter Cox at Art Antony Fogg’s The Discovery of Antarctica. HRH Students’ League. Smith used savings for his The Duke of Edinburgh, British Antarctic Survey private art studies, paying for his own models. He in Cambridge, Barclays Bank and many other felt that in figurative painting “there are very few corporate and private collections hold examples, good people teaching…. Because I’m older, I knew as well as public galleries in Blackpool, Lincoln, how I wanted to paint.” Group exhibitions included Portsmouth, Sheffield and elsewhere. Lived in The Discerning Eye, Mall Galleries, 1997, and Re- London. Presenting Representation (Arnot Art Museum, New York, 1999). In 1998 Smith gained 3rd Prize David SMITH 1949– Painter of East Anglia, born in in the BP Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, Essex, who left school at 15. After various jobs he in 1999 1st Prize. In that year he had a solo show trained as a constructional craftsman. Throughout at Galerie de Bellefeuille, Montreal, Canada, he continued to paint, having been early on followed by Clive Smith a stage – recent paintings, encouraged by his keen artist grandfather. From Marlborough Chelsea, New York, 2000, and a first 1978 Smith turned professional, producing work London one-man exhibition with Marlborough in stemming from on-the-spot sketches. His Tidal 2002. He was then based in New York. Frissiras Water at Beeleigh, Essex, and View over Bassets Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens; National Farm, Little Baddow, were included in the 1989 Portrait Gallery; and Arnot Art Museum, Elmira, H Stacy-Marks, Eastbourne, Centenary Exhibition. New York, hold examples. David Henry SMITH 1947– Painter in oil and David SMITH 1920–1999 Painter using a richly watercolour, born in Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire, Expressionist palette, draughtsman, printmaker where he settled at Holton, near Wragby. Studied and teacher, born in Lowestoft, Suffolk, where he at Grimsby School of Art, 1965–8, and at Royal attended the Technical School, also Lowestoft and College of Art, 1968–71, teachers including Carel Norwich Schools of Art. From 1939–40 Smith was Weight, where he gained his master’s degree. Smith visiting art master at Framlingham College, then showed with Angela Flowers Gallery, Usher he served in Royal Air Force, 1940–5; a collection Gallery in Lincoln, Dartington Hall and elsewhere. of his Air Force pictures toured the country in aid Solo exhibitions included Fischer Fine Art from of a forces’ charity, finishing at Cooling Galleries, 1974. Arts Council bought several landscapes by opened by Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader. After Smith from that gallery. the war Smith studied at Slade School of Fine Art, winning Abbey Major Rome Scholarship at British David Murray SMITH 1865–1952 Painter and School, Rome, 1949. Further teaching included printmaker, notably a landscape watercolourist, senior lecturer in fine art, Chelsea School of Art, born in Edinburgh, where he attended the School 1965–79. Smith was elected RE in 1951, also of Art, also the Royal Scottish Academy Schools. showing at RA, LG, New Art Centre and elsewhere. In the 1890s he moved to London and after that 123


had a number of southern English addresses, especially in the Dorking and Guildford, Surrey, areas. He was at various times a member of RBA, RSW and RWS and was a prolific exhibitor, also with RA, Fine Art Society, Leicester Galleries and elsewhere.

Smith’s work.

Donald SMITH 1934– Painter and creator of abstract

constructions and teacher, born in London. After general education in Matlock, Birkenhead and Dartford, Smith attended the Laird School of Art in Birkenhead and Liverpool’s Regional College Derek SMITH fl. from late 1980s– Artist who graduated of Art, 1950–5. Worked widely in schools and from the University of Ulster, Belfast, in fine art, technical college teaching art, by the mid-1970s 1989. Two years before that he had participated in being principal lecturer in art and design at an Exchange Print Exhibition with University of Didsbury College of Education in Manchester. China. Showed extensively in Belfast, including Showed in north of England, Manchester City Art Octagon Gallery, 1987; Laganside Gallery, 1990; Gallery holding his acrylic and gloss paint on wood and in Beyond the Partitions, organised by Queen construction Estate IV, of 1968. Lived for a time Street Studios, with which he was associated, in at Timperley, Altrincham, Cheshire. 1994. In 1992 he had two solo exhibitions of drawings, prints and sculpture in Quebec, Canada, Ed SMITH 1923–1987 Painter and draughtsman, born participated in two Snow Sculpture Events in that in Detroit, Michigan, America as Edward Lionel year and in the International Biennale Print Smith. His father was English, his mother – who died when he was 15 – was Irish. Lived in New Exhibition there. York with an aunt and joined the Art Students’ Dillwyn SMITH 1958– Painter, born in London, who League there, resuming after World War II service studied at Canterbury College of Art, 1978–81, in the Canadian Army after desertion from the then under John Golding at the Royal College of Marines. After a short period in Paris moved to Art, 1983–6. In 1986 he won a Barclays Young London and had a show at Arts Council, 1948. Artist Award, John Minton Award at the Royal Joined Royal Academy Schools and St Martin’s College and a Taliani/Chase Foundation School for etching in 1949, then went to live in Scholarship to Venice; in 1987 an Artists Unlimited Paris. A roving life followed, included periods in residency in Bielefeld, West Germany; in 1989 a Sweden, Australia and then Afghanistan and Triangle Artists’ Workshop Award, New York, Bangladesh as a war artist. After returning to America; in 1990 a Delfina Studio Residency; in London in 1980 he went to Israel for a time. 1991 an Honorary Diploma, Soviet Artists’ Union; Additional shows included Obelisk Gallery, 1960, and in 1992 a Studio Exchange, Karl Hofer World’s End Gallery in 1979 and in 1991 an Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany. Later solo extensive show was held at John Denham Gallery. exhibitions included Djanogly Art Gallery, University of Nottingham and Emma Edward SMITH 1923–1987: see Ed SMITH Marsaglia/Sebastien Sainsbury, ADII, both 1998, Edward SMITH 1972– Sculptor and teacher, educated and Purdy Hicks Gallery, 2000. Smith was an artist in Ashford, Kent, who gained his art diploma at continually prepared to experiment with technique, Maidstone College of Art & Design, 1991; an to avoid rigidity and to adapt to circumstances. honours degree in sculpture, Winchester School Works in his Purdy Hicks show were based on of Art, 1991–4; then his postgraduate diploma from family snapshots subjected to digital bit-mapping, Royal Academy Schools, 1997–00. Smith won which simplified the forms into block-like shapes, Premium and Henry Moore Foundation Prizes, titles derived from fragments of speech from his both 1999, and RA Travel and Bronze Casting mother, who had developed Alzheimer’s Disease. Scholarships, both 2000. He held a number of British Council, Royal College of Art, Swedish residencies, teaching including Winchester School Embassy and many corporate collections held 124


of Art, 2000. Smith was a member of Ashford Arts Society and RBS and a committee member and registered licensee of House Gallery. Later exhibitions included the RBS, 2001. Among Smith’s commissions were Tower Hamlets Library, 2000, and Tyco Electronics, 2001. Lived in south London.

artist-in-residence, Bury Art Galley, 1985, the year she had an Artists in Schools Placement, Astley Park School, Chorley. Stuart Smith gained a North West Arts Award in 1980–2. Was represented at Paton Gallery, 1982; Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool, 1984; First International Paper Biennale, LeopoldHoesch Museum, Duren, West Germany, 1986; and in 1986–7 Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Edwin SMITH 1912–1971 Photographer, architect, touring Merseyside Artists 3. Solo shows included writer, painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born Watermans Art Centre, Brentford, 1986. in poor circumstances in London, leaving school aged 12. While at a trade school became interested Erik SMITH 1914–1973 Painter in oil and in architecture and won a scholarship to the watercolour, printmaker, stained glass artist and Architectural Association. Smith became known, lecturer. Born in Birmingham, he studied art at however, mainly as a photographer. His name Willesden School of Art, 1934–6, then at Royal appeared on about 40 volumes published College of Art, 1937–8 and 1945–7. Smith went internationally, and many shows of his prints have on to lecture in art history at High Wycombe been held, for example at the Plymouth Art Centre College of Technology and Art. Exhibited widely, and Brighton Festival in 1985. Edwin Smith also including RA, RWS, RBA, RE, NEAC and abroad. made two films for Samaritan Films, one on Victoria & Albert Museum, Ashmolean Museum Rembrandt, the other on the Pre-Raphaelites. Smith in Oxford and South London Art Gallery acquired wrote several books on photography and public his work and he designed a number of stained glass collections, including Victoria & Albert Museum, windows for churches. Lived at Princes hold his work. During his life only a few friends Risborough, Buckinghamshire. knew that Smith regarded himself mainly as an artist. Although he produced a huge volume of oils, Frank Sidney SMITH 1928– Painter in oil, self-taught watercolours, drawings and prints, it was after his with help from evening classes, born in the Thanet death that exhibitions began to give some idea of Union workhouse in Minster, Kent, brought up in his achievement. Shows included House Gallery, The Manston Cottage Homes, Ramsgate. He was 1978 and 1980, Church Street Gallery in Saffron evacuated to the Midlands during World War II Walden, 1985, Clare College in Cambridge, 1986, and eventually settled in Small Heath, and in 1987 Smith’s pictures and photographs were Birmingham. Smith was in the Army and Royal included in A Paradise Lost at Barbican Art Gallery. Marines as a regular, 1946–53, including service His wife, the artist and writer Olive Cook, wrote in Palestine and Korea, then returned to work in that Smith “captured the joy and immediacy of the Austin and Rover car factories. His wife and son fleeting visual experience” in some work, in other were both schizophrenic, she dying from “recollected images irradiated by an inner overdosing of lithium, the son committing suicide. apocalyptic private vision.” Smith settled in Saffron In 1976 Smith decided that the only way to cope Walden, Essex, in 1962. Fry Art Gallery there and with the traumas of his life was to paint his Sally Hunter Fine Art gave Smith a series of experiences. Over 400 meticulously detailed pictures, which had a primitive earthy humour and posthumous exhibitions. vigour, resulted. He donated much of his output to Elizabeth Stuart SMITH 1942– Artist in a range of Kent County Council. As well as showing in the media, notable concerned with paper works, who Midlands, notably at RBSA, in mixed exhibitions, studied at Liverpool Polytechnic, 1974–7, Smith had solo shows at the Ramsgate Library graduating in fine art; then did part-time Gallery in 1987 and 1993. He had slowly taught postgraduate research there, 1977–82. She was himself to read and write and in 1993 his illustrated 125


autobiography A Brush with Life was published. In 1998 Smith won an Adult Learner Award, which facilitated his move into clay modelling and carving in wax. The autobiographical theme continued at Ramsgate in 2002 with More of One Man’s Life.

George Herbert Tyson SMITH 1883–1972 Sculptor and

carver, born in Liverpool, where he continued to work, son of a lithographic artist. Studied at local School of Art, his teachers including Charles John Allen. Worked in a mason’s yard and also attended evening classes at the Art Sheds for several years around the turn of the century. Was a member of Sandon Studios Society, of which he was president from 1956, and showed at Liverpool Autumn Exhibition from 1907. Started own practice in 1912 and became noted for his work on Birkenhead Cenotaph, Fleetwood War Memorial and Liverpool War Memorial. Also designed medals. He was made an honorary instructor to the School of Architecture in 1925 and gained an honorary Master of Arts degree from Liverpool University in 1948. His work is mostly in a neo-classical style and is shown in the volume RBS: Modern British Sculpture, published in 1939. Was featured in Walker Art Gallery show The Art Sheds, in 1981.

Art Gallery in Liverpool, Salford Art Gallery and Manchester City Art Gallery hold his work. His full name was George Grainger Smith and he lived at Malpas, Cheshire, retiring to Wales.

Gregor McFarlane SMITH 1944– Painter and teacher, born and lived in Glasgow. Studied at Edinburgh College of Art, 1962–7, his teachers including Robin Philipson. Was awarded a postgraduate scholarship and travelling scholarship to Rome and Florence in 1967. A member of SSA and RSW, the artist participated in many group shows, including Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Compass Gallery in Glasgow and elsewhere, as well as having numerous solo exhibitions, including Glasgow Print Studio; Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie; and Torrance Gallery, Edinburgh. Scottish Arts Council and a number of other Scottish public collections hold his work, which often features stark, brooding hill and fell scenes in England and Scotland.

Artist in all media, latterly mostly acrylic on canvas, and teacher, born in Sturgis, Michigan, America. Smith studied art history and practice, 1932–6, at Northwestern University, Illinois, then painting, 1936–8, at California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco. Gerald Edward Roberts SMITH 1883–1959 Stained Among Smith’s awards were one For glass painter and ecclesiastical designer. Born in Distinguished Service to American Art from the Melbury, Dorset, he studied art at Clapham School National Endowment for the Arts, 1967, and a of Art. Smith was a pupil of Edward Frampton. honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts, San Francisco Smith’s commissions included All Saints, Notting Art Institute, 1991. Smith taught there, extensively Hill; Holy Trinity, Southchurch; and Manchester elsewhere in America including Universities of Cathedral. He was an original member of the California and Oregon, and in England at West of British Society of Master Glass Painters and was England College of Art/Bristol Polytechnic and included by Rachel Moss in her exhibition Stained Cardiff College of Art. Had numer-ous group and Glass Designs at the Maas Gallery in 1998. solo shows, mainly in America, later one-mans including Cleveland Bridge Gallery, Bath, 1988, Exhibited RA. Lived in London. and London Contemporary Art Fair, IannettiGrainger SMITH 1892–1961 Painter, printmaker and Lanzoni, 1989. Tate Gallery and many American teacher, born in Hull, who moved to Liverpool in public galleries hold examples. Lived at Rode, near 1895 where he studied at the School of Art, Bath, Somerset. becoming art master at Liverpool College. He was a member of Liverpool Academy and a president Helen SMITH 1956– Artist and teacher who gained of RCamA, also showing with RA, RSA, Fine Art a first-class visual arts degree at Cheltenham & Society and elsewhere in the provinces. Walker Gloucester College of Higher Education, 1996, in Hassel SMITH 1915–

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that year obtaining the Student of the Year Award. The College holds her work. From 1997 she became a freelance artist and teacher. Her exhibitions included Locations ’96 at Gloucester Docks; degree show at her college (work selected to be featured in Ceramic Review); and Cheltenham Group of Artists Open, at Axiom Centre, Cheltenham, all exhibitions in 1996. In 1997 participated in Transports of Light, Stroud, and Unquiet Voices, Doncaster Museum & Art Gallery. Lived in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. Ian McKenzie SMITH 1935– Painter and curator, born

in Montrose, Angus. He studied painting at Gray’s School of Art in Aberdeen, 1953–8, also attending courses at Patrick Allan-Fraser School of Art, Hospitalfield, Arbroath. With a travelling scholarship won in 1958 McKenzie Smith went to Paris. Ten years later he was appointed director of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums. He was elected RSA in 1987 and a year later president of RSW. In Paris McKenzie Smith had shown an interest in African and Japanese art, and during the 1970s this Oriental influence strengthened, so that later work by the artist has much in common with Chinese calligraphy. Had a number of solo shows, at 57 Gallery and Scottish Gallery, both in Edinburgh, and Fine Art Society, 1997. Ivy SMITH 1945– Painter, printmaker and lecturer,

Sir Richard and Sir David Attenborough, 1987; painting and lithographs, Southern Artlink, for Battle Hospital, Reading, 1988; lino-cuts, National Trust and Oriel 31, Newtown, 1992; lino-cuts, North Kesteven District Council, 1997; and paintings for Ross-on-Wye Community Hospital, 1998. Among Smith’s later solo shows was Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, 2000. The Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield; Castle Museum, Norwich; Royal Leamington Spa Art Gallery; Eastern Arts Association; and other public, corporate and university collections hold examples.

Painter and teacher, born in Sheffield. He studied at the College of Art there, 1944–6, then St Martin’s School of Art, 1948–50, and Royal College of Art, 1950–3. His first oneman show was at the Beaux Arts Gallery in 1953, a series following during the 1950s. Ruskin Spear and Carel Weight had taught him at the Royal College, and at first he worked in a Neo-Realist style known as the Kitchen Sink School, stark and rather drab scenes. But from the mid-1950s he became more interested in the play of light on shapes, and eventually became a meticulous abstractionist. These pictures he termed “diagrams of an experience or sensation”. Taught at Bath Academy, Corsham, in the 1950s, in 1963–71 at Hornsey School of Art, then in 1971–4 Chelsea School of Art. Won first prize at John Moores Liverpool Exhibition in 1956, by which time he had begun to show in America, in 1959 having a retrospective at Whitechapel Art Gallery. Other major exhibitions followed at Sunderland Arts Centre and touring in 1977 and Serpentine Gallery in 1978. Smith also completed some sculptures and designed for the Ballet Rambert in 1986 and the Royal Ballet in 1987. Lived in London, where he latterly exhibited at Flowers East, then in Hove, Sussex. His wife, Susan, was also a painter. The Arts Council, British Council, Government Art Collection and many provincial and foreign collections hold Smith’s work. Jack SMITH 1928–

born in London, whose work was “mainly concerned with the figure, usually more than one in dynamic compositional relationships.” She studied at Walthamstow School of Art, 1963–4; Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1964–5; Chelsea School of Art, 1965–7, and Royal Academy Schools, 1967–70. She was a visiting lecturer, Norwich Art School, 1975–95; at Royal Academy Schools, 1993; and from 1995 taught part-time at City College, Norwich, where she lived. Awards included RA Gold Medal, 1968; Kasmin Gallery Prize, Young Contemporaries, 1970; and First Prize, John Player Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, and a prize at Bradford International Print Biennale, both 1986. Residencies included Royal James Skelton SMITH 1961– Painter and Devon and Exeter Hospital, 1992. Public draughtsman, born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire. He commissions included National Portrait Gallery, was an admirer of the painter Cecil Collins and 127


created often disturbing pictures which contain stylised figures and landscapes which can be interpreted on several levels. Smith was a notable Colourist. He studied at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, 1980–4. In 1989 he showed with the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and at the Wasp Gallery Group Show, Glasgow. In 1990 again showed at Wasp and with Compass Gallery, Glasgow. After his show Dancers in a Dark Wood, at Lomond Centre, Glenrothes, in 1989, Smith had shows in 1990 at Municipal Museum & Art Gallery, Kircaldy; Five Dryden Street and Kenulf Galleries. In 1991 he shared a show with Claudia Petretti at Mina Renton Gallery.

Artist, born in London, who did a foundation course in East Ham, 1983– 4; graduated with honours in fine art, Norwich School of Art, 1985–8; and won a postgraduate diploma from the Royal Academy Schools, 1989– 92. Smith’s awards included the Rt Hon Robin Walpole Purchase Prize; Pamela Pullen Drawing Prize; Tony Smith Landscape Prize; Earthscape, Hastings Trust Prize; RA Travel Scholarship; and The Eaton Fund. Among the artist’s mixed shows were Little Hills Gallery, Florida, America, and Bruton Street Gallery, 1992; Studio 3 Gallery, Old Street, 1995; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1996; Clink Wharf Gallery, 1998; Roman Black Gallery, from 1998; Langham Fine Art, Bury St Edmunds, 2001; National Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries, 2003; and RWA and Belgrave Gallery, St Ives, both 2005. Among his later solo exhibitions were S C Johnson Gallery and Studio 3 Gallery, both 1996; Ozten Zeki Gallery, 1988 and 1989; and One Gallery, Brick Lane, 1999. Smith carried out a number of commissions, for Guildhall School of Music, London Contemporary Dance Company, Corporate Arts and QBE International. Sir Trevor Chinn, Lord Northbrook, Earl of Chichester, Rt Hon Robin Walpole, John Evans Architects in Birmingham and Inside Development, Guernsey, were among owners of his work. Smith lived in Penzance, Cornwall. Jesse Leroy SMITH 1966–

Joanna SMITH 1960– Self-employed sculptor, a director of community arts projects who was

interested in site-specific installations and was active in voluntary arts organisations in Essex, where she lived at Hatfield Peverel. She gained her master’s degree, art in architecture, from University of East London in 1999. Later commissions included Loughton Soundscape, 1999–00; sculpture for new medical centre for Seven Kings High School, Ilford, 2000; and Parkpeople, Chelmsford Community Art Project, installation in Central Park, Chelmsford, 2001. Smith participated in Making the Connection, firstsite, Colchester/Wolsey Art Gallery, Ipswich, 2002. John SMITH 1900–1975 Sculptor, painter and teacher,

born in Dagenham, Essex, son of a farmer. He studied at Royal Academy Schools, 1920–3, and was a Prix de Rome scholar. After several years of advertising and graphic work in London Smith moved to Sussex, concentrating first on painting, then only on sculpture. The BBC asked him to carry out preliminary designs for a sculpture for Broadcasting House. Moved to Cambridge in 1939 where from 1948–72 he was head of the sculpture department at the local College of Art. In 1963 Smith completed a bronze wall panel for Trinity Hall. Five years later the Cambridge Society of Painters and Sculptors, in the Arts Council Gallery, included a retrospective of Smith’s work in its show, largely figurative pieces in bronze. Smith exhibited in London galleries and in Arts Council touring shows. Realistic painter of the English countryside with a keen international following, born in Peterborough, Huntingdonshire. Although he showed promise in art at grammar school, his father’s death when Smith was only 16 prompted him to pursue an engineering apprenticeship. Aged 39, as a chief planning engineer, Smith decided to paint full-time, within a few months sold out his first show from a rented space and soon began working in his own converted studio near Peterborough. He painted mainly on commission, his work also being reproduced in signed, limited editions. Rarely exhibited, although his Sunset in the Wood and

John Caesar SMITH 1930–

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Autumn Glow were included in the H Stacy-Marks Contemporary’s 1997 four-woman show and Ltd, Eastbourne, Centenary Exhibition in 1989. shared exhibition there with Amber Leaman, 2000. Smith’s wife Tricia was a wildlife artist. Other exhibitions included The Hunting/Observer Art Prize ’93, Mall Galleries, 1993; Marks and John Francis SMITH 1888– Painter, printmaker, Spencer Headquarters Exhibition, 1995; and illustrator and commercial artist. He was born and Railings Gallery, 1996. The TSB Collection held worked in Liverpool, attending the School of Art her work. and showing at Liverpool Academy, of which he was a member. Also exhibited at RBA, RCamA Keir SMITH 1950– Sculptor in a wide range of styles and extensively at Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, and materials, and teacher, who studied at where the Corporation bought his work. Newcastle University, 1969–73, with postgraduate studies at Chelsea College of Art, 1973–5. John Guthrie Spence SMITH 1880–1951 Landscape Exhibitions included Oriel Gallery, Cardiff, 1973, and architectural painter, born in Perth, Scotland. where he was a Young Contemporaries prize He was known to artist friends as Dummy Smith, winner, Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 1982, and because as a child an attack of scarlet fever robbed Maidstone Library Gallery, Kent, and Six Chapel him of speech and hearing. After attended a school Row, Bath, both 2000. His 2001 Lincoln Cathedral for the deaf and dumb in Dundee he went to the exhibition included works embracing Marian College of Art there, eventually moving to iconography, that at The Drawing Gallery in 2005 Edinburgh to study at Royal Institution. Travelled works relating to Venice. Taught part-time for to France before World War I, but did not go abroad several years in late 1970s at Sheffield College of again, although he painted widely in Scotland. Art. In 1979–80 was resident sculptor at Grizedale Showed at RSA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Forest, completing the wood and wickerwork Fine Arts, RA, RSW and Walker Gallery in construction The Realm of Taurus, 1980. The Iron Liverpool. He was a member of the Edinburgh Road, 1986, commissioned for the Forest of Dean Group and his work was included in the show of Sculpture Project, was a series of 20 carved wooden that name at City Art Centre, Edinburgh, and tour, railway sleepers, recalling the original use of the 1983. Work held by public collections including railway line through the Forest, each with an overGlasgow, Paisley, Perth and Greenock. Lived in reaching symbolic meaning, the images ranging Edinburgh. from feather, leaf and water jug to industry, fire and destruction. This work, illustrated and Jules SMITH 1950– Artist born in Birmingham where discussed in The Sculpted Forest, achieved Smith’s she trained at the School of Art. Her special subject was the urban landscape and its people. Showed ambition “to blur the boundaries between site and on the continent, including the Netherlands, and sculpture”. Later sited sculptures included The widely in Britain, including numberninethegallery, Way of Clouds, Usher Gallery, Lincoln, 1990, and The Fate of Streams, Royal Surrey Hospital, Birmingham. Guildford, 1993. Lived in London. Kate SMITH 1971– Artist and illustrator who attended Plymouth College of Art and Design, Ken SMITH 1944– Sculptor, born in Manchester, 1989–90; gained an honours degree in graphic who created highly polished stone carvings design, specialising in illustration, from Norwich referring to the human form, in which truth to School of Art, 1990–3; then her master’s in material was important and in which he responded illustration from the Royal College of Art, 1993– compassionately to poverty and political 5. Although Smith trained as an illustrator, she repression. His initial sculptures were produced could be a rich Colourist, with strong abstract during over 30 years as a social worker, then latterly elements, as in her work at Cadogan he sculpted full-time. Smith was inspired by paintings in the National Gallery and the work of 129


Archipenko, Arp and Brancusi. As a young man he had a long, meditative period spent living in a friary, was an apprentice carpenter-joiner, then studied art, partly on Henry Moore’s recommendation: sculpture and printmaking in Colleges of Art at Walthamstow and Bristol. He exhibited at the RBA and RA, 1968; RWA, Bruton Gallery in Somerset and Manchester City Art Gallery, 1970; Archer Gallery, 1975; Pelter Sands, Bristol, 1988; Beaux Arts, 1994; and Northern Highlights, Bruton Gallery at Gallery 27, 2000. Later solo shows included Leighton House, 1990. In 2002, Smith was sculptor-in-residence at Read’s Hotel, Santa Maria, Mallorca, where that year he had a solo exhibition, another at Galeria Blau, Palma. The University of Vienna holds his work. Lived in Bath, Somerset. Lance SMITH 1950– Painter, born in Bournemouth,

Hampshire. He studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1969–73, then Royal Academy Schools, 1973–6. He gained an Arts Council Minor Award in 1980 and first prize in the Tolly Cobbold/Eastern Arts Fifth National Exhibition in 1985. As well as exhibiting in mixed shows in Britain and abroad, he had a solo show at Fabian Carlsson Gallery and Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, in 1986; at Forum International Kunstmesse, Zürich, in 1987; and in 1988 had a touring show which originated in Turnpike Gallery, Greater Manchester. Smith worked in series, ambiguous paintings using potent symbols. His work is held by Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, as well as private collections in Britain and widely abroad.

Leo Illesley Gibbons SMITH 1919– Painter and illustrator, born in Cobham, Surrey, who attended Hornsey College of Art, 1945–9. He was for some years an art editor, latterly for Radio Times magazine. Was a member of SGA and UA, also showing at RP, PS, RBA and elsewhere. Lived in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire. Lesley SMITH 1952– Painter, constructions artist and

photographer, born in Birmingham, who attended Cardiff College of Art, 1972–5, and Chelsea School of Art, 1975–6. In 1978, she won a Greater London

Arts Association Award. Group and mixed shows included Stowells Trophy Exhibition, 1975; Northern Young Contemporaries, Manchester, 1976; LG, from 1977; Ice Chimney Exhibition, Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith, 1980; and Wapping Artists Open Studios Exhibition, 1982.

Leslie SMITH 1948– Painter, born in Bromley, Kent.

He did a pre-diploma course at Hornsey College of Art, 1967–8, a painting course at Maidstone College of Art for his diploma, 1968–71, then studied painting as a postgraduate at Royal Academy Schools, 1971–4. Showed at RA, Portal and Piccadilly Galleries and had first one-man show at King Street Galleries, 1980. Published The Garden of Eden, 1985, and two years later showed in a National Trust Gardens exhibition, with accompanying detailed catalogue, at Douwes Fine Art. A meticulous painter of landscape, Smith lived in Hertfordshire and was married to the illustrator and fabric designer Lyndel Clarke.

Painter who studied graphic design at Bournville College of Art, 1980, six years later gaining a government grant which enabled her to build up a group of works to show publishers. Using tiny dabs of paint, Smith created humorous cat pictures, with musical and stagey settings, which became popular signed and numbered prints. Halcyon Gallery, Birmingham, handled these and she showed at London and other provincial galleries.

Linda Jane SMITH 1962–

Artist who graduated with honours from Ravensbourne College of Art & Design, 1978–81. Group exhibitions included John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, at Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, 1982, and Critics Space 5, Air Gallery, and East End Open Studios, based at Norfolk House Studios, both 1989. In that year took part in two two-man exhibitions, at Greenwich Theatre Gallery and 369 Gallery in Edinburgh. There was a solo show at Centre 181 in 1984. Lou SMITH 1955–

Maggie SMITH 1959– Artist, born in Edinburgh, who studied at Glasgow School of Art for an honours degree, 1977–81, gaining her master’s at Royal

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College of Art, 1981–3. Group exhibitions included 1994; and Cast, Carved and Constructed at Folio Society, Royal College of Art, 1983; Rank Crawford Arts Centre, St Andrews, 1995; she had Xerox Print Collection, United Kingdom tour, a solo show there, Corpus, in 1997. Publicly sited 1986; Whitechapel Open at Whitechapel Art work included Gyle Shopping Centre, in Gallery, 1990; Salama-Caro Gallery, 1993; and Edinburgh, for Edinburgh District Council; Cross Currents, Reed’s Wharf Gallery at Barbican Tyrebagger Forest, Aberdeen, for Forest Enterprise; Centre, 1996. There Smith showed abstracts and Peatyards Rehearsal Rooms, Haddo Arts Trust, comprising brightly coloured backgrounds on Tarves, all 1994. which contrasting hard-edged discs floated. Rank Xerox, Texaco and Department of Trade & Industry Mary SMITH 1901–1981: see Mary RENNELL hold her work. Lived in north London. Mary SMITH 1904–1992 Painter in oil, born in Bury, Marcella SMITH 1887–1963 Painter, notably of Lancashire, who studied at Slade School of Fine flowers, born in East Molesey, Surrey. She studied Art, 1923–6, under Henry Tonks and Philip Wilson at Corcoran School of Art in Washington, America, Steer and was a prizewinner. She married the at the School of Design in Philadelphia, and in Assyriologist Professor Sidney Smith, lived in Iraq, Paris. She was a member of RBA, SWA of which 1928–30, London, 1930–55, and Barcombe, she was vice-president, RMS and RI as well as the Sussex, 1955–82. She painted throughout her life, Society of Artists in St Ives, Cornwall. Smith lived but part-time only. Her main works included New for many years in St Ives and acted as curator for Street, Baghdad, other tempera pictures in Iraq, Lanham’s Art Gallery in the High Street, although still lifes, occasional portraits and landscapes. She she retained a base in London. Also exhibited at was a member of WIAC, also showing with LG, RA, NEAC, RCamA and ROI. In 1955 she NEAC and regularly with the RA. Public galleries published Flower Painting in Watercolour. Died in Bury and Rochdale hold her work. From 1980 of natural causes in her bed at 1 Piazza Studios, St Mary Smith suffered from Alzheimer’s Disease and lived near her daughter in care in Australia at Ives. Dalmeny, New South Wales. Marian SMITH 1951– Painter and teacher, born in Kelso, Roxburghshire. After studying at the local Matthew SMITH 1879–1959 Painter of landscapes, High School she attended Edinburgh College of still life and figures, mainly in oil. Born at Halifax, Art, 1969–73, where her teachers included Robin Yorkshire, he worked for several years in his Philipson. She showed at Richard Demarco father’s factory before going to Manchester School Gallery, RSA, the 1974 Border Arts Festival and of Art to study design, 1900–4. Studied Slade had solo exhibitions at New Edinburgh Gallery School of Fine Art, 1905–7. Lived at several places in France for many years, briefly studying with and elsewhere. Lived in Edinburgh. Henri Matisse in 1911. Began exhibiting at the Marion SMITH 1969– Sculptor, who also Salon des Indépendants, 1911–12, then went on to experimented with media such as printmaking and exhibit widely, at Leicester Galleries, Redfern tapestry, born in St Andrews, Fife, who graduated Gallery, Arthur Tooth and Son, Goupil Gallery, with honours from Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, having his first one-man show at the Mayor Gallery, 1987–91, in 1989 attending Hoogeschool voor de 1926. Several retrospective exhibitions included Kunsten, Arnhem, Netherlands. She won several Venice Biennale, 1938, and Tate Gallery, 1953, RSA awards. Was employed as an artist/technician one of many public collections holding examples. at Scottish Sculpture Workshop, 1994, becoming He was knighted in 1954 and after his death in workshop manager, Glasgow Sculpture Studios, London there was a memorial exhibition at RA in 1996. Exhibitions included RSA from 1992; 1960, with a major show toured by the Barbican Scandex, at Aberdeen Art Gallery, in Aberdeen, Centre in 1996. Smith was a rich Colourist, 131


uncommon among English painters, whose work owed much to his years in France and the Fauve tradition, as a select exhibition, Flamboyant Colour, showed at the Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, in 2002–3. Matthew SMITH 1976– Sculptor who graduated with

honours, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1994–7, gaining his master’s at the Slade School of Fine Art in 1997–9. He won a British Academy Professional and Vocational Award, 1997–9, and an ACAVA First Base Studio Award, 2000–1. Group shows included That’s not the way to do it, Project Space, Newcastle, 1996; Connected, Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art, Sunderland, 1997; Flash, Arte et Industria Space, The Hague, Netherlands, 1999; and A Square Ground, Jerwood Gallery, 2000. Solo exhibitions included Project Space, f a projects, 2002. Merilyn SMITH 1942– Artist in all media and teacher,

born in Arbroath, Angus. She studied at Edinburgh College of Art, with Californian ceramists and Kathleen Horsman. Smith founded a ceramic workshop in Edinburgh; worked in Britain, Italy and Nigeria; then became professor of fine art at Liverpool School of Art, John Moores University. She was a member of SSA. Group shows included Walker Art Gallery and the Tate Gallery, both in Liverpool; Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and Scottish Arts Council Gallery, both Edinburgh; and abroad. Solo exhibitions included Third Eye Centre, Glasgow; Richard Demarco Gallery, Edinburgh; and Air Gallery. Her main works included Helix Aspersa Sublima Smith, 1984, and The Cutty Stool, 1995. Smith’s works are held by Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scottish Arts Council, St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh and Liverpool University.

Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and abroad. Won a Silver Medal at Paris Salon, 1935. Showed solo at Walker’s Galleries. Castle Museum and Art Gallery in Nottingham, where she lived for a long time, holds her work.

Painter in oil and watercolour and teacher, born in Walsall, Staffordshire. He studied at Manchester School of Art under Leslie Robert Baxter; at the AngloFrench Art Centre; City and Guilds School of Art, with Rodney Burn; and at Morley College under Colin Hayes. Smith painted landscapes and did topographical work in watercolour until 1965; at this time he became attracted to the work of Giorgio Morandi and began concentrating on still life in oil, at the same time becoming a visiting teacher of drawing and painting. Smith was elected to NEAC in 1970, also exhibiting at RA, RSA, RWA and Paris Salon. Showed solo at Woodlands Art Gallery and The Lusson Gallery, Ashbourne, both 1980, also at The Honor Oak Gallery, 1987. Main works included Still Life with Globe Artichokes, in a private collection, and Green Still Life with Mandolin, Edinburgh Education Department. Salford Art Gallery and St Marylebone and St Pancras local history collections hold examples. Lived in London. Norman SMITH 1910–1996

Artist and teacher, born in Berkshire, who worked in pastel and oil, creating colourful views in which purples, mauves and indigos were important. After studying art and design in Bristol, which qualified him to teach, Smith travelled extensively in India and the Far East, living for several years in Western Australia before returning to England. In 1987, Smith began to paint professionally. He had many solo exhibitions in the United Kingdom, including Thompson’s Gallery, 1998, and John Noott Galleries, Broadway, 1999, the year Smith won a Muriel Constance SMITH 1903–1993 Painter and PS Longley Memorial prize. His Landscape miniaturist, notable for portraits, born in Beyond Small Trees was included in September Gunthorpe, Nottinghamshire. She studied at Show, 2003, at The Wykeham Gallery, Nottingham College of Art and with the miniaturist Stockbridge. Lived in Oxfordshire. portrait artist Alyn Williams. She was a member of RMS for many years, also showing at RA, Paul SMITH 1961– Artist whose work included Norman SMITH 1949–

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figurative ceramics noted for their sensuous curves and dramatic, sweeping lines. Smith was born in Northampton, graduated with honours in fine art, sculpture, from Leicester Polytechnic, 1983–5, and gained a postgraduate diploma from Hertfordshire College of Art & Design, 1985. Exhibitions included Cupola Gallery, Sheffield; Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh; Buxton Art Gallery; and The Lost Gallery, Strathdon, which permanently displayed examples.

Artist using computermanipulated photographs in which he played many roles, born in Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire. Smith gained a fine art degree at Coventry, 1991–5, then his master’s in photography at the Royal College of Art, 1995–7. He sought to present his Social Realist art, which contained images of crossdressing and yobboism, in less intimidating surroundings than traditional galleries and in 1994 had a series of solo shows at The Miners’ Institute at Blackwood, Gwent, The Photographers’ Gallery and Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow. Smith’s experiences as a professional soldier were reflected in some of the work by him in the 1998 volume The New Neurotic Realism, which preceded the Neurotic Realism series of shows launched by Saatchi Gallery in 1999. The Saatchi Collection holds his work. Later exhibitions included Robert Sandelson, 2002. Lived in London. Paul M SMITH 1969–

Percy John Delf SMITH 1882–1948 Painter, printmaker

and designer, notably of books. Studied at Camberwell and Central Schools of Arts and Crafts and became master of the Art Workers’ Guild, 1941. Worked in America and the Middle East. Produced a number of books of etchings, notably The Dance of Death 1914–18 and The Singing Beggar. Exhibited RI and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and is included in several public collections. Lived in London. Peter SMITH 1920– Landscape watercolourist and still life painter in oil, born in New Malden, Surrey. He studied at Reigate Art School in 1960s, teachers including Michael Noakes. Smith painted only “when the time and inclination allows, which is

less frequently than in years gone by”. He showed with North Weald Group, East Sussex Art Club and elsewhere. Lived in Newdigate, Surrey.

Peter SMITH 1936– Painter and television director,

born in London of Australian parents. Smith pursued his two careers simultaneously. On television he directed a number of successful series: John Nettles in Bergerac and Midsomer Murders, also John Thaw in The Sweeney and Kavanagh and David Jason in A Touch of Frost. As a student at Oxford he spent much of his time studying at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Painting and went on to have several solo shows, including Views from the Motorway, at The Chambers Gallery, in 2005, alienated figures in urban situations. His two interests overlapped when, as a young film-maker, he made a documentary for the Arts Council on the artist Edward Burra. Smith drew early inspiration from exhibitions of the French Impressionists and German Expressionists and English painters of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s.

Painter, wood engraver and teacher who studied at Birmingham College of Art, going on to become head of art and design at Kingston Polytechnic. Having taken up wood engraving Smith became a member of SWE and his work was included in Agnew’s show The Broad Horizon, 1990. Peter SMITH 1946–

Peter SMITH 1949– Equestrian artist, working in oil,

who was born in Lanarkshire, his first drawing as a child being of a horse. Attended Carlisle College of Art, 1967–70 and then Glasgow School of Art for one year. Inspired by Degas, Alfred Munnings and Van Gogh, he lived and worked five miles from Ayr racecourse in Scotland, his models being horses from local stables. Also painted flat racing and steeple chasing from sketches made at Aintree, Hamilton Park, Newmarket and other British racecourses. Showed at Frost & Reed from 1983. Artist who studied at West Sussex College of Design, 1971–3, and Wimbledon School of Art, 1973–6. His group shows included Spectro Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1982; From Peter SMITH 1955–

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Gonzales to Tzara, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, 1983; “J” Warehouse, 1984; Eight by Eight, Curwen Gallery, 1987; and East End Open Studios, at Beck Road, 1989. Peter Macdonald SMITH 1945– Painter who attended

surreal drawings was held at David Holmes Contemporary Art, Peterborough, in 1993. RM, as he was known, did not exhibit during his lifetime, his painting and writings helping to exorcise his depressions. The British Museum accepted The Ravine for its permanent collection and bought a watercolour in 1994. A major exhibition of Smith’s pictures was held by Wolseley Fine Art in 2002 by which time a Trust had been set up with the intention of touring the artist’s work. The 2004–5 centenary retrospective tour to the provinces started from the Prince’s Foundation.

Falmouth School of Art, 1970–4. His work was abstract, but drew on landscape sources. Smith moved from Leicestershire to the Scillies in 1965 and after a decade in Penzance from the late 1970s returned to the Scillies where he occupied a Duchy of Cornwall Workshop on St Agnes, also a gallery for his work. He was a member of Newlyn Society of Artists and was represented in Newlyn Orion Ray SMITH 1949– Versatile sculptor and painter, Galleries’ 1989 exhibition A Century of Art in teacher and editor, who drew on popular and media Cornwall 1889–1989. images in his work, as in prizewinning picture Surface Tension at John Moores Liverpool Philip Henry SMITH 1924– Artist in oil, watercolour, Exhibition, 1989–90. Smith was born in Harrow, ink and chalk, and teacher, born in Cheltenham, Middlesex, and graduated from Trinity Hall Gloucestershire. He studied at Cheltenham School College, Cambridge, 1971. He had his first solo of Art with Gerald Gardiner, 1940–3, then at Royal show in Cambridge in 1970. Smith was a selfCollege of Art with Ruskin Spear and Carel Weight, employed artist from 1974, mainly working to 1947–50. Smith lectured at Wallasey College of commission. Among his major public commissions Art, 1950–82. He was a member of Wirral Society were works for Southampton General Hospital, of Arts and for a time of Liverpool Academy and 1985; Tesco Stores, Slough, 1990; Milton Keynes the Cheltenham Group. He had a retrospective at Development Corporation, 1992; and Leeds Williamson Art Gallery, 1974, another at Development Agency, 1994. Smith had many solo Cheltenham Art Gallery & Museum, 1996. That exhibitions, including Spacex Gallery, Exeter, was of drawings of Cheltenham, 1942–65, a 1987, and Winchester Gallery, 1990. In group valuable record of vanished and changed buildings. exhibitions he participated in Tolly Cobbold Both the Williamson and Cheltenham hold Smith’s Eastern Arts Fourth National Exhibition, 1983–4, work. Lived at Neston, South Wirral, Cheshire. and John Moores, 1987. Smith’s publications included two award-winning picture books for Ralph Maynard SMITH 1904–1964 Architect and artist in pen and watercolour. Smith studied architecture children and a number of books on art, including in London in the 1920s and became an associate The Artist’s Handbook, and he was consultant of RIBA in 1927. Later worked on Shell Centre editor on the Dorling Kindersley Art School series. and other buildings. Smith did not promote his He was a visiting lecturer at many colleges of art, personal work, which had something in common from 1978–80 was fellow in fine art at University with that of Paul Nash, being poetic and visionary. of Southampton and during 1981 was senior The terrains of Mull and Iona were early influences. lecturer at Hull College of Higher Education. Arts Two uncompleted manuscripts, The Ravine, Council, Eastern and Southern Arts and volumes 1 and 2, contain many of his ideas in prose Contemporary Art Society hold examples. Lived and poetry. Lived for some years in Tadworth, in Tintinhull, Somerset. Surrey, and in the 1950s was with the architectural Rhonda SMITH 1969– Artist, born in Glasgow, where practice of Easton & Robertson. Austin/Desmond she gained an honours degree in drawing and Fine Art showed his work and an exhibition of his painting at the School of Art, 1987–91. Awards 134


included runner-up, Young Artist of the Year, Hunting/Observer Art Prizes, 1993; and Winsor and Newton Young Artist Award, 1994. Commissions included Hilton International Hotel, Glasgow. Included in group shows at Paisley Art Institute 4th Scottish Drawing Exhibition, Paisley Museum and Art Galleries, 1991; Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, 1993; and ROI, Mall Galleries, 1994. Had a series of solo shows with Flying Colours Gallery from 1994, one at Paisley Museum, 1995. It and several corporate collections hold examples. Richard SMITH 1931– Painter and printmaker who

was briefly involved with Pop Art. He used shaped canvases and kite-like structures, sometimes aided by metal rods and strings, yet Smith was always a notable Colourist. He was born in Letchworth in Hertfordshire and studied at Luton School of Art, 1948–50. After Royal Air Force service he was at St Alban’s School of Art, 1952–4, then Royal College of Art, 1954–7, gaining a Harkness Travel Fellowship in 1959. Smith had the first of several solo shows at Green Gallery in New York in 1961, followed by one at ICA in 1962. In 1963 there was the first of a string of solos at Kasmin Gallery, the year he showed in the Tokyo Biennale. He also showed several times in the Venice Biennale, gaining a prize, and won the Grand Prize at São Paulo Bienal in 1967. From then on Smith’s career gained an impressive international impetus. In 1975 he had a retrospective at Tate Gallery. Went on to show with Knoedler Gallery, 1980–90, later exhibitions including Flowers Graphics, from 1995; Bernard Jacobson Gallery, from 1996; Jay Grimm, New York, 2001; and Flowers West, Santa Monica, California, 2002. British Council, Royal College of Art and Arts Council hold his work. He lived in New York.

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Warlingham, Surrey, the county where he settled. Smith attended Leicestershire Teacher Training College, 1976–7, gaining a fine art honours degree from Coventry School of Art, 1977–80, under Harry Weinberger, studying briefly in John Ward’s studio. He taught adult education courses in London and Sidcup, 1983–5; was

Richard SMITH 1957–

adviser on painting, Florence Trust, 1990–2; won a Carroll Foundation Young Portrait Painters Award, 1993; from 1997 taught privately in his studio; and in 1999 was invited guest artist at the RP. Smith said that reading Vincent van Gogh’s letters to his brother Theo “encouraged me to give myself to painting wholeheartedly, without a single backward glance”. His acknowledged masters were Bonnard, Balthus, Morandi and Donaldson. Later group shows included Waterman Fine Art, from 1993; Heritage House Galleries, Bermuda, 1994; David Messum Gallery, 1996; and Bourne Gallery, Reigate, 1997. Smith had solo exhibitions with Brian Sinfield Gallery, Burford, from 1992. Portrait commissions included the former Archbishop of Canterbury Dr Robert Runcie, 1985–6, and Lord Plumb, past-president of the European Parliament, and Lady Plumb, 1988–9.

Robert T H SMITH 1938– Painter and teacher, born

in Scotland, settled in Edinburgh. He attended the College of Art there, eventually becoming an assistant principal in higher education. Smith exhibited abstracts in mixed media in many group shows, and had solo exhibitions from 1969 over many years at Scottish Gallery, Edinburgh. Scottish Arts Council holds his work.

Painter of colourful, Impressionist landscapes, including continental and Mediterranean subjects, and teacher, born in Glasgow, who graduated in drawing and painting at the School of Art there in 1969. While studying, he won the John and Mabel Craig Bequest in 1966. He also gained a Carnegie Travelling Scholarship, RSA, 1969, and David Cargill Award at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, 1997, being elected a member in 1999. Group exhibitions included Compass Gallery, Glasgow, 1970; Contemporary Scottish Artists, Arthur Andersen, Glasgow, 1985; Leone Cockburn, Hong Kong, 1992; RSA, 2000; and Eighth Birthday Show, Ainscough Contemporary Art, 2003. Smith had solo exhibitions at Lillie Art Gallery, Milngavie, 1979, and Edinburgh International Festival (Leone Cockburn), 1993. From 1979, Smith was principal teacher, art and design, at Bellshill Academy,

Ronald F SMITH 1946–

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Glasgow. Leeds Education Authority, Strathclyde work. She was “interested in images of women Regional Council and several corporate collections and their own self-image”. Exhibitions included hold examples. Valvona and Crolla Café Bar, Edinburgh, and New Morning, at Maxwelltown Gallery, Dumfries, Ronn SMITH: see Ronn BEATTIE 1997. Lived in Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway. Rita SMITH fl. from 1970– Painter and artist involved

in a variety of community projects, stage and costume design, textiles, fashions, embroidery, video and dance, as well as teacher. She trained at Harrow and Coventry, graduating 1970. Was involved in secondary and tertiary education. Successful multi-arts projects included work for the English Dance Theatre’s Incommunicado, 1987; Colour Moves, an exhibition installation for the production of Going Away by the Scottish Ballet’s Steps Out company, 1987; and In Plaster, 1989. In 1991–2 Semana Santa was a Collins Gallery, University of Strathclyde, touring show.

Creator of beautifully crafted, fantastic painted sculptures, born in Southampton. A lonely, introspective child, he “always wanted to be an artist”, went to art school, but the 1930s Depression meant that he had to become a handyman and advertising illustrator. Also developed as a craft toymaker, especially of small boats. During World War II illustrated bridgebuilding manuals. After the war his creations were shown at Royal Festival Hall, prompting an American from Design Research to buy and commission objects from Smith which sold well, so that he could give up advertising work. Smith’s objects became bigger, more elaborate and less toy-like, based on childhood memories and colourful characters, witty but a stringent comments on society. Smith had a retrospective at Bristol City Art Gallery in 1972. There was a notable show at the Serpentine Gallery in 1980– 1. In 1976 the Arts Council made a film: Sam Smith.Genuine.England. Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, held a small retrospective in 2001. Southampton City Art Gallery holds Smith’s work. He lived latterly at Dartmouth, Devon. Sam SMITH 1908–1983

Sarah L SMITH 1978– Painter, studying at Glasgow

School of Art in mid-1990s, producing figurative

Painter, born in London, who moved to Bristol in early 1950s. He was educated at Ludlow Grammar School and studied ceramics at West of England College of Art, with brief studies in Cardiff. In Bristol he set up a graphic and interior design partnership in 1971, in 1973 forming a design-and-build firm. On moving to the country in 1978 he began painting, wide travels abroad influencing his work. From 1985 Smith moved away from figurative painting and began work on bigger, multiple canvases in an abstract style. He said that he was “increasingly involved in the exploration of the complex relationships between space, form and structure” employing a variety of materials, such as industrial paint and adhesive. Showed solo at Cleveland Bridge Gallery, Bath, and the Old Vic Theatre Gallery, Bristol. In the early 1990s produced a series of installation works “based on the global political problems of innocent bystanders caught up in political power struggles”. Showed solo, combining installations and paintings at Colston Street Gallery, Bristol, 1993 and Whiteleys Gallery, London, 1994. Moved to the south of France in 1996, having a three-man show with Richard Long and Serge de Hildebrout in Antibes in 1999.

Sebastian SMITH 1943–

Shirley SMITH 1933– Artist,

born in London, who studied at West Dean College with the printmaker Sarah Van Niekerk, 1990, and whose career was as an engineering and architectural draughtswoman. She took part in exhibitions with the SWE and RWA and at the South West Academy, Exeter. The sea and boats were key themes. Solo show venues included the Mansion, Totnes in Devon, where she lived.

Mural painter and draughtsman, born in Belfast, who studied at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution, attended local College of Art in evenings and had private

Sidney SMITH 1912–1982

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lessons from R Boyd Morrison. Exhibited at RHA, RUA and RBA, contributed drawings of air raids in World War II to Ulster Museum and gained a name painting portraits of military personnel. He painted a first mural at British Restaurant in Belfast, then shortly after the war moved to London where he established an international reputation as a muralist. In the mid-1960s he completed a huge mural for the Playhouse Theatre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, under the patronage of Lord and Lady Beaverbrook. Also painted murals in a number of liners, including Canadian Pacific’s Empress of Britain. Simon SMITH 1929– Painter and draughtsman, born

in Wallington, Surrey. Attended Kingston School of Art, 1946, then the Slade School of Fine Art under Randolph Schwabe. Showed at RA, NEAC and RI. Lived in Tadworth, Surrey.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker, teacher and writer, born in Hull, Yorkshire. He attended St Albans School of Art. Went on to write several art instructional books, became head of Ruskin School in Oxford, also teaching at Royal College of Art and most major art schools in the United Kingdom. Smith was a figurative painter, concerned with the “twentiethcentury continuation of the great tradition following Cézanne and Picasso”. He was for a time president of LG, and was active in Society of Landscape Painters and RWS. Other group appearances included RA, RI, Whitechapel Art Gallery and John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. Had solo shows which included Gallery 10, Morley Gallery and the provinces. Chantrey Bequest holds his work. Lived in Brighton, Sussex. There was a retrospective at the Piers Feetham Gallery in 2002. Stan SMITH 1929–2001

Stephanie SMITH: see SMITH/Edward STEWART

entry for Stephanie

Artists who collaborated for many exhibitions, but who also worked independently. Stephanie Smith was born in 1968 in Manchester, where she did a foundation year at the Polytechnic, 1986–7, graduating from Slade School of Fine Art, 1987–91. Edward Stewart was born in 1961 in Belfast, Northern Ireland; after a foundation year at the University of Ulster, 1984– 5, he graduated from Glasgow School of Art, 1985– 8, gaining his master’s degree there, 1988–90. Smith/Stewart, whose work obtained extensive media coverage in Britain and abroad, held a residency at Tramway, Glasgow, 1995, and gained a Scottish Arts Council Artists Award, 1995–6. They were participating artists (Smith, 1991–3; Stewart, 1990–2) at Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Collaborative exhibitions included Gallery at Rijksakademie, 1992–3; New Visions, International Film & Video Festival, Glasgow, 1994; Video Positive, Tate Gallery, 1995; Biennale d’Art Contemporain, Lyon, France, 1995–6; Video Screening Programme, Anthony d’Offay, 1996; and they took part in Video Positive 97, Green Room in Manchester and Open Eye, Liverpool, both 1997. Smith/Stewart won Tate Gallery Tokyo Residencies for 2000, collaborating with Bridget Smith. Stephanie SMITH/Edward STEWART

Artist creating works using a wide range of site-specific materials, who was also engaged in performance. Smith was born and lived in east London, doing a foundation course at East Ham College, 1972–4; graduating with first-class honours, Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1974– 8; taking his master’s in fine art, Birmingham Stanley SMITH 1893– Artist in oil and watercolour, Polytechnic, 1984–5. In 1997 he gained Pollockborn in Halifax, Yorkshire, married to the Krasner Foundation, London Arts Board and Arts watercolourist Ethel May Smith. He studied at Council Awards. Smith was granted a Chadwick Halifax School of Art, 1908–13, then Royal Research Fellowship, Cheltenham, 1990–1; Byam College of Art, 1913–19, under Gerald Moira and Shaw School of Art Henry Moore Fellowship, W R Lethaby. Went on to exhibit at RA, Fine Art 1998; and Sargent Fellowship, Rome, 1998–9. He Society and widely in provinces. Lived in Stafford. co-directed Simple, performed by Gary Stevens at Serpentine Gallery in 1990 and was a performer Terry SMITH 1956–

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in Stuff, by Stevens, at the RA, in 1993. Audio works included Fabrication, Darmstadt, Germany, 1996, and Incoming call, Answer machine, 1999; video works Marking time, two screens, filmed on SPBeta, 1999, and Unnatural Acts, three screens, first shown in Mexico, 2000. Smith’s work was prolifically chronicled in the art and other press in Britain and abroad, his own publications including Site Unseen, 1997, and Marking Time, 2000. He took part in numerous mixed shows, later solo exhibitions including Unseen Stories, Rowley’s House Museum, Shrewsbury; Group Show, Rocket Gallery; and Marking Time, LUX Gallery, all 2000. Book collections holding Smith’s productions included the Victoria & Albert Museum; Tate Gallery, British Council; Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, and New York Public Library, both in America; and other university and foreign collections. The British Museum and other public and corporate collections hold his art work.

often featuring glass”. Smith’s strong interest in music produced many studies of classical and jazz musicians, shown at the Fairfield Halls, Croydon, and with other subjects at Guildford House, Guildford, both 1985. She was a member of Reigate Society of Artists and an associate of ROI, also showing with RP, RB and NEAC. Smith exhibited in the Hunting Art Prizes from 1987 and was included in The Bourne Gallery, Reigate, 30th Anniversary Exhibition, 2001.

Artist and teacher, born in Mansfield, Yorkshire. She studied at Nottingham College of Art, 1965–8, Slade School of Fine Art, 1968–70, and University of York, 1975–6. Went on to teach in fine art departments at Norwich School of Art and Manchester Polytechnic, 1970– 5, later being visiting artist at Leicester Polytechnic. Group exhibition appearances included Three Artists at Kettle’s Yard Gallery, 1979, and in 1980 Summer Show 2 at Serpentine Gallery, where she Tony SMITH 1953– Painter and printmaker, born in showed geometrical abstract drawings. Solo shows Birmingham. Studied at Loughborough College included Park Square Gallery in Leeds, 1978, of Art and Newcastle University. Gained a prize where she lived. at Northern Arts Exhibition in 1978 and five years later at Tyne Tees Northern Open. Granted a Tessa SMITH-AGASSI 1942–1998 Artist, mainly in Northern Arts Major Bursary in 1984, a Grizedale watercolour and inks, textile designer and teacher, Forest Residency in 1985 and two years later was who was born in London. Sister of Sebastian Smith. artist-in-residence at Lowick House Print Educated at St Martin’s College of Art, 1959–61 Workshop, Cumbria. His group appearances and Central School of Art & Design, 1961–64. included Shipley Art Gallery, Gateshead; Died in car crash with art historian husband Meir Newcastle Group at Richard Demarco Gallery, Agassi and young son in 1998, when she was Edinburgh, and Centrum Beeldende Kunst, principal lecturer/director of studies in design for Groningen, Netherlands, 1988; and DLI Museum floorcoverings and interior textiles, Kidderminster & Arts Centre, Durham, 1990, in the Newcastle College, and external assessor, Shenkar College Group show The Northern Lights. His solo shows of Fashion and Textiles, Tel-Aviv, Israel. At included Chester Arts Centre, 1979, and Moira Kidderminster, she was an inspirational teacher Kelly Gallery from 1980. Arts Council holds his “who unlocked her students’ developing talent”, her own work neglected because of the burden of work. Lived in Newcastle upon Tyne. teaching and administration. Smith-Agassi Valerie SMITH 1936– Artist in various media, born maintained that, with the right encouragement, in London, who had “no formal art college training, anyone could draw, and her unrealised ambition but several excellent teachers: John Cook, Leonard was to set up a drawing school. Showed in design Daniels, Arthur Easton, George Israel, Neville exhibitions London, Manchester and Frankfurt Moseley and Alan Moss.” Her main inspiration and, in 1989, drawings at The Guild Gallery, “comes from the human face and figure and its Bristol, where she lived. As a painter, she near surroundings” and “a constant love is still life, specialised in detailed botanical studies, and Wendy SMITH 1946–

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illustrated Flowers of Israel, 1985, text by Avi Eliasaf. At the time of his death husband Meir Agassi, born 1947, had accumulated an immense art historical archive, and was working on a study of “art by non-artists”. He had also created a series of “alter egos” whose imaginary work he documented and publicised, a small memorial exhibition of this being held at the Cairn Gallery, Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, 1998. Plans were also made to commemorate his life by establishing a permanent Agassi museum in Israel.

Fiona SMITH-DARRAGH 1956– Self-taught sculptor, born in Bedfordshire, who worked as a graphic designer in Dublin, Ireland, where she studied bronze casting at the National College of Art & Design, 1994–7. Smith-Darragh was particularly interested in depicting endangered and native species, her works being “not only decorative but as a reference for the future.” The “naïve shapes of my pieces are inspired by the drawings of early American naturalists of the eighteenth century, such as Audubon and Bartram.” Her exhibitions included Soar Gallery, and Solomon Gallery, Dublin, both 1997; Jorgensen Fine Art, Dublin, from 1998; Wren Gallery, Burford, from 2000; and The Lost Gallery, Strathdon, 2003. Pete SMITHSON 1956– He graduated with honours

from Goldsmiths’ College, 1975–8. Smithson was included in Paper Trails, Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool, 1984; Whitechapel Open, at Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1984–8; Charioteers and Arabian Nights, Wrexham Library Arts Centre, 1987; Gathering Rites, The Pitt Rivers Museum of Ethnography, Oxford, 1988; and East End Open Studios, at Carpenter’s Road, 1989. Pete Smithson – Sculpture, was at Dean Clough Contemporary Art Gallery, Halifax, in 1986. Ronald SMOOTHEY 1913–1996 Painter and teacher,

born in Rochford, Essex, who studied at Guildford School of Art and Goldsmiths’ College where he obtained his art teacher’s certificate first class. For 32 years Smoothey was head of art at the Grammar School in Guildford, Surrey, where he lived. He also pioneered adult classes for 30 years and

examined and taught courses in many areas. He was the first British teacher to travel to Hawaii on a Fulbright Award, 1953–4. Won a design competition for the Italian partisan war memorial at Pastorello, near Parma, 1946. Smoothey was president of Guildford Art Society and a member of Midhurst Art Society and showed at NS. Had solo exhibitions at Guildford House Gallery from 1962, also at Universities of Surrey and Leicester, Cranleigh College, Yvonne Arnaud Theatre in Guildford and elsewhere. His marionettes were shown in national exhibitions in London, Manchester and Liverpool. Guildford Borough Council, Cable and Wireless and colleges of education hold his work. Guildford House held a memorial show of abstract work in 1997.

John Frederick SMOUT 1938– Painter, draughtsman

and teacher, born in Oldbury, Worcestershire. After studying at the local Grammar School, Smout attended Stourbridge College of Art, 1961–5, then Liverpool College of Art, 1965–6. Showed in group exhibitions in Midlands and Wales and had solo exhibitions, including Coleg Harlech, Wales, several in Chester and Alternative Visions, at Oriel/Gallery, Llangollen, Clwyd, where Smout lived, in 1996. This included his latest work, introducing letter forms and shapes as an integral part of the image. Montague SMYTH 1863–1965 Painter of atmospheric

landscapes, born and based in London, who spent several early childhood years with his mother in New Zealand, returning to live with his grandmother. Was educated at Leamington College and Cambridge University, abandoned the idea of an Army career, then studied art alone on the continent. His only lessons were from Fred Brown at Westminster School of Art and in Italy. Smyth had early success, in 1894 joining the RBA and showing at RA; having a solo show at Dowdeswell Galleries in 1899; in 1904 joining the ROI. He became its president, also of the London Sketch Club of which he was a founder-member in 1898. In 1905 Smyth travelled through China and Japn, resulting pictures illustrating books on the countries and forming the basis of a solo exhibition at Baillie

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Gallery, 1906. In 1914 Smyth falsified his age and served with the Artists’ Rifles. Supported by a small private income Smyth, a keen sportsman, continued active as an artist until he died. His last one-man exhibition was at the Fine Art Society in 1921. Belgrave Gallery organised a touring show in 1978. Painter mainly in oil and occasionally acrylic, and teacher, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland. He was also known as N W J Smyth. Self-taught as an artist, Smyth gave lessons in private classes and for adult education. His main interests were “light and its effect on colour and form, the human figure in its traditional environment”. Smyth was an associate of RUA, also taking part in group shows at RHA; Irish National Portrait Exhibition in Dublin; the Mall, King Street and Oliver Swann Galleries; and Ulster Arts Club, Belfast. Solo exhibitions included Ardowen Arts Centre, Enniskillen; Bell Gallery, Belfast; and Oriel Gallery, Dublin. Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland holds his work. Lived in Hillsborough, County Down. Norman SMYTH 1933–

N W J SMYTH: see Norman SMYTH

Olive Carleton SMYTH 1882–1949 Artist and teacher,

born in Glasgow, where she settled in Cambuslang. She was the sister of the painter Dorothy Carleton Smyth, who predeceased her. Olive, who signed her work O C S, studied at Glasgow School of Art, where she went on to teach, becoming head of design. Her work, in a variety of styles, was shown at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, RSA, RHA, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and elsewhere. Miss Smyth was a fresco specialist and had work accepted in several public galleries internationally. Her Pytheas buys Amber was illustrated in the 1923 Studio volume Figure Painting in Water-colours. Minnie SMYTHE fl. from c.1895–1955 Watercolourist,

daughter of the artist Lionel Percy Smythe, born and lived in London. She was educated in France, living in the Pas de Calais in the mid-1890s. Was elected RWS in 1937 where she showed extensively, also

RHA and elsewhere.

SNAFFLES: see Charles Johnson PAYNE

Stella SNEAD 1910–2006 Painter, photographer and

collagist producing Surrealist work but sufficiently unknown in her native England to go unlisted in the index of Michel Remy’s authoritative 1999 study Surrealism in Britain. She was born in London to Clarence Snead, who insisted that his daughter be called Magdalene, not Stella, as his rich wife Ethel preferred. Clarence’s black madness prompted Ethel and Stella to flee him to Leicester from where, after village schools, Stella attended the progressive St Christopher’s School Letchworth. After studying French in Paris she returned to a secretarial course in England; was unable to work because of depression, took to painting while on holiday in Tenerife; then studied it back in London for three years under Amédée Ozenfant. Escaping World War II in America, Snead travelled widely, mixing with Surrealists in New York and working prolifically for three years based in New Mexico. After in 1949 travelling through the Caribbean; depression in London; a train tour of India; and return to New York; India drew her back from 1956–71. There, she concentrated on photographing ancient sculptures and monuments, assembled in the books Ruins in Jungles, 1962; Shiva’s Pigeons, text by Jon and Rumer Godden, 1972; and Animals in Four Worlds, 1989. Returned to New York in 1971, she converted photographs into collages. In 1950, the London Gallery had shown work by Snead and sculpture by Rolanda Polansky in An hommage to the collagist Kurt Schwitters. Snead returned to painting in 1987, developing some of her 1940s images. Her singular work, dealing with human and animal figures and a variety of landscapes and galaxies, is notable for an infusion of wit and humour.

Andrew SNEDDON 1966– Figurative artist and lecturer, born in Scotland, who graduated with honours in printmaking from Glasgow School of Art, 1984–8; gaining his master’s in fine art there, exhibiting at Leicester Galleries, Fine Art Society, SWA, 1998–90; attending the British School at Rome, 140


1990–1. He became lecturer in charge of printmaking at Sheffield Hallam University. Exhibitions included Angela Reid and Andrew Sneddon, Rozelle Galleries, Ayr, 1989; The Ideal Head, Museum of Classical Archaeology, Cambridge, 1992. Artefacts of Time, Glasgow Print Studio, 1993; Work Ethics, Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, 1994; and The Large Print Show, Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, 1997, as he was preparing for a solo show at Peacock Printmakers, Aberdeen. Lived in Heeley, Sheffield, Yorkshire.

Eric SNELL 1953– Artist and lecturer, born in Guernsey, Channel Islands, who did a foundation course at Birmingham Polytechnic, 1972–3, graduating with first-class honours from Hornsey College of Art, 1973–6. Awards included DAAD International Artist-in-Residence Stipendium, Berlin, 1985–6; Cité Internationale des Arts Scholarship, Paris, 1992–3; Civic Trust Award, Royal Society of Arts, for design of Liberation Monument, 1997; Participant, Roswell Artist-inResidence Programme, New Mexico, America, 1999–00; and Arts Council of England Fellowship, residency, The Institute of Modern Art, Brisbane, Australia, 2002. Snell set up and then headed the School of Art and Design, Guernsey, 1994, his British and foreign visiting lectureships latterly including Portsmouth University, 1998–9, and Okanagan University College, Kelowna, British Columbia, 2000. He took part in numerous international group shows, his many solo exhibitions latterly including Postionen, Bauhaus, Desssau, Germany, 1999; University of Queensland Art Museum, Brisbane, Australia, 2001–2; and Queensland College of Art Gallery, Brisbane, 2003.

Painter in oil who was born in Durban, South Africa. In England she studied under Augustus John and Boris Anrep after initial schooling at Wycombe Abbey, in Buckinghamshire. Medici Society reproduced her work, which was exhibited extensively at Fine Art Society and Redfern Gallery, also at RA, NEAC, Paris Salon and elsewhere. Lived in London, then East Ashling, Sussex. Olive SNELL fl. c.1910–1955

Rosie SNELL 1971– Painter, draughtsman and printmaker, born in Littlehampton, Sussex, who studied at Northbrook College of Art and Design, Horsham, 1988–90; Loughborough College of Art and Design, 1991–4; and Norwich School of Art and Design, 1994–5. Awards included Elizabeth Greenshields Awards, 1994 and 1997; Royal Bath and West Scholarship, 1996; and runner-up at NatWest Art Prize, 1997. Exhibited large, meticulously painted unpeopled landscapes, sometimes including industrial hardware, as in her solo show at Paton Gallery, 1997. Residencies included mentally handicapped art therapy, Park Road Day Centre, Loughborough, 1993, Florence Trust Studios, Highbury, 1998, and, in 1998–9, Berwick Gymnasium Art Gallery, Berwick-uponTweed, with in 1999 an accompanying show which travelled to Paton Gallery. Saatchi Collection bought her work, which was partly influenced by Paul Nash. Lived in London. John SNELLING 1943–1992 Watercolourist, teacher

and writer, born in Newcastle Emlyn, Carmarthenshire. He was a self-taught artist who lectured on liberal studies at Maidstone College of Art, 1966–71, then travelled overland to India and Nepal and in the early 1970s on his return to England became a Buddhist, general secretary of the London Buddhist Society and editor of its journal The Middle Way. His career as a writer and broadcaster reflected his religious interests. The Buddhist Handbook was a major work. Suffering for many years from leukaemia he settled finally at the Sharpham North Community, near Totnes, Devon, showing his watercolour landscapes locally and in London. Died in Totnes.

Lilian SNELLING 1879–1972 Precise botanical artist,

some of whose work appeared as hand-coloured lithographs. She was born and lived in St Mary Cray, Kent, and was at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 1916–21. Her work appeared in a number of specialist magazines and books, including F Stoker’s Book of Lilies, 1943, and F C Stern’s Study of Genus Paeonia, 1946. In 1955, Snelling was awarded the Victoria Medal of Honour by the Royal Horticultural Society; its

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library holds material relating to her. The Hunt with Ben Nicholson and other advanced St IvesLibrary in Pennsylvania, America, has her portrait. based artists. He was a co-founder of the Peterloo Group in Manchester in 1957 and had a solo Chris R H SNOOK 1950– Artist and teacher who exhibition there in 1959. Other solo shows were studied at Maidstone College of Art, 1970–3, and held in St Ives and at Rowan Gallery in 1964 and Royal Academy Schools, 1973–6. Went on to teach he showed widely in group exhibitions in London at Sir John Cass Art School and was included in and the provinces as well as overseas. He taught Artists in Adult Education, 1982, Woodlands Art for some years at Exeter College of Art. Had a Gallery. Also showed at RA Summer Exhibition retrospective at Gordon Hepworth Gallery, Exeter, from 1972, RBA from 1978 and Portrait Award at in 1993, and there was an overview of his work at National Portrait Gallery, 1981. Lived in London. John Hansard Gallery, Southampton University, 2002. Harry SNOOK 1944– Artist and teacher, born in

Gower, West Glamorgan. He studied at Hornsey College of Art from 1961, from 1968 teaching appointments including Bradford, Watford and Exeter Schools of Art and Birmingham Polytechnic. Had a first solo exhibition at Edinburgh Gallery West, Los Angeles, others including Ibis Gallery, Leamington Spa, 1979. Snook was notable for untitled wood reliefs, as included in The British Art Show, 1980, chosen by the critic William Packer and toured by the Arts Council, which holds his work. Graham SNOW 1948– Artist

whose work included constructions and performances. He studied at Hornsey College of Art, 1968–71, then Slade School of Fine Art, 1971–3. From 1975–7 was Research Fellow at Nihon University, Tokyo; 1979–80, artist-in-residence, Cambridge University; then Gulbenkian Video Fellow, 1980. His performances included Mythologies, at Garage Fine Art, 1974, and Annunciation, St Peter’s Church in Cambridge, 1979. Solo exhibitions included Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1978; Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 1979; 12 Duke Street Gallery, 1983; and Galleria Grafica, Tokyo, 1984. Arts Council holds his work. Artist and teacher, born in Manchester. He was educated at Lawrence Sheriff School, Rugby, worked for three years in Cheshire, then settled in Cornwall in 1952. He was elected to membership of the Penwith Society, became secretary in 1954 and showed regularly until resigning in 1965. Snow was closely associated Michael SNOW 1930–

Painter, designer and teacher, born and lived in London. In 1946 he worked as a journalist for the South London Press and studied at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art before joining the Royal Engineers, 1946–8, announcing for the Forces’ Broadcasting Service in the Middle East. From 1948–53 Snow studied painting at Slade School of Fine Art, joining its staff in 1957. In 1962 he was commissioned to design an altarpiece for St Mathias Church. His extensive theatre designing experience began in 1951 when he designed Love’s Labours Lost for Rupert Doone in Southwark. Also designed for the English Opera Group and Joan Littlewood’s Theatre Workshop; in 1955 he designed a ballet for Frederick Ashton at the Royal Opera House, also Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot at the Arts Theatre. Also worked for Ballets Minerva and Western Theatre Ballet Company and in 1971 and 1975 designed and wrote the multimedia Reflections I and Reflections II in London and Cardiff. He founded The Electric Theatre Company in 1970. In 1979 an exhibition of Theatre Designs was held at Sadler’s Wells Theatre. In addition to extensive group shows Snow showed solo from a 1956 exhibition at the Prospect Gallery, having a retrospective at Morley Gallery, 1995. In 2002, Guildhall Art Gallery acquired Snow’s unsettling St Mary’s Gardens – Night and Rain. Of such night scenes, many of his Kennington locality, Snow said that they were “about threat, really…often concerned with rain. Nobody paints rain, I thought. Why not paint it and the way the light catches it and changes the

Peter SNOW 1927–

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colour.” In 2003 Snow suffered several minor strokes, leaving him with vascular dementia, and he moved to a nursing home in Salisbury, Wiltshire. In 2005, his daughter Selina organised another retrospective at Snow’s London house, 131 Kennington Park Road.

Hilda Mary SNOWDEN 1910– Artist in wide variety of media, including stone carving and collage, and writer and illustrator, born in Bradford, where she continued to live. Professionally she was in charge of the accounts office for British Rail, Bradford, attending the local College of Art’s evening classes for over 30 years, as well as Positano Art Workshop, Italy. She showed at Cartwright Hall, Bradford, in Ilkley, elsewhere in Yorkshire and in London, and was a member of art societies in Bradford and Shipley. After retirement Snowden gained a history honours degree through the Open University, in 1989 publishing Under Stag’s Fell, the story of Simonstone Hall in the Dales, which she researched, wrote and illustrated.

the responsibilities of marriage, eventually becoming chairman. He contributed to many learned journals and books on jewellery, his own books including The Art of Carl Fabergé, 1953; Eighteenth Century Gold Boxes of Europe, 1966; Eighteenth Century Gold Boxes of Paris, 1974; Carl Fabergé, Goldsmith to the Imperial Court of Russia, 1979; and Fabergé Lost and Found, 1993. Snowman was involved in a number of Fabergé exhibitions, including one for Queen Elizabeth’s Silver Jubilee in 1977 at the Victoria & Albert Museum. He held several royal appointments; was president of the British Antique Dealers’ Association, 1976–7; chairman of the Burlington House Fair, at the RA, until 1989; and a liveryman of the Goldsmiths’ Company. Snowman first showed at the RA in 1939; made civil defence and war paintings; showed at Paris Salon and Leicester Galleries; and had a solo exhibition at Browse and Darby in 1999. He illustrated several children’s books.

Mainly a portrait painter in a variety of media, she studied using also wax and plaster for bronze, and teacher, at Chelsea Polytechnic, 1919–20, under John born in Billinghay, Lincolnshire. He studied at Revel. Sometimes just signing her work C W S, Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1953–62, she showed at RA, RP, RBA and in the Midlands. under Karel Vogel. Taught anatomy and sculpture Lived in London. at Camberwell, 1956–62, then taught at Edinburgh College of Art from 1964. He was elected RSA in Hazel SOAN 1954– Artist, writer and teacher, born 1985. Took part in numerous group exhibitions, in Woking, Surrey, trained at Camberwell and solo shows including Leicester Galleries, 1971; Leicester Art Colleges, 1972–6. She eventually Bruton Gallery, 1973; Lamp of Lothian Gallery, divided her time between Cape Town, South Africa, Haddington, 1981; and English Speaking Union and London, where she had a studio gallery, Gallery, Edinburgh, 1984. Snowden received travelled globally and held a private pilot’s licence. commissions for Livingston New Town, Soan lectured on a range of subjects and appeared Cumbernauld New Town and Royal Bank of on television, presenting two painting series for Scotland fountain at Kelvingrove, Glasgow. Arts Anglia, Splash of Colour, 1997–8, appearing on Council holds his work. Lived in Edinburgh. the BBC’s The Great Picture Chase, 1990, as well as ITV’s Wish You Were Here, 1998, Central Abraham Kenneth SNOWMAN 1919–2002 Jeweller, Television’s Central Weekend Live, 2001, and writer, painter and illustrator, born and lived in Channel 4’s series Watercolour Challenge, 2000– London, who studied art for four years, briefly at 2. She was the author of several books, including St Martin’s School of Art, then Byam Shaw School Hazel Soan’s African Watercolours, 2003, and was under F Ernest Jackson. Snowman contemplated a consultant and contributor to other books and a career as an artist, but, on meeting his wife, in magazines. London Contemporary Art, 1940 joined the family firm Wartski, to cope with Washington Green, Athena International, Verkeker Michael SNOWDEN 1930– Sculptor, clay modelling

Corisande Wentworth SOAMES 1901–

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and Scandecor were among firms issuing her limited-edition prints. Notable commissions included watercolours for The Ritz Club calendars, from 2000; Nazareth House Mural Painting, Cape Town, Christ on Table Mountain, 2001; and a series of paintings for the Earth Summit (Rio+10 Conference), Johannesburg, 2002. Among Soan’s group exhibitions were the RA Summer Exhibition and Mall, Thompson’s, Richmond and Thackeray Galleries, plus over 20 international shows in Britain and abroad. Trowbridge Museum and Art Gallery; Highgrove House; The Ritz Club; BBC Television; Lister Hospital; Hilton Hotel, Durban; BP Oil, and many other corporate collections hold examples.

Creator of articulated wooden animals, birds and fish, which he referred to as Wobbly Wood. Soan attended the toy design course at London College of Furniture (later London Guildhall University), taught by John Gould, who wrote: “I would normally hesitate to describe anyone as a genius but I think in the field of wooden toys Jeff Soan is such a being.” Soan used reclaimed wood extensively and achieved sinuousness by cutting this into narrow sections and securing it to canvas. Awards included British Toymakers Guild Polka Prize, 1989; Guild Cup, 1990–3–4–9; and Charles Boulton Cup, Toymaker of the year, 1995. Among his exhibitions were The River, Stoke-on-Trent Museum and Art Gallery; The Northern Centre for Contemporary Art; Leeds City Art Gallery; solo at The Medici Galleries, 1999; and Wobbly Wood and Sculpture at The John Russell Gallery, Ipswich, in 2005.

Jeff SOAN 1945–

Painter and draughtsman, born in London, who in early 1930s gained a scholarship to St Martin’s School of Art. Served in the Army in World War II and retired to Kent. In 1949 he visited Israel. Had a show at Ben Uri Art Society in 1969, and it holds his work. Maurice SOCHACHEWSKY 1918–1969

Artist in watercolour and gouache on paper and teacher, born in Taunton, Somerset. He did a foundation course at Taunton College of Art, 1974–5; gained a first-class honours Robert SODEN 1955–

degree, fine art painting, from Birmingham Polytechnic, 1975–8; then his master’s from Royal College of Art’s painting school, 1979–82. Teachers included Alan Miller and Mario Dubsky. Soden wrote that he was “a painter of contemporary and political themes,” much work stemming “from a dialogue with the English topographical tradition of landscape painting, in particular Girtin, Cotman and Turner.” Among his many awards were, latterly, a Northern Arts Major Print Bursary, Lowick House Print Workshop, Cumbria, 1992; First Prize Open Class, Honiton Festival Art Competition, 1994; and 1st Prize, The Journal (Newcastle) Art Competition, 1996, being runnerup in 1997. From 1983 he held a number of visiting lectureships in polytechnic and university fine arts departments in Birmingham, Newcastle, Bristol, Newport, Leicester and Sunderland, and he also held many residencies and placements. Among a string of commissions were London Tourist Board, Silver Jubilee, 1988; National Museum of Science and Industry, Science Museum, 1994; and University of Sunderland, 1995. Among later numerous group showings were Artists’ London, Museum of London, 1992–3; British Watercolours, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne, 1993–4; Drawing Outside, Sunderland Museum and Art Gallery, Sunderland, 1994–5; and City Journeys, London Arts Café, 1996. Had a solo show at Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield, 1984, others including Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and State House, Cologne, 1987; Eye Diary, Bede Gallery, Jarrow, 1992; and Review, Durham Art Gallery and DLI Museum, Durham, 1995. Lived in Sunderland, Tyne & Wear.

Painter of landscapes and still life, notable for rich colour and vigorous handling, born in London. From 1975–8 obtained honours degree in English language and literature at Oxford University. After a foundation course at Wimbledon School of Art, 1978–9, Sofroniou studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1979–82, obtaining a first-class honours degree. Group exhibitions included RI from 1987; Jonathan Poole Gallery, Woodstock, 1989; and Medici

Michael SOFRONIOU 1957–

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who emigrated to Britain. He became a member of the Freier Deutscher Kulturbund (FDKB), or Free German League of Culture, founded in 1939 with the painter Oskar Kokoschka officially at its head and headquartered in the home of the artist Fred Uhlman in Downshire Hill, Hampstead. Most of the League’s members were not political, but it contained a small, influential Communist element. The League helped organise exhibitions, such as Themoulla SOFRONIOU 1966– Artist in mixed media a solo show for John Heartfield at the Arcade and actress who studied at Waltham Forest College Gallery, 1939, and Artists Aid Jewry, at and Polytechnic of East London. She exhibited in Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1943. Sokol’s wife group shows at Ben Uri Gallery, Smiths Galleries survived him in northwest London. and in England & Co, 1992, in Art in Boxes. In previous year had a solo exhibition at Leytonstone Nils SOLBERG 1920–1955 Painter, born in Melmoth, Library. Sofroniou called her painstakingly South Africa. Studied art for several years in Natal assembled boxes “cupboards of the mind.” She with Merlyn Evans prior to World War II, then at began creating them as therapy for a traumatic Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art, 1946–8, childhood. As the youngest of eight in a Greek with Norman Blamey and Clifford Hall. Showed Cypriot family in north London, she became chief at RA, RBA and at several venues in South Africa, carer for a paralysed brother, a sister with cerebral including a one-man show in Durban, South Africa, palsy and a mother at odds with her husband and 1953, where Solberg lived. struggling to cope. The boxes explored Sofroniou’s life and interpreted the essence of places as diverse Gary SOLLARS 1958– Figurative painter, born in as St Stephen’s Church, Rosslyn Hill; a castle on Chester, Cheshire, who after a two-year foundation the isle of Mull, where her work toured in 2003, course with Jack Shaw graduated from Middlesex the year of her retrospective at Mexico Gallery, Polytechnic, 1986–90. In the early 1980s Sollars Fleet Road; and Noël Coward’s family drama This supported himself managing clothes shops in Happy Breed, filmed in 1944 by her favourite Chester and London, where he also ran seconddirector, David Lean. As an actress, Sofroniou hand clothes stalls. Group shows included BP worked in musicals and on the Edinburgh Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, and Sussex Open (Overall Prize winner), both 1996; International Festival fringe. Liverpool Biennale, 1999; and The Times of Our Tasadaq SOHAIL 1930– Miniaturist and Lives, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, 2000, watercolourist, born in India, but during violence where Sollars’ moving and enigmatic My Partner. caused by partition he and his family fled to Philip Munro. Died 13.1.89. Aged 34 hung Pakistan. Moved to England in early 1960s and alongside works by Goya, Rembrandt, Andy attended St Martin’s School of Art as an evening Warhol and Maggi Hambling. “Personal feelings” student for eight years. Sohail’s pictures were full were a key theme in his work. His solo shows of brightly coloured imaginary creatures in idyllic included Drill Hall, 1996; Surfers’ Paradise, settings and radiated hope and harmony. Solo Internet Bar, 1997; and Sussex Arts Club, 1998. exhibitions included Indus Gallery, Karachi, from Among Sollars’ later exhibitions were Liverpool 1977; October Gallery, 1979; South Bank Centre, Biennial and Blundell Street, both 2002; Walker 1991; Gallery 2000, Sweden, 1992; and Boundary Art Gallery, Liverpool, 2003; Berliner Kunstsalon, Berlin, Germany, 2005; and John Moores Gallery, 1993. Exhibition, in Liverpool where he lived, 2006. Max SOKOL 1896–1973 German painter and sculptor Society and Edith Grove Gallery, both 1990. Had a solo show at Westgate Central Library, Oxford, 1987, and during Oxford Art Week in 1989 and 1990 and in 1994 shared an exhibition at John Davies, Stow-on-the-Wold. In 1991–2 Sofroniou was artist-in-residence at Royal Shakespeare Company, Stratford-upon-Avon. Lived in Gloucestershire.

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Painter, printmaker and teacher who studied at St John’s Wood School of Art and the Royal Academy Schools, under Ernest Jackson and Walter Westley Russell, winning a scholarship. She had also studied at the Sorbonne, Paris. Married the artist Paul Drury. Was closely associated with the WIAC, being its vice-chairman after World War II. Also showed RA, NEAC, LG, Leicester Galleries and in the provinces.

gaining a Commonwealth Scholarship to the Baroda Faculty of Fine Art, India. In 1987 Soloway had a part-time job writing and drawing on Spitalfields News. From 1989 she held a number of teaching and artist-in-residence posts in east London. In 1991 Soloway was commissioned to complete a fibreglass relief sculpture at Oxford House, for presentation to Peter Scott, which depicted life at the Bethnal Green community centre. Group shows included Stowells Trophy at RA, 1982; Art Heritage Gallery, New Delhi, 1986; Whitechapel Open, Whitechapel Gallery from 1988; and South Bank Picture Show at Royal Festival Hall, 1990. Her solo exhibition Working Girls was held at Hillside Gallery, Edinburgh, during the Festival, 1989. British Council in Bombay, Whitechapel Library and Homerton Hospital in Hackney include examples.

and teacher, born and lived in London. She did a foundation course at Harrow College of Further Education, 1978–80; graduated in fine arts at Bath Academy of Fine Art, Corsham, 1980–3; in 1984

Versatile painter and printmaker, noted for his portraits, born in Dundee, Angus. He studied at West End Academy and University College in Dundee and was elected

Enid SOLOMON 1910–

Gilbert SOLOMON 1890–1955 Painter, who studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1907–11, and in Paris with René Prinet, 1913–4. During World War II he was involved in civilian camouflage and in his final years was vice-president of RBA, of which he became a full member in 1926. Also showed at RA, RP and in 1959 at Ben Uri Art Society, which holds his work. Solomon, who was fond of rural subjects, is noted for his assured use of watercolour. Lived in London. Danuta SOLOWIEJ-WEDDERBURN 1962– Sculptor working in a variety of materials, resident in Estella Frances SOLOMONS 1882–1968 Painter in oil, London, where she produced “postcard” views of born in Dublin, Ireland. She attended the life. She trained with Zofia Demkowska at the Metropolitan School of Art there, RHA Schools, Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, in Poland, and at then Chelsea School of Art. Exhibited Royal the Royal College of Art, London. Her work was Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts and prolifically included in Animal Kingdoms at the Simmons at RHA. Well represented in Irish public Gallery in 1998. collections, including Municipal Art Gallery in Dublin, where she lived. David SOMERVILLE 1962– Painter in acrylic of bright, gestural, landscape-based abstracts. He Frederick SOLOMONSKI 1904– Painter, writer on attended Salisbury College of Art, 1978–80; Bath art history and curator, born in Berlin, Germany. Academy of Art at Corsham, 1980–3; and Chelsea He studied at the University there and art with Max School of Art, 1984–5. Group shows included Liebermann the Impressionist painter and at the James Birch Gallery, 1985; The Dub Factor, Arts Studienateliers fuer Malerei und Plastik. As well Council tour, 1992–4; and Royal Over-Seas League as showing extensively abroad, after he came to Open, 1995. Had a solo exhibition, Submarine England he exhibited at RA, AIA, NEAC, with the Gallery, 1987, later ones including British Council, Leger and Leicester Galleries and in the provinces. Barcelona, 1993, and Harriet Green Gallery, 1996. From 1943–6 he was curator of the Ben Uri Gallery, In 1988 David Somerville – A Video Portrait, by London. Member of the Hampstead Artists’ Karen Alexander, was shown at the Tate Gallery. Council. Lived in London and later in America. Somerville’s Angels For These Modern Times was held at Broadbent in 2003. Louise SOLOWAY 1962– Artist in a variety of media Howard SOMERVILLE 1873–1952

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RP in 1917, also being a member of Chelsea Arts Club. Showed at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, NEAC, RA, RSA and at many other venues. He had a studio in The Boltons, London.

James SOMERVILLE 1936– Painter of atmospheric scenes, born in Fife, who attended Edinburgh College of Art. He showed regularly at the RSA, RSW, SSA, SSWA and elsewhere in Scotland, including Hanover, Torrance and Leith Galleries in Edinburgh. Scottish Arts Council, Fife Regional Council, Edinburgh Hospitals Trust and Pitlochry Festival Theatre/Cruden Collection hold examples.

Landscape and portrait painter, daughter of the composer Horace Somerville and his arts administrator and painter wife Lilian Somerville. Studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts and Slade School of Fine Art, having been revealed as a child prodigy. Somerville’s experiences at Camberwell are well documented in a diary she kept, part of which is reproduced in Geoff Hassell’s book Camberwell School of Arts & Crafts: Its Students and Teachers, 1943–60, 1995. She also appears in Bruce Laughton’s biography William Coldstream, 2004. Jennifer SOMERVILLE 1928–1994

Joan SOMERVILLE 1961– Self-taught Scottish painter of figurative works, included in the exhibition Humorous Art at McNeill Fine Art Gallery, Radlett, in 2005. Although given the chance to study at Glasgow School of Art after leaving school, Somerville decided to start a family, later spent 12 years in local government, then did various jobs while drawing and painting in her spare time. By the late 1990s she had a portfolio of work to show Glasgow galleries and was soon included in exhibitions, venues including the Nancy Smillie Gallery. In Stirling, Somerville won a prize in the Smith Art Gallery & Museum’s Brave Art competition, her picture joining its permanent collection. Lilian SOMERVILLE 1905–1985 Arts

administrator and painter, born in Bolton, Lancashire, as Katherine Lilian Tillard, under which name she continued to paint before World War II, when most

of her work was concentrated, even after marriage in 1928. Her husband was the composer Horace Somerville, who died in 1959, their daughter Jennifer also being a painter. Lilian Somerville studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, exhibition venues including Goupil Gallery, RBA, ROI and SWA. In 1941 she joined the British Council, becoming its influential fine arts department director, 1948–70. Won a number of awards, including an honorary doctorate from the Royal College of Art, 1972, and fellow, University College London, 1973.

Painter and draughtsman, sister of the artist Stuart Somerville. Margaret Scott Somerville was a child prodigy, aged three showing with Royal Drawing Society. By the time she was 14 she had had three solo shows in London, her work being much admired by the artists Walter Sickert and John Lavery, who referred to “the extraordinary genius of the little girl”. She learned a lot from her artist-collector father, Charles, and was much encouraged by her writer mother, Rose Anne Chantrey. As early as 1928, Peggy had a sell-out retrospective at the Claridge Gallery that prompted rave reviews and global news stories. In 1930 the family moved from Ashford, Middlesex, to mid-Suffolk and Peggy Somerville spent five war years in the Women’s Land Army. In 1960 she settled at Middleton, near the coast, dying of cancer 15 years later, by which time she was developing as a notable Colourist, although much of her final work was unexhibited. Three exhibitions followed: at Aldeburgh Festival in 1977; at Norwich Castle Museum, based on the collection held there, in 1985; and at Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, in 1986. Eventually a selling show was held at Stephen Reiss Fine Art, Norwich, 1987, Reiss helping to select a significant exhibition at Christchurch Mansion, Ipswich, in 1997, the year after his book Peggy Somerville – An English Impressionist appeared. From 1991, David Messum held several Somerville shows, including The Cinema Gallery, Aldeburgh, 2001, and at Messum’s, 2003. Peggy SOMERVILLE 1918–1975

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Stuart SOMERVILLE 1908–1982 Painter, mainly in oil, of figures, landscapes, still life and figures. Born at Arksey, Yorkshire, he was the son of the artist and collector Charles Somerville and the brother of the painter Peggy Somerville. Studied art with his father, then self-taught. In his early twenties travelled to Africa, where he painted. An exuberant Colourist, Somerville exhibited at the RA, ROI, the Alpine Club Gallery, RHA, RSA, the Fine Art Society and in the provinces. Lived near Woodbridge, Suffolk.

SOMEWHERE– A collaboration from the mid1990s of Nina Pope and Karen Guthrie (see separate entries), employing Internet, video, performance and installation for innovative projects. Among their many productions and exhibitions were: Somewhere over the TV, a multimedia collaborative installation, Collective Gallery, Edinburgh, and Fringe Gallery, Glasgow, 1995; the live-on-line Scottish travelogue A Hypertext Journal, 1996, which pioneered new ground in the appropriation of the Internet as a creative process; Second Sight, Scottish Arts Council tour, 1996–7; and Broadcast (29 pilgrims, 29 tales), Tate Annual Event, Borough Market, 1999. Somewhere received many awards, including an Imaginaria Award in 1999 for developing the ongoing An Artist’s Impression; it was shown that year at the ICA. The book Somewhere, 1998, chronicled the partnership’s achievement. Yolanda SONNABEND 1935– Stage designer, painter

and teacher, born in Rhodesia, but resident in England from 1954. She attended L’Académie des Beaux-Arts, Geneva, Switzerland, 1951, studying painting and stage design at the Slade School of Fine Art under William Coldstream and Robert Medley, 1955–60, receiving a Boise postgraduate travelling scholarship, 1960. Other awards included travel award, British School in Venice, 1977, and British Council grant, Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Arts Council bursary, Geneva, Switzerland, both 1979. From 1964 she taught variously at Camberwell, Wimbledon, Central St Martins and Slade Schools, also working as a designer for ballet,

theatre and opera. Sonnabend was a member of the Society of Stage Designers. She illustrated C H Waddington’s Tools of Thought, 1976, published in Italy as Strumenti per Pensare, 1977. Sonnabend took part in group shows, solo exhibitions including Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1975; Serpentine Gallery, 1986; Fischer Fine Art, 1988; Music Theatre Gallery, 1992; and Long and Ryle, 1995. In 2000, Sonnabend was the first winner of the Garrick/Milne Prize, for her portrait of the choreographer Sir Kenneth MacMillan. An exhibition of her work over several decades was a feature of the Winter Decorative Antiques & Textiles Fair at Battersea Park, 2004. Yolanda Sonnabend: Paintings, Costumes & Stage Design was at The Chambers Gallery, 2004–5. The National Portrait Gallery, British Council, Victoria & Albert Museum, Theatre Museum and Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, hold her work. Lived in London.

Lithographer, painter and teacher who studied part-time at Central School of Arts and Crafts with Bernard Meninsky, gaining a scholarship to Royal College of Art, 1929–32. Taught at a number of art schools, notably parttime at St Martin’s School of Art, 1946–73. Showed with LG, NEAC, RA and elsewhere and had work bought by War Artists’Advisory Committee. Lived in Twickenham, Middlesex. Alex SONNIS 1905–

Sculptor in wood, bronze, plastic and other materials; painter in oil, acrylic, gouache and watercolour. Born in Marburg, Germany, Sonntag initially studied there, then at Winchester, the Slade School of Fine Art, in 1954, under William Coldstream, Reg Butler, Henry Moore and F E McWilliam, in Birmingham and at the Courtauld Institute, 1975. He exhibited at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, RA, ICA, in the provinces and abroad. Sometimes signed work E S. Lived in London and in Minorca, Spain.

Erik SONNTAG 1925–

Eileen Alice SOPER 1905–1990 Illustrator, printmaker

and writer, born in Enfield, Middlesex. She was the daughter of the artist and amateur naturalist George Soper, from whom she learnt etching – so

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well that at 15 she had two etchings of children accepted by RA. She eventually became illustrator for 35 Enid Blyton books. After her father’s death in 1942 her interest in natural history developed and she and her sister Eva, also a gifted artist, created a wildlife sanctuary in their garden at Harmer Green, Hertfordshire. Eileen Soper came to know badgers and deer intimately and her book When Badgers Wake, in 1955, was a notable success. A series of natural history books followed and she also wrote several books for children. She was a member of RMS, a founder-member of SWLA and had work accepted by a number of public galleries, including the British Museum. Chris Beetles held a show of both Sopers’ work in 1995. One of Soper’s most distinctive pictures was her prentice 1925 oil portrait of a family friend, Eric Liddell, the Scottish athlete and missionary, held by the National Portrait Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh. It is the only known portrait of Liddell who, as a strict evangelical Christian, disapproved of such “graven images”. The 1981 film Chariots of Fire was inspired by the story of how Liddell, on religious grounds, refused to run in a Sunday heat in the 1924 Olympics, in which he was favoured to win a 100-metre gold medal, instead gaining a gold in the 400 metres, in which he was much less experienced.

Printmaker, sculptor, watercolourist and teacher, born in Budapest, Hungary, where she attended the Academy of Fine Arts. After arriving in England in 1956 she continued studies at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, working with S W Hayter at Atelier 17, Paris, 1958–60. She was awarded a Gulbenkian Scholarship, 1958–60, and the Churchill Fellowship in 1966–7 to work in America and Mexico. Part-time lectureships included Camberwell, Maidstone, Goldsmiths’, Canterbury and Royal Colleges of Art, Slade School of Fine Art and Philadelphia Museum of Art. Sorel was a member of RE and of the Printmakers’ Council, being its chairman, 1981–3, was on the council of the Royal Society of Printmakers, helped select 8th International Print Biennale in Bradford and Agathe SOREL 1935–

found the Studio of Contemporary Art training centre. She took part in many mixed shows, including RA Summer Exhibitions, and had a long series of solo exhibitions starting with Curwen Gallery, 1965, later ones including Intaglio Printmaker Gallery and Trumpington Gallery in Cambridge, both 1990, and Malargalleriet, Stockholm, 1992. Tate Gallery, Victoria & Albert Museum, Arts Council, British Museum, British Council and many other public collections in Britain hold examples, as well as many museums and galleries overseas. Lived in London.

Curator, teacher and artist, born and died in London, who attended Ealing College of Art, 1947–51; served from 1951– 4 with the Friends’Ambulance Unit; then graduated from the Royal College of Art, 1954–7, winning a silver medal for his thesis on Nineteenth-Century Suburban Theatres in London. Soon after leaving the College, he taught illustration part-time at Hornsey College of Art. Popular theatre and musichall remained a key interest, which would feed into evocative paintings. His drawings and photographs of related buildings, bombed or facing demolition when he was doing his research, remain important records. From 1960–9 Sorensen was deputy director of the Paul Mellon Foundation for British Art; from 1970–5, assistant keeper of the London Museum; when it merged with the Guildhall Museum to form the Museum of London, in 1975, Sorensen was made keeper of the modern department, 1975–93 (emeritus). Films of the capital were one of Sorensen’s special interests; he ran a weekly show at the Museum and London on Film, in 1996, commemorating the centenary of London’s first public screening of moving pictures for a paying audience, was his last Museum of London exhibition. During the 1970s and 1980s, Sorensen began recording changes to docklands London, contributing to the Port of London Authority archive. Glowing use of light was a feature of his own paintings, shown at the Museum in 1992. In 1993, he was included in an Ealing School of Art show at Watermans Art Centre, Brentford. Colin SORENSEN 1930–2001

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Adrian SORRELL 1932–2001 Sculptor and teacher, born in Salford, Lancashire of Russian and English parents. He studied at local School of Art, 1940– 54, in Stockholm in 1957, spent a further three years in Scandinavia and continued to travel and study in Europe until 1959. From 1960–74 lectured at Bolton College of Art and Design, then retired to do his own work. This consisted of bronzes of wildlife, refined and with little detailing. He showed with RA, Sladmore Gallery and John Davies Contemporary, Stow-on-the-Wold. Lived in Whitefield, Manchester.

Muralist, artist in oil, gouache and watercolour, teacher, illustrator and lithographer of landscapes and figure subjects with a strong interest in early history. Sorrell’s illustrations to Henry Loyn’s Norman Britain, 1966, and Medieval Britain, 1977, are exemplary in blending a clear, informative text with superb artistic reconstruction. Born in London, Sorrell studied at Southend School of Art. He worked for several years as a commercial designer, entered the Royal College of Art, 1924–7, then was awarded a scholarship to the British School at Rome, 1928. Exhibited at RA, NEAC and RWS. Taught at the Royal College, 1931–48, during which time he visited Iceland. During World War II Sorrell served as a war artist with the Royal Air Force for several years, his work – which has a strong Neo-Romantic flavour, typical of its time – being held by the Imperial War Museum. Tate Gallery, Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, London Museum and National Museum of Wales in Cardiff also own examples. In 1947 Sorrell married the artist Elizabeth Tanner, their children being the artists Richard and Julia Sorrell. Completed a series of murals after World War II, including one for the Festival of Britain, 1951. Commissioned by the Ministry of Works to make drawings of ancient monuments. Lived at Daws Heath, near Thundersley, Essex. Alan SORRELL 1904–1974

Elizabeth SORRELL 1916–1991 Painter, designer and

Julia also being artists. Studied at Eastbourne School of Art, 1934–8, where her teachers included Frank Archer and Oliver Senior; then at Royal College of Art, 1938–42, in the design department under Ernest Tristram. After the Royal College she taught in several art colleges; worked as a designer of wallpapers and fabrics; and designed for the British Industries Fair and Ideal Home Exhibitions. Showed at NEAC from 1947 and RA from 1948. Her work had a strong decorative element, and subjects such as dolls and plants frequently featured, painted in meticulous detail. Became a member of RWS in 1966. Tate Gallery owns her picture Ferns in the Conservatory. Died at Thundersley, Essex.

Julia SORRELL 1955– Artist mostly in watercolour,

pen and ink, pastel and pencil; embroiderer and teacher, born in Essex. She was the daughter of the artists Alan and Elizabeth Sorrell and the sister of Richard. She said that as an artist her parents “had a profound influence,” as had “the fact of being a woman, being married and having children.” Her first solo show at Maas Gallery, in 1994, featured “wooded glades, with ethereal figures floating through (usually her family)”. Sorrell graduated from Goldsmiths’ College, 1973– 6, where she studied embroidery, then the Royal Academy Schools, 1978–81; Betty Swanwick and Constance Howard were notable teachers. Showed in Sorrell family annual exhibitions, 1970–87, at RA from 1975, RWS from 1983 and Arts Council. In 1981 she came second in Imperial Tobacco Award, in 1982 being commissioned to paint her Portrait of Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, now in National Portrait Gallery. Chelmsford Museum and Art Gallery and Beecroft Art Gallery, Southend, also hold examples. Sorrell taught at Southend College of Art and Technology (where she had studied, 1972–3), 1983–4, Aberystwyth Arts Centre, 1988, and elsewhere. Lived in Snetterton, Norfolk.

Painter, born in teacher, born at New Skelton-in-Cleveland, Thundersley, Essex, the son of the artists Alan and Yorkshire, as Elizabeth Tanner. She married the Elizabeth Sorrell. He studied at Walthamstow painter Alan Sorrell, their children Richard and School of Art, 1965–6, Kingston College of Art, Richard SORRELL

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1948–


1966–9, and Royal Academy Schools, 1969–72. There he won silver and bronze medals. Was elected RWS in 1978, RBA in 1989, NEAC, 1995. Sorrell showed at RA from 1971, RWS from 1975 and RBA from 1988. Other appearances included Sorrell family shows, Hayward Gallery in the Lutyens Exhibition, 1980, and Victoria & Albert Museum, Artists in National Parks, 1988. He carried out a number of commissions, including aerial views for National Trust. Had a solo show at Agnew, 1990, and Cadogan Gallery, 1992. In 2003, when he was RWS vice-president, Sorrell was the featured artist in its Autumn Exhibition. Victoria & Albert Museum and Museum of London hold his work. Lived in Mickleton, Gloucestershire.

Sculptor in a variety of materials, especially of the female figure; draughtsman, teacher. He was born in Vienna, Austria, and studied at the Academy of Fine Art there, 1928–34, after a period as an apprentice engraver and student in the evenings at Vienna Arts and Crafts School. While teaching he met an Englishwoman who invited him to England where he settled at Dartington Hall with his own studio among other artists. Taught at Dartington Art School, 1937–9. After a period of internment in Canada in World War II returned to teach art at Blundell’s School, Devonshire, until 1945. Settled in London, he went on to teach at Bromley School of Art; Guildford School of Art; Chelsea School of Art, 1947–72; and became master of sculpture at Royal Academy Schools, 1969–82. He was an examiner for sculpture and was a member of the Faculty for Sculpture at the British School in Rome. Was elected RBA, 1950; fellow of RBS, 1956; and showed often at RA, being elected RA in 1969. Soukop was a carver rather than a modeller with a variety of styles who considered his greatest style debt was to the German sculptor Ernst Barlach. Official commissions and purchases included Dartington Hall Gardens, Hull University Library, St Paul’s Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Tate Gallery and provincial museums hold his work. A substantial review show of this took place at Belgrave Gallery, 1991. The Henry Moore Willi SOUKOP 1907–1995

Institute, Leeds, holds an important Soukop archive. In 2004, its library showed Willi Soukop: A Sculptor in Post-war Britain. Lived in north London, but died in Glasgow.

David SOUTER 1942– Painter, printmaker and teacher, born in Gillingham, Kent, who between 1959–68 studied at Medway College of Art, Royal College of Art and University of Sussex school of art education. At Medway, he was influenced by Fred Cuming and Ian Simpson, at the Royal College was taught by Peter Blake and at Sussex University by the historian E H Gombrich. From 1968, Souter was a part-time lecturer in art in London and Kent as well as running a large art department in Wandsworth, then from 1995 was an almost full-time painter. He took part in numerous group exhibitions and had solo exhibitions in London and Cardiff, where he was noted for his beach scenes, fairgrounds and urban landscapes. His work was also published. He was a major prize winner at the RWS Awards, 2002 and 2003. Lived in Beckenham, Kent.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker and restorer, born in Aberdeen, Scotland. After showing much promise in art at Gordon’s College, Aberdeen, he attended Gray’s School of Art there. A travelling scholarship allowed him to work extensively on the continent, where Velázquez, Chardin and Vermeer, especially, much impressed him. During World War I served as non-combatant in Royal Medical Corps, then married and moved to London. By this time he had established himself as an RA exhibitor, and in the period after the war he made a name as a portrait painter, his subjects including stage personalities such as Ivor Novello, Gladys Cooper and Fay Compton as well as notables in public and academic life. In 1926 Souter’s picture The Breakdown caused a stir at RA, depicting a negro jazz musician, a naked white girl dancer and a broken classic statue. Souter consolidated his reputation with exhibits at Redfern Gallery, Fine Art Society, RSA and elsewhere. In World War II he worked in the Censorship Department, London, as a translator and restored paintings at Windsor John

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Bulloch

SOUTER

1890–1972


Castle. Returned to Aberdeen in 1952, where he Bournemouth, Hampshire, where she studied art at the Technical College. Showed in range of remained. exhibitions in the south of England and has work Joan SOUTER-ROBERTSON 1903–1994 Painter and in Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, draughtsman, born in India, who determined to be Bournemouth. an artist despite the early death of her father and her mother’s straitened circumstances. She studied Pat SOUTHWOOD 1961– Ceramist and lecturer, born with André Lhote, at L’Académie de la Grande and lived in Norwich, Norfolk, who attended Chaumière from 1925 and then returned to London, Anglia Polytechnic University at Lowestoft where she established a career as a painter of College, 1994–9, graduating with honours in children and was noted as a decorator of furniture. ceramics with a first-class award, also gaining Charm with an underlying strong draughtsmanship ordinary and higher diploma distinctions for characterised her landscapes and portraits. In 1936, ceramics and ceramic design. Southwood was the year that she had a first solo show at the Storran winner of the Essex Radio Group Prize for Gallery, she married Jacques Cochemé, a biologist Outstanding Academic Achievement. She and agroclimatologist, and travelled and showed conducted adult and children’s ceramic workshops, extensively abroad, including Beirut, Khartoum, was an adult education tutor at Wensum Lodge, Amman and Nairobi, in the 1950s. Her mixed Norwich; part-time lecturer at Lowestoft College; exhibitions included LG, New Burlington Galleries and a visiting lecturer at Norwich School of Art and RA Summer Exhibition. Later solo shows and Design. Southwood was an associate member comprised two at the Upstairs Gallery at RA, 1982– of the Craft Potters’ Association and the East 3, the second of glass paintings, and a retrospective Anglian Potters’ Association and a member of the at Addison-Ross Gallery in 1993. Died in London. Enterprising Women’s Network and the Society of Graduate Artist & Designers. She produced Derek SOUTHALL 1930– Painter and teacher, born ceramic vessels, thrown and altered, her work in Coventry, Warwickshire. While still at school having “anthropogenic landscape references.” studied at Coventry School of Art, 1943–6, then Exhibitions included Ultimate Showoffs, The Corn as a student there from 1947 for two years; this Exchange, Ipswich, 1999; Earth and Fire, Rufford was followed by two years at Camberwell School Park, Nottinghamshire, 2000; Under the Canvas, of Arts and Crafts and one at Goldsmiths’ College Battersea Town Hall, 2001; BSDAD, Mall School of Art. A Spencer Travelling Scholarship, Galleries, and Spring Fair, Business Design Centre, 1954, allowed him to work for a year with Karl both 2002; and Open Studios, Cosseys Yard, Schmidt-Rottluff and Hans Jaenisch at Hochschule Salhouse, and Earth Elements, 2 Fish Gallery, für Bildende Kunst, Berlin. He began teaching at Burston, both 2003. In that year, Southwood gained Coventry College of Art from 1955 and at a public commission for Salhouse Village Hall. Birmingham Regional College of Art. Later Bircham Contemporary Art, Holt, and 21st Century teaching positions included London and Gallery, Bungay, showed her work. Birmingham and a period as artist-in-residence at University of South Carolina. Commissions Francesca SOUZA 1957– Artist and lecturer, born and included work for Department of the Environment, lived in London, daughter of the painter F N Souza 1972. Exhibitions included Museum of Modern and sister of the artist Karen Souza. She did a Art, Oxford, a solo show at Herbert Art Gallery foundation course at St Martin’s School of Art, and Museum, Coventry, 1971, Arnolfini in Bristol, 1978–9; gained an honours degree in textiles at 1980, and elsewhere. Herbert Art Gallery holds Goldsmiths’ College, 1979–83; then a postgraduate diploma in painting at Central School of Speech works by him. Lived in London. and Drama, 1995–7. Souza was a visiting lecturer Jeanne SOUTHGATE 1930– Painter, born in at Kingsway and City and Islington Colleges. She 152


said that she was “an autobiographical artist in search of metaphors for my thoughts; to represent my unrepresentable”, and to this end employed depictions of domestic objects, cartoon characters and token trophies on exotically coloured grounds. Shows included Women and Textiles, Battersea Arts Centre, 1983; Material Evidence, Camden Arts Centre and Virago Book Shop Gallery, 1985; National Theatre, 1992; Candid Gallery, 1997; and Julian Hartnoll Gallery, Art98, Business Design Centre, 1998.

Francis Newton SOUZA 1924–2002 Painter and draughtsman, born in Goa, India. Studied art in Bombay, 1940, but was expelled for political activities. While in Bombay he founded the Progressive Artists’ Group, showed regularly and won the Bombay Art Society Award in 1947. Travelled to London in 1949, where he studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts. Souza suffered poverty and misery until he started showing on the continent. Then he began to get acceptance in Britain, winning a prize at the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition in 1958, the year when he represented Britain in the Guggenheim International Award, New York. He moved to New York in 1967, by which time he had shown widely internationally. Had a number of one-man shows in Britain and abroad and retrospectives in Delhi and Bombay, 1987. Souza was included in The Other Story, Hayward Gallery and tour, 1989–90, and Julian Hartnoll gave him a solo exhibition, 1997. Souza and Friends was held at the Grosvenor Gallery, in association with Rob Dean Art Consultancy, in 2002. In 2005, Saffronart, New York, and the Grosvenor Gallery held Souza exhibitions and Tate Britain dedicated a room to his work. The Tate, National Gallery of Modern Art in New Delhi and other public collections hold Souza’s work. This was on occasion marked by narcissism, a strong erotic element, powerful use of paint and assured, incisive and graceful draughtsmanship.

She did a foundation course at Hornsey College of Art, 1974–5, then graduated with honours in fine art painting from Ravensbourne College of Art and Design, 1975–8. Mixed shows included Women’s Eye Gallery, Lauderdale House, 1985; Portobello Arts Festival, 1989; Making a Mark, Mall Galleries, 1993; and World of Drawings & Watercolours, The Dorchester, with Julian Hartnoll, 1998. Later solo shows included Cherry Orchard Restaurant, 1996.

Brian SOWERBY 1920–1993 Printmaker and teacher,

born in Grimsby, Lincolnshire. He worked at Norwich School of Art, including part-time lecturing. Was a member of RE, also exhibiting with Cheshire Homes Foundation and elsewhere in mixed shows. Had a series of solo exhibitions in Norwich, Norfolk, where he lived.

Watercolourist and black-and-white artist, full name Amy Millicent Sowerby, daughter of the artist John G Sowerby. She was mostly self-taught, acquiring her technique from the example of her father and the study of other illustrators. She was mainly an illustrator of children’s books, notably those of her sister Githa, including The Wise Book, 1906, and The Bonny Book, 1918. Robert Louis Stevenson was another favourite author, and publishers such as J M Dent, Grant Richards and Oxford University Press employed her, as well as magazines: The Tatler and Illustrated London News. Showed at RA, RI, Baillie Gallery and Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Lived in London.

Millicent SOWERBY 1878–1967

Representational artist, notable for large pastels, born in Reading, Berkshire, daughter of the illustrator and artist William Littlewood. Still lifes and interiors with a figure, often herself, and coastal scenes with shells were features of her work. She studied at Byam Shaw School of Art, 1965–8, under Maurice de Sausmarez. Was a member of The Suffolk Group, also showing at RA Summer Exhibition; Karen SOUZA 1956– Painter and draughtsman, born Drawings for All at Gainsborough’s House, and lived in London, daughter of the artist F N Sudbury, and at the Quay Gallery there; in the Souza and sister of the painter Francesca Souza. Eastern Open in King’s Lynn; Town Art, Unity Katie SOWTER 1944–2003

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Wharf; and with The Monday People, Suffolk. Yorkshire. Exhibited at Whitechapel Art Gallery, Lived in the county at Rattlesden, Bury St 1979, in the Uses of Drawing show, the following Edmunds. year gaining third prize in the Magnolia National Landscape Competition. Had a series of one-man Basil SPACKMAN 1895–1971 Painter in oil and shows at Henley Exhibition Centre from 1982, watercolour, born in Happisburgh, Norfolk, later solo exhibitions including Austin/Desmond educated at Lancing College. He began his service Fine Art, Sunninghill, from 1989, and Solomon career as a private in the Norfolk Regiment in 1914, Gallery, Dublin, 2000 and 2003. In 1986 was being commissioned in the following year and winner of the Winsor & Newton Young Artists transferring to the Royal Flying Corps in 1917. He Award, having been a finalist in 1985. rose to become air vice-marshal, widely experienced in the Middle East in both World Wars George SPAFFORD 1921–2003 Artist who was and winning a number of decorations, including educated at Rugby School and Oxford University, the Distinguished Flying Cross and bar. In 1950 eventually married to the artist Iola Spafford. Spackman retired at his own request, in that year During World War II Spafford was a captain in the attending Hammersmith School of Art under Royal Artillery, serving in Africa and Italy. By Frederick Gray. Charles Basil Slater Spackman profession he was a barrister on the Northern settled in the Irish Republic, living finally in Cork. Circuit; recorder of the Crown Court; and a member He showed with Cork Art Society, Watercolour of the Legal Advisory Commission. He obtained Society of Ireland and Armed Forces’, of all of an honorary degree from Manchester and a degree which he was a member, as well as RSA, RHA, in canon law, Cardiff. He was also diocesan chancellor of the Manchester diocese and Chester RCamA, RBA, RI and elsewhere. diocesan reader. Spafford painted for most of his Cyril Saunders SPACKMAN 1887–1963 Painter, adult life, the majority of his work done en plein printmaker, sculptor and architect, born in air in north Wales, Suffolk, Gozo, Greece and Cleveland, Ohio, America. He studied at King’s especially Venice. He exhibited at the RA and was College architectural department in London and a member and treasurer of RCamA. He held joint was a pupil of the architect T E Lidiard James. Was exhibitions at RCamA and at Glyn-y-Weddw, a member of many artistic and architectural bodies, Llanbedrogg. Tib Lane Gallery in Manchester held including RBA, RMS and SGA. Settled in the a memorial show in 2005. Croydon area of Surrey in early 1920s, where he was a member of the Camera Club, also exhibiting Iola SPAFFORD 1930– Artist in various media, born with RA, RCamA, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool in Cambridge, married to the painter George and ROI. British Museum print room holds his Spafford. She studied at Bristol Art School, 1947, Nottingham School of Art, 1948–50, and Slade work. School of Fine Art, 1950–4, winning a Travelling Sarah SPACKMAN 1958– Painter, born in Reading, Scholarship to Italy. She was a member of MAFA Berkshire. She studied at Byam Shaw School of and RCamA and showed at RA, Tegfryn Gallery Art in 1977, after a brief time in Liverpool studying at Menai Bridge, Pitcairn Gallery in Knutsford and for a teaching qualification, where she decided to elsewhere. Salford Art Gallery and Manchester become an artist full-time. In 1978–81 she studied City Art Gallery’s Rutherston Collection hold at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts while examples. Lived in Wilmslow, Cheshire. Philip Matthews was head of the painting department, and the School left a marked Anne SPALDING 1911– Representational painter and impression on her work. She eventually moved to printmaker, born in London, but initially brought Oxford, where she had lived in the early 1980s, up in Lyme Regis where she had her first instruction after a time working in Italy and living in West in watercolour, then in Oxford. From 1929–33, she 154


studied there under Albert Rutherston at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Painting, other teachers including Eric Ravilious, Gilbert Spencer, Enid Marx and Barnett Freedman. He became a friend and wrote the catalogue introduction for her first London solo show in 1949 at the Paul Alexander Gallery. She was a member of the Oxford Art Society from 1934. Spalding continued to study periodically at the Ruskin, including lithography with Harold Jones, and in 1937 taught the still life class. Having set up a studio in London in 1939, Spalding was recalled to look after her parents’ Oxford house with its wartime lodgers. As a landlady, her three permanent lodgers were the writers Charles Williams and J R R Tolkien and Barbara Ward the sociologist; others included Gerry Hopkins, nephew of the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, and members of the Oxford Pilgrim Players, founded by Anne’s sister Ruth. After World War II Spalding returned to London, renting a studio in the Notting Hill house of the wood engraver Joan Hassall. Later, she divided her time between the capital and a home in Oxfordshire, also travelling widely abroad. Sally Hunter Fine Art gave her a solo show in 1988. Lily SPANDORF 1919– Painter, designer and mural

artist, born in Vienna, where she studied at the Academy of Applied Art. Exhibited widely abroad, including Austria, Italy and America, and in England at Sunderland Public Art Gallery, Foyles Gallery and in Hampstead, where she was a member of the Artists’ Council. Lived in London.

Prolific exhibitor, notably of landscape in watercolour, born in Hanley, Staffordshire. She studied at the School of Art there and in Newlyn with Stanhope Forbes. Was elected BWS in 1927, also showing at RA, Walker’s Galleries, SWA, Goupil Gallery, RSA and RI. Miss Spanton spent much of her life overseas, using Bourlet and Sons, her framers, as a London address. Mabel Mary SPANTON 1874–

Summer Exhibition from 1976; Young British Painters and Young British Printmakers, both Chenil Gallery, 1978; Artisera, Syracuse, America, and LG, both 1982; and Goldsmiths’ show at Woodlands Art Gallery, 1983. In 1974 had solo show at Bristol Arts Centre. Lived for a time in London.

Draughtsman, painter, designer and printmaker specialising in bizarre subjects, which stemmed from his interest in mysticism and the occult. Aleister Crowley, Satanist and self-styled Great Beast 666, was a friend and later an enemy of Spare. Born in London, he exhibited in his early teens a drawing at the RA which was highly praised. Studied at Lambeth School of Art and Royal College of Art. After an abortive attempt at editing a hoped-for successor to The Yellow Book for the publisher John Lane, Spare had more success in the early 1920s with The Golden Hind, which he jointly edited with the writer Clifford Bax. Experimented for a time with automatic drawing. Eventually became a recluse and pauper. A pen portrait of Spare is included in Hubert Nicholson’s autobiography Half My Days and Nights. Exhibited extensively at Lefevre Gallery and had a number of one-man shows. Posthumous ones were held at Morley Gallery, 1986, and Marx Memorial Library, 1999, organised by the occultists Geraldine Beskin and John Bonner. The Maas Gallery exhibition of Spare’s work in 2005 was accompanied by an illustrated book, Borough Satyr: The Life and Art of Austin Osman Spare, published by Fulgar Ltd. Lived at Goodmayes, Essex. Austin Osman SPARE 1888–1956

Artist, mainly a creator of hand-coloured prints, the imagery stemming from his own life and travels. The vibrant colours used were inspired by travels in India and Nepal. Spare spent much of his early career as a printmaker editioning prints for contemporary artists such as David Hockney and Howard Hodgkin, although from the early 1990s he was able to concentrate Martin SPANYOL 1952– Painter and printmaker, on his own work. He showed widely through the born in Wiltshire, who studied at Bath Academy United Kingdom, mixed shows including the RA of Art, 1970–4. His exhibitions included RA Summer Exhibition and Affordable Art Fair, 2002. Richard SPARE 1951–

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CCA Galleries also sold his prints.

Judith SPARK 1965– Installations artist, born and lived in Glasgow, where she attended the School of Art, 1989–93. Exhibitions included New Generation, Compass Gallery, Glasgow, and Spaghetti Junction Project for Fine Rats International, Birmingham, both 1993; and in 1994, all in Glasgow: Modern Art at Transmission Gallery, Titanic (collaboration with Kirsty Stansfield) at Old Fruitmarket, and New Art in Scotland, Centre for Contemporary Arts, with an installation called Continuous Anxiousness. Claire SPARKES 1970– Painter and teacher, born in

Crayford, Kent, whose subject-matter was sometimes domestic, as in All It Took Was A Wish And A Pinch of Pixie Dust, acrylic on canvas in Royal Over-Seas League Open, 1995. She studied at Maidstone College of Art and Liverpool John Moores University, then was a part-time art tutor at adult education centres in Deal, Folkestone and Dover, whose Grammar School for Girls held her work. She won a Daler-Rowney Cryla Award for Modern Art, 1995. Group shows included Fresh Start, Businesss Design Centre, Islington, 1992, and Eurotunnel Celebration 94, Eurotunnel Exhibition Centre, Folkestone, 1994. Was a prolific solo exhibitor, including Hilderstone Adult Education Centre, Margate, 1990; Through the Glass Wall of Sleep, Library Gallery, Maidstone, 1993; Voices of my Household (I & II), Hanover Galleries, Liverpool, 1994; and Voices of my Household – they tell their Secrets Slowly, Library Gallery, Folkestone 1995. Jean SPARKS 1929– Painter, potter and teacher, born

in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, where she attended the High School for Girls. Studied at Leicester College of Art, 1946–51. She went on to teach in a secondary school and became chairman of the Melton Studio Group of Artists and Craftsmen, in Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, where she lived. Exhibited Young Contemporaries and Under Thirties shows at RBA, as well as locally. Nathaniel SPARKS 1880–1956

Printmaker and

watercolourist, born in Bristol, a cousin of the writer Thomas Hardy. Educated at home, he won a scholarship to Bristol Municipal School of Art, then another scholarship took him to Royal College of Art in 1910. His teachers were Reginald Bush and Frank Short. Whistler employed Sparks to print his plates. Sparks’ own work was variable, but he did fine etchings of Bristol, as found in its City Art Gallery and illustrated in City Impressions: Bristol Etchers 1910–1935. In later life Sparks made much of his living from topographical watercolours in England and Scotland. Sparks showed at RE from 1905, being elected a full member in 1910, and at RA in 1915 Queen Mary bought Sparks’ view of Westminster Abbey. Also showed at Chenil Gallery, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, at Paris Salon and in Venice. Late in 1930s Sparks left London and died in Somerton, Somerset. Dorset County Museum, Dorchester, held a centenary exhibition in 1980, Guildford Library showing cityscapes spanning his career in 2001. The story of Sparks’ sad, wandering and unfulfilled life is told by his friend Celia Barclay in her 1994 volume Nathaniel Sparks Memoirs of Thomas Hardy’s Cousin, the Engraver, which includes examples of his work. Leslie SPAULL 1914– Painter, illustrator and teacher,

born in East Sheen, Surrey. Studied at Richmond School of Art, St John’s Wood Art Schools under Patrick Millard and Royal Academy Schools with Walter Westley Russell. He held a number of art teaching posts, including Wrekin College and Westminster School. Did illustrative work for Central Office of Information. Exhibited RA and Brighton Art Gallery. Lived in London.

Painter and teacher, full name Augustus John Ruskin Spear, born in Hammersmith, London, where he spent most of his life and which he frequently painted. An attack of polio as a child badly affected one leg, so he attended Brook Green School for crippled children. Aged 15 won scholarship to Hammersmith School of Art, another scholarship in 1930 taking him to the Royal College of Art for four years under William Rothenstein. In 1934 became part-time tutor at Croydon School of Art; he was eventually Ruskin SPEAR 1911–1990

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to teach at St Martin’s School of Art, Central School of Arts and Crafts and Hammersmith School of Art, in 1948 becoming tutor at the Royal College of Art, where he remained until 1975. These were years which brought in such movements as Kitchen Sink and Pop Art. Spear was to retain his individuality as an essentially English painter in the Sickert tradition, a reflection of his workingclass Cockney background being his pictures of seedy street and bar-room life. He exhibited at the RA from 1932 and for the Summer Exhibition provided talking-point portraits of Winston Churchill, Princess Anne and Margaret Thatcher. His outstanding portraits included fellow-painter Carel Weight, Lord Hailsham and Lord Olivier, the actor. Elected RA in 1954. Painted an altarpiece for the Royal Air Force church St Clement Danes and designed murals for the liner Canberra. Retrospective at RA in 1980 was a popular and critical success. Work in many public collections.

Portrait and landscape painter and draughtsman, and teacher, who acquired his diploma in design (painting special) at Wimbledon School of Art, 1965, and his Sussex University art teacher’s diploma, Brighton College of Art, 1966. Taught at several schools, 1966–79; was a part-time lecturer in Wales, 1981–90; was on the full-time staff of Swansea Institute of Higher Education, 1990–5; thereafter being head of division of fine and applied arts at Nene College of Higher Education school of art and design, Northampton, where he lived. Spedding was artistin-residence at Fishguard Music Festival, 1985; Carmarthen Arts Festival, 1988; and Llanelli Arts Festival, 1990. Had a solo exhibition at The Minories, Colchester, 1976, others including Royal Festival Hall, 1986, St David’s Hall, Cardiff, 1988 and 1990, and Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool, 1992. Spedding had a strong interest in classical music and produced many commissioned portraits. Those in private collections included Lord and Lady Menuhin, Sir Michael Tippett, Elizabeth Schwarzkopf and Walter Legge, Leonard Bernstein and Sir George Solti. St David’s Hall has a large Igor Stravinsky portrait, and Llandovery College Jeffrey SPEDDING 1944–

life-sized paintings of composers of the Second Viennese School. The EMI and Conifer recording companies used his portraits on record sleeves. Spedding had a house and studio in Roussillon, France.

Sculptor in various materials and teacher, born in Ashington, Northumberland. Studied art at Armstrong College at Durham University, 1932–6, his teachers including Herbert Maryon, then at Edinburgh College of Art, 1936–9, with Hubert Wellington. He held a number of teaching positions, including a spell in Pakistan and a period lecturing in sculpture at Manchester School of Art, 1948–53. Exhibited RSA and in the provinces, signing work with initials in the form of a monogram. Lived for many years near Stockport, Cheshire. Sidney SPEDDING 1916–

Harold SPEED 1872–1957 Painter and writer on art,

born in London. Speed was the son of an architect, Edward Speed, and initially studied architecture at the Royal College of Art, but changed to painting, winning a gold medal for life studies in 1890. He went on to study at the Royal Academy Schools, 1891–6, again winning a gold medal. A travelling scholarship took him to Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, 1894–5. He exhibited at the RA for 40 years from 1893, also at many other venues, including RP, Fine Art Society, Leicester Galleries and RBA. Speed was a consummate draughtsman and portrait painter and wrote The Science and Practice of Drawing, 1913, and The Science and Practice of Oil Painting, 1924, as well as What is the Good of Art?, 1936. He was master of the Art Workers’ Guild, 1916, nine years after he had his first oneman show, at the Leicester Galleries. The Tate Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, many provincial and Commonwealth galleries hold his work. Lived at Watlington, Oxfordshire. Raul SPEEK 1958– Painter whose work could have

a strong fantasy element, as in his The Venetian Carnival l, included in Contemporary British Art at The Millinery Works, 2002. Speek was born in Cuba on the eve of Fidel Castro’s revolution. He trained at art school and studied in the studios of

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notable Cuban artists. In 1990, following Bette SPEKTOROV 1939– Painter and teacher. She participation in the BBC’s televised arts gained her master’s degree in modern history at programme Arena, filmed in Havana and featuring Oxford University, 1961, then did postgraduate politically aware Cuban artists and writers, Speek diploma in art history at Courtauld Institute. From moved to Britain, settling in Pembrokeshire. His 1966 taught at City University in New York, in work is in private and public collections around 1968 gaining master’s degree in fine art, Hunter the world. College, University of New York. From 1981 was senior lecturer in history of art at Middlesex John SPEIRS 1942– Artist, illustrator and writer, Polytechnic. In 1981 had a studio show with born in Kimberley, Cape Province, South Africa, Anthony Gormley, Di Livey and Tim Mara, the who studied at the Michaelis School of Art, New Bagnigge Group. Four years later participated University of Cape Town, 1958–9, with Rupert in John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, later Shephard, Irma Stern, Eleanor White and Melville appearances including annual shows at Camden Simmons; then at the Slade School of Fine Art, on Arts Centre, in 1986, and Ben Uri Art Society, a Montague White Bursary, 1959–65, under 1987. Had a solo show at Ben Uri in 1989 and in William Coldstream, Andrew Forge, Patrick 1992 her exhibition The Mystery of Decoration George, Anthony Gross and Thomas Monnington; toured fom Usher Gallery, Lincoln. In that, richly concurrently at the Central School of Arts and coloured paintings took their inspiration from old Crafts, under Gertrude Hermes; and at Oskar objects in the Usher collection. Kokoschka summer school. Speirs became an art director in advertising in London, New York, Paris Michael SPELLER 1958– Sculptor in various and Brussels and in publishing in New York and materials and pen and ink draughtsman who lived London. As an artist he showed at the RP annual in Greenwich, southeast London, where for a time exhibitions from 2000 and with the Fine Art he ran a catering business. He began by creating Society, 2002, that gallery giving him a solo show pen and ink drawings, then concentrated on in 2001. Speirs’ book The Little Boy’s Christmas sculpting for two years at local evening classes. Gift, published in 2001, was sumptuously Speller studied for an honours degree in The illustrated by the author and inspired by Pieter Practice and Theory of Visual Arts at Chelsea Brueghel and Hans Memling. Lived in Richmond, College of Art. His work is in private collections, especially in Germany. Had a studio in Deptford Surrey. and received his first London solo show at Paul Kira SPEISER 1971– Painter in oil on aluminium of Hawkins Gallery in 1997. Latterly was based at urban scenes in which the ugly legacy of the Sculpture Academy (Waterloo) Ltd, where he development and industry were key features. She produced figurative and abstract works, including was born in Zürich, Switzerland, and was educated commissions. He showed at the Affordable Art at Schule für Zeichnen & Gestalten, Zürich, 1988– Fair in 2002. 90; Kunstgewerbe Schule, Zürich, 1989–91; and Byam Shaw School of Art, 1991–5. Gained several Annora SPENCE 1963– Artist in mixed media and financial awards in Switzerland, 1992–3; a textile designer who was educated at Itchen Sixth scholarship to Byam Shaw, 1992–4; and while Form College in Southampton. She attended there, in 1994 won joint first prize, drawing Winchester College of Art and Design, 1981–2; competition. Group shows included Conductors gained an honours degree in printed textiles, Hallway, 1996, and Lamont Gallery from 1997. Liverpool Polytechnic, 1982–5; and her master’s Solo shows included Salon des Arts, 1995; No degree in the same subject at Birmingham Man’s Landscape, Galerie Wehrli, Zürich, 1997; Polytechnic, 1985–6. For that degree she was sponsored by the Textile Institute. Exhibitions and Lamont Gallery, 1998. Lived in London. included The Poetry Show, Rebecca Hossack 158


Gallery, 1992; and in 1993 Bruton Street Gallery St Ives Society of Artists and East Cornwall Society and a shared exhibition at Thackeray Rankin of Artists and lived in the county at Landulph. His Gallery. many solo exhibitions included Bath, Harrogate, Durham, Bradford, Brighton, St Ives, Manchester, Jo SPENCE 1934–1992 Photographic artist, born in Plymouth, Truro, York, Farnham and Totnes. Prints London, who in 1974 established, with the of his pictures were produced by Felix Rosenstiel’s photographer Terry Dennett, the independent and Widow & Son Ltd, Solomon & White, Prints for educational Photography Workshop Ltd which Pleasure, Kingfisher Prints and Kunstanstalten continued until her death. The Workshop instigated May AG, in Germany, limited-edition prints being The Hackney Flashers Collective (see separate issued by Northern Editions and the artist. entry), membership of which included Spence. She was diagnosed with cancer in 1982 and began to Louise SPENCE 1965– After a diploma in art in art explore photography as a means of visual therapy and design at Kensington and Chelsea College, and as an alternative to conventional drug 1995–6, Spence gained an honours degree in treatment. The History Lesson, 1982, and photography at London College of Printing, 1996– Remodelling Medical History, 1982–90, were 9. Her exhibitions included Ripe, Back Hill Gallery, projects that developed the ideas of Phototherapy, 1999, and Still, Houldsworth Fine Art, 1999–00. a non-institutional form of therapy designed to be Spence’s work in that three-man show was based practised by non-professionals to manage the on subtle changes recorded in weathered landscape emotional aspects of cancer. They were included during periodic visits by her to specific locations. in Protest & Survive, at the Whitechapel Art Gallery, 2000, drawn from the London-based Jo Mary SPENCE 1955– Painter in oil and acrylic, born Spence Archive, which Dennett continued to in Larnaca, Cyprus, who from 1960 lived in London. Spence’s work developed from manage. abstraction with some figurative references towards John SPENCE 1944– Painter notable for small total abstraction, employing vertical and horizontal landscapes in a variety of media, and teacher, born bands of colour, with light, space and music being near Carlton, near Nottingham, where he was important to her. She studied foundation at Byam based. He attended the Nottingham College of Art, Shaw School of Art, 1979–80, graduating from 1962–7, Slade School of Fine Art, 1967–9, and Chelsea School of Art in fine art after studying Leicester Polytechnic school of educational there, 1980–1 and 1984–6. Mixed exhibitions studies, 1970–1. Then went on to hold a number included Athena Art Awards, Mall Galleries, 1985; of teaching jobs. Showed in mixed groups in the Escape Gallery, Greenwich, 1986; Leicestershire Midlands, and solo exhibitions included Exhibition for Schools and Colleges, Beaumanor Nottingham Playhouse, 1978. In 1981–2 he was Hall, Leicester, 1987; Portobello Open, Tabernacle, included in Fragments Against Ruin tour by Arts 1989; Elms Lesters Painting Rooms, 1991; Bonner Road Open Studios, from 1998; and New Council, which holds a series of his works. Constructivists, inaugural exhibition, Cottons Leslie James Arthur SPENCE 1934– Painter, born in Centre, 2002. Spence had a solo exhibition at the Wallasey, Cheshire, who began as a signwriter, Groucho Club in 1988. forming the sign firm Lesart. He began painting full-time in 1966 and ran his own gallery in Raphaella SPENCE 1978– Painter, initially of still Padstow, 1979–91. Spence also worked on stage lifes, then of hyper-realistic landscapes, born in sets for a number of musicals, including The Buddy London. At the age of 12 her family moved to Italy, Holly Story, Cats, Oliver! and Joy to the World, a where she completed her studies at St George’s Royal Albert Hall Christmas Special featuring Cliff English School, in Rome. She then dedicated Richard. Spence was an associate member of the herself to full-time painting, assisting a notable 159


Italian artist who influenced her technical and aesthetic development. In 2003 she was included in New Year New Works at Albemarle Gallery (which gave Spence her first London solo exhibition in 2004), later that year having a debut show at Bernaducci Meisel Gallery, New York, America. Robert SPENCE 1871–1964 Printmaker and painter,

born in Tynemouth, Northumberland, son of the artist Charles Spence. He studied in Newcastle, at Slade School of Fine Art and in Paris. Was elected RE and was an associate of Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Showed at RA, Fine Art Society, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and Fine Art Society. Lived in London, where he was an Arts Club member.

Painter, mainly of landscapes, although he painted many portraits of people he knew, educated at Bootham School in York. He was largely self-taught, but spent about nine months at Belfast College of Art when a young man and took a few lessons from Frank McKelvey. Spence was a knowledgeable collector of miniatures, from which he derived a keen eye for detail in his own work. As a linen manufacturer he travelled widely, always carried his painting gear with him, and painted on the spot, savouring the atmosphere of the scene. Showed at RA, RHA, RBA, RUA and had several solo shows. Lived in Belfast, Northern Ireland, for many years. T Everard SPENCE fl. from c.1930s–1992

Charles SPENCELAYH 1865–1958 Genre and figure

painter in minute detail, miniaturist and printmaker. Born at Rochester, Kent, he studied at the Royal College of Art and in Paris. From the early 1890s he began exhibiting at the RA until his death, also showing at RI, RMS, RHA, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Paris Salon and elsewhere. One-man show at Sunderland Art Gallery, 1936. He was the father of the painter Vernon Spencelayh. Charles Spencelayh’s works, sometimes just signed C S, are in many public collections, including Harris Museum & Art Gallery, Preston, the City Art Gallery, Bradford, and the Tate Gallery. His pictures, having great

popular appeal, were widely reproduced. Lived at Wellingborough, Northamptonshire.

Painter and miniaturist, born in Chatham, Kent, who studied with his father, the artist Charles Spencelayh. Exhibited RI, RMS, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and BWS, of which he was a member. On the advice of his father, Vernon Spencelayh made his career in Barclays Bank, retiring after World War II, after which he could concentrate on his painting, which was often in the manner of his father’s. He travelled widely in southern Africa, living for some time in South Africa, where he had a number of shows at the Maskew Miller Art Gallery, Cape Town. He also lived in Madeira and the Canary Islands, eventually returning to live in the south of England. A then-child-neighbour of Spencelayh, in 1945 when he was living at Verwood, on the Hampshire border in an isolated bungalow, later recalled him as “a to me old man in a straw hat and light-coloured summer clothes in a well-kept garden…. He used a camera obscura in his frontroom studio to view his mainly still life subjects.” Vernon SPENCELAYH 1891–1980

Benet SPENCER 1969– Painter, born in St Albans, Hertfordshire, who studied at Herts College of Art and Design, 1987–8, Birmingham Polytechnic, 1988–91, and the Royal Academy Schools, 1992– 5. Won a prize in the Unipart Reflections of Technology Competition, 1995. Group shows included Germinations 8, Breda, Netherlands, 1994; You Think You’ve Flown Before, Proud Galleries, 1997; and John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1999–00. There, his acrylic on canvas Heavens Above, one of a series of pictures of aircraft in extreme environments, blended realism and fantasy. Lived in London. Claire SPENCER 1937– Painter and teacher who did

a diploma in design, painting and printed textiles at Hornsey College of Art, 1954–8; attended Royal College of Art’s painting school, 1960–3, becoming an associate; gained a teaching diploma at City of Birmingham Polytechnic, 1972–3; and between 1983–4 a certificate in design and embroidery from Loughborough College of Art and Design and an

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adult teaching certificate, University of Nottingham. After employment at F A Pollak, the framer, working as a mount-maker and assisting making reproduction antiques, 1959–60, Spencer taught extensively at various levels in the provinces. Spencer was a member of the PS and RBSA. She won several scholarships and awards including, at the PS, the Christopher AsshetonStones, 1985, and Daler-Rowney, 1991. Commissions in 1971–2 included Mercia Kingdom panels for Esso Motor Hotel, Coventry, and The Globes, panels for Esso Motor Hotel, Edinburgh. Mixed shows included RA Summer Exhibition, RBSA and Brian Sinfield Gallery, Burford. Her many solo exhibitions included Bournville College, 1993. Lived in Clent, Stourbridge, Worcestershire.

Gilbert SPENCER 1892–1979 Painter, especially of landscapes, draughtsman, teacher and writer. Born at Cookham, Berkshire, brother of the painter Stanley Spencer. Gilbert studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, woodcarving at the Royal College of Art, 1911–12, then with Fred Brown and Henry Tonks at the Slade School of Fine Art 1913–20, although between 1915–19 this was broken by Army service. Spencer had his first one-man show at the Goupil Gallery in 1923, also exhibiting at RA (he was elected RA in 1960), NEAC of which he was early made a member, Leicester Galleries, RSA, Redfern Gallery and many other venues. Although he produced notable wall paintings for Holywell Manor, Oxford, 1934– 6, Spencer made his name as a landscape artist working mainly in the English southern counties. At various times he taught at Royal College of Art, Glasgow School of Art and Camberwell, serving meanwhile as an Official War Artist, 1940–3. His book Stanley Spencer appeared in 1961 and his Memoirs of a Painter in 1974. Retrospective exhibition at Reading, 1964. Tate Gallery and many other public collections hold his work, sometimes just signed G S. Lived near Reading, Berkshire.

Artist mainly in oil and pastel, full name Violet Gwendoline Spencer, in whose work movement, as in the game of polo, was a key theme. She was born in Buenos Aires, Gwen SPENCER 1927–

Argentina, and studied at Atelier Josse there, 1944– 5, then at Putney School of Art, 1964–80. Became a full member of NS in 1979, acting as treasurer and secretary. She also showed with PS, ROI, Annexe Gallery, Poole Art Centre, Ridley Society and Medici Gallery, Medici Society publishing cards of her pictures. Solo shows were held at Putney School of Art in 1974 and 1976 and at L’Herisson, in Wimbledon, in 1989. Wandsworth Borough Council holds her work. Lived in London. Herbert SPENCER 1924–2002 Designer, typographer,

writer, photographer and teacher, born in London’s East End, son of a Water Board official. As a child he was fascinated by printed ephemera, visited printing works and by 12 had saved to buy a tiny press. Spencer worked at a small advertising agency; served in the Royal Air Force as a cartographer; and in 1946 joined a group of former Ministry of Information compositors who had formed London Typographic Designers, where he discovered a gift for designing symbols, such as the one Marconi used for over 40 years. In 1947 Spencer went freelance, supplementing his earnings by teaching at the Anglo-French Art Centre and at a private school in St John’s Wood. He would later teach at the Central School of Arts and Crafts. At 24, Spencer won the prestigious contract to design printed material for the newly formed ICA, in which Lund Humphries’ chairman Eric Gregory was involved, which led to Spencer doing much work for the art publishing firm. Spencer encouraged Gregory to launch the magazine Typographica, for 18 years a leading exponent of Modernist typography. From 1950, Spencer was consultant art director to Lund Humphries; from 1970 on the board of the publishing division; he edited the Penrose Annual, 1963–74; built up a list of clients for his practice, including British Railways, Tate Gallery, RIBA and the Imperial War Museum; and acted as design consultant to W H Smith, Faber & Faber and the Royal Mail stamp advisory committee. He was a prolific writer, books including The Visible Word, 1968, stemming from a fellowship at Royal College of Art where he was professor of graphic arts,

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1978–85, and Pioneers of Modern Typography, 1969. Spencer was a Royal Designer for Industry, from 1979 master of the faculty. His photographs are in the Victoria & Albert Museum collection.

Jean SPENCER 1942–1998 Artist and teacher, born in Hampshire, who made her first constructed reliefs as a student at Bath Academy of Art, 1960– 3, then studied at University of Sussex. She showed widely in Britain and on the continent, including the Systems exhibitions of 1969–73; with the Arbeitskreis from 1977; in 1977–8 she produced Working Information, a series of publications and drawings by Systematic-Constructive artists; later worked with the Exhibiting Space project; and was included in Colour Presentations, Gardner Centre Gallery, University of Sussex, and tour, 1986. From 1968–88 she taught at Bulmershe College of Higher Education, where her work included general courses in art for primary teachers, from 1988 being on the staff of the Slade School of Fine Art. Arts Council holds her work. Lived in London. For over 25 years Spencer was the companion of the artist Malcolm Hughes, becoming his second wife in 1997. The Tate Gallery held a small joint memorial show in 1999.

Johnny SPENCER 1954– Conceptual artist, output including text-and-image works and performance, born in Tonbridge, Kent. He did a foundation course at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1978, and gained a first-class honours degree in fine art from Camberwell School of Art, 1980–3. Held residencies, 1989–90. Group shows included Outpost, Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh International Festival, 1993; Poster Studio, 1995; performance at Gramercy Art Fair, New York, America, 1997; and Neurotic Realism series, at Saatchi Gallery from 1999. Spencer was included in The Golden Age (with Neo Rauch and Graham Fagen) at the ICA in 1999. Among his solo exhibitions was Anthony Wilkinson Fine Art from 1996. McGuinness Finch, Saatchi Collection and the AIA Collection in San Francisco, America, held examples. Lived in London. June SPENCER: see June BUCHANAN

Liam SPENCER 1964– Painter and lecturer, born in Burnley, Lancashire, who attended the College of Arts & Technology there and Manchester Polytechnic. Eventually he occupied a studio in Manchester with “a vast panorama of industrial buildings, stretching out to the distant Pennines”, from which he painted the oil on board Landscape With Bright Cloud, in Royal Over-Seas League Open, 1996. Spencer was on the exhibition committee of Manchester’s Castlefield Gallery, 1987–95, and in 1991 was a visiting lecturer at Manchester Metropolitan University. Commissions included several northern corporate ones and Towneley Hall Art Gallery & Museums, Burnley. Group shows included Wykeham Galleries, Stockbridge, 1992; RA Summer Exhibition, 1994; and Northern Colourists, Kentmere House, York, 1995. Later solo shows included Windows On The City, Towneley Hall and tour, 1996; Royal Over-Seas League tour, 1997–8; and a first London show at New Grafton Gallery, 1998. Had a one-man exhibition at The Lowry, Salford, 2002, where the entire show sold out within 40 minutes, another at Wendy J Levy Contemporary Art, Didsbury, in 2005. Manchester Art Gallery holds Spencer’s atmospheric Cakebread Street (Sunshine after Rain), 1998, and Chapel Street, Blackfriars, 2001.

Printmaker and artist in black-and-white, born in Nuneaton, Warwickshire. Studied at Ashton-under-Lyne School of Art, Manchester School of Art and Royal of Art. He held a number of teaching positions, notably principal Norwich School of Art 1946–64. Exhibited RA, RBSA, Norwich Twenty Group, NEAC and widely in America. Public galleries in Birmingham, Sheffield, Huddersfield and Chicago hold his work, the Museum of London having a considerable collection. Spencer was interested in depicting townscapes and landscapes, a notable achievement in the 1940s being many pen drawings of Huddersfield, completed while he was head of the Art School there. Finally lived in Norwich. Noël SPENCER 1900–1986

Pamela Mary SPENCER 1924– Artist in oil, watercolour and pencil, born in Manchester. She

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studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1945–51, under H A Freeth, James Bateman, Barry Craig and Gilbert Spencer, having served in Women’s Land Army, 1943–5. Began exhibiting from 1945 and was a member of Hampstead Art Club, 1952– 3. Also showed at RA, NEAC, SWA, NS, RBA, ROI, PS, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum in Bournemouth, Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and elsewhere. Main works included Fishing Nets. Private collections in Britain and abroad hold her pictures. Lived in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire.

Roy SPENCER 1918– Painter, illustrator and teacher, born in Stamford, Lincolnshire. His career as an architect – he was an articled pupil from 1938 – was interrupted by the war, during which he served in the Army abroad. He travelled widely and met the artist John Ward, an important influence. After leaving the Army in 1946 he studied at Chelsea School of Art under Raymond Coxon while teaching at Wimbledon School of Art under Gerald Cooper. When he finished as a student at Chelsea he became a visitor there, retiring in late 1980s. He was a noted teacher of life drawing. Spencer also did advertising and magazine work for periodicals such as House & Garden, freelanced for Shell, illustrated for Bodley Head and showed at RA and NEAC. In 1970s remarried, after divorce, the illustrator Carolyn Dinan. Showed solo at Trafford Gallery, 1950, 1970 Bath Festival and at Sally Hunter Fine Art from 1990. Spencer chose hedonistic subjects, which he drew with grace and felicity.

Painter who completed a foundation course at Canterbury College of Art, 1984–5; gained a bachelor’s degree at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1985–8; then completed a postgraduate diploma at Royal Academy Schools, 1988–91. She gained the W S Vellum Award in 1986; Gordon Macara Prize in 1988; David Murray Landscape Scholarship in 1989; Richard Jack Prize, Creswick Landscape Prize, Duff Greet Prize and Haite Travel Scholarship were awarded in 1991; Elizabeth Greenshields Award, 1996. Commissions comprised Stanhope Estate Community Mural, 1988; East Kent Equestrian Sarah SPENCER 1965–

Centre mural, 1989; and a drawing for Hambros Bank, 1991. Had a first solo show with New Grafton Gallery, 1992, later ones including Offer Waterman & Jonathan Cooper, 1997, and New Grafton Gallery, 2004. West Wales Arts Council holds her work.

Painter of portraits, landscapes and imaginative, visionary, quirky works with a Biblical flavour set in his native Cookham, Berkshire. Studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1908–12, where he was awarded a Scholarship in 1910 and won the Summer Composition Prize two years later. Exhibited at Roger Fry’s Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition, 1912. During service in the Army in World War I was commissioned to paint a picture for the Imperial War Museum. He was to serve as an Official War Artist during World War II, painting shipbuilding work at Port Glasgow, Scotland. After the war Spencer travelled on occasion in Europe, although his work remained essentially his own, in the English-eccentric tradition. Was the brother of the artist Gilbert Spencer and was married first to Hilda Carline, then Patricia Preece, who both painted. Stanley and Hilda’s daughter Unity Spencer was also an artist. Decorated the oratory of All Souls, Burghclere, 1926–32, with his memories of life in the Beaufort War Hospital, Bristol, and of the Macedonian campaign. First one-man show at the Goupil Gallery, 1927. Elected RA, 1950, and knighted, 1959. His work is held in many international collections, including Tate Gallery, London, and a Stanley Spencer Gallery was opened in Cookham, three years after he died at Taplow, Buckinghamshire. There have been several retrospective exhibitions, a memorial show was held in Plymouth in 1963 and a major appraisal was staged at the Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, in America, in 1997–8. Love, Desire and Faith was held at Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal, 2002, following a big exhibition at Tate Britain, 2001, Stanley’s monumental Clyde shipbuilding pictures being shown at the Imperial War Museum in 2004. In 2005, Highgate Fine Art held a Spencer show, sketch-book drawings and work by family and Stanley SPENCER 1891–1959

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friends.

Unity SPENCER 1930– Mainly figurative artist and teacher, younger daughter of the artists Stanley and Hilda Spencer, born in Hampstead, north London. She attended Wimbledon School of Art, 1947–50, and Slade School of Fine Art, full-time in 1950–3, part–time in 1954, also teaching life drawing at the Hampstead Artists’ Council. In 1955 she taught art at The Downs, a Quaker preparatory school at Colwall, Herefordshire, from 1956–61 at Bedgebury Park School. After a period of depression in the late 1950s and therapy, Spencer found a new outlet in surreal, dream-like compositions, then the 1960s saw her living with her son back in Cookham, Berkshire, where she produced paintings showing her love of nature. In 1960 she was commissioned to paint The Baptism for Kingsthorpe Church of England School, Northamptonshire. After working at a Rudolf Steiner School in the mid-1970s, in 1977 she taught art at Langley College of Further Education; studied at Woodbrooke College, Birmingham, 1978–9; then taught art at Longclose School, Slough, 1980–4; eventually moving back to London. Her mixed shows included the LG, 1956; Cookham Festival, 1981; RA Summer Exhibition, 1982; and the Fortieth Anniversary Exhibition of Hampstead Artists’ Council, Camden Arts Centre, 1986. She also took part in several family shows and had solo exhibitions at Lauderdale House, Highgate, 1993, and Boundary Gallery, 2001. Merton and St John’s Colleges, Oxford, own examples.

Vera SPENCER 1926– Painter and designer, born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, who arrived in England aged 10 and studied at Slade School of Fine Art and Central School of Textile Design. She was included in many important mixed shows of abstract work, including one at AIA, 1951; Collages and Objects, at ICA, 1954; and Groupe Espace at Royal Festival Hall, 1955. She was part of Belgrave Gallery’s 1992 survey British abstract art of the 50s and 60s. Spencer’s solo shows included Galerie Apollinaire, 1948; Galerie Arnaud, Paris, 1952; Conran Furniture, 1953; and

Elizabeth Gallery, Coventry, 1968. Spencer showed three works in Coventry and Warwickshire Society of Artists show at Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Coventry, in 1963.

Painter of interiors, figures and landscapes direct from the subject, in whose work sunlight was an important element. She was born in Wales, then from the age of 10 lived in the Alps. Her father was the artist Gerald Spencer Pryse (see Pryse), and after his death in 1956 she rebelled against his wishes and studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art; married and moved to the Black Isle, where her work was influenced by the Scottish Colourists; moved to East Anglia in 1981; was elected a member of the RBA; studied printmaking under Richard Bawden, and was invited by the keeper to be guest student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1983; and in 1984 won the Oppenheim Award to pursue printmaking. Mixed shows included RA Summer Exhibition, NEAC, RP, RSA and the Singer & Friedlander/Sunday Times Watercolour Competition. Had a first solo show at Craftsman Gallery, Colchester, 1976, then exhibited frequently, later ones including The John Russell Gallery, Ipswich, from 1995. The Wykeham Gallery, Stockbridge, included her work in a threeartist show in 2004. Lived for a time at Wivenhoe, Essex.

Tessa SPENCER PRYSE 1940–

Painter, pencil draughtsman, photographer, designer and teacher, born in London, full name John Humphrey Spender, brother of the poet Stephen Spender. He was a fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists and Designers and an honorary designer, Royal College of Art. Spender attended Gresham’s School, Holt, then in 1928 went to Freiburg in Breisgau (Schwarzwald) University, “for language (under cover of history of art)”. From 1928–34 Spender gained his diploma at the Architectural Association School of Architecture. His teachers included Howard Robertson. In 1935–41 Spender took a photographic studio, working for Picture Post, Mass Observation and the Daily Mirror as Lensman (in 1987 a book of Lensman photographs Humphrey SPENDER 1910–2005

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was published with Spender’s introduction). A retrospective show of his photographs was held at the Yale Center for British Art in America in 1997, catalogued as Humphrey Spender’s Humanist Landscape: Photo-Documents 1932–42, by Deborah Frizzell. World War II Army service included photo-interpretation of V1 and V2 rocket sites and D-Day invasion maps. Between 1946– 56 did varied freelance work, including textiles, carpets, wallpapers and murals, winning Council of Industrial Design awards four times, between 1956–76 adding teaching at Royal College of Art textile school. As well as numerous mixed shows, Spender had solo painting exhibitions including Redfern and Leicester Galleries, New Art Centre and provincial venues. There were also solo photographic exhibitions, including Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, retrospective, with tour, 1982. The National Portrait Gallery in 2002–3 featured Spender’s photographs of writers, artists and performers. Among Spender’s widely varied commissions, which included work for Festival of Britain, British Rail and Shell International, was the design of the Maldon Millennium Embroidery, which he finished in 1990. Victoria & Albert Museum, Ministry of Works and many provincial galleries hold pictures by him. Spender hoped that his paintings “might make people see differently”. Lived in Maldon, Essex.

Matthew SPENDER 1945– Sculptor, painter and writer, born and brought up in London, son of the poet Stephen Spender. He read modern history at Oxford University before devoting himself to painting, then in 1980 he began sculpting in wood, clay and occasionally stone. In 1967, he married the artist Maro Gorky, and they moved to Tuscany, Italy. Bernardo Bertolucci’s film Stealing Beauty, released in 1996, celebrated their marriage. Spender’s memoir Within Tuscany was published in 1992. His exhibitions included Long & Ryle Art International and Berkeley Square Gallery. Peter SPENS 1961– Painter, draughtsman, printmaker

and teacher, noted for his painterly views of London painted on the spot and from tall buildings. He was born in Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire;

did a foundation art and design course at Braintree College, 1979–80; graduated with honours in fine art, Bristol Polytechnic, 1980–3, taught by Paul Feiler; with student exchanges to France and Italy. After periods painting in France in 1984 and 1986– 7, Spens taught drawing at St Albans and Loughton Colleges, 1988–9, then took a studio in southern France, 1989–96, with a period in India, 1991. From 1996 he worked in north London, with periods in New York and Long Island in 1998 and 2000. Commenting on his urban pictures, painted over long periods from high vantage points, included in his Gallery 27 solo show Cities and the Sea in 2000, Spens wrote: “Photographs are of no use or interest to me, as I want to be as close to the optical experience as possible. I prefer to look, draw and paint on the spot.” There were further one-man shows at Gallery 27: Skylines, 2001, Open to the Sky, 2003, and Changing Formations, 2005, and in 2006 the Guildhall Art Gallery held a retrospective of Spens’s London pictures. Group exhibitions included Avon Open, King Street Gallery, Bristol, 1982; RA Summer Exhibition, 1985; Browse and Darby, from 1991; Austin/Desmond, Print Fair, RA, 1995; and The Discerning Eye, Brian Sewell’s Selection, Mall Galleries, 1997. Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Shell International and BP Amoco hold examples.

Romana SPERSKA 1958– Painter, born and based in

London, who attended Canterbury College of Art, 1978–9, then Kingston Polytechnic, 1979–81. Mixed shows included Metro Show at Metropolitan Wharf, Wapping, from 1981; Browse & Darby from 1982; and Wapping Artists Open Studios, 1983. Had a solo show at Galleria Accademia, Milan, 1983. Renée SPIERDIJK 1957– Painter and teacher whose

strong images had autobiographical themes, such as the birth of her daughter. She was born in Amsterdam, Netherlands, where she studied at Academie De Schans, 1976–7, continuing her art at the Camden Institute, 1977–8, Byam Shaw School of Art (where she later taught), 1979–83, then pursuing her master’s degree at Goldsmiths’ College from 1987. Exhibitions included New

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coloured landscapes, still lifes and portraits, born in London, where she continued to live, also in Northamptonshire. She spent four years at Chelsea School of Art and a year at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, teachers including Brian Robb, Fred Brill, Raymond Coxon, Elisabeth Frink, Julian Trevelyan, Carel Weight and Jack Smith. David SPILLER 1942– Painter, born in Dartford, Lady Spooner’s work was in numerous private Kent, whose work drew on popular art icons such collections. as cowboys, Snoopy and Felix the Cat. He studied at Slade School of Fine Art. Took part in many Arthur SPOONER 1873–1961 Painter and teacher, international art fairs, including in 1998 Art98, born in Nottingham where he made his career. He Business Design Centre, with Beaux Arts, which studied at Nottingham School of Art, eventually continued to show his work. Spiller exhibited becoming life master there. Spooner was a versatile widely at fairs and exhibitions in continental painter, especially adept at atmospheric landscapes, Europe and America, later solo shows including a horses and nudes. Worked in the Nottingham area series at Gallery Cotthem, Knokke, Belgium, from and during painting holidays abroad, although he 1994. Utrecht Museum of Modern Art, was unable to work in his final years owing to Netherlands; Kunstverein Mannheim, Germany; failing eyesight. Became member of RBA in 1920; Stadt Museum, Ratingen, Germany; and Van joined Nottingham Society of Artists in 1908, being Bommel Museum, Venlo, Netherlands, hold elected vice-president in both 1924 and 1938; also examples. exhibited at RA. Contemporaries at ICA, 1983; Kingsgate Gallery from 1984; John Player Award, National Portrait Gallery, 1986; and Links of Affinity, Knapp Gallery, 1989. Solo shows included Kingsgate Gallery, 1984, and Gallery Tholen, Bergen, Holland 1985.

Artist and lecturer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, America, who attended Tyler School of Art, Rome, 1982–3, and in 1983 the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine, gaining his fine arts degree from Tyler School of Art in Philadelphia, 1984, with a master’s programme at Hunter College, New York, 1985– 8. In 1986 and 1989 Spivack obtained a scholarship to the Virginia Center for the Creative Arts, Sweetbriar, Virginia, where he was visiting artist and guest lecturer. In 1991–2 he was granted a Starr Foundation artist-in-residence scholarship to Royal Academy Schools. Group exhibitions included Landscapes, Area X Gallery, New York, 1986; diploma show, RA, 1992; and Art93, Houldsworth Fine Art, 1993. Had a solo show at Seventh Art Gallery, Philadelphia, 1986, and one at Houldsworth, 1993. Later group shows included more at Houldsworth, plus 4 Painters, Snyderman

Lino-cut artist, painter and illustrator, one of the artists inspired by teaching at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art, London. Spowers was born into a financially secure family in Melbourne, Australia, whose money stemmed from newspaper interests. During World War I she studied at the National Gallery Art School in Melbourne and established a reputation for her fairy-tale and decorative illustrations. Spowers visited London for an exhibition of her work at the Macrae Gallery in 1921, shared with another Australian artist, Mary Reynolds; took studies in Paris; then returned to Australia, having a first solo show of paintings and woodcuts at the New Gallery, Melbourne, in 1925. Spowers’ lifelong artist friend Winifred Syme’s enthusiasm for the modernistic lino-cuts of Claude Flight encouraged Spowers to study with him at the Grosvenor School in 1929 and again in 1931 Gallery, Philadelphia, 1998; and US Artists there and 2 with Iain Macnab. Back in Melbourne, she and Painters, Philadelphia Museum of Fine Art, both 2001. There Syme were founding members of the were two solo exhibitions at Snyderman in 2000 and 2002. Contemporary Art Group and during the rest of the 1930s showed Grosvenor School-influenced Alyson SPOONER 1936– Painter of exuberantly work. In England, Redfern Gallery showed her Jason SPIVACK 1961–

Ethel Louise SPOWERS 1890–1947

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prints. The Victoria & Albert Museum, leading Australian public collections and Auckland Art Gallery, New Zealand, hold examples.

Landscape painter in oil and watercolour, poster designer, teacher and lino-cut artist, born in London. Was educated at the William Morris School, Walthamstow, where he studied at the School of Art, but claimed to be mainly self-taught. From 1911 designed posters, working chiefly for London Transport, until 1944. In World War I served in Army. Made sketches on active service which were later worked up into 90 paintings, presented to Imperial War Museum. Spradbery became lifelong pacifist, active in the World War II peace movement. In 1929 married the opera singer Dorothy d’Orsay. He settled in Buckhurst Hill, Essex, where he was one of the founders of the Community Centre. Taught watercolour classes at Walthamstow Education Settlement, 1921–64, and widely elsewhere. A close friend of the artist Frank Brangwyn, he was active in getting the Brangwyn gift of artworks presented to the Borough of Walthamstow in 1935– 6, which led to the opening of the William Morris Gallery in 1950. Exhibited RA, Fine Art Society, RHA, Alpine Club and overseas. The William Morris Gallery held a memorial show in 1970. Walter SPRADBERY 1889–1969

his own publicity company, Mountain and Molehill, widely employed by trade unions to enliven their image. In the 1960s Sprague was involved in radical issues, consorting with Martin Luther King and Pete Seeger, and took the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, a former Russian foundry worker, to the British Foundry Workers’ annual meeting. Sprague was involved with Arnold Wesker in Centre 42 – The Roundhouse, aiming to bring art to the people. In 1969, he was granted an award by the Council of Industrial Design for poster work, in 1970 the diploma of the Museum of Poster Art, Warsaw. He developed a way of printing on wood with a view to producing furniture. In 1971, Sprague took off for Devon with his first wife Sheila, a potter, who died in 1973. With his second wife, Marcia, he set up the Holwell International Centre For Psychodrama and Sociodrama, which continued to 1998. He had left the Communist Party after the acrimonious split in 1988, insisting that “the Party left me, I didn’t leave the Party.” Every morning he drew a political cartoon, to assuage his anger and frustration at the state of the world. Among his exhibitions was Seven Print Makers, the 1980 South West Arts touring show. John Green’s Ken Sprague – People’s Artist, 2002, includes 120 of Sprague’s prints.

Painter and teacher, studied at Doncaster College of Art, then at Edinburgh activities ranged from mining to political College of Art, 1954–7, teachers including William cartooning, born in Bournemouth, Hampshire, MacTaggart, Robin Philipson and William Gillies, where he attended the local College of Art. In 1944, where he gained an Andrew Grant Scholarship. he joined the Royal Marines, for which he played Was elected to ROI in 1986, also showing at RA, rugby, and the Communist Party on the same day. MAFA, NEAC and Blackheath Gallery. Won a After World War II, he returned to Yugoslavia number of awards and had several solo exhibitions. where he was employed in a work camp and Lived at Long Eaton, Nottinghamshire/Derbyshire. cultivated Serbian-style whiskers and moustache that were to remain his trade-mark. Among Derek SPRAWSON 1955– Artist and lecturer, born in Sprague’s diverse activities were contributing to Liverpool, who studied fine art at the Polytechnic the journal of the Boy Scout movement; teaching there; graduated from Newport College of Art; and art to working people in the north of England; gained his master’s at Reading University. Lived helping to stage Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible; in Nottingham, where he was senior lecturer in creating a series of Golden Globes as awards for fine art at The Nottingham Trent University. Thompson’s Travel best tourist hotels; working as Sprawson gained three project awards from East publicity manager for the Communist Party Midlands Arts Board, 1985–92, in 1995 winning newspaper The Daily Worker, 1954-9; and starting a drawing first prize, Biennial International for Ken SPRAGUE 1927–2004 Renaissance man, whose

John SPRAKES 1936–

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Sculpture and Drawing, Caldas da Rainha, Portugal. Later group shows included Michael Schultz Gallery, Berlin, 1991; Palace of Culture, Poznań, 1992; 7th Oriel Mostyn Open Exhibition, Llandudno, 1995–6; and winter show, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, 1996–7. At this time Sprawson was exhibiting paintings of simple shapes on grounds using muted colours, a contrast to earlier work which was densely layered and complex, and employed a rich palette. There was a solo show at Bernard Jacobson in 2000, pictures crossing the abstract-figurative boundary. A B S SPRIGGE 1906–1980 Sculptor in stone, wood

and marble, born in London. Miss Sprigge studied art at the Royal College of Art, 1926–7, under William Rothenstein, Gilbert Ledward and Henry Moore. She exhibited at some of London’s principal galleries in the 1930s and after, including Leicester Galleries and Agnew. She had a one-man show at the Bloomsbury Gallery in 1936. Lived at Llanpumpsaint, Dyfed, Wales.

stammer and short sight drove Springs at his preparatory school to pursue solitary interests, notably the nineteenth century. At a tutorial college he was able to develop a talent for drawing, but he was turned down for a place at Jacob Kramer College of Art, Leeds, as his style of draughtsmanship was regarded as too established. Springs then travelled in the Middle East in the wake of his hero Sir Richard Burton. When funds ran out he tried his luck as a freelance illustrator in England, being accepted by The Literary Review, Harpers & Queen, The Spectator, The Sunday Telegraph and The Financial Times. In 1992 he had a solo show at Sally Hunter Fine Art and a first exhibition of paintings at Rebecca Hossack Gallery, 1998. Lived in London.

Effie SPRING-SMITH 1907–1974 Painter and illustrator, born in Woodbridge, Suffolk, was married to the artist Herbert Cutner. Studied at Ipswich School of Art with George Rushton, then the Slade School of Fine Art, 1925–9, under Henry Tonks, where she won many awards. Exhibited Peter SPRIGGS 1963– Painter and teacher, born in RA, RBA, NEAC, RWA and many other venues. Cardiff, who studied at South Glamorgan Institute Member Ipswich Art Club. Felix Cobbold Bequest, of Higher Education and Royal College of Art. He Ipswich, bought her work, which was latterly was winner of the Jeremy Cubitt Prize there, 1986, signed E Cutner. Lived in London. gaining 2nd Prize, National Eisteddfod of Wales, 1990. Spriggs taught adult classes part-time for Elizabeth SPURR 1912–1987 Sculptor, printmaker London Borough of Hillingdon, 1988–90, then and painter who studied at the Central School of was full-time at Carmarthenshire College of Arts and Crafts, where John Skeaping taught. She Technology & Art from 1990. Group shows was one, and “by far the most talented” of several included Young Masters, Solomon Gallery, 1986; private pupils taken by the sculptor, even helping Arthur Andersen Art Award, 1993; Bayer Earth him, as he recalls in his autobiography Drawn from Art Exhibition, Mall Galleries, 1995; Royal Over- Life, by collecting money when he busked with Seas League Open 1996; and Welsh Painting for his accordion. Spurr’s early sculptures had Cubist the 21st Century, Mall Galleries, 2001. Solo shows overtones, stylised in the manner of Skeaping and included Face the Facade, Llandaff Festival, Barbara Hepworth. Her carving, in wood and stone, Cardiff, 1986; and Three Paintings, Church of St which often included animals, is notable for its George’s, 1990. Prudential Assurance holds his beautiful finish: see examples illustrated in the work. monographs British Sculpture 1944–1946, by Eric Newton, 1947, and Sculpture Today in Great John SPRINGS 1960– Draughtsman, noted for his Britain 1940–1943, by Arthur T Broadbent, 1949. depictions of political and other personalities for Spurr was a talented printmaker, producing the printed page. He was born in Yorkshire, son of innovative coloured monotypes, etchings and a Latvian father and Estonian mother who had contributing to Everyman Prints, which the AIA settled in England after World War II. Dyslexia, a produced by offset lithography for popular 168


distribution. Spurr’s paintings, in oil and gouache, were figurative, including London street and market scenes. Although married with children she went on working, but did not often exhibit. Died in London. England & Co latterly showed Spurr’s work.

Mabel SPURRIER 1880– Painter in oil and watercolour, born at Moseley, near Birmingham, where she studied at the College of Art. Exhibited until near her death, specialising in animals, figures and architecture. Took part in mixed shows at RA, RBA, RBSA of which she was an associate and elsewhere. Lived in London. Raymond SPURRIER 1920– Painter, notably a water-

colourist, printmaker and writer on art, born in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire. He studied part-time at St Martin’s and Central Schools of Art, while working as a town planner. Spurrier was a member of RI and an associate of RWA, also showing at RA. His batch of Australian landscapes in the 1992 RI annual exhibition showed a strong interest in topographical pattern-making. In 1984 Spurrier won the Winsor & Newton Award there. Department of the Environment holds his work. Lived in Halstead, Kent.

and theatrical subjects.

Andrew SQUIRE 1954– Painter, born in Dover, Kent, who studied at Manchester University School of Architecture, 1972–9. Travel influenced Squire’s work. He had residencies at Akureyri Arts Centre, Iceland, 1995; Pouch Cove Foundation, St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, 2001; and Siddhartha Art Gallery, Katmandu, Nepal, 2002, after winning the Club Med International Artist Award that year. Squire spent much time in isolation honing a personal symbolic language, exploring aspects of self and spirit in distinctive colours. Group exhibitions included Contemporary Art from Glasgow, Nuremberg, Germany, 1986; RSA, RSW and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts shows, 1992–9; The Glenlivet Competition, winner with commission, 1997; and Green Galerie, Munich, Germany, 2003. Thompson’s Gallery, Marylebone, gave him solo shows in 2001 and 2003.

Painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Cleckheaton, Yorkshire. He studied at Leeds College of Art, 1939–41, then for two periods, 1941–2 and 1946–8, at the Slade School of Fine Art under Randolph Schwabe. Showed at RA, RSA and RBA and had one-man exhibitions Steven SPURRIER 1878–1961 Painter, designer and at Batley and Brighouse public galleries in illustrator, born and died in London. Following his Yorkshire. Lectured for a period at Glasgow School father’s profession of silversmith at first, Spurrier of Art. Lived in Batley. studied during the evening at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art, then at the Gilbert Garrett School. Leonard SQUIRRELL 1893–1979 Watercolour and From 1900 he became a full-time illustrator, oil painter and etcher of landscapes and working for such publications as Black and White, architectural views. Born at Ipswich, Suffolk, The Graphic, Illustrated London News and Radio Squirrell studied art at Ipswich School of Art, Times. During World War I he worked on 1908–16, under George Robert Rushton, then at camouflage of ships for the Admiralty. Exhibited the Slade School of Fine Art, 1921, under Henry with the RA from 1913, elected RA 1952. He was Tonks. From just before World War I Squirrell a member of the PS, 1922–38, showing almost exhibited at the RA, then throughout a long career every year. Also showed at RBA, ROI, RSA, his work was regularly seen at venues such as RWS, Goupil Gallery and RHA. He wrote Black and RE, RI and RSA. Squirrell won a number of medals White and Illustration in Wash and Line. Work held for his etchings, a technique of which he was a by Tate Gallery, Victoria & Albert Museum and master. Yet his firmness of line did not inhibit his provincial galleries. John Benison, the designer fluency as a watercolourist, his main inspiration and artist, was his son. In 1993 a show at Paisnel being the work of John Sell Cotman. His work is Gallery highlighted Spurrier’s interest in circus in many public and private collections, including Geoffrey SQUIRE 1923–

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the Victoria & Albert Museum, British Museum Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, SWA, and Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. He wrote Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool and RMS and was several books on watercolour and pastel technique. a fellow of RBS. In 1906 married the artist Harold Stabler. Lived at Witnesham, near Ipswich, Suffolk. His Phoebe developed a series of pottery figures with rich glazes, first fired at a commercial pottery, then in a kiln in their son Martin was also a painter.

Sculptor, potter, artist in precious metals and teacher, born in Levens, Westmorland, son of a schoolmaster. He trained initially as a wood- and stone-carver, then as a metalworker and silversmith. In 1898 was made director of Keswick School of Art, taught at Royal College of Art and from 1907–32 was head of the arts and crafts department at Sir John Cass Institute. Was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild from 1903, being on its council, 1910–12; was a foundermember of the British Institute of Industrial Art; and was on the first council of the Design and Industries Association when it began in 1915. In 1906 married the artist Phoebe Stabler and with her worked closely with Poole Pottery after World War I, having fired figures in a kiln in their Hammersmith garden. Other makers, including Royal Doulton, produced them under licence. Stabler was also closely associated with Frank Pick of London Underground and produced the first official seal for the London Passenger Transport Board, a cap badge design, decorative tiles and alloy ventilation grilles for Manor House, Turnpike Lane and Wood Green tube stations. Glazed sculptures for the war memorial in Durban, South Africa; the official war medal for Mercantile Marine; and Royal Victorian Order collars were by Stabler, who showed at Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, RA, RMS, the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society and elsewhere. The Louvre, Paris, holds an enamelled panel by him. Harold STABLER 1872–1945

Sculptor in stone, metal and terracotta, potter and black-andwhite artist who early on exhibited under her maiden name Phoebe McLeish. She was educated at Liverpool University and, having won a travelling scholarship, attended Royal College of Art under Richard Garbe, Édouard Lantéri and Augustus John. Exhibited widely, including RA, Phoebe STABLER fl. from c.1908–1955

London garden. Royal Worcester, Royal Doulton and especially Poole Pottery in Dorset produced the figures. Phoebe was also involved in war memorials for Durban and Rugby School, garden sculpture for the Paris Exhibition and a fountain for the Bank of England. Phoebe’s sister Minnie McLeish was one of the designers the Stablers introduced to Poole Pottery. Walker Art Gallery, Leicester Art Gallery and the Museum in Helsingfors, Finland, hold examples of Phoebe’s work.

Aleksander STACHOW 1924– Sculptor, painter and draughtsman, known as Kostia Stachow, one of the Polish paper sculptors who made such an impact in Britain after World War II. In Poland he initially studied painting, early in the war was taken prisoner by the Germans, was freed by the British and joined the Polish Army. After arriving in England in 1946 he worked in an antique shop, eventually enrolling at Sir John Cass College. Did freelance work, notably for Diana Studio, his designs being noted for their classical dignity. Was included in Polish Paper Sculpture at Polish Cultural Institute, 1995.

Painter, printmaker, designer and teacher, born in Leicester, where he studied at the College of Art, then the Royal College of Art, where he was a Royal Exhibitioner, gaining his diploma in 1927. Stafford was a man of many interests, listing football, chess, billiards and card fortune-telling. He showed at Victoria & Albert Museum, Sketch Club and elsewhere. Was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild from 1958 and lived in London.

Albert STAFFORD 1903–1979

Paul STAFFORD 1918– Painter, born in Minsterley,

Shropshire, who was educated at Worksop College, Nottinghamshire. Exhibited at NS, RI and widely in provinces, including many solo shows. Lived for a time at Ely, Cambridgeshire.

Sculptor and painter who attended Rochdale College of Art, 1975–6, Coventry College of Art, 1976–9, then Slade Paul STAFFORD 1957–

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School of Fine Art, 1979–81. He was Fellow in Sculpture, Kingston, 1981–2. Stafford won a Boise Travelling Fellowship, 1982, an Elizabeth Greenshields Major Award (Canada), 1981–2, and a Picker Fellowship, for Sculpture, 1982. Among group shows appeared in were Eight Slade Sculptors, at Digswell House, Welwyn Garden City, 1979; Obsessions, at Angela Flowers, 1983; and Whitechapel Open, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1985. After a solo show at Spacex, Exeter, in 1982, others included Angela Flowers, 1983, and Woodlands Art Gallery, 1989, comprising paintings chronicling Stafford’s own life over the previous year. Simeon STAFFORD 1956– Painter of busy, colourful,

peopled scenes with the deceptively naïve style of L S Lowry, who became a friend and encouraged Stafford to paint while still a child. Stafford was born in Dukinfield, a small Cheshire cotton town, and began painting at age six when he was bought his first set of oils. In 1970, he won the Robert Owen Schools Award for art and the Manchester Evening News Portrait Award. Through 1972–3, Stafford studied art at Hyde College under Christine Kendall, wife of the art historian Richard Kendall. By 1974, Stafford was showing his work in the north of England and London, including RA Summer Exhibition. In 1996, he moved to Cornwall, which offered his art new possibilities. He had solo shows at Oliver Contemporary in 2003 and 2005. Stafford also composed piano and orchestral works, played in connection with his exhibitions and in concerts, notably at Indian Kings, Camelford and BBC Music Week, Truro. Alan Lowndes and William Turner were among northern artists admired by Stafford.

Force attached to a radar unit, then became an intelligence officer, serving abroad. The War Artists’ Advisory Committee bought hundreds of pictures of planes from him, which found their way into numerous public collections, including Imperial War Museum, British Museum and Victoria & Albert Museum. After the war continued as a children’s illustrator and showed at RA, in 1956 winning a Giles Bequest Prize at Victoria & Albert Museum for printmaking. He went on to experiment in various print techniques. In 1989 Sally Hunter Fine Art had a retrospective of his work and that of his brother, Philip.

Philip STAFFORD-BAKER 1908–1955 Artist, notably

in watercolour and gouache, fond of seaside and beach scenes, born in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. He was the son of the illustrator Julius Stafford-Baker, who created the children’s cartoon strip Tiger Tim, and brother of the artist Julius, with whom he shared a retrospective at Sally Hunter Fine Art in 1989. Philip attended Southend-on-Sea Art School, but his career was diminished by an illness which damaged his heart. Much of his life had to be spent in bed, otherwise he drew from a favourite bench overlooking the sea in Leigh-on-Sea. Chose to exhibit little work.

Painter, especially of views associated with the river and the sea, born in Middlesbrough, Yorkshire. She was brought up in Cleveland, where she attended Cleveland College of Art and Design, 1987–8. After Newcastle upon Tyne University, 1988–92, obtained a postgraduate diploma at Royal Academy Schools, 1992–5. Among her awards were Tony Smith Landscape Award and British Institute Fund, both 1994; David Murray Scholarship, National Westminster Bank Julius STAFFORD-BAKER 1904–1988 Painter, Art Prize and runner-up, The Hunting Prize, all draughtsman and printmaker, born in Leigh-on- 1995; and in 1996 at RA Summer Exhibition, prize Sea, Essex. His father, also Julius, was the creator from M&G for best painter under 35 years. Stage of the Tiger Tim comic strip in the children’s comic was twice runner-up for the Villiers David Prize, The Rainbow. Julius took this on and meanwhile in 2000 and 2001, winning it in 2003. She was taught himself to paint. He had a lifelong elected NEAC in 1999. Mixed shows included RA fascination with the Royal Air Force, which began Summer Exhibition from 1993; Redfern Gallery, as a messenger boy for the Royal Flying Corps in 1995; and Making a Mark, at Mall Galleries, and 1918, and during World War II he was in the Air three-artist exhibition at Cadogan Contemporary, Ruth STAGE 1969–

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both 1996. Later ones included Centro d’Art Modigliani, Florence, and RA Friends’ Room, NEAC Members, both 2002. Had a solo show at Trevelyan College, Durham University, 1994, another at New Grafton Gallery, 1997, David Wolfers having admired Stage’s facility with the demanding egg tempera medium. The New Grafton continued to show her, notably in The Villiers David Award Exhibition, 2004, other venues including John Davies Gallery, Stow-on-the-Wold, 2002. Was commissioned to illustrate 1996 Chevron UK calendar, many other corporate collections subsequently acquiring Stage’s pictures. Lived in London.

Andrew STAHL 1954– Painter and teacher, born and lived in London. He studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1973–9, when he won Abbey Major Rome Scholarship. Went on to teach at Chelsea School of Art, Royal College of Art and became head of undergraduate painting at the Slade. In 1985 Stahl was a prizewinner at John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, the year he represented Britain at 17th International Festival of Painting at Cagnes-surMer, France. He showed solo with Air Gallery from 1981, at Paton Gallery in 1984, later exhibitions including Flowers East from 1992 and Fenderesky Gallery, Belfast, 1999. The exotic and the Far East were strong elements in Stahl’s often large works.

pen-name John Cropton, with his own illustrations. Showed work with SGA and with the East Kent and Whitstable and Swale Art Societies. Lived latterly at Barley, Hertfordshire.

Paul STAITE 1950– Artist who studied at Isleworth

Polytechnic, 1969–70, and Trinity and All Saints Colleges of Further Education, 1971–2. Between 1982–5 he was the director of London Historic. Staite had a show at the Cockpit Theatre in 1983 and in 1989 participated in East End Open Studios, at Cable Street Studios.

Painter and writer, born in Whitehaven, Cumberland. He studied at Loughborough College of Art, 1966–7, Sunderland College of Art, 1967–70, and University of Reading, 1970–1. In 1992 he published Oil Painting Techniques. In his own work, as in A Brick In A Dark Ditch, at 1993–4 John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, Stalker said that he aimed for “an entirely sensory activity; I try to eliminate ideas and concept.” From the early 1980s he exhibited widely, later shows including Gagliardi Gallery, 1993. Lived in Yelvertoft, Northamptonshire. Geoff STALKER 1948–

Constance STALLARD 1870– Painter and writer, born

in Kingstown, County Dublin. Went to school in Dublin, then studied at South Kensington Schools, 1888. She exhibited RA, SWA, PS and in provinces and wrote novels, plays and poetry. Her work is David STAINER 1897–1979 Artist, teacher and writer with a special interest in natural history. Born in held by public galleries including Bristol, Hastings Folkestone, Kent, he attended King’s School, and Worthing. Lived in London. Canterbury, 1912–14, during World War I serving Tony STALLARD 1958– Artist and teacher whose in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve at Gallipoli mainly site-specific work involved mixed media and in France, including the battle of Passchendale. with neon for exhibitions, urban sculpture trails At the École des Beaux-Arts, Rennes, from 1919, and sculptural commissions. He did a foundation he won the Premier Prix (Painting), then obtained course at Walthamstow College of Art and Design, a degree in geography at King’s College, 1927–8. 1976–7; a Higher National Diploma in mural Stainer was headmaster and proprietor of Carlisle design, 1984–6; graduated with honours in fine Preparatory School, 1928–36; art master, Carlisle art, Camberwell School of Art, 1986–9; gained his Boys’ Grammar School, 1936–43; doing that job master’s in site-specific sculpture, Wimbledon at King’s School, Canterbury, 1943–57. In 1947 School of Art, 1991–3; a master’s in public art, he founded the Association of School Natural Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, History Studies. As well as having pieces published 1995; and studied digital image manipulation at in Blackwood’s Magazine, in 1936 he produced an Tower Hamlets College, 1996–7. He taught English autobiography, The Road to Nowhere, using the 172


as a foreign language at Goodwill Institute, Tokyo, Japan, 1983–4; then art at Mayflower School, 1997–8; Bishops Hill Adult Education Centre, Shenfield, 1997–9; Redden Court School, Harold Wood, part–time, from 1999; and computer and public art at Svenska Konstskolans, Finland, 2001. Exhibitions included Mitsubishi Gallery, Japan, 1984; South London Art Gallery, 1989; RSA, 1995; Inverness Museum and Art Gallery, 1998; Woodlands Art Gallery, 2001; and RDSS Cumbria Arts tour, 2002–4. Among Stallard’s numerous commissions were Dalby Forest, Yorkshire, 1992; Battle of Culloden Bi-Centenary, for Inverness Council, 1996; Paddington Arts Centre, London Arts Board-Lottery Commission, 1998–9; Plowden and Thompson Glass Quarter, Dudley County Council, 1999–00; and Konsthall Vaasa, Finland, 2002. Lived in Brentwood, Essex.

Painter and black-and-white artist normally known as G L Stampa. The son of an architect, Dominic Stampa, he was born in Constantinople but educated in England. Studied art at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art early in the 1890s, then attended Royal Academy Schools, 1895–1900. Although he exhibited RA, RI, and in the provinces, and especially at Walker’s Galleries, Stampa was primarily an artist of the printed page, associated with the days of the great black-and-white men. He specialised in street and low life, with a humorous bent. Among the books he illustrated were his own Ragamuffins, 1916, and Humours of the Streets, 1921 – both typical – and he drew for periodicals such as Punch and The Sketch. Member of Langham Sketch Club and lived in London. George Loraine STAMPA 1875–1951

James William STAMPER 1873–1947 Painter, born in Birmingham, who studied at Manchester Technical School and Manchester School of Art, his teachers being the architect Richard Glazier and the painter William Fitz. After a period in business, in the early years of the century he moved to Conway, north Wales, where he painted professionally, setting eventually at Amlwch, Anglesey. Exhibited extensively RCamA, of which he was a member, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and elsewhere in

the provinces. Manchester City Art Gallery has Stamper’s detailed study Wallflowers.

Ceramist, illustrator and teacher, born in America, who served in the United States Navy at Holy Loch, 1970–4. Mark STANCZYK fl. from c.1980–

After three years as a freelance illustrator he graduated from Glasgow School of Art in ceramics, adding a postgraduate year in 1982. Stanczyk held a number of teaching posts, including a year in Nigeria, from the mid-1980s being with Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art in Dundee. He did much to promote an interest in creative ceramics in Scotland, organising and exhibiting in Clay Figures, a touring exhibition of a dozen ceramics artists in Britain. He was also a council member and chairman of the Scottish Craft Centre. He took part in Compass Gallery, Glasgow, New Generation Shows in 1980–81 and participated in its Danish Tour, and was included in The Compass Contribution, 1990. In 1983 he had solo shows at Dumbarton Museum and Art Gallery and Eire Art Museum, Pennsylvania, in America. Also had several solo shows at Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh.

Painter in oil and acrylic, etcher and lithographer, born in Carshalton, Surrey. Studied at Nottingham College of Art, 1954–6, then at Edinburgh College of Art, 1956–9, teachers including Derek Clarke and William Gillies. Standen was on the committee of Edinburgh Printmakers’ Workshop, 1974–87, and its chairman, 1979–82, having joined in 1972. Six years previously he had been elected a professional member of SSA, and was a council member from 1991. Standen travelled extensively in North Africa, the Middle East, Sudan and East Africa, 1962–4. His work “always had an allegorical/metaphysical character and has always been of a literary nature”. Later preoccupations were “imaginary landscapes of the future and allegorical cats”. In 1987 Standen had a Scottish Arts Council artist-in-industry placement with Ferranti Professional Components’ Dundee factory. Group shows included Art into Landscape, Serpentine Gallery, 1974 and 1979; Artists in Industry, Seagate Gallery, Dundee, 1987; Festive City, Fine Art Society, Edinburgh, 1988; and Inverclyde Biennial, 1992. His Up the Nile solo show was held at Commonwealth Institute, Edinburgh, 1965, later ones including Meet Mr Cat, Traverse Theatre Club, Edinburgh, 1985, and Peter STANDEN 1936–

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Edinburgh Printmakers’ Workshop Gallery, 1988. holding examples. Lived in Devizes, Wiltshire. Scottish Arts Council, City of Edinburgh, Hamilton Maryslka-Łuszczewska Art Gallery in Ontario and other collections hold Elżbieta STANHOPE 1936– Ceramist, born in Pęcice, examples. Lived in Portobello, Edinburgh. Poland, who was “raised in an artistic milieu, both Muriel STANES 1914–1966 Painter and illustrator, parents notable painters.” She read English born in London, also known by her married name literature at Lublin and Warsaw Universities, of Muriel Stevens. She was educated at Highbury attending art school for a sabbatical year in the Hill School, where her art teacher was Nan Polish capital under Professor Stanislaw Youngman. Studied at Chelsea School of Art with Kużmiński before her university Graham Sutherland and Harold Sandys studies there. Having moved to England, she Williamson, 1931–4, where she met and later freelanced for the Polish section of the BBC at married the painter Geoffrey Howard Stevens. Bush House, also teaching Polish at the Polytechnic They moved to Wales in 1937 and lived first in of Central London. Mrs Stanhope’s exhibitions Aberporth, then in New Quay, Cardiganshire. included The Ice-House, Holland Park, 1986 and 1990; Clarendon Gallery, 1988; Gagliardi Gallery, Exhibited LG and elsewhere. 1992; Holland Gallery, 1994; Polish Cultural Marion Willis STANFIELD fl. from 1922–1965 Sculptor, Institute, 1996; Edith Grove Gallery, 1997; Bartley teacher and decorative metalworker who studied Drey Gallery, 1999 and 2000; with a Studio Show, at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, in Paris with 2005. Private collections in England, German and Antoine Bourdelle and in Florence. Was assistant Spain held her work. She lived in west London. art lecturer at Whitelands Training College, Putney, and lectured on sculpture at University of Reading. Bernard Gareth STANILAND 1900–1969 Sculptor, Miss Stanfield was a fellow of the RBS and artist in ceramics and painter. Born in Canterbury, exhibited at RA, Leicester Galleries, Paris Salon he became a medical practitioner, having studied at the City of London School and London Hospital. and elsewhere. Lived in London. Settled in Newcastle upon Tyne, where Dr Eric STANFORD 1932– Sculptor in stone, teacher Staniland showed with local groups and nationally and curator who studied at St Martin’s School of and was a founder-member of the Federation of Art, where he was taught carving by José Alberdi. Northern Art Societies, Newcastle, begun in 1947. While further studying at University of Reading’s He was chairman, 1950–68, and president for a department of fine art under A C Carter, Stanford short period before his death. Described by his met Eric Kennington and after military service, widow as “an obsessive amateur artist”, Staniland 1955–7, became Kennington’s assistant until his had no formal training apart from evening classes death in 1960, finished Kennington’s big relief at Newcastle University just before World War II. panel for Glasgow University and became a part- Lived in Newcastle, Tyne and Wear. time lecturer at Berkshire College of Art. He also worked for the Workers’ Educational Association, David STANLEY 1946– Painter who obtained his Reading and London Universities. From 1968–89 master’s degree from the University of Liverpool Stanford was keeper of art at Reading Museum in 2000. His exhibitions included the RA Summer and Art Gallery, while continuing with his own Exhibition and Ten British Painters at James West work. Showed with RA, ICA, SPS, LG, AIA and Fine Art, both 1991; NAPA (USA), Long Beach, Woodstock Gallery, was an honorary life member California (Prize Winner), and Gallery Unterm of Reading Guild of Artists and was included in Turm, Stuttgart, Germany, both 1998; MAFA 1st RWA Open Sculpture Exhibition, 1993. Did a (Major Award Winner), 2001; Fresh Art, Building large volume of commissioned work, council and Design Centre, Islington, and University of university collections in Berkshire and Oxfordshire Arkansas, both 2002; and Chapel Gallery, 174


Ormskirk, and Turnpike Gallery, Leigh, where he dramatically lit and inspired by John Piper. After shared an exhibition with Bernard Georgeson, both the war Stanley taught at Lady Manners School, 2003. Stanley showed large abstracts. Bakewell, then was art master for nearly 30 years at Stockport Grammar School, where he was noted Diana STANLEY 1909–1975 Illustrator and painter, for his booming voice, charismatic presence and born in London, married to Professor C A Pannett. enjoyment of organised anarchy. In the 1950s After attending Cheltenham Ladies’ College she Stanley began enlivening the school year with his studied at Regent Street Polytechnic and Byam often hardy walking tours, in Britain and abroad, Shaw Schools of Art, her teachers at the latter, in 1991 publishing Travels Without A Donkey. He 1929–34, including F Ernest Jackson. Exhibited continued to paint after losing a leg, driving himself RA, LG and had a one-man show at Batsford’s in a specially modified vehicle. The day after his Gallery in 1945 and in Basingstoke Town Hall, funeral, Buxton Art Gallery opened an exhibition Hampshire, 1966. She lived in Basingstoke, the of his watercolours, Stanley’s favourite medium. local council buying her work, an example of which His later works, done during his Derbyshire was also on the liner Queen Mary. Stanley was retirement, were paler and softer. most noted as a book illustrator for children, including Mary Norton’s The Borrowers series, Michael STANLEY 1944– Abstract painter and although she also published Anatomy for Artists teacher who studied at Chelsea School of Art, 1963–7, then London University, 1967–8. He went in 1951. on to teach in London secondary schools and was Jacqueline STANLEY 1928– Artist and teacher, born included in Woodlands Art Gallery show Artists in London, who studied at Beckenham School of in Adult Education, 1982. Also exhibited at AIA Art and the Royal College of Art, where her Summer Exhibition, 1965; Arts Council Touring teachers included Francis Bacon. Moved to Ireland Exhibition, 1966; Surrey University, Guildford, in 1975, teaching at the National College of Art 1975; and Four + Charlie, Bakehouse Gallery, and Design, Dublin, 1975–90. She was a director 1981. Worked on mural project for Arndale Centre, of the Black Church Print Studio and a board Wandsworth, 1971. member of the Graphic Studio Trust. Landscape was a favourite theme, Spain a particular subject. Shaun STANLEY 1958– Painter, notably of She showed widely internationally in group landscape, born in Cambridge. In 1977–8 exhibitions. In 1997–8 she was included in completed a foundation course at Heatherley’s Landscapes North and South, which toured from School of Fine Art, attending Slade School of Fine The Glebe House and Gallery, Donegal. Stanley’s Art, 1978–82. Stanley travelled and painted in oil on canvas self-portrait J S in A L Mirror is held Australia in 1984–5, having pictures on show at by the National Self-Portrait Collection of Ireland, Dridane Gallery, Adelaide, in 1985–6. He had a University of Limerick, and alludes to a mirror solo show at Thackeray Gallery in 1986, followed made by the artist Andrew Logan which includes by several of Australian paintings after return trips there. an image of Bacon.

John STANLEY 1912–1999 Painter, printmaker, Sidney STANLEY 1890–1956 Painter, wood-carver calligrapher, inspirational and demanding teacher and designer, born in London. He studied at and writer, born in Manchester, gaining his diploma Clapham School of Art and Heatherley’s School at the School of Art after being brought up in of Fine Art under Henry Massey. Exhibited RA, Yorkshire. Early influenced by the Arts and Crafts IS, NS, RI, RP and at the Royal Glasgow Institute movement, he joined the Red Rose Guild. During of the Fine Arts. Stanley was a multi-talented man, World War II service in Italy he completed his first designing toys and models, illustrating books and series of topographical pictures in bright colours, completing murals. His work is to be found in 175


Selfridges store in Oxford Street, London, and the War II settled in Mousehole, Cornwall, but at the White House, Regent’s Park, all finished in the time of her death, “after a short illness”, her address 1930s. Lived in London. was again Farnham. Miss Stanley- Creek’s figurative pictures, sometimes in her own decorated Stuart STANLEY 1946– Painter, draughtsman, stage frames, have a singular period quality, seen in a and events designer working mainly in oils, pencil group sold by Phillips in 1998. and charcoal. He was born in Eastbourne, Sussex, where from 1964–5 he did a pre-diploma course Henry John Sylvester STANNARD 1870–1951 at the School of Art under Robert Tavener, gaining Watercolour painter of landscape and teacher, born an honours diploma in theatre design from in London, son of the artist Henry Stannard, father Wimbledon School of Art, 1965–8, under Richard of the artist Theresa Stannard. Studied art at South Negri. From 1968–86 Stanley was a theatre Kensington Schools. Went on to exhibit at RBA designer for repertory companies, including extensively, also at RA, RCamA, RHA, RI and Chester, Worthing and Leatherhead in Surrey, elsewhere. His work was bought by several English where he settled, also as a freelance designer in royal collectors and it is also in a number of Belfast, Hong Kong and London. He also worked provincial galleries, including Wolverhampton and with the Society of British Theatre Designers and Kettering. Stannard’s watercolours were of the the actors’ union Equity, exhibiting with them in traditional cottage garden and hollyhock variety, London 1977, 1979 and 1983, and Manchester, which have maintained popular appeal. Lived in 1986. In that year, Stanley left the theatre to pursue Flitwick, Bedfordshire. his main interest, painting and drawing, as well as working as an events designer. After initially Frank STANTON 1931– Painter in oil, theatre produced, modestly sized realistic oils in muted designer, teacher and gallery owner, born and lived colours, extensive travels through Europe, in London, who attended the Slade School of Fine especially France, led to a shift in colour, freedom Art, 1949–52, teachers including William of handling and size strongly influenced by the Coldstream, Robert Medley and John Piper. work of Ivon Hitchens and Dennis Creffield. His Stanton worked and designed for the theatre; later work was more abstract, with a vibrant, designed decorative panels for hotels; started and Expressionist colour reflecting his earlier theatre ran the Leigh Underhill Gallery; and became head experiences. Stanley showed as a member of the of art at St Dunstan’s College, Catford. His work Surrey Figurative Artists, 1995–7, and with many was included in Beryl Dean’s Designing other groups in Surrey and London, including the Ecclesiastical Textiles. Geometrical abstracts and Bloomsbury Workshop, 1990, and at the Art plant forms were features of his pictures, which Apartment, Knaresborough, 2003. Among his solo were shown at RA Summer Exhibition, shows was a series at The Studio Art House, Contemporary Portrait Society, RI and Islington Leatherhead, including 2004. Private and corporate Art Circle. Solo exhibitions included All Hallowsby-the-Tower, Salford City Art Gallery, Canonbury collections hold his work. Bookshop Gallery and John Jones Gallery. In 2001, Braida STANLEY-CREEK 1909–1952 Painter, The Millinery Works held his one-man show A muralist and draughtsman whose home was in Man For All Seasons, The Footballer As A Modern Farnham, Surrey. She was educated at Gorse Hill Icon, with another there in 2006. Private collections PNEU School, Farnham and Guildford Schools of in Britain and abroad hold examples. The artist Art and the Slade School of Fine Art for a part- Joan Stanton was his sister. time fine art course between 1931–5, where she won a certificate in drawing. Stanley-Creek was a Joan STANTON 1943– Painter, draughtsman, member of WIAC from 1933, also showing at RA, printmaker and teacher, born and lived in London, NEAC, RBA, RSA and in Canada. During World sister of the artist Frank Stanton. She attended 176


Chelsea School of Art, 1962–6, teachers including Elisabeth Frink, Patrick Caulfield and John Hoyland, then Brighton College of Art for a postgraduate teacher-training course. After teaching art in Brighton she soon returned to London to teach, later becoming art adviser for the Inner London Education Authority art inspectorate. From 1979–97 Stanton taught printmaking, screenprinting and surface decorating at London College of Printing, becoming a senior lecturer. In 1989, she worked for the British Council on a printmaking project in Kumasi, Ghana, and also taught residential printmaking courses at West Dean, Sussex. A central theme of Stanton’s work was the human form, especially the body in motion. She additionally studied under Glenn Sujo at the Prince’s Drawing Foundation and worked with her niece the choreographer Lea Anderson and her dancers in rehearsal. Stanton participated in mixed exhibitions at Antrim, Moreton Contemporary Art and Leigh Underhill Galleries and the Millinery Works. Collections in Britain and abroad held her work.

Painter, draughtsman, muralist and illustrator, born in Walsingham, Norfolk, who studied at Byam Shaw School of Art, 1973–7. She had early success in London, exhibiting at SWA and RBA, both 1978; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1978; Green and Stone, 1985; PS at Mall Galleries, 1989; Bartley Drey Gallery, 1996; and The British Landscape, Society of Landscape Painters, Mall Galleries, 2001. Other mixed shows included Chelsea Art Society and Chelsea Arts Club and several exhibitions in France, where she lived. She had solo exhibitions at Piers Feetham Gallery, from 1987; Centre d’Art Azilien, in le Mas d’Azil, Provence, from 1995; and in 1999 at Workhouse Gallery. Stanton completed book illustrations, also mural commissions including work at Studley Royal, Yorkshire, with Lincoln Seligman. Olivia STANTON 1949–

degree at Goldsmiths’ College, 1991–3. Group exhibitions included ADD, Greenwich Festival, 1992; Mind the Gap …, Acud Galerie, Berlin, Germany, 1994; I Beg to Differ, Milch Ltd, 1996; and Craft, Richard Salmon, 1997. Stapleton took part in a number of collaborative exhibitions, mostly with Rebecca Warren, such as The Showroom, 1997. Solo exhibitions included Tonight, The Agency, and Celtic Festival, Riutsu Centre, Tokyo, Japan, both 1996. Lived in London.

Painter, printmaker and teacher, born in Manchester where she attended the High School for Girls. Studied at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1958–61. Was married to the painter Denis Bowen, then the artist Harvey Daniels. WIAC member who showed at a number of venues and had work in British and overseas galleries, including Victoria & Albert Museum and Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. Taught for a time at Eastbourne School of Art. Lived in London and then Brighton, Sussex.

Judy STAPLETON 1940–

Marjorie STARK 1914– Painter, born in Edinburgh,

who studied at the College of Art there, then dancing in Edinburgh and London, being a member of Royal Academy of Dancing. Stark nursed in India from 1942–6, then returned to art college, 1949–55. She travelled abroad, especially in Italy, where the buildings of Venice and Tuscany were of continuing interest. Showed at RSW of which she was made a member in 1974, RSA and SSA. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, Scottish Arts Council and Edinburgh Education Authority hold examples. Lived in Kelso, Roxburghshire.

Photo-oriented artist, a chronicler of women’s lives, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, who gained a photography and film degree at Napier University, Edinburgh, 1992– 5, then her master’s in photography at Royal College of Art, 1996–7. Everyday scenes of working-class life were common in Starkey’s work, Fergal STAPLETON 1961– Conceptual artist, born as in the Neurotic Realism series of exhibitions in Tipperary, Irish Republic, who gained an launched by Saatchi Gallery in 1999. Starkey had honours degree in fine art at Middlesex solo shows at Maureen Paley/Interim Art in Polytechnic, 1987–90, then his fine art master’s London, where she lived, from 1998; Cornerhouse, Hannah STARKEY 1971–

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Manchester, 1999; and The Irish Museum of performance in her works, in which she appeared Modern Art, Kilmainham, 2000. The Saatchi in various guises including herself. She attended Collection holds her work. Middlesex Polytechnic, 1987–90; Slade School of Fine Art, 1990–2; and Rijksakademie Van Simon STARLING 1967– Artist, born in Epsom, Beeldende Kunst, Amsterdam, 1993–4. Among Surrey, whose work focused on ideas of process her awards were a British Institute Award for and change. He researched architecture, objects Sculpture and Duveen Travel Award, both 1991, and machines, plotting relationships between their and VSB Bank Award, Leverhulme Trust Award development and social, geographical and and Uriot Prize, all 1993. Group shows included historical context. This frequently involved turning Through View, Diorama Gallery, 1992; High originals into fakes and ready-mades into re-mades. Fidelity, Kohji Ogura Gallery, Nagoya, 1993; Here Starling studied at Maidstone College of Art, 1986– and Now, Serpentine Gallery, 1995; and British 7; Nottingham Polytechnic, 1987–90; and Glasgow Art Show 4, and tour, 1995–6. She had the first of School of Art, 1990–2. In 1999 he won the Blinky a series of solo exhibitions at Anthony Reynolds Palermo Prize, Leipzig; a Henry Moore Sculpture Gallery, 1992; had several on the continent in the fellowship, Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, mid-1990s; and in 1996 displayed Dundee; and a Paul Hamlyn Foundation Award. Hypnodreamdruff at Art Now room, Tate Gallery. He was included in numerous group shows in Also showed at Emily Tsingou Gallery, 2002 and Britain and abroad. In 1999, Starling was artist- 2003. in-residence at Camden Arts Centre, which gave him a solo show, 2000–1. There was another one- Marion STARR 1937– Painter and decorator, born in man at South London Gallery, 2003. Starling won Hitchin, Hertfordshire, whose teachers included the £25,000 Turner Prize in 2005 with included Fred Cuming. Showed at RA, ROI, Shedboatshed. This was a boat shed which he found NEAC and elsewhere and lived in Wittersham, on the banks of the Rhine in Germany which he Kent. claimed to have dismantled and turned into a boat to float down the river before resurrecting it into Norma STARSZAKOWNA 1945– Textile designer, a shed. The Arts Council, Scottish Arts Council artist and teacher, born in Fife of Polish and Scottish and FRAC Languedoc-Roussillon hold examples. parents, her father having moved to Scotland with the Polish Free Army. She graduated from Duncan Lived in Glasgow. of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee, in 1966 Walter Percival STARMER fl. from c.1905–1962 Mural and was the first of its students to be accepted by painter and artist in stained glass, born in Royal College of Art, but pregnancy prevented her Teignmouth, Devon. Educated in Norwich and taking up the place. From 1976 she taught widely studied at School of Art there and at Birmingham throughout Britain including Duncan of School of Art. Exhibited RA, RBA and Paris Salon. Jordanstone, where from 1984 she became head His work is to be found in London and provincial of textiles. In 1977 she gained a Scottish Arts churches and Imperial War Museum holds his Council Award for research work in surface and World War I work. Lived in Bushey, Hertfordshire, three-dimensional treatments of cloth. Her where he was closely involved in Watford and commissions included a large Silk Wall for General Bushey Art Society, being its president 1951–5, later Accident Assurance Company headquarters in living in Hatch End, Middlesex. Starmer regarded his Perth, in 1982–3. She participated in many group extensive decoration of Sir Edwin Lutyens’ St Jude’s Church shows in Britain and abroad and had solo in Hampstead Garden Suburb as his finest achievement. exhibitions at Compass Gallery, Glasgow, 1971 and 1979, and Anatol Orient Gallery, 1986. Work Georgina STARR 1968– Artist, born in Leeds, Yorkshire, who employed video, installation and held by Scottish Arts Council, Scottish Crafts Collection and Leeds City Art Gallery. Lived in 178


Dundee, Angus.

Peter STARTUP 1921–1976 Sculptor in wood, and teacher, born in London, where he died. He studied at Hammersmith School of Arts and Crafts, 1935– 9, Central School of Arts and Crafts, 1943–4, at Ruskin School of Drawing, 1944–5, and at Slade School of Fine Art, 1945–8. It was there that his interest in sculpture developed, and after studying it at the Abbaye de la Cambre, Brussels, in 1948– 49, within a couple of years or so he had abandoned painting for it. In 1952 had first solo show at Roland, Browse and Delbanco, gouaches and drawings. Ten years later first sculpture exhibition was part of a three-man show at AIA Gallery. Startup needed to teach, and was at Guildford School of Art, 1949–59, Willesden School of Art, 1954–8, Bath Academy of Art, 1960–2, Ealing School of Art from 1960, and Wimbledon School of Art, 1962–76. He was visiting artist at Minneapolis School of Art in 1968. Startup was fond of using pieces of discarded wood and wooden manufactured objects to create his sculptures, which mix abstraction and figurative allusions. Had a memorial retrospective at Serpentine Gallery, 1977, with one covering 1948–1975 including unseen pieces of the 1940s at Wakefield Pavilion Gallery, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, 1995. Poussin Gallery held a show of his sculpture in 2005. Arts Council and Tate Gallery hold examples. STASS: see Stass PARASKOS

Sarah STATON 1961– Artist who developed a series

of denim pictures with American allusions, as in How the West Has Won And Lost, bleach on denim, at East International, Norwich School of Art & Design, 1999. Born and lived in London, Staton studied at St Martin’s School of Art.

for The Conveyancing Fraud, by Michael Joseph; and illustrations for La Semaine Sante à Seville, by Juliette Decreus, for Peuple Libre, Appeared in group shows at Ludlow Festival and at Tudor Barn, Eltham. Solo shows included Nelson Gallery, Greenwich; Shrewsbury House, Shooters Hill; and in 1978 Woodlands Art Gallery, Greenwich. Lived in London.

Sculptor and craftsman in wood, born in Helsby, Cheshire, who worked mainly on commission. He studied at Trent Polytechnic, Nottingham and Glasgow School of Art, graduating in sculpture. Stead won a travelling scholarship in 1975 and seven years later a Scottish Development Agency Crafts Fellowship. Because of his specially designed furniture and activities such as tree replanting and the establishment of a community plantation on the Scottish Borders, Stead was the subject of several television films. Showed at such venues as Scottish Craft Centre and Collins Gallery in Glasgow; also widely on the continent and in America; and had first sculpture show at Compass Gallery, Glasgow, in 1990, another at Ancrum Gallery, Ancrum, 1992. Giles Sutherland collaborated with Stead to produce Explorations in Wood; the furniture and sculpture of Tim Stead, published in 1993. Stead’s later commissions included The Peephole, at Museum of Modern Art Glasgow, 1996, which allows the viewer to participate in the artwork; and the Millennium Clock, Royal Museum, Edinburgh, where he died.

Tim STEAD 1952–2000

Cartoonist and artist, designer and writer, born in Cheshire. He studied at East Ham Technical College and London College of Printing and Graphic Arts, was apprenticed to de Havilland Aircraft in 1952, then was cartoonist for Kemsley (Thomson) Newspapers, 1956–9, David STATTER 1942– Painter, sculptor, illustrator, printmaker and teacher, born in the north of freelancing for such publications as Punch and England. He studied at Liverpool College of Art Private Eye in the 1960s, including being artistand went on to teach art at Eltham Green in-residence at Sussex University in 1967, was Comprehensive School. Among his commissions political cartoonist for New Statesman, 1978–80, were wood engravings for George Lee’s poems A then retired to work on a book on Leonardo da Year of Grace, Lilac Tree Press; jacket illustration Vinci. Steadman’s many book illustrations included Frank Dickens’ Fly Away Peter, 1961, Daisy Ralph STEADMAN 1936–

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Ashford’s Where Love Lies Deepest, 1964, Lewis Carroll’s The Hunting of the Snark, 1975, and Wolf Mankowitz’s The Devil in Texas, 1984. Books written and illustrated included Sigmund Freud, 1979, I, Leonardo, 1983, and Near the Bone, 1990. Retrospective shows included National Theatre, 1977, Royal Festival Hall, 1984; and October Gallery, 1990. Steadman was involved in several cathedral festivals and among awards won were Designers’ and Art Directors’ Association Gold Award, for illustrative work, 1977, and BBC Design Award, for postage stamps, 1987. Steadman was a creator of bitingly satirical images. He was a Chelsea Arts Club member and lived latterly in Kent.

Artist/printmaker and teacher, until marriage in 2003 known by her maiden name of Louise Williams. She did an art foundation course at Cambridge College of Art & Technology, 1979–80; graduated with an honours degree in fine art painting and printmaking from Sheffield City Polytechnic College of Art & Design, 1980–3; completed a postgraduate course in printmaking at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1984–5; and a postgraduate education certificate, Norfolk College of Arts & Technology (Nottingham Trent University), 1995–7. During 1991–2, she spent over a year travelling the world. In 1993 she was artist-in-residence at King’s Lynn Arts Centre, from 1993 onwards owning and running Skylark Studios, Tydd Gote, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, where she also taught printmaking. Stebbing taught widely in the east and north of England, including running a children’s art club at the King’s Lynn Arts Centre, 1992–3, later appointments including teaching and course co-ordinating, Boston College, 1997–9; summer art workshops for 4-16-year olds, Wimblington Art Activities, 2003; printmaking for children with special needs, King’s Lynn Arts Centre, 2003; and special needs etching workshops for ArtLink East, 2004. She was a member of West Norfolk Artists’ Association, the Printmakers’ Council and Fenland Visual Arts Collective. Took part in many group shows, in 1983 winning 3rd Louise STEBBING 1961–

Prize in the East Anglian Open Exhibition, Fermoy Centre, King’s Lynn; Prize for Best Print, Eastern Open Exhibition, King’s Lynn Arts Centre, 1999; and Art Prize, Peterborough Exhibition Group Open Exhibition, 2002. Her later solo shows included Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, 2002, and Eastthorpe Visual Arts, Mirfield, 2004.

Portrait painter, sculptor, writer and illustrator, younger brother of the writer on art and architecture John Steegman. He studied from 1922–4 at Slade School of Fine Art and then in Rome. He exhibited at ROI and NEAC and in 1931 had a solo exhibition at Claridge Gallery. Included were portraits of the pianist Harriet Cohen, the writers Somerset Maugham and Aldous Huxley and David Horner, close friend of Osbert Sitwell. National Portrait Gallery has the portrait of Maugham, Brighton Art Gallery and Museums that of Horner, lent to the National Portrait Gallery for the Sitwell exhibition in 1995. In 1933 Steegman set up a studio flat in Calcutta, India, where he painted rather stiff, formal portraits of notabilities and was interviewed by the magazine India about his experiences. His book Indian Ink was published in 1939. Steegman was in America when World War II began, but he returned to England and joined the Navy as an ordinary seaman (he was the son of a naval commander and the grandson of an admiral), narrowly escaping being in the ill-fated HMS Hood because he was sent on a course. Steegman was killed in a car accident in New Orleans, where he was living. Although he worked as Steegman, the original spelling of his name was Steegmann. Philip STEEGMAN 1903–1952

Painter and teacher who drew her inspiration from familiar objects and people, domestic interiors and daily places. Studied at Chelsea School of Art, 1983–4, then Royal Academy Schools, 1984–7. From 1990–1 was assistant to the art therapist for Wiltshire Health Authority, in 1991 being Royal Academy Outreach Tutor. Was included in South Bank Picture Show at Royal Festival Hall in 1987, John Player Portrait Award at National Portrait Gallery in 1988 and NEAC in 1991. Had a show at Cadogan Charlotte STEEL 1965–

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Contemporary in 1992. HRH The Prince of Wales owns her work.

at Chelsea College of Art and Design, Steele gained her master’s in fine art from Edinburgh University/Edinburgh College of Art. Exhibitions Dorothy STEEL 1927– Painter, born in Glasgow, who included Up in the Air, Kenley Close, Liverpool, attended the School of Art there in 1946–9. Showed 2000, and Kirkby Gallery, Kirkby, 2001, and Over SSA, with Greenock Art Club of which she was a The River, firstsite, Colchester/Wolsey Art Gallery, member and elsewhere in Scotland. Greenock Art Ipswich, 2002. Had a solo exhibition, Block View, Gallery holds her work. Settled in Gourock, Queen of Hungary, Norwich, 2001. In 2001–2, Renfrewshire. Steele won a research grant from the British Institute of Persian Studies to draw and document George Hammond STEEL 1900–1960 Painter and stained glass designer, born in Sheffield, son of medieval Iranian monuments. the artist G T Steel. Studied at Sheffield School of Elvic STEELE 1920–1997 Painter and teacher whose Art, in Birmingham and London. Exhibited RA, experience as a biologist, botanist and keen RBA, RI, Leicester Galleries and Paris Salon. His gardener helped her create paintings in which the work was bought by a number of provincial viewer feels surrounded by nature, infused with galleries, including Sheffield. Lived at Ashdon, surreal, fantastic colour. She spent many years Essex. teaching near her home in Essex. In 1946 she Watercolour painter, lithographer and engraver of landscapes and urban scenes. Born and based in Sheffield, Yorkshire, he studied at Sheffield College of Art under Anthony Betts and Francis Jahn. Exhibited at the RA, RHA, RCamA, in the provinces and at the Paris Salon. He wrote a number of books on artistic techniques and had his work widely reproduced in such publications as Arts Review, Sphere, Studio and The Artist. Galleries in Newcastle upon Tyne, Wakefield, Cambridge and the Irish Republic hold his work. Kenneth STEEL 1906–1973

Anita STEELE fl. from 1950s– Painter and printmaker,

gained a sabbatical to attend the artist and plantsman Cedric Morris’s East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing at Benton End. Morris termed her “an excellent draughtswoman and colourist, both in her portraiture and still life painting”. She showed regularly at the Colchester Art Society exhibitions; while in Scilly in 1960 had a solo show; on returning to Dunmow, in 1963, took evening classes with the Art Group; and while living in Leamington, 1984–8, had two solo exhibitions at the Royal Spa Centre. Peter Nahum later promoted her work, having an exhibition The Magic Garden, Paintings from the 1960s, in 2005.

born at Leamington Spa in Warwickshire, the county where she settled. Steele studied at Chelsea and Birmingham. In the 1998 East International at Norwich Gallery, Norwich School of Art, two mixed media pieces by Steele were included: Sunbright and Carnival. She said of her work: “My practice has developed out of a farming background, an awareness of nature and of the seasons, and the use of my father’s Chloë STEELE 1975– Artist producing two- and farm and now my husband’s farm as a source and three-dimensional works centred on modern, supply of materials.” especially post-World War II, architecture. Following a childhood interest in model-making, Jeffrey STEELE 1931– Abstract and Op-Artist Steele produced a series of cities, in scale similar involved in kinetics, and teacher, born in Cardiff. to architects’ models. After a foundation diploma Steele’s mathematical skills and interest in

born in London. She studied with Iain Macnab at Heatherley’s School of Fine Art, 1950–6, then at Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting, 1958. A notable feature of her work was colour printing. She showed at RA, RWA SWA, RE, at the Paris Salon, where she gained an Hon. Mention, and in Canada. RWA holds prints by her. She lived partly in London, partly in Hurley, Berkshire.

Heather STEELE 1962– Artist,

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Cartesian philosophy led him to explore systematic forms of art, initially black and white, from the 1970s using colour. Steele attended Cardiff College of Art, 1948–50; Newport College of Art, 1950– 2; also studying at École des Beaux-Arts in 1959– 60. Steele held a number of teaching positions includ- ing Newport College of Art, Portsmouth College of Art and Portsmouth Polytechnic, and was visiting artist at Sheffield University in 1967. Participated in numerous group shows including Young Contemporaries, John Moores Exhibition in Liverpool, Carnegie International in Pittsburgh, Systems exhibition at Whitechapel Art Gallery and touring, and with CASW, SEA and SWG. Had a solo exhibition at ICA, 1961, later ones including Galerie Swart, Amsterdam, 1978; Galerie Lydia Megert, Berne, 1979; Galleria Seno, Milan, 1989; and Work from 1960–1990 at Clare Hall Gallery, Cambridge, 1992. His work is held by extensive public collections, including Arts Council, Victoria & Albert Museum, National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and the Government Art Collection. Lived in Portsmouth, Hampshire.

1973; a one-man show at the Prince of Wales Theatre, 1979; and What a Show! there, 1995. In 2004, after a long absence, he returned to the musical stage in Scrooge. Films included The Tommy Steele Story, 1957, The Walt Disney production The Happiest Millionaire, and Where’s Jack?, 1969. On television, he wrote and acted in Quincy’s Quest, 1979, publishing Quincy in 1981, and The Final Run, 1983. Among his compositions was Rock Suite – an Elderly Person’s Guide to Rock, 1987. Steele was a keen sculptor. Among his public works was the bronze figure of Eleanor Rigby, named after Paul McCartney and John Lennon’s song, and placed in Stanley Street, Liverpool, dedicated to “all the lonely people.” He offered this Beatles tribute to the City Council for three pence, an allusion to Half a Sixpence, and unveiled it in 1982.

Tony STEELE-MORGAN fl. from early 1970s– Painter,

born in Montreal, Canada, of Welsh parents, who was educated in Haverfordwest and Coventry. For a time he was a librarian and did clerical jobs before attending Newport College of Art, 1967–71. He began to show in the early 1970s, showing in the Tommy STEELE 1936– Versatile entertainer, director, WAC show Every Picture Tells, in 1972, and writer and sculptor, born in Bermondsey, London, having one-man exhibitions at Portal Gallery and as Thomas Hicks, educated locally at Bacon’s 369 Gallery, in Nottingham. WAC and Newport School for Boys. He became prominent in the Museum and Art Gallery hold his work. 1950s as a Rock singer, whose career, unlike those of many of his contemporaries, then diversified to Gloria STEEMSONNE 1944– Artist, film animator, exploit his many talents. Steele’s first appearance therapist and teacher who obtained her national on stage was in variety at the Empire Theatre, diploma in painting at Camberwell School of Arts Sunderland, in 1956, his first London appearance and Crafts, 1960–4; was at Byam Shaw School of at the Dominion Theatre, 1957. He was Buttons Drawing and Painting, 1964–5, gained the Rowney in Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Cinderella, at The Award; did a painting course at Royal Academy Coliseum, 1958, playing Tony Lumpkin in Schools, 1965–8, gaining the Michael Leverhulme Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer at the Old Vic, Award for Life Drawing; painted in Aix-en1960. He then had great success as Arthur Kipps Provence, 1968–9 under a French Government in the musical Half a Sixpence at the Cambridge Scholarship Award; did a master’s degree course Theatre, 1963–4, making his first New York in animation at Central School of Art & Design, appearance in it at the Broadhurst Theatre in 1965, 1979–80; further studies including a Goldsmiths’ and starred in the film of the same name, 1967. College one-year foundation course in art therapy, Steele continued active on the stage, including the 1986. In 1972 Steemsonne was head of the dyeing pantomime Dick Whittington, London Palladium, and printing department for English National 1969; The Tommy Steele Show, London Palladium, Opera, after the birth of her son continuing to work for opera companies until 1978. From 1982–3 she 182


taught fabric printing and basic printing for Clapham/Battersea Adult Education, in 1987–91 teaching part-time art classes for Holbeach School. Art exhibitions and works purchased included Nuffield Foundation, Birmingham City Art Gallery, Piccadilly Gallery, Sweet Waters Gallery, Portman Hotel Gallery and elsewhere. Lived in London.

Artist, born and brought up in Beckenham, Kent, who studied advancedlevel art at Sydenham High School and life drawing at Beckenham Art School. After a career as a nurse in London and raising three children, assisted a designer of leatherware which “whetted my appetite and when I moved into an old stone mountain house in the Cevennes region of France in 1996 I started painting in watercolour.” She showed locally with the Mine d’Art Society in Bessèges, Gard, at the McNeill Fine Art Gallery in Radlett, at St Julians Club in Sevenoaks and at 35 The Goffs, Eastbourne. Angela K STEGER 1940–

Harold STEGGLES 1911–1971 Painter, mainly in oil,

notable for his landscapes often on a small scale, brother of the artist Walter Steggles. By profession he was a partner in a firm of solicitors. Studied at Bow and Bromley Evening Institute classes started by John Cooper in the 1920s, other teachers including William Coldstream, Rodrigo Moynihan and Gerald Ososki. Steggles received many commissions to paint country and London houses, shops and restaurants, with a series of meticulously delineated London club views for the collector and artist Villiers David. Showed extensively with East London Group at Lefevre Gallery, sharing an exhibition there with his brother in 1938. Also showed prolifically at Agnew, Arthur Tooth, Manchester City Art Gallery which holds his work and abroad. One critic described his work as “nature with a new skin”. Died in Bishop’s Stortford, Hertfordshire.

at the Bethnal Green Men’s Institute, then John Cooper’s there from 1925, moving with him to the Bow and Bromley Evening Institute which led to the formation of the East London Group and shows through the 1930s at Lefevre Gallery. Other teachers included William Coldstream, Rodrigo Moynihan and Gerald Ososki. At West Ham Technical College Steggles set about learning engraving and etching, but although encouraged by Colnaghi, the early-1930s slump in the trade thwarted these ambitions. Additional studies took place, 1939–48, at Central School of Arts and Crafts under Kirkland Jamieson, F J Porter and Bernard Meninsky. For some years Steggles was employed in the drawing office of the shipping company Furness Withy, then worked for the Ministry of Transport in World War II. Although he shared a show with his brother at Lefevre in 1938, he favoured mixed exhibitions. Here he was prolific, including Whitechapel Art Gallery; Tate, Redfern, Agnew, Tooth and Mayor Galleries; widely in the provinces and abroad. Lived for many years in East Anglia and was a member of the Norfolk and Norwich Art Circle. Designed posters for Shell. Had three pictures bought by Contemporary Art Society; Manchester City Art Gallery holds two. Lived latterly in Bradford-onAvon, and briefly at Calne, Wiltshire.

Painter, draughtsman, theatrical designer and gallery owner, born in Farnborough, Hampshire, moving to Derbyshire in 1948. He showed painting talent at his preparatory school under Nancy Piper, whose husband was related to John Piper. After Repton School, Stennett attended Chesterfield College of Art, 1963–4, painting scenery for the local Civic Theatre, then studied at the theatre design department of Wimbledon School of Art, 1964–7. After six months in an artist’s workshop in Rome and a short time as assistant designer at the Neptune Theatre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 1968 Stennett became assistant to the designer Henry Walter James STEGGLES 1908–1997 Painter, notably of small landscapes in oil, with some watercolours Bardon, in 1969 going independent. For many and prints, born in London, brother of the artist years Stennett designed for numerous productions, Harold Steggles. Attended Charles Genge’s classes including Australian Opera, Royal Opera House Michael STENNETT 1946–

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Covent Garden, The Royal Shakespeare Company, Welsh National Opera and Metropolitan Opera, and was closely associated with the career of singer Dame Joan Sutherland. In 1993, the Queen commissioned a portrait drawing of Sutherland for the Order of Merit series at Windsor Castle. Other collections holding his work included the Bonynge/Sutherland and the Theatre Museum and several performing arts museums around the world. As an artist Stennett had a first solo show at Aldeburgh Cinema Gallery during the Festival in 1998, with a second in 1999, in that year also showing Sailors at Adonis Art. He lived in Yoxford, Suffolk, where he was involved in launching and running the Barnsdale Gallery. There, in 2004, Stennett’s Design for Britten Operas was held.

These artists worked as a duo, based in Germany. They produced landscape pictures, oil on canvas, derived from photographs and direct experience, sometimes editing out parts of a view. Alice Stepanek was born in 1954 in Berlin, West Germany, attending Akademie der Bildenden Künste, München (Meistershüler, Diplom), 1974–80, then St Martin’s School of Art, London (with a DAAD Auslandsstipendium), 1981–2. She showed a little without Maslin in group exhibitions in West Germany in the early 1980s. Steven Maslin was born in London in 1959, studying foundation at Kingston Polytechnic, 1978–9, gaining a fine art honours degree at St Martin’s, 1979–83. The artists were given wide coverage in the international art press, and in newspapers, especially in Germany. They participated in numerous group shows, especially in continental Europe. The duo began showing solo in 1984 in West Germany, later appearances including Stephan Stux Gallery, New York, America, and Torch Gallery, Amsterdam, both 1998; Laure Genillard Gallery, 1999; and Purdy Hicks Gallery, 2002. Alice STEPANEK & Steven MASLIN–

Dan STEPHEN 1921– Artist and illustrator, born in Aberdeen, who attended Gray’s School of Art there, 1940–5, with Robert Sivell and D M Sutherland. He qualified as an art teacher in 1946, the year he gained 1st Prize, RSA Travelling Scholarship,

France and Italy, having been a first-time exhibitor at RSA in 1942. From 1946–9, he worked as a freelance medical illustrator on Living Anatomy, by R D Lockhart. He was a founder-member of the ’47 Group in 1947; freelanced in London, 1949; and in 1959 was a founder-member of the Adelphi Group and the Picture Lending Scheme in Aberdeen. Stephen first exhibited at the RA Summer Exhibition (in 1957, showing the largest canvas there) and RBA in 1950; in 1951 showed at Chelsea Artists’ Society and RP; in 1952, was a selected exhibitor at The Observer book-plate competition and had a solo exhibition at Gaumont Gallery, Aberdeen; exhibited one-man at Back Wynd Art Studio, Aberdeen; and in 1971 showed a large canvas, La Vie Contemporaine, at Foire Internationale, Marseilles, France. Among his listed notable works were Solamour, 1967; invention of Optikon, a kinetic art device, 1974; Dangerous World, 1978; construction of Helios, 1986; Chromobile, 1989; Homage to van Gogh, 1990; and Prismobile, 1998. Rochdale and Aberdeen (Self Portrait) Art Galleries; Perth and Scone Public Libraries; Perth Royal Infirmary; and Dewar’s Leisure Centre, Perth, hold Stephen’s work. Lived at Kinnoull, Perth. Douglas George STEPHEN 1909– Sculptor in various

materials, born in London. He studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1939–41, his teachers including R V Pitchforth, and the City and Guilds School under Edgar Allan Howes. Exhibited RA, Cooling Galleries, LG and elsewhere. Savage Club member. Lived in Lodsworth, Sussex.

Frank STEPHEN 1936– Artist mainly in pastel, born

in Stirling Village, Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, where he eventually settled at Ellon. He trained at Gray’s School of Art in Aberdeen as a potter/ceramic artist, but switched to painting and drawing on graduating. Was a member of Gordon Forum for the Arts, showed at several venues in Aberdeen and Peterhead and the immedi- ate area and at The Tron Shop, Culross, with work in northeast Scottish museums. His main work, Fittie, is in an American collection.

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Dulcie Mayne STEPHENS 1909– Watercolourist, born in Barry, Glamorgan. She studied painting and etching at Cardiff College of Art, continuing at Bath Academy of Art. A member of WSW, she showed in group exhibitions at Royal National Eisteddfod, SEA, RWA and CASW. It and the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, hold her work.

Ecclesiastical artist, writer and high Anglican priest, born in Hitchin, Hertfordshire, inheriting artistic talent from his Slade School-trained mother, Margaret. Having won a scholarship to Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, his subsequent studies at Royal College of Art were interrupted by World War II, when he joined the Special Operations Executive. Stephens returned to the Royal College’s graphic design school in 1946, transferring to stained glass under Martin Travers. After becoming a Royal College associate in 1950 he was appointed chief designer and managing director of Faith Craft, which produced high-quality ecclesiastical work. The association lasted until in 1968 Stephens joined the Southwark Ordination Course, became a deacon in 1970 and a priest in 1971 and then curate at St Mary’s, Primrose Hill, from which he retired in 1992. Stephens was versatile. His best-known work is the big east window of St Mary’s-atLambeth (now the Garden History Museum), but there are other windows at Norwood, Broxted and Sutton Valence; Johannesburg Cathedral has his large hanging rood; St Luke’s, Enfield, a painting above the font; St Michael’s, Croydon, a tabernacle in the lady chapel; his own church a statue of St Paul and a Christus; there are other works in America and Commonwealth countries and the Vatican, Rome, has a chasuble. For 18 years he was editor of the Church Pulpit Year Book of sermons, wrote on stained glass and organised exhibitions. Francis STEPHENS 1921–2002

Printmaker, designer and teacher, born in Great Linford, Buckinghamshire. He concentrated on illustration and lettering at Northampton School of Art, then after a short time in industry became an art teacher in Northampton. After leaving teaching in 1978 concentrated on Ian STEPHENS 1940–

relief printmaking in addition to commissions in illustration and graphic design. For a time, Stephens was design manager for Odhams Leisure Group. As an engraver he was essentially self-taught. He was elected a fellow of the RE, 1984, serving on its council, 1986–90; a member of the revived SWE in the same year, chairman 1992–5; and was a member of Northampton Town & County Art Society, president 1987–9, Kettering & District Art Society and Milton Keynes Printmakers. Other than commissions, Stephens’ work was “chiefly concerned with the landscape; its form, its uses and its denizens…. Though I enjoy engraving and printing wood blocks immensely, it is only the medium through which I choose to explore my ideas”. Among Stephens’ numerous commissions were Print Collectors’ Club presentation prints; illustrations for The Jackdaw magazine; many bookplates, advertising and promotional illustrations; and Folio Society books, latterly A Month in the Country by J L Carr, 1998, and The Mill on the Floss, by George Eliot, 1999. Exhibited widely, including RA Summer Exhibition, from 1976; Fremantle Print Award Exhibition, Australia, from 1982; British Mini-print International, Bristol, from 1989; East of England Show (prize winner), Peterborough, and RWA, both from 1990; Miniprint International, Cadaqués, Spain, from 1991; National Print Exhibition (prize winner), from 1996; the Folio Society 50th Anniversary, British Museum, 1997; and Harlech Open Print Exhibition, 2000. Later solo exhibitions included Small Garden Prints, Aylesbury (in conjunction with Great Garden Show), 2001, and Southwell Minster, Southwell, in 2005. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Northampton Central Museum and Art Gallery; Warwickshire Museums; Fremantle Arts Centre; and several County Councils holds examples. Lived in Northampton. Nicholas Anthony STEPHENS 1939– Sculptor and teacher, born in Nottingham. He studied with William Turnbull at Royal College of Art, 1960– 3, having gained his national diploma in design, 1960; won a Harkness Fellowship to America, 1963–5, attending Pratt Institute in New York,

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1964, and San Francisco Art Institute, 1965. Held erected for the Brussels International Exhibition visiting teaching posts in America and Australia won a silver medal. In 1963 the Tate Gallery bought in 1981 and 1983 and became principal lecturer in Painting 1937. Memorial show at Drian Gallery, fine art at Gloucestershire College of Art and 1966. Retrospectives at Camden Arts Centre, Technology. Exhibitions included Nicholas London, and touring, 1975, and Fischer Fine Art, Treadwell Gallery, RA Summer Exhibitions, Park 1976. Gallery in Cheltenham and St David’s Hall, Christine STEPHENSON 1937– Watercolourist Cardiff. Lived in Bredon, Gloucestershire. producing accurate, minutely detailed plant Sally STEPHENS 1961– Artist who gained an honours portraits, born in Winchester, Hampshire. degree in English and Art, Roehampton Institute Stephenson gained her art and design and teaching of Higher Education, 1980–3, attending Central diploma from Bournemouth College of Art, then School of Art & Design, 1987–9. Her exhibitions in 2001 a first-class art history diploma from the included Last Chance Centre and Women in the University of East Anglia. Her work, signed C F Arts Week, London Borough of Wandsworth, both S, always on white paper and notable for its concern 1987, and Crypt Gallery and East End Open with texture, rich colour and dramatic tone, won a number of awards, including the Royal Studios, with Barbican Arts Group, both 1989. Horticultural Society Silver Medal, 1995, and Gold Cecil STEPHENSON 1889–1965 Painter in oil and Medal, 1996. Stephenson was elected a member tempera, originally of representational pictures, of the Society of Botanical Artists in 1997, gaining later of Constructivist and abstract works; designer its Certificate of Botanical Merit, 1999. Mixed and teacher. Born in Bishop Auckland, County exhibitions included Thompson’s Gallery, Durham, as John Cecil Stephenson. In 1906 Aldeburgh, 1994; Lucy B Campbell Gallery, from Stephenson was a student at Darlington Technical 1996; Suffolk Open Studios, from 1997; Chelsea College, then from 1908–12 attended Leeds School Flower Show, with Tom Gordon Craig Gallery, of Art, the Royal College of Art and the Slade 2000; and The Hunt Institute for Botanical School of Fine Art. In 1919 took over 6 Mall Documentation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, America Studios, Hampstead, from Walter Sickert, where (which holds her work in its international archive), he lived until he died. In 1922 Stephenson was 2001. Stephenson lived in Suffolk. appointed head of art, teaching architectural students, at the Northern Polytechnic, London, a George V STEPHENSON 1926– Sculptor and teacher, post he held until 1955. His first abstract pictures born in London, who studied at Willesden and were painted in 1933. Exhibited with 7 & 5 Society Hornsey Colleges of Art, later lecturing at Exeter in 1934, then during the 1930s was increasingly College of Art. He specialised in sculpture related involved with abstract painting and exhibitions, to architecture for which he developed modern one picture being reproduced in Circle. Married metalworking techniques, an example being a large the painter Kathleen Guthrie in 1941, having tubular copper sculpture for flats at Rochdale, previously been married to Sybil Mason who, after Lancashire. Stephenson showed with the Free becoming secretary to the Surrealist dealer and Painters and Sculptors. He had a studio for a time artist É L T Mesens and having an affair, married at Bow, near Crediton, Devon. him. Stephenson had pictures of the Blitz bought by Imperial War Museum and Northern Ian STEPHENSON 1934–2000 Abstract painter and Polytechnic. Stephenson finished 30 pictures for teacher, born at Browney, County Durham. He the Festival of Britain in 1951, six years before his studied at Department of Fine Art, King’s College, Plyglass design on Perspex was used at the Newcastle upon Tyne, 1951–6, under Lawrence Engineering Faculty Building, Queen Mary Gowing, Victor Pasmore and Richard Hamilton. College, London. In 1958 his mural Plyglass Not long after he received a John Moores junior 186


prize and was awarded a Boise Travelling Scholarship to Italy. He had his first one-man show at New Vision Centre in 1958. Went on to exhibit in key shows in Britain and abroad and by 1970 had qualified for a retrospective at Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne. His international reputation was consolidated in the 1970s, and in 1977 he had a retrospective at Hayward Gallery and travelling. Taught at Chelsea School of Art, 1959–66, was then director of foundation studies in fine art at University of Newcastle until 1970 when he became principal lecturer in painting at Chelsea. Elected RA, 1986. Paintings on wood by Stephenson, who used supports such as set squares and palettes to create works on canvas, were shown at New Art Centre Sculpture Park and Gallery, East Winterslow, in 2005. Arts Council and Tate Gallery hold his work. Lived in London. His wife Kate was also an artist.

Jack STEPHENSON 1945– Artist and teacher who was educated at East Ham Grammar School, then attended Walthamstow School of Art, 1962–3, under Ken Howard and Fred Dubery; Hornsey College of Art, 1963–7, taught by Ian Simpson, David Tindle, Jack Smith and Dick Fozzard, for etching; and for postgraduate studies Goldsmiths’ College, 1983–4. Stephenson taught at schools and colleges in London before becoming director of art at Bancroft’s School. “My interest is mainly in portraiture, with a particular interest in the conversation piece. Other subjects include landscape and still life.” Stephenson exhibited in London galleries and in Suffolk from 1987, including the RA Summer Exhibition. Living in Middleton, Suffolk, he was treasurer of The Suffolk Group and president of the Southwold Art Society.

Noted painter of ornitho- logical and wildlife subjects, and teacher. She was born in Northumberland and attended King Edward VII School of Art and King’s College, University of Durham, 1945–50. From 1950–4 she taught art in Liverpool and Newcastle, then lectured at King Edward VII School of Art, 1954–7, before living as a freelance in Glasgow and Leeds, 1957– 66. In 1966–8 was art mistress at Leeds Girls’ High Margery STEPHENSON 1929–

School, becoming head of art department there, 1968–81, then taking up a career as a full-time painter. In 1958 she won the Northumberland National Parks Sign Award, in 1961 the National Design Competition of the Chest and Heart Association. Took part in many mixed shows in north of England. Had a solo show at Leeds University, 1975, one at Dunkeld Gallery in Perth in 1983, showed solo at Macaulay Gallery in Stenton in 1988, and had one-man at Duncalfe Galleries, Harrogate, 1989.

Norma STEPHENSON 1945– Artist and teacher, born in Hawick, Roxburghshire, who grew up in Sheffield and spent three years at Sheffield College of Art. For many years she organised painting courses at her home in the Yorkshire dales. In 2001, inspired by John Blockley, Stephenson began painting full-time. She exhibited at the Mall Galleries with the PS, of which she was elected a member in 2004, and RI. In 2002, she won the St Cuthbert’s Mill Award at the RWS’s Bankside Gallery, also winning the Frank Herring Award in 2003 and Inscribe Art Award in 2004. Stephenson’s atmospheric work was included in The Spring Show at The Wykeham Gallery, Stockbridge, in 2005.

Representational artist and teacher who began painting later in life, having left school to look after her father on the death of her mother, continuing into marriage and bringing up two children. She was long interested in art and a member of the amateur People’s Theatre, Newcastle, where as head of painting she produced sets. She took painting classes at Newcastle College, under Christine Seddon and then with Dennis MacErlaine, whose guidance she valued, and participated in tutorial weekends with Robin Stemp in Cambridge. She showed regularly at Northern Federation of Art Societies annual, twice winning the Staniland Award; had joint exhibitions at Bede Monastery Museum, Jarrow; and solo shows at Gulbenkian Gallery at People’s Theatre, where she eventually became manager. There was a memorial show at the New Academy Gallery in 2000. Paula STEPHENSON 1933–1997

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Bernard STERN 1920–2002 Artist in oil and mixed media, and businessman, born in Brussels, Belgium, his mother English, his father a wealthy Polish-Jewish bullion dealer who hit hard times, persuading Bernard to avoid poverty by cultivating an entrepreneurial spirit. Over the years, Stern turned a penny from such activities as painting buckles and brooches, decorating lampshades, portering in Covent Garden vegetable market, drawing for the Daily Herald while serving in the wartime ambulance service, as a property dealer and the manufacturer of Rotaflex lamps. He was involved in Concord Lighting International, which by the early 1960s operated in 50 countries, although Stern always insisted that “Painting is my profession, lighting is just my hobby.” Walls, especially those of New York, and the graffiti they bear, were Stern’s special subject. He studied at Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts there, 1935–7; at Antwerp Académie, 1937–9; moved to England in 1940 and for a short time in 1942 studied at St Martin’s School of Art. Took part in many mixed shows internationally, including France, Switzerland, Belgium and America. Solo shows included Archer Gallery, 1970; David Paul Gallery, Chichester, 1975; Tampa Bay Art Center, Florida, and Carlton Gallery, New York, both 1977; Camden Arts Centre, 1981; Galerie Isy Brachot, Paris, 1983; Chicago International Art Exhibition, 1986; a retrospective of works on paper at Galerie Michel Broomhead in Paris, and Leinster Fine Art, both 1987; Sid Deutsch Gallery, New York, and Fuji International Art, Tokyo, both 1989; and Century Gallery, 1993. Among collections holding Stern’s work is Ben Uri Art Society. Latterly lived in New York and Provence, France, dying in Marseilles. Stern’s autobiography Milles Années appeared in 1999. Catharni STERN 1925– Figurative sculptor in various

materials, and teacher, born in Southsea, Hampshire. After high school she worked on a sheep farm and planned to study to be a vet at Liverpool University, but her family decided aganist it. Eventually enrolled at Chelmsford Art School for commercial art, 1945–6, transferred to

Regent Street Polytechnic School of Art, 1946–7, then returned to Chelmsford where she studied sculpture under T B Huxley-Jones, 1947–50, finally studying at Royal Academy Schools, 1950– 3, under Maurice Lambert. Won the Feodora Gleichen Award for Sculpture, 1953. After a year at London University Institute of Education, she taught briefly at Great Yarmouth Technical High School, 1954, designed for Poole Pottery, 1954– 5, then became assistant sculptor at Bournemouth College of Art, 1955–9. Other posts at St Martin’s School of Art, Southend School of Art and Chelmsford College of Further Education followed, and she eventually taught young offenders in Chelmsford Prison. In 1957 she was one of those to be featured in Jack Beddington’s book Young Artists of Promise. In addition to many mixed show appearances, Stern showed solo with John Whibley Gallery from early 1960s, later shows including Alwin Gallery, 1981, and The Minories, Colchester, 1986. Commissions included a mosaic panel for Eastern Electricity Building, Chelmsford; a life-size carving in wood of a madonna, Willesden Church; and a group for British Racing School, Newmarket. National Museum of Wales, in Cardiff, and The Minories hold her work. Lived for some years in Maldon, Essex. Honor

STERNDALE

BENNETT

1886–1975

Watercolour painter, born in Watford, Hertfordshire. She married John Sterndale Bennett, grandson of Sir William Sterndale Bennett the composer, who was in the Indian Army, and for some years she lived in the sub-continent. Although before World War I she painted landscapes in the south of France, she was primarily a flower painter, especially fond of irises which she cultivated in her garden at Wateringbury, Kent, opened annually to the public. Showed at RA, RBA, RI, Paris Salon and other venues. Honor Sterndale Bennett was remembered by her nephew, the artist Robin Sterndale Bennett, as “a flamboyant character with a great sense of humour”. She died in Maidstone, Kent. Robin STERNDALE BENNETT 1914– Watercolourist,

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nephew of the artist Honor Sterndale Bennett, born in Uppingham, Rutland, where his father was director of music at Uppingham School. He attended the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, after which he served in the Royal Navy until retirement as Commander in 1964. From 1969–75 he was secretary of the Royal Harwich Yacht Club, during which time he developed his painting, having some tuition under Michael Norman and at Ipswich Art School. Was on the committee of Ipswich Art Club and was a founder-member of the East Anglian Group of Marine Artists, in 1979. Had several solo shows at Gallery 44, Aldeburgh, and illustrated Geoffrey Morgan’s book East Anglia – Its Tideways and Byways. Lived in Woodbridge, Suffolk. Anthony STEVENS 1928–2000 Sculptor and teacher,

born at Shirenewton, Monmouthshire, near Chepstow where he attended the Grammar School. Was at Newport College of Art, 1945–7 and 1949– 51, during the intervening period being an Army College teacher of drawing and painting. In 1951– 2 was at London University Institute of Education. Then commenced a series of teaching posts including Newport College of Art and a decade from 1959 as a tutor at Barry Summer School, taking early retirement as head of fine art from Wimbledon School of Art, 1991. A member of the 56 Group, Stevens showed in group exhibitions at Howard Roberts Gallery in Cardiff, New Vision Centre and SWG at Leicester Galleries, Royal National Eisteddfod where he was winner of the sculpture prize in 1959, and elsewhere. One-man exhibitions included University of Keele and University College of North Wales, Bangor, and latterly at Worthing Museum & Art Gallery, 1999, Sussex, near where he had his studio at Clapham. He carried out a series of commissions including Kate’s Bears for St Dials Junior School, Cwmbran, for WAC; a fountain sculpture for Cwmbran Town Centre; and a relief sculpture for the Bateman Supermarket, Ebbw Vale. Newport Museum and Art Gallery and WAC hold his work.

Award, 1984, and was artist-in-residence, Birmingham International Airport, 1984–5. In 1989 he had solo shows at the Sue Williams and Black Bull Galleries and was included in East End Open Studios, at Deborah House.

Painter and teacher, born in Staines, Middlesex. He studied at Somerset College of Art, 1976–8, Brighton Polytechnic, 1978–81 and Central School of Art, 1981–2. From 1987 lectured at Brighton Polytechnic. Mixed show appearances included Piccadilly Gallery from 1981; TSWA Competition, 1984, where he won a prize; as he did at John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1985. Stevens’ picture The Despot in John Moores 1989–90 and his Two Trunked Elephants, in South East Arts Collection, feature children in unusual, memorable poses while at play. He won 2nd Prize, NatWest 90s Prize for Art, RA, and BP Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, Travel Award, both 1995. Stevens’s later solo exhibitions included Land of the Giants!, tour including National Portrait Gallery, 1996–7; CMYK, Upstairs at the Clerk’s House, Shoreditch, 1999; and Andrew Mummery Gallery, 2002. In that, Stevens reflected on recent developments in media technology. Humberside County Council; Ralli Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland; East Sussex County Council; and several corporate collections hold examples. Lived in Brighton, Sussex. Christopher STEVENS 1961–

Painter of landscape in oil, born in Brighton, Sussex. Studied and collaborated with Marian Bohusz-Szyszko at Studium Malarstwa Sztalugowego, London, for 15 years. Had solo exhibitions at Alwin, Woodstock, Barrett and Loggia Galleries, being a member of the Free Painters and Sculptors, plus other venues in Brighton, Durham, Eastbourne, Sussex University and Amsterdam. Work held in international private collections. Lived at Barcombe, near Lewes, later moving to St George’s Retreat, Wivelsfield Green, Sussex, a nursing home. Elsie STEVENS 1907–

Stevens attended the University of Reading, 1974–8. He won a Calouste Euryl STEVENS 1939– Painter, born in Tonypandy, Gulbenkian Foundation Artist as Printmaker Glamorgan, who studied at Birmingham College

Christopher STEVENS 1956–

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of Arts and Crafts, 1957–61, and the Royal Academy Schools, 1961–4. Her early figurative and symbolic oil The raising of Lazarus is in the Methodist Church Art Collection. Worcester Art Gallery and Museum also holds Stevens’s work.

Prolific and versatile performance and exhibition artist and teacher who did a foundation course at East Ham College of Technology, 1971–3, graduated with first-class honours from Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1973–6, and gained a Slade School of Fine Art Higher Diploma, 1981–3. He won The Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts Award, New York, 1996, and a Paul Hamlyn Foundation Award (Visual Arts), 1998. Among grants and commissions, many from the Arts Council, were latterly British Council, Brazil, Switzerland and Spain, 2001–2, and London Arts Project Grant, 2002. Teaching included Goldsmiths’, 1988–00; Middlesex University, 2002; and from 2002 Byam Shaw School of Art; he was involved in numerous workshops in Britain and abroad. Other work included: Simple, Serpentine Gallery, 1990; Timepiece, Victoria & Albert Museum, and Writing, directing and performing, Philips annual conference, Eindhoven, Netherlands, both 1993; Dyson television advertisement, 1995; Consultant for television series Teletubbies, Ragdoll Productions, 1997; Brand, The Young Vic Theatre, 2000; film Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, directed by Paul Bush, 2001; and Reflection, Richard Salmon Gallery/Arteleku, San Sebastian, 2000 and 2002. In 2003, Stevens’s Slow Life, a five-screen video installation, was presented at Matt’s Gallery, and Pieces of People was commissioned by The Henry Moore Foundation, Perry Green. Gary Stevens: Slow Life was at Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, 2005, “a video installation piece featuring domestic scenes in slow motion.” Stevens lived in London. Gary STEVENS 1953–

then at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1931– 4, with Clive Gardiner and Edward Bawden. Moved to Wales in 1937, living first in Aberporth and then New Quay, Cardiganshire. Exhibited RBA, of which he was a member, NS, RSA, NEAC and in America.

Harry STEVENS 1919– Painter, born in Newton Heath, Manchester, studying at St Augustines, a local school. From age of 14 worked as a designer with a Manchester firm, living for some years at Stretford, studying privately as a painter. From 1939–46 served in the Cheshire Regiment. He was a member of the Society of Modern Painters, showed in the Manchester region; elsewhere in the provinces; in London including Tate Gallery; and at Museum of Modern Art in New York. Had solo exhibitions in Nottingham, Liverpool and Manchester, at Gibb’s Bookshop. Manchester City Art Gallery holds his stylised oil, Kite in the Sea, 1949. Stevens lived latterly at Lyndhurst, Hampshire. Henry STEVENS 1875– Watercolourist who was by

profession a chemist, having obtained a Master of Arts degree at Oxford University. Born in London, he finally lived in Beccles, Suffolk. Showed at RA, Colnaghi’s and in the provinces.

Meg STEVENS 1931– Painter mainly in oil, some gouache, teacher and illustrator, born in Yorkshire. She gained a Reading University fine art degree in 1954, an external master’s from Leeds University, 1956. William McCance was a notable teacher. Taught for two years in a girls’ school and part-time at Christ College Boys’ School, Brecon, Powys, where she lived, for three years. Freelanced in book illustration and graphics and “started painting seriously in 1975”. Was a member of RCamA, also taking part in group shows at Albany Gallery, Cardiff. Margaret Stevens was mainly Geoffrey Howard STEVENS 1899–1979 Painter, etcher, known for her solo exhibitions all over Wales, illustrator and teacher who was married to the artist several dozen pictures being transported and hung Muriel Stanes and who until he retired held senior free by herself and her husband. She worked on rank in the Royal Navy. After education at the spot in all weathers and was noted for her Gresham’s School, Stevens went on to study at paintings of grass – flowerscapes, trees and a Chelsea School of Art with Graham Sutherland, towpath series also being toured. The pictures had 190


a strong conservation message.

Minna STEVENS 1954– Painter, teacher and writer, born in London, whose portrait Gary Stevens: Artist and Performer was included in The Garrick/Milne Prize, 2003, exhibition at Christie’s. Minna Stevens did a foundation course at Middlesex Polytechnic, 1974–5; graduated in fine art from Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1975–8; and gained her master’s in design history, Royal College of Art/Victoria & Albert Museum, 1990–2. Stevens taught widely, mainly in the London area, later posts including Central St Martins School of Art & Design, 1982–98; Winchester School of Art, 1992–3; and from 1995 Heatherley’s School of Fine Art. In 1989, Stevens was co-author with Caroline Evans of the book Women and Fashion: a New Look. Her many group shows included Nudes, Angela Flowers Gallery, 1980; Artists in Adult Education, Woodlands Art Gallery, 1982; Uncertain Subjects, The Showroom, 1984; BP Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, 1995; The Discerning Eye, Mall Galleries, 1999; and RP, Mall Galleries, from 2001. Had solo exhibitions at Freud’s, 1988 and 1989. Private collections holding Stevens’s work included that of the artist Nicola Hicks.

Gallery. Stevens taught at Maidstone College of Art, 1967–70, at Hornsey College of Art, 1970–3. In 1974–5 Stevens was Gregory Fellow at University of Leeds. The 1970s saw Stevens’ international reputation grow, and he was increasingly admired for his superb technical ability as a printmaker, mastering such difficult and unfashionable techniques as the mezzotint. His The Shadowed Garden plates are in the Victoria & Albert Museum collection, and Tate Gallery and Arts Council also hold his work. Clapboard houses, Venetian blinds, Stonehenge and landscape dappled by light and shadow were typical Stevens subjects. Philip STEVENS 1953– Landscape painter in oil, born

in Plymouth, Devon, where he attended the College of Art, 1972–3. Was then at Wimbledon School of Art, 1973–6, and Royal College of Art, 1977–80. He won the J Andrew Lloyd Landscape Prize, 1979, the Jacob Mendelson Trust Prize, 1982. Appeared in many group exhibitions, including Stowells Trophy at RA, from 1974; Ginle Gallery, 1980; Herbert Read Gallery, Canterbury, 1989; and Hunting/ObserverArt Competition, Mall Galleries, 1992. In that year he was a prizewinner at Laing Open Landscape Competition at same galleries. Showed solo at Paton Gallery from 1987, in 1993 sharing an exhibition there with Nicholas Jolly. Muriel STEVENS: see Muriel STANES Stevens’ work could be sombre and atmospheric, with a preponderance of green. Norman STEVENS 1937–1988 Printmaker, painter, draughtsman and teacher, born in Bradford. Studied Bernard Trevor Whitworth STEVENSON: see Trevor at Bradford Regional College of Art, 1952–7, after STEVENSON three years at Bradford Junior Art School. He also assisted his father, a signwriter. Between 1957–60 Jeremy STEVENSON 1958– Artist using video and was at Royal College of Art, his teachers including photography, born in Redruth, Cornwall, who Ceri Richards. He won the Lloyd Landscape attended Gwent College of Higher Education, Scholarship and Abbey Minor Travelling 1978–81, and the School of Art in Glasgow, where Scholarship. Stevens was later to win the he continued to work, 1989–92. Exhibitions Chichester Arts Festival Prize, in 1975, and awards included The Wolf at the Door Gallery, Penzance, at British International Print Biennale in 1979 and 1987; West Quay Gallery, Cardiff, 1988; Stem, John Moores Exhibition, Liverpool, 1983. From Inverleith House, Royal Botanical Garden, 1960–7 Stevens taught painting at Manchester Edinburgh, 1993; and in 1994 both Scottish Open College of Art. The year 1965 was significant, for Photography Exhibition, at Stills Gallery in Stevens undertook a 7,000-mile Greyhound Bus Edinburgh, and New Art in Scotland, Centre for tour of America, recording it in photographs and Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, where Stevenson’s drawings; he also had a one-man show at Mercury contribution was “mainly concerned with 191


landscape”.

Assemble, Slice, Shift, at Café Gallery Projects, in 2003, and Tidal Window, Couper Collection Lee STEVENSON 1955– Versatile printmaker, Barges, in 2004. His commissions included The producing widely exhibited atmospheric Pride of the Valley Sculpture Park in Surrey, 2002, landscapes. Stevenson studied at Falmouth School and Camera Obscura, a private commission for of Art. He began printmaking in 1985, including north Wales in 2003. aquatints, lino- and woodcuts, as in the Valentine’s Collection, The Great Atlantic Map Works Gallery, Patric STEVENSON 1909–1983 Painter, teacher and St Just, 2002. In 1997, Stevenson was administrator, full name John Patric Leslie commissioned by St Ives International to make a Stevenson, born in Wadhurst, Sussex, but educated lino-cut for the l8th Celtic Television and Film in Belfast, where he attended the School of Art, Festival. 1926–8, under Samuel Taylor, then went to Slade School of Fine Art with Randolph Schwabe. Taught Leo STEVENSON 1958– Artist mainly in oil but also adult education classes in Tring, Hertfordshire, in other painting media, plus various three- 1946–50, then returned to Northern Ireland, dimensional materials including stone, wood and becoming director of the Hillsborough Art Centre resins. He was born and lived in London and which opened in 1971 but had to close because of studied at East Ham Art College from 1976, in the troubles. Stevenson was also secretaryparallel studying conservation and restoration. administrator of RUA, then its president, having Stevenson then worked in industrial design; for become a full member in 1959. Also showed at over six years in the British Museum’s conservation RHA, at 55a Donegall Place in Belfast. RI and department; then for over three with Plowden & elsewhere. HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, Ulster Smith, restorers to the Queen. From mid-1989 Museum and Waterford’s public gallery hold Stevenson was a freelance artist and consultant. examples. Most of his work, which included “copies and pastiches of old master paintings or museum-grade Paul STEVENSON 1926– Artist in oil and pencil on one-off replicas of three-dimensional objects has carved and sawn hardboard, and teacher, born in been done to commission”. Stevenson was a Devonport, Plymouth. He studied at Northern member of the conservation unit of the Museums Polytechnic School of Architecture where Cecil and Galleries Commission and The Save Stephenson greatly influenced him, resulting in a Rembrandt Society. Collections holding his works change to painting. He sparked Stevenson’s include the British Museum, RA, J Paul Getty lifelong interest in the work of Ben Nicholson, Museum, British Library, Foreign Office Cecil Stephenson’s neighbour in Hampstead. (Admiralty Building) and English Heritage Stevenson then studied for his national diploma in (Boscobel House and Audley End). Stevenson’s painting at St Martin’s School of Art, teachers work was widely covered in press articles, including Vivian Pitchforth, Frederick Gore and John Wheatley. After gaining his teaching diploma magazine features and television appearances. at London University Stevenson began teaching Matt STEVENSON 1976– Sculptor who graduated at Medway College of Art, Rochester and from in sculpture from Winchester School of Art, 1998– 1960–83 was on the staff of Buckinghamshire 01, gaining his master’s in the discipline at the College of Higher Education. From 1984 Royal College of Art, 2002–4. Group shows Stevenson devoted himself to painting. He said included Franconia Sculpture Park, Minnesota, that “the patching and painting of boats has taught America, 2000; After Caro, Thebes Gallery, Lewes, me more about paintcraft than almost anything 2001; Guild House, 2004; and BLOC, the inaugural else”, and boats were a key theme. Mixed Bowieart exhibition at the County Hall Gallery, exhibitions included 1959 John Moores Liverpool 2005. Among Stevenson’s solo shows were Exhibition; Bear Lane Gallery, Oxford, 1963; Park 192


Gallery, Cheltenham, 1985; Malt House Barn Gallery, Aylesbury, 1990; and Anderson Gallery, Broadway, 1992. Showed solo at Michael Parkin Gallery from 1990. Miracle of Flight was at Buckinghamshire County Museum & Art Gallery, Aylesbury, in 2005. Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon, holds his work. Lived in Prestwood, Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire.

Robert Macaulay STEVENSON 1854–1952 Landscape

William Lennie STEVENSON 1911– Painter, printmaker, sculptor and teacher, born in Liverpool. He trained at the Liverpool School of Art, then taught at Liverpool City School of Art and at Architectural Association School of Architecture, London. During World War II he served as a squadron leader and pilot in the Royal Air Force. He was featured in Liverpool Artists in the Fields of War, City of Liverpool Art Gallery Bluecoat Chambers, 1946. He painted a ceiling for the Bluecoat Chambers concert hall and made sculpture for St Monica’s Church, Bootle. Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool has several works by Stevenson, including a menu design for the Sandon Studios Society, and he is in Manchester City Art Gallery’s collection.

painter, born in Glasgow where he studied at the School of Art. His wife, who died eight years before him, was the artist Stansmore Stevenson, who also worked under her maiden name of Stansmore Dean. Stevenson worked for some time in France, was a member of RSW and IS and also showed at Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool, RA and elsewhere. From Zan STEVENSON 1931– Painter, born in Stanstead early 1930s settled in Kirkcudbright. Essex, who as an architect worked as Rosanna Stevenson. Her mother was the artist Rosamond Rosanna STEVENSON: see Zan STEVENSON Burnett. Stevenson was a freelance architect, 1960– 89. She attended at Brighton Art School, 1948– Trevor STEVENSON 1899–1985 Watercolourist and art critic who was by profession a librarian, born 51; did scenic design for repertory, 1952; then in Nottingham, son of C Bernard Stevenson who studied with Kingston School of Art, 1953–5; and became curator of the public gallery in Newcastle Open College of the Arts, 1996–00. Her teachers upon Tyne. His full name was Bernard Trevor included Geoffrey Vivis, Paul Millichip and Whitworth Stevenson, and early work was signed Stephen Bevan Pritchard. She was a member of this way. After the Royal Grammar School in the Visual Images Group, Buckinghamshire Art Newcastle Stevenson was prevented from going Society and AVAC (Aylesbury Vale Arts Council). to university by military service. From 1920–5 he Stevenson’s colourful oils and murals were studied under R G Hatton at King Edward VII originally influenced by the work of Van Gogh and School of Art in Newcastle, opened a private Cézanne. They drew inspiration from the Chiltern gallery, then during the Depression joined King’s countryside and her travels abroad. Group shows College library, qualified as a librarian and took included the SWA; Bankside and Llewellyn his master’s degree in honours English, also writing Alexander Galleries; Swan Theatre Gallery, High as the art critic for the Evening World newspaper Wycombe; Hawker Gallery, Amersham; The Place, in Newcastle. After a library job in Sheffield Letchworth; and The New Studio, Olney. She had Stevenson moved to Southport in 1934, becoming solo exhibitions from 2002 in connection with chief librarian and curator of the Atkinson Art Bucks Art Week. Lived in Wendover, Gallery. Was for many years secretary of Southport Buckinghamshire.

Palette Club and he also belonged to Sheffield Arts Club and showed with Northern Counties and Hallamshire Society of Artists, Walker Art Gallery and elsewhere in the northwest. Lived finally at Haltwhistle, Northumberland.

Frank STEWARD 1920– Painter and designer, born

and lived in London, who studied at the Royal College of Art with Rodrigo Moynihan, 1946–9. Showed at RA, NEAC, LG and elsewhere. Illustrated for Punch magazine.

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Allan STEWART 1865–1951 Painter, notably of historical and military subjects, born in Edinburgh. Studied at Edinburgh Institution and RSA Schools, then in France and Spain. Was on the staff of the Illustrated London News. Exhibited RSA, RSW, Fine Art Society and RA. He travelled quite widely and illustrated books on travel and history. Among his notable pictures are King Edward Inspects the Royal Archers and Prince Charlie’s Last Look at Scotland. His work is in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh. Lived at Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire.

After attending Barnfield College, Luton, 1981–2, Stewart graduated with honours from Gloucestershire College of Arts & Technology, Cheltenham, 1982–5. In 1986, he gained a mural commission from the Central Electricity Generating Board, Oldbury-uponSevern. Group shows included Park Gallery, Cheltenham, 1987, and East End Open Studios, at Metropolitan Wharf, 1989. Andy STEWART 1963–

Artist, born in York, producing “semi-abstract interpretations of landscape and still life.” Although she studied art as part of her teacher training at Leeds College of Education, Stewart was “largely self-taught.” She became a primary school and special needs teacher. As well as being a full member of the RBSA, Stewart was elected RWA in 1987 and PS in 1997, there winning the Frank Herring Award, 1996; Daler-Rowney Award, 1998; and Thompson’s Gallery Award, 1999. She also showed at the RA Summer Exhibition, Thompson’s Gallery and Workshop Wales, Fishguard and was included in The Autumn Show, The Wykeham Gallery, Stockbridge, in 2004. Betty Hosegood’s 2001 book Still Life features Stewart’s work, which is held by the RWA. Lived in Oadby, Leicestershire. Barbara STEWART 1929–

Painter, illustrator, collector and teacher, born in Iloilo, Panay, Philippines. After attending Radley College he studied at Byam Shaw School of Drawing and Painting, 1932–8, teachers including F E Jackson, teaching at the School, 1950–8. Early in the 1930s, Charles William STEWART 1915–2001

Stewart had come under the spell of the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo, attended evening ballet classes, took private lessons and danced professional productions until the principal of Byam Shaw, Ernest Jackson, complained that ballet was hindering his art studies, and he gave up the stage. Shortly after finishing teaching Stewart returned to the family estate at New Abbey, Dumfries. Although he painted a variety of still life, costume and landscape pictures, Stewart was best known as an illustrator in the British blackand-white tradition. Books illustrated included C Henry Warren’s A Boy in Kent, 1944; a series of books by Barbara Leonie Picard, beginning with The Faun and the Woodcutter’s Daughter, 1951; a series by Nicholas Stuart Gray, beginning with Grimbold’s Other World, 1963; and volumes by Margaret Storey, including Timothy and the Two Witches, 1966. Stewart amassed such a collection of costumes, fashion plates and stage designs for his illustrating that in 1977 he handed over responsibility for it to the Royal Scottish Museum and for his estate at Shambellie to the Department of the Environment. It opened in 1982 as Shambellie House Museum of Costume, New Abbey, Dumfries. Stewart wrote his own account of how the collection was formed in the booklet Holy Greed. His later Folio Society illustrations included Mistress Masham’s Repose, by T H White, and his own selection Ghost Stories and Other Horrid Tales, 1997. He died in Oxford.

Versatile artist, born in north London, who was evacuated to Somerset in World War II, on leaving school worked in window display, attending evening classes at Hornsey College of Art. She continued with local art classes after marriage and raising a family and while doing jobs including playground supervisor, nanny and in a kitchen. In 1990, she returned to full-time art education at North-East London College of Further Education, studied at the Working Men’s College and Guildhall University and gained a degree in fine art at Middlesex University, 1998. Originally a painter and printmaker, Stewart turned to mixedmedia sculpture based on her family background, Charlotte STEWART 1935–

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childhood memories and everyday life. Objects III was included in East at Norwich Gallery, 1991. cast in latex made the viewer look anew at the Stewart lived in Norwich, Norfolk. familiar and acquired a new and mysterious quality. Stewart exhibited in London and America, Ida Lillie STROTHER-STEWART fl. c.1915–1965 including Modern & Contemporary British Art at Painter and draughtsman, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, to which she eventually returned after the Millinery Works in 2000. extensive travel, her husband being in the colonial Cumbrae STEWART: see Janet Agnes CUMBRAE legal service. She studied initially at Armstrong College, then won a scholarship to L’Académie de STEWART la Grande Chaumière, in Paris, and St John’s Wood David STEWART 1961– Sculptor in various materials School of Art. Had extensive showings, including and lecturer who studied at Leicester Polytechnic one-man exhibitions, in parts of Africa, Malta and and the Royal College of Art. From the early 1990s Trinidad, National Gallery of South Africa in Cape he taught at Watford and Wolverhampton. He was Town hold- ing her work until sold in 1947. SWA, also artist-in-residence at Grizedale Forest, 1996, RI, Laing Art Gallery in Newcastle and elsewhere gave her and Hinode Forest in Japan, 1997, the country exhibitions in England. which latterly was a focus of his work. Stewart’s one-man and mixed exhibitions included Midlands Janet Agnes Cumbrae STEWART: see Janet Agnes Arts Centre, Birmingham, 1992; Brighton Marina, CUMBRAE STEWART 1994; Morley Gallery, 1995; and Islington Arts John Ivor STEWART 1936– Artist whose output Factory, 1999. The artist’s abstract, landscapeincluded colourful figurative works. He studied at based sculptures Pontoon, 1996 in sandstone, and Belfast College of Art, 1956–60, Reading Docker, 1997 in granite, were commissioned by University, 1960–1, and University of Wales, Tyne and Wear and are located in Sunderland’s 1973–4. Stewart was elected a founder-member Enterprise Park, where he held a 1996–7 residency. of the Society of Botanical Artists, 1986, and PS, 1987, winning its Main Award as a non-member, Dorothy STEWART fl. c.1955–1975 Painter, from Sydney, Australia, where she obtained an honours 1986, and as a member, 1992 and 1997. Lived at degree in botany from University of Melbourne. Beacon Hill, Hindhead, Surrey. She was married to the psychiatrist Dr Randal Kerry STEWART 1965– Sculptor, born in Paisley, Stewart. Did postgraduate studies in Britain, Renfrewshire, who obtained a Master of Arts settling in London, and became interested in honours degree in history and German at Edinburgh painting. Joined the Hampstead Artists’ Council University 1985–9, did an arts foundation course and was taught by the painter Zdzislaw at Chelsea School of Art, 1989–90, then gained an Ruszkowski. Showed in the Council’s exhibitions, arts degree with honours there, 1990–3. She was also with WIAC, Commonwealth Institute, RWS included in Young British Artists V, at Saatchi and Parkway Gallery and was a member of Free Gallery, 1995. Her exhibits included a pregnant Painters and Sculptors. Had a first London solo schoolgirl, twins and a sleeping nun, in plaster and show in 1972 at Gallery Petit. fibreglass, realistic and finished in high-gloss paint. Edward STEWART: see entry for Stephanie In 1997–8, Stewart was included in Correspondences at Scottish National Gallery of SMITH/Edward STEWART Modern Art, Edinburgh; in 1999 she completed Graham STEWART 1956– Artist in various media the commission Drops Loveliness for the Royal who studied at Camberwell School of Arts and Festival Hall ballroom; and in 2001 in Tate Crafts, 1975–8, Royal Academy Schools, 1978– Liverpool’s Project Space was commissioned to 81, and School of the Art Institute of Chicago, in create a work in response to the gallery. Stewart America, 1984–7. His series work Image Retrieval 195


collaborated for a time with the sculptor Ana teacher, born in Glasgow, where he studied at the School of Art, 1942–7. After gaining his diploma Genoves. Lived in London. in design, Stewart won a Travelling Scholarship, Lee STEWART 1972– Painter notable for nude which took him to the continent. In 1949 Stewart studies, as in his solo exhibition In the Flesh, Catto was appointed teacher of design for printed fabrics Contemporary, 2002. He graduated with honours at the School of Art; from 1949–78 was head of in fine art from Cumbria College of Art, having printed textiles (1955–7 as a visiting member of obtained his National Diploma in Art and Design staff); from 1979–80 head of design; and from at Telford College, Edinburgh. In 1998, Stewart 1981–4, when he retired, was the School’s deputy was commissioned by David Rock, president of director. Stewart was a major designer for Liberty’s RIBA, then won a Barclays Bank Student Graduate in the 1950s and 1960s and undertook numerous Award and the Lord Provost of Glasgow’s City of private ceramics, textiles and painting Glasgow Prize. In 2000, Stewart won second prize, commissions. Was included in Austerity to Arthur Andersen Award, at the Royal Institute of Affluence, at Fine Art Society, 1997. the Fine Arts in Glasgow, where he lived, also a major bursary from the Elizabeth Greenshields Will A STEWART 1882–1953 Painter, Oriental artefact Foundation. For three successive years from 1999 restorer and teacher, born in Ilkley, Yorkshire. After his work was chosen for the BP Portrait Award at Bradford Technical College he studied at Royal the National Portrait Gallery, also being selected College of Art under Augustus John, returning to for the Hunting Art Prizes, at the Royal College Yorkshire to work as designer for Lister’s at of Art, and Noble Grossart Prize in conjunction Manningham Mills. Continued to paint and was a founder-member of Lofts Arts Club, which became with Scotland on Sunday. Bradford Arts Club. In 1911 became an inspector Nick STEWART fl. from early 1980s– Artist and teacher of arts and crafts in Egyptian Ministry of Education, who studied biology and environmental science at setting up the Cairo School of Arts and Crafts and University of Ulster, Jordanstown, 1970–4, becoming its principal. At end of World War I was subsquently attending Belfast College of Art and seconded to Palestine to advise on crafts and small Design where he gained a degree in fine art, 1981. industries re-establishment, working closely with He won many prizes and bursaries, including those the architect C R Ashbee. Back in Egypt, from of the Irish Exhibition of Living Art, 1985 and 1927 for three years Stewart worked on restoration 1987; The Canada Council Bursary, for a of furniture from the tomb of Queen Hetapheres, Residency at the Articule Gallery, Montreal, 1989; for which he developed his own techniques. His and the Irish Arts Council Bursary for copious papers on this are in the Ashmolean Commissioned Installation Work for Diaspora, Museum, Oxford. In 1930 Stewart relocated with 1993. Stewart presented many exhibitions of his family to Jerusalem to become supervisor of performance, installation and video work as well technical education in Palestine, during World War as drawings in North America, in Ireland, Britain II being made controller of light industries, helped and on the continent. Taught widely at universities by his colloquial Arabic. In 1948 returned to High and colleges of art, eventually working as an artist Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, where he and tutor at Sheffield Polytechnic. In 1994 Stewart concentrated on painting, revived his association was included in Beyond the Partitions, organised with Bradford Arts Club and became art critic for by Queen Studios, Belfast, with which he was the Yorkshire Herald. Died in High Wycombe. An associated. His video installation Reflective exhibition of Stewart’s work was held at Carlton Surface appeared at Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, Gallery, Edinburgh, in 1986, another at Bradford 1997, Curtain Call at Royal Festival Hall, 2000. Art Galleries and Museums in 1989. Robert STEWART 1924–1995

Designer, artist and Carole STEYN 1938– Artist working in a wide range 196


of materials, born in Manchester, who studied at Académie Julian, Paris, in 1953; St Martin’s School of Art, 1954–6; then concentrated on sculpture at Camden School of Art, 1968. Steyn concentrated on bas-reliefs until the late 1970s; then became a painter in oils and watercolour, and after this a pastellist; around 1990, turned to printmaking. Small, free-standing sculptures, of organic and inorganic objects, continued to be made during these periods, and by 2000 Steyn was “currently doing all these things.” Exotic colour was a feature of her output. Had a series of shows at Drian Galleries from 1971; at Jablonski Gallery, 1987; Galerie Harounoff, 1991 and Lauderdale House, Highgate, 1997. In addition to these solo exhibitions there were many group appearances, latterly including Sloane Graphics Gallery, from 1995; Highgate Fine Art and Edith Grove Gallery, both 1999; and Queen’s Lawn, Imperial College, 2000. Warsaw and Gdansk National Museums in Poland and Ben Uri Art Society hold examples. Lived in London.

Painter, draughtsman, designer and printmaker, born in Dublin, Ireland. The family of her father, a dentist, was of Russian origin. Stella was at Alexandra College until 1924, when, aged 16, she started at the Metropolitan School of Art. Her teacher, Patrick Tuohy, encouraged her first visit to Paris, in 1926, and for the next five years she divided her time between the two capitals, studying at Académie Scandinave and at L’Académie de la Grande Chaumière. Through Tuohy Steyn met James Joyce, producing etchings to illustrate Finnegans Wake, published in Transition in 1929. Next Steyn studied in Germany, at Stuttgart and at the Bauhaus, Dessau, 1931–2, going there with a personal recommendation to Kandinsky. Although she did some typography-oriented work in the Bauhaus style, the school “made a very dreary impression” on her and she eventually reverted to the painterly precepts of the School of Paris (the British Museum holds some of Steyn’s experimental Bauhaus lithographs). Because of her Jewish background, Steyn’s mother urged her to leave Germany. She Stella STEYN 1907–1987

met David Ross, marrying him in 1938, and they lived in England, eventually settling in London from around 1950 when he was appointed professor of French at Birkbeck College. Steyn had shown in Dublin and London between the wars. As well as accepting advertising commissions, she exhibited at the RA, Contemporary Art Society; the Carnegie International, Pittsburgh, 1952; Hampstead in the Thirties, at Camden Arts Centre, 1974–5; and Recent Acquisitions, British Museum, 1976. She showed paintings in two solo shows at Leicester Galleries, 1951 and 1954. After her death Abbott & Holder sold some of Steyn’s early prints. There were shows at Gorry Gallery, Dublin, 1995, Belgrave Gallery, 1996, and Molesworth Gallery, Dublin, in 2001. Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin, Irish National Portrait Collection in Limerick and Ulster Museum in Belfast hold examples.

John STEZAKER 1949– Artist in photomontage and

teacher, born in Worcester. Studied at Slade School of Fine Art, 1967–73. While still a student he began to exhibit, having a solo show at Sigi Krauss Gallery in 1970. Another followed at Nigel Greenwood Inc in 1972, the start of a long association with that gallery. The 1970s saw Stezaker’s reputation grow, with one-man shows at Museum of Modern Art in Oxford and at the Photographers’ Gallery, the Ikon Gallery in Birmingham and City Museum, Southampton, as well as several on the continent. From 1975 Stezaker was a teacher at St Martin’s School of Art. He was a significant conceptual artist who used photography to study people’s perceptions of reality. Stezaker’s later exhibitions included Angels, Portfolio Gallery, Edinburgh International Festival, 1999, and Hayward Gallery tour The British Art Show 5, 2000–1. In 2004, The Approach organised John Stezaker: the third person archive and other works. His show at the Norwich Gallery in 2006 was accompanied by a lengthy interview with the artist. Arts Council holds Stezaker’s textbased Categories, 1972, and his photo-collage on hardboard Here and Now, 1976. He lived in London.

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Eric STHYR 1909– Painter in oil and teacher, born Erik Sthyr in Whitley Bay, Northumberland. He studied part-time from 1924–8 at Clapham, Westminster and Chelsea Schools of Art, then fulltime from 1928–31 at Slade School of Fine Art. He was a prize winner, his teachers including Henry Tonks, Philip Wilson Steer, Randolph Schwabe and Graham Sutherland. Sthyr taught at St Paul’s School, then after war service at Winchester School of Art. Painted still lifes, nudes, ruins and landscapes, with W R Sickert an influence. Showed at RBA, LG, AIA International War Exhibition, New Grafton and Alresford Galleries, and in 1994 shared an exhibition at Winchester Guildhall with the sculptor John Souter. Lived in Winchester, Hampshire.

Emma STIBBON 1962– Printmaker and draughtsman who did a foundation course at Portsmouth College of Art, 1980–1; an honours degree in fine art from Goldsmiths’ College, 1981–4; and a higher diploma in paper conservation, Camberwell School of Art, 1984–6. Awards included Sun Life Award, Open Print Exhibition, RWA, 1994; in 1995, at National Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries, T N Lawrence Materials Prize and Galleries Magazine Publicity Award, Rothenstein Trophy; and Open Print Exhibition Award, RWA, 1997. Among Stibbon’s group exhibitions were Gimpel Fils, 1991; the RA Summer Exhibition, from 1994; Summer Show, Redfern Gallery, 1996; and in 1999 Land Marks, at Jill George Gallery, which in 2002 gave her a solo show of drawings and woodcuts, including the large and broodingly atmospheric image Great Wall. Stibbon was elected a member of the RE in 1996, RWA in 1997. The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, Bournemouth, and Bristol City Art Gallery hold examples.

School of Architecture, 1976–88, while continuing with her own work. Stieger was a member of the British Art Medal Society and a freeman of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, Goldsmiths’ Hall and the British Museum holding her work. She did a large and varied body of commissioned work in Britain and abroad. This included four windows in etched relief, at Church Ennetbaden, Zürich, 1967; church interior furnishings, St Margaret’s, Glasgow, 1972–3; glass and lead madonna, for the same church, 1973; shrine to St Ogilvie, St Columbkille, Glasgow, 1977; William Kent Tercentenary Medal, 1985; T E Lawrence Centenary Medal, 1988; and BBC Africa Sports Star of the Year Medal, 1992. Main works were bronze screen and door panels, Robinson College, Cambridge, 1980; bronze water sculpture, Eastgate, Beverley, 1989; and bronze and stone lectern steps, St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, 1991. Later solo shows included Copernican Connection Gallery, Beverley, 1988. Lived in Welton, East Yorkshire.

Andrew STIFF 1964– Artist who studied at Chelsea

School of Art & Design, 1983–6. Exhibitions included Holland Gallery, 1986; Henley Exhibition Centre, 1987; and East End Open Studios, at Carpenter’s Road, 1989. Stiff obtained several private commissions in New York. Christopher STILING 1946– Painter who grew up in

Gravesend, Kent, where he attended the College of Art. In 1995 he gave up work as creative director in the advertising industry to paint full-time. Stiling was an enthusiastic sailor, the Thames Estuary was a recurring theme and many of his works were based on sketches, watercolour notes and photographs taken at sea, as in the show Land & Sea which he shared with James Duncan at Gallery Forty Seven in 1997. Other exhibitions included Young European Painters, Château Sceaux, Paris, 1977, and Mosman Galleries, New South Wales, Australia, 1996. He had a solo exhibition at Castle of Park, Banff, 1995. Lived in London.

Painter who turned towards sculpture, jewellery and medals, and teacher, born in London. She studied at Edinburgh College of Art, 1954–9, teachers including William MacTaggart, John Maxwell, William Gillies and James Cumming. She married the sculptor A Gruber and lived and worked in Switzerland, 1964– Gillian STILL 1939– Versatile artist, teacher and 9. Returning to England she taught drawing at Hull gallery owner, born in London, who studied for

Jacqueline STIEGER 1936–

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four years at Farnham School of Art and Brighton College of Art, gaining her teaching certificate with distinction. During training Still decided to change from painting to sculpture, enlarging her skills while teaching at Woking Grammar School by qualifying as a welder on Army courses, Aldershot. While lecturing at Harrow College of Art Still met the sculptor Philip Turner, learning from him to produce bronze cast sculpture. With others she developed clay modelling and ceramic skills, becoming a leading figurative porcelain sculptor. She moved to Wales in 1965, further teaching including Hereford, Swansea and Carmarthen Colleges of Art and the University of Wales at Swansea and Aberystwyth. In 1989, she opened Fountain Fine Art in Llandeilo. She exhibited widely in England, Wales and abroad, including RA Summer Exhibition, from 1961; Ceri Richards Gallery, University of Wales, from 1971; Museum for Modern Keramik, Deidesheim, Germany, from 1980; Aberystwyth Arts Centre, 1989; Heifer Gallery, 1992; and Arts Council Oriel Gallery, 1994.

Artist notable for relief paintings, as shown in a three-man exhibition at Woodlands Art Gallery, 1990. Was born and worked in London, studying at Goldsmiths’ College School of Art, 1979–83. Participated in a series of mixed shows and was represented by Rebecca Hossack Gallery, Hales Gallery also showing her work. Arts Council holds her work. Myra STIMSON 1961–

Frederick H STINGEMORE 1890–1954 Draughtsman,

poster designer, cartographer and photographer, who joined the Underground Group in 1919, becoming personal draughtsman to its dynamic publicity manager Frank Pick and eventually head of the commercial drawing office. Stingemore did important work on the London Underground map. His design simplified the layout and continued in use until 1933, when the stylised H C Beck design, the basis of today’s map, came into use. Stingemore also designed posters for the Underground and contributed illustrations to many publications, such as London’s Country, 1922, London, 1924, and London Town and Country, 1928. He was a

transport enthusiast, whose photographs, drawings and verse were published in The Railway Magazine. Stingemore died in the Watford area of Hertfordshire.

Dilys STINSON 1949– Tapestry designer and weaver,

born in America. She studied at Hammersmith College of Art, West Dean College in Sussex and Manufactures des Gobelin, Pris. Worked for eight years at West Dean tapestry studio as a dyer and weaver and eventually joined Lesley Millar, a maker of rugs, in Textiles for Interiors. Stinson’s tapestries are in the American Embassy, Bangladesh, South East Arts Collection and elsewhere. She exhibited at Michaelson & Orient, 1988, and World Tapestry Today in Australia, 1988–9. Lived in Tenterden, Kent.

Artist who undertook a printmaking course at Glasgow School of Art, 1980–3. Among her exhibitions was Scottish Print Open Three, organised by Dundee Printmakers’ Workshop, in 1983, where she showed Don’t Have A Mutant, screenprint and lino, 1983. Alison STIRLING 1962–

She initially trained as a graphic designer at AKI Enschede, in the Netherlands, later studying lettering with Berthold Wolpe at the City & Guilds of London Art School. There she met Brenda Berman with whom in 1988 she formed Incisive Letterwork (see separate entries). Annet STIRLING 1953–

Dorothy STIRLING 1939– Artist working in acrylic

on plaster, with found objects and box constructions, born in Glasgow. She studied at the School of Art there, 1983–7, under Jack Knox, Barbara Rae and Neil Dallas Brown. She was a member of the Scottish Arts Club, SSA and SSWA. Group shows included Art in Boxes at England & Co; Compass Gallery, Glasgow; Open Eye Gallery, Edinburgh; RSA; and Laing Art Competition, Overall Winner in 1993. Had a series of solo shows at Open Eye from 1989, and at Compass, 1994. BBC in Glasgow; Paintings in Hospitals; Stirlingshire Educational Trust; and St John’s Hospital, Livingston, hold examples. Living in

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Stirling.

Mary STIRLING 1948– Self-taught artist in watercolour and gouache, although she did a botanical illustration course with Margaret Petterson at West Dean College and studied landscape with Alastair Paterson. She was born in Windsor, Berkshire, and was the daughter-in-law of the artist Diana Low. Did a variety of jobs, including ski-teaching and was a radionics practitioner. Exhibited at Tenterden Art Gallery and in East Anglia and solo shows included Oliver Swann Galleries, 1984. Lived at Wootton, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

Helen STIRLING THOMAS 1890–c.1970 Painter who studied widely in Italy and married the artist Henry Winslow. She was made a member of SWA in 1938. Showed with Tempera Society and Ridley Art Club, at RA, RBA, Kensington Gallery and at Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, Bournemouth. Lived in London for many years.

Painter, educated at Eton College and Cambridge University, the son of Sir William Stirling Maxwell. Sir John studied painting under Samuel Evans and with A S Cope. Exhibited RSA, RSW and RWS. Signed work J S M. Lived in Glasgow and Edinburgh. John STIRLING MAXWELL 1866–1956

Painter, born and lived in London, best known for her portraits and cityscapes. She studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1981–3, and City and Guilds of London Art School, 1985–8. Group shows included John Player Awards, National Portrait Gallery, 1987; The London Transport Competition, Mall Galleries, 1993; and Visual Arts Auction, Groucho Club, 1998. Stitt showed solo with Long & Ryle from 1996. Commissions and collections included Bank of America, Earl of Dumfries, Earl Spencer and the writer Alice Thomas Ellis. Sarah STITT 1963–

educated there and in Essex. Studied at Edinburgh College of Art, 1947–51, teachers including John Kingsley Cook and Leonard Rosoman, gaining a postgraduate scholarship. Following National Service Stiven was appointed to the art staff of Fife Education Authority in 1954, after which he joined Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, in 1958. With a chemistry lecturer at Aberdeen University, John Holloway, Stiven created an exhibition called Integration which, based on boxed exhibits, examined the interface between art and science, which was to remain a preoccupation. Stiven was a lecturer in the extra-mural department of Aberdeen University and through the 1970s participated in the Edinburgh-based Demarco Gallery’s experimental Summer School and expeditions exploring Scotland’s cultural heritage. Stiven was made an associate of RSA, and a member of SSA, the Glasgow Group and the Society of Industrial Artists. He took part in many group shows in Scotland, including the Scottish Arts Council exhibition Inscape in 1976 and Painters in Parallel at Edinburgh College of Art in 1978. Had several solo shows at Demarco Gallery. In 1976 he had a first one-man show in London at Paul Neagu’s Generative Arts Gallery, the year before his work was exhibited at the Galleria del Cavallino in Venice alongside advanced Scottish artists. Stiven was made head of the design school at Gray’s in 1981, reluctantly retiring in 1987 because of illness. Died in Dundee. Scottish Arts Council and Aberdeen City Art Gallery hold examples. Jane STOBART 1949– Printmaker and teacher, based

in London, who trained at Central School of Art and Design. She taught printmaking, graphic design and computer graphics in several London colleges. She was a member of the RE and showed widely, including a solo exhibition at Gainsborough’s House, Sudbury, 1994, during which she taught etching in the print workshop. For several years the subject of her work, as in her Fred STIVEN 1929–1997 Creator of boxes and exhibition Miles Graye Made Me at the Barbican constructions, freelance graphic and exhibition Centre library in 2000, was the Whitechapel Bell designer, book illustrator, typographer, printmaker Foundry, producing hundreds of drawings to form and teacher, born in Fife, son of a sailor. He was 200


the basis of etchings.

and by 1979 Lawrence Gowing was petitioning the Home Office that Stocker be released to study at the Slade School of Fine Art, which he attended 1979–83. In the latter year Stocker gained the Rodney Burn Prize for the best figurative painting at the Slade and a Boise Scholarship. He had a solo show at Pomeroy Purdy in 1989, was included in a mixed exhibition at Bernard Jacobson in 1990 and by the mid-1990s was being represented by Flowers East. In 1997–8, Stocker’s acrylic on canvas Burst Being was included in the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition. By that time he was settled in London.

Painter and illustrator of marine subjects and landscapes, and teacher, born in Leicester. Attended Derby College of Art, 1946– 50, where his teachers included Alfred Bladen, then Royal Academy Schools with Henry Rushbury, 1950–6. Was a Landseer Scholarship winner. From the early 1950s he became a frequent RA exhibitor, also RBA and RSMA of which he was a member, and in Canada and New York, which eventually became his primary outlet. Had a series of exhibitions at Kennedy Galleries there and eventually settled in America, where he was vicepresident emeritus of the American Society of Guy STOCKER: see GUY Marine Artists. Stobart drew on his extensive seagoing experience in his paintings, often of Neil STOCKER 1925–1969 Sculptor who liked to work in plaster because it “records instantly your historical harbour scenes in some detail. emotions and reactions, and stays put”. He was Andrew STOCK 1960– Painter, printmaker and born in Sydney, Australia, working for a time as sculptor, born in the British Military Hospital, an industrial chemist, then in glass decoration, partRinteln, West Germany. Stock left Sherborne time study at East Sydney Technical School School in 1978 and became an artist, self-taught convincing him to be a sculptor. Moved to England with some encouragement from Sir Peter Scott. in 1952 and studied at Chelsea School of Art, partWas a member of SWLA from 1983, later being time then full-time. In 1958 entered Slade School on its council; was elected an associate of the RE of Art as a sculpture student, did a year’s in 2001; and was a governor of the Federation of postgraduate study at Royal College of Art and British Artists. Had a series of solo shows at spent a summer as Henry Moore’s assistant, then Malcolm Innes’ London and Edinburgh galleries assisted Bernard Meadows. Stocker tried to avoid from 1981, Alpine Gallery from 1989, at The external influences in case they might weaken his Gallery in Cork Street, 1994, and at the Mall own ideas, but he admitted Brancusi and Richier Galleries in 2004, one of a series there. Sultan of were important to him. His biomorphic work Oman had a large collection of Stock’s work, on showed a concern with the forces of nature, sources which the palettes of J M Whistler and Andrew and origins and development. From 1958 Stocker Wyeth were influences. Lived in Beaminster, was prominently associated with the Young Commonwealth Artists’ Exhibitions. In 1961 he Dorset. won the Susse Prize at Young Contemporaries, Alan STOCKER 1949– Artist who was born in later in the year exhibiting in an ICA sculpture London and became addicted to Speed, 1961, show. In 1962 he showed in an AIA sculpture between 1966–73 being a heroin addict. Stocker exhibition, in 1963 sharing a show with two was confined to Campsfield House detention centre painters at Grabowski Gallery. Arts Council holds in 1963, then Borstal in Rochester, 1965. While examples. Taught latterly at Hornsey College of on heroin he robbed banks and security vans, in Art. 1973 being sentenced to 14 years for armed robbery, cut to 12 years on appeal in 1974. While Alfred STOCKHAM 1933– Painter and teacher, born he was in Maidstone Prison the then governor, in London, who after leaving school was in the Peter Timms, allowed Stocker to paint full-time, Royal Navy, 1950–6; at Camberwell School of Art, John STOBART 1929–

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1960–3; at Royal College of Art, 1963–6; and was a Rome Scholar, 1966–7, and a Granada Arts Fellow, 1967–8. Was on the staff of Bristol Polytechnic, 1968–88, until retiring, as head of fine art, to paint more. Among Stockham’s awards were a Silver Medal for Painting at Royal College and a British Institute 1st Prize, Painting. Working in a Neo-Impressionist style, his mixed exhibitions included Arts Council of Northern Ireland and LG, 1964; Bradford City Art Gallery, 1965; RA Summer Exhibitions from 1976; and Avon Open Exhibition, Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, 1984. Had a solo show at York City Art Gallery, 1968, later ones including Anthony Hepworth, Bath, 1992, and in 2004 the RWA, of which from 1992 he was a member. From 2001, Stockham was honorary curator of its permanent collection. The City Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol, where Stockham lived, and other public collections hold examples. Artist and teacher who worked with a wide range of materials and media, including found objects, photographs, wax, glass and steel in combination with sound, motors, texts and projections. Her works were often made for specific places, using them “as a base for exploring memory and history”. She was born in Elstree, Hertfordshire. After a foundation year at Hertfordshire College of Art and Design, 1979– 80, she gained an honours degree in fine art from Falmouth School of Art, 1980–3, then her master’s from Chelsea School of Art & Design, 1985–6. Won a number of awards, including a Kettle’s Yard/Henry Moore Fellowship at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1989, and a Sculpture Research Residency, Warwick University, 1995. She had extensive teaching experience, including Chelsea College of Art, Cambridge University, Central St Martins, Goldsmiths’ and the Royal College of Art. Group exhibitions included Recent British Sculpture, Arts Council tour, 1993–4, and Triplicate, Tate Gallery, St Ives, and tour, 1996. Had a solo exhibition, Rest Assured, at The Showroom, 1987, later ones including Mead Gallery, University of Warwick, 1997. Arts Council holds her work. Lived in London. Jo STOCKHAM 1961–

George STOCKI: see Jerzy STOCKI

Jerzy STOCKI 1913– Prize-winning artist noted for

his sculpture, mainly in welded steel, assemblages and stage designs. He was born in Cracow, Poland, and is sometimes listed as George Stocki. He studied at the National Institute of Art and Crafts, Poznań, and the Academy of Fine Arts, Rome. Stocki was a prolific exhibitor. Solo and group exhibitions included Allied Artists, Edinburgh, 1940; Allied Artists, London, 1941; Allied Artists, Northern Ireland, 1942; British 8th Army Art Festival, Rome, 1946; Drian Galleries (solo), 1965, 1967, 1969 and 1981; Contemporary Art by Polish Artists abroad, Imperial College, 1970; Society of Catholic Artists, London, 1971 and 1972; Long Beach Gallery, Los Angeles, California, America, 1973; stage designs for Aleksándr Solzheńitzyn’s Candle in the Wind, Polish Hearth, 1974, and Kazimierz Przerwa Tetmajer’s Ksiądz Piotr, POSK, 1974; Polish AFA, 1974 and 1975; Exhibition of Contemporary Artists from the Halima Nałęcz Collection for National Museum, Warsaw, 1978; Museum Voor Moderne Religieuze Kunst, Ostend, Belgium, 1979; and POSK Gallery, 1977, 1981 and 1985; and 25th Annual Drian Artists, Drian Galleries, 1982. Stocki’s work was held by public and private collections, including Toruń University, Poland; Stations of the Cross, Roman Catholic school, Luton; St Ethelbert’s Church, Slough; and St John Fisher Church, London.

Weaver and artist, born in London, producing figurative and abstract works rich in colour and imagination. She wrote that her “pieces often start with an abstract collage, coloured drawing or painting which I work on until a satisfying composition (and sometimes a visual metaphor) is achieved. I rarely intend to make an exact replica of what I see…. Only gradually, and only sometimes, do meanings become clear, and I am often surprised by them. The act of making is absolutely compulsive.” Stockl gained her National Design Diploma and teaching qualification at Hornsey College of Art in the

Meira STOCKL 1931–

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1950s; her Higher Diploma, Art Education, University of Oxford, 1973; and Goldsmiths’ College Diploma in Textiles, 1983. She was artistin-residence at Grizedale Forest Trust in 1991. She taught, becoming principal lecturer, art and design, at Ilkley College of Higher Education, in the 1980s. From 1984 she worked as an independent textile artist, leading study tours to India and Indonesia and undertaking commissions. Her exhibitions included Two Weavers: Two Ways, with Sue Lawty, at University Gallery, Leeds, 2002. The Government Art Collection holds Stockl’s work.

and found materials to produce work centred on memory. Stockmarr studied City & Guilds clothing design and manufacture, then further at Colchester Institute’s school of art, obtaining a first-class honours degree in art and design and a fine art teaching certificate. She had wide work experience, including children’s workshops, clothes and accessories, designing for various clients and in adult education. Her exhibitions included Platform One, Bury St Edmunds Art Gallery; Conceptual Interiors, Beatrice Royal Gallery, Eastleigh; and Recent Graduates, New Ashgate Gallery, Farnham, and tour. She was artist-in-residence, firstsite, Henry STOCKLEY 1892–1982 Bus driver who Colchester, and in 2002 was included in the painted in a primitive style on any materials he firstsite/Wolsey Art Gallery, Ipswich, project could afford, including linoleum and old bits of Making the Connection. She had a solo exhibition, linen; he mixed his own bold colours, having Common Threads, at University of Essex Gallery, learned from his signwriter father. Having tried Colchester, in 2003. every gallery in London, Stockley was about to burn all his work if dealer Lucy Wertheim had not Irene STOCKS 1943– Artist, teacher and dealer, born taken him on in 1932. She urged him to illustrate in Rochdale, Lancashire, who studied fine art at Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, and gave him a solo Leeds University in the early 1960s under Quentin show, exhibiting him then as Busdriver Stockley. Bell. After a career in teaching and town planning, As Henry Stockley he appeared in mixed shows. she and her husband John opened their first gallery He was also exhibited by Jack Bilbo’s Modern Art in St Albans specialising in modern British Gallery, with the London Transport Group and in painting, moving to East Anglia in 1982 where RA Summer Exhibitions, in 1948 being in the they ran their business from galleries in Diss and Academy’s touring show Crowded Out. Stockley’s Bungay. Her work, mainly in oil and acrylic, was pictures reflect his daily life: work as a bus driver, characterised by strong colour and bold scenes from his Kent childhood and experiences composition, stylised paintings of the human in the Blitz. His experiences in World War I, during figure, plants, animals and still life. Among her which he ferried ammunition around for Vickers commissions was a mural on a French café motif Armstrong, made him a pacifist. Stockley began for a staff dining room in Cambridge; a three-panel work as a bus driver in 1924, retiring in 1957, and screen for a restaurant in Norwich; and large panels only then could paint when he wanted. Five years on a tropic island theme for a private swimming before, he wrote down his reminiscences, published pool. by John Walker in 1994 as Stockley on the Buses. Stockley completed 400 paintings, only a quarter Hilda van STOCKUM 1908– Painter in whose work known to have survived, many found in his the Dutch still life tradition and an Impressionist daughter’s attic in 1988. In 1996 London Transport feeling for light and form mixed. She was born in Museum put on a show of pictures and Rotterdam of some Irish ancestry, studying at memorabilia. Stockley died in a psychiatric Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin, 1924–7, hospital in Dartford, Kent, and is buried at Horton where her teachers included Sean Keating; Rijks Academie Voor Beeldende Kunst, Amsterdam, Kirby, near Swanley. under R Roland Holst, 1927–31; at Corcoran Alison STOCKMARR 1963– Artist, designer and School of Art, Washington, with Richard Lahey, workshop leader who used photographs, textiles 1935–6; and with André Lhote. She showed with 203


RHA of which she was made an honorary academician, RA Summer Exhibition, Montreal Museum of Modern Art and Caldwell Galleries in Dublin and Belfast. Had a series of solo exhibitions including Dublin Painters Gallery, Difar Gallery in Geneva, Moll Gallery and RHA Gallagher Gallery, which gave her a retrospective in 1991. RHA and National Gallery of Ireland hold examples.

Manchester City Art Gallery, 1989; New British Art, Pony Park, Slagharen, Netherlands, 1991; and Beyond the Wow Factor, Computer-Generated Works, State University of New York at Purchase, New York, 1993. Had a solo show at Mappin Art Gallery, 1991, later ones including Bernard Jacobson Gallery, 1994, and a sculpture/ installation show at Wrexham Library Arts Centre, 1996, in collaboration with Angel Row Gallery, Nottingham, and Battersea Arts Centre. Stitched Hylton STOCKWELL 1943– Sculptor, born in Up – Paper and Politics was at Studio Caparrelli Newcastle upon Tyne, who attended West in 2005. Lived in London. Hartlepool College of Art, 1960–2; Hornsey College of Art, 1962–4; and the Royal College of Alexander STODDART 1959– Sculptor in traditional Art, where he graduated, 1973–4. Group shows and modern materials, born in Edinburgh but later included Berkeley Square Gallery, 1992; Glynn based in Paisley, Renfrewshire. He attended Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea, 1993; four artists at Glasgow School of Art, 1976–80; made RBS, 2000; RA Summer Exhibition, from 1998; postgraduate studies at the University of Glasgow; and Gallery One, Barnes, 2003–4. In 2005, then collaborated for a time with Ian Hamilton Stockwell was an Artist of the Day at Flowers Finlay. Stoddart was interested in the history of Central, chosen by Allen Jones. Glasgow’s sculpture and made a special study of the nineteenth-century practitioner John Mossman. Susan STOCKWELL 1962– Versatile artist and Stoddart’s huge Monument to David Hume, in designer, born in Manchester, who did a foundation which the Enlightenment philosopher was depicted course at Stockport College, 1984–5; gained an wearing a toga, gained much press coverage when honours degree in fine art/sculpture from Sheffield sited in Edinburgh’s Royal Mile in 1997. Earlier, Hallam University, 1985–8; then her master’s Stoddart had completed classical figures for the degree in sculpture from Royal College of Art, Italian Centre, Glasgow. 1991–3. From 1987 Stockwell gained a number of commissions, including a bronze for the foyer Duncan STODDART 1962– Painter, draughtsman, of Curtins Engineering, Liverpool; carved figures photographer and teacher, born in Nannerch in for Tarantella Restaurant, Manchester; and a logo what is now Clwyd, his mother an artist, his father for the London and Scandinavian Metallurgical a teacher. He was brought up in Belgium and Company. In 1988 she became a visiting lecturer England, graduating with honours in graphics and for Salford Education Authority, and extensive illustration at University of Northumbria, 1982– visiting and part-time university appointments 3, under Terry Dowling. After from 1985 pursuing followed, latterly including Chelsea and inner-city youth work and courses for the Outward Wimbledon Schools of Art and University of East Bound Trust, and from 1989 teaching in Portugal London. She also held a series of residencies, later and India, in 1991 Stoddart was a freelance ones including Mappin Art Gallery, Sheffield, photographer in London. He moved to north Wales 1991, and Art Mart, Islington Business Design in 1992, while self-employed running development Centre, 1992. Awards included Visual Artists programmes for companies and other Award, Yorkshire Arts, 1990, and Osarka Prize, organisations. In 1998 he resumed painting and Royal College of Art, 1993. In 1994 she designed drawing experimentally, after a year developing a and made a set for the opera The Pillow Song, black-and-white technique using acrylic and Royal Festival Hall Purcell Room, 1994. Group collage on paper to produce abstract images. Group exhibitions included Manchester Open at shows included The Museum of Modern Art Wales, 204


Machynlleth, 2000; Fresh Art, 2001; and The Gallery in Cork Street, 2002. He had a solo show at John Brown Publishing, 2000. British Aerospace holds his work. Lived in Dolgellau, Gwynedd.

Artist, who did a foundation course at Byam Shaw School of Painting and Drawing, 1978–9; gained an honours degree in fine art, painting, at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1979; then did postgraduate studies in art and design at Middlesex Polytechnic, 1982–3. Gained a number of British Telecom commissions from 1986; won a portrait award at British Painters ’88, Mall Galleries, 1988; the Curwen Gallery John Purcell Award, 1993. Was artist-in-residence, Gallery Avsenik, Slovenia, 1994. Group shows included Loseby Gallery, Leicester, 1985; Goldmark Gallery, Uppingham, 1989; Open Print Exhibition, Mall Galleries, from 1994; and The Table Studio Group, The Living Room, 1996. Later solo shows included John Russell Gallery, Ipswich, and Surrey University, both 1995; in 2000 one of sculpture, on which she latterly concentrated, at Lyveden New Bield, a National Trust property near Oundle where she had a residency; in 2002 at The Water Tower, Brigstock, where Stoddart had her studio and where exhibitions of other artists’ works were also held as Fermynwoods Contemporary Art; Reflected, The Gallery, Stratford-upon-Avon, 2003; sculpture and prints at Stamford Arts Centre, 2004; with another at Derby Museum and Art Gallery, 2005. Stoddart was an imaginative abstract sculptor in a variety of materials who latterly experimented with Perspex and light effects. With the dancer/choreographer Isabel Jones, director of Salamanda Tandem, and the technician Andy Eathorne she also researched the meeting point between sculpture, dance and light. Bedford County Council holds her work. Lived in Brigstock, Kettering, Northamptonshire. Rosalind STODDART 1960–

Sculptor who attended the University of Architecture and Academy of Sculpture, Rome, and in 1972–3 St Martin’s School of Art for advanced sculpture. In 1984 he had solo shows at Arnolfini in Bristol and at Françoise

William STOK 1946–

Lambert in Milan; in 1987 one at Albert Baronian, Knokke in Belgium; and in 1988 another at Apollodoro, Rome. In 1989 Stok was included in East End Open Studios, with both the Barbican Arts Group and Leyton Artists.

Jim STOKER 1939– Artist

who was born in the pit village of Easington Lane, County Durham. He was a miner for eight years at New Herrington Colliery, studying part-time for a second-class colliery manager’s certificate, gained in 1963, the year Lord Robens’ cuts closed many pits in the northeast. After working as a training instructor at Bentley Colliery, near Doncaster, Stoker moved back to the northeast and worked as a labourer and lorry driver before studying at Durham Technical College, 1972–3, and Sunderland Art College, 1974–7. In 1979, when George Melly was a guest buyer for the Arts Council, Stoker, who had yet to exhibit, contacted him. As a result Melly bought Stoker’s 1977 pen and ink on paper Drawing from Memory. For Melly, Stoker’s “inscapes, drawn with hallucinatory skill are scarcely reassuring, but they are extraordinarily powerful.”

Adrian STOKES 1902–1972 Painter, influential critic and writer and poet, born in London. Between 1920–3 Stokes studied history, philosophy, politics and economics at Oxford University. After a year travelling in India and the Far East he began to study art and to write on it, including the books Stones of Rimini, 1934, and Colour and Form, 1937. Began to paint and studied at Euston Road School in late 1930s. In 1938 he married the artist Margaret Mellis and shortly before World War II bought a house at Carbis Bay, Cornwall, and began a market garden. His marriage broke up in 1946, then Stokes returned to London and married Margaret Mellis’s sister Ann, the potter who had a retrospective at The Rebecca Hossack Gallery, 1998, and another for her seventieth birthday at Charlotte Street Gallery, 2001. In the postwar period Stokes consolidated his position as a painter, having a one-man show at Leger Galleries in 1951. Tate Gallery in 1973 showed his work after he died and in 1982 there was a retrospective at Serpentine Gallery, and touring. Stokes was a trustee of the

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Tate, 1960–7. His later books include Cézanne, 1947, Reflections on the Nude, 1967, and shortly after that he began to write extensive poetry. Arts Council and Tate Gallery hold still lifes and landscape by Stokes. In 2002, there was a Stokes show at Arnolfini, Bristol, coinciding with a centenary conference at the city’s University.

Painter, notably of animal subjects, printmaker and illustrator. Born in London, he was educated privately. Exhibited RA, RBA especially, RI, Fine Art Society and RMS. He drew for children’s books, country magazines and illustrated books on dogs. Work held by Carlisle Art Gallery and Museum. Lived near Deal, Kent. George Vernon STOKES 1873–1954

authorities hold examples. Stokoe’s work in several mediums included hard-edge colour-field paintings and prints, Op-Art, wall-based constructions and later more Fauvist-style works. His prints were published by Editions Alecto, Annely Juda and the Collectors’ Guild in America.

Neil STOKOE 1935– Painter and teacher who studied at Sunderland College of Art, 1953–7, design diploma, painting honours; and Royal College of Art, 1959–62, painting, gold medal for art history; and 1963 there on a continuation scholarship. He taught part-time at Wimbledon School of Art, 1963–94, and Portsmouth Polytechnic’s fine art department, 1972–89, also being a visiting artist at various colleges. Stokoe consistently declined to approach galleries for shows, preferring to be an invited artist. Exhibitions included John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, 1963 and 1967; Basel & Düsseldorf Fairs, with Nicholas Treadwell Galleries, 1975–6; Apex Gallery, Portsmouth, 1976; invited, LG, Royal College, 1988; and invited, RA, 1994. Stokoe’s solo exhibitions included Out of a Clear Blue Sky, Pilgrim Gallery, 2002, featuring meticulously structured work with a skilful use of light. Arts Council holds Stokoe’s work.

Artist, born in London, who studied at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, in Dundee, and Chelsea College of Art. Was artistin-residence at Hospitalfield House, Arbroath, 1993, from 1995 teaching part-time at Duncan of Jordanstone and being a workshop leader in Dundee. Group shows included New Generation, Compass Gallery, Glasgow, 1994; Five East Coast Artists, Eastern General Hospital in Edinburgh, 1995; and in 1996 Drawing the Figure at Mall Galleries and Royal Over-Seas League Open. Solo shows included Mercat Theatre, 1994, and Bunny STONE: see Cedric Arthur Cuthbert STONE Ubiquitous Chip Restaurant, 1995, both in Cedric Arthur Cuthbert STONE 1916–1990 Painter and Glasgow. flyer, born in Amritsar, India. He always carried Michael STOKOE 1933– Painter, draughtsman, his childhood nickname Bunny, so-called because printmaker and teacher, born and lived in London. at birth he was covered with fluffy black hair. Stone He was a student at St Martin’s School of Art, was educated at Broadstairs and Charterhouse, 1953–7. He worked for the advertising agency spent a year at the College of Aero-Engineering in Charles Hobson and Associates, then in the Chelsea and then went up to Cambridge where he marketing department of Iliffe Press. Was a learned to fly with the University Air Squadron, member of the Printmakers’ Council and showed joining the Royal Air Force on a short-service at RA, ROI, Young Contemporaries, Arnolfini commission in 1937. As a Hurricane pilot in 3 Gallery in Bristol and in 1967 John Moores Squadron Stone destroyed three enemy aircraft Liverpool Exhibition. Solo shows included Bear before the Dunkirk evacuation, gaining the Lane Gallery in Oxford, Drian Galleries and Zella Distinguished Flying Cross. During the Battle of Gallery, 1998. Stokoe taught at Ravensbourne Britain Stone fought with 249 and 254 Squadrons, College of Design, 1966–96. Victoria & Albert in late 1940 moving to 607; he was given command Museum, public galleries in Hull, Leeds and of 17 Squadron, which fought courageous actions Liverpool and a large number of educational in Burma, about to be overrun by the Japanese Mel STOKES 1964–

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(Stone’s logbook sketches are in the Air Force Museum at Hendon); commanded Squadron 135; and was with 222 Group in Ceylon in 1944. After hostilities Wing Commander Stone took a studio in St Ives, Cornwall, where he studied under Leonard Fuller, John Park, Leonard Richmond and others, for a time sharing a studio with painter Terry Frost. With his first wife he then flew in a small Auster aircraft to Cape Town, building a studio at Hermanus, overlooking the Bay of Aughullas, where he worked for 14 years when not travelling throughout Africa and the Rhodesias. His many portraits included Sir Roy Welensky, prime minister of the Federation of the Rhodesias. In 1960 Stone returned to St Ives, where he continued to paint, notably commissioned portraits, landscapes and seascapes. His solo exhibitions included Downing’s Bookshop, St Ives, 1947, and The Rose & Crown, Fletching, 1963. Painter and draughtsman, born in Trinidad, British West Indies. He attended Ontario College of Art under John Alfsen, 1941–4; Art Students’ League of New York, under Kenneth Hayes Miller, 1944–5; and in the early 1950s the Royal College of Art under Ruskin Spear, Carel Weight and Rodney Burn, becoming an associate and winning a Travelling Scholarship and the College Drawing Prize, 1952. As well as showing in America and Canada Stone exhibited at RA, RBA, Leicester Galleries, Tib Lane Gallery in Manchester and Ash Barn, Petersfield. Lived for many years in London.

John Christopher STONE 1923–

Kirsten Tvilum STONE fl. from mid-1970s– Printmaker,

painter and designer, educated in Denmark, where she did a four-year course in Copenhagen at Tegneog-Kunstindustriskolen. Worked as a graphic designer before moving to England in 1965 to study

antique porcelain restoration. Became interested in etching in mid-1970s and attended Morley College. From 1981 was a member of Greenwich Printmakers. Showed at RA Summer Exhibition; took part in a four-man show at Woodlands Art Gallery in 1988; and had several solo shows in Denmark. The Jutland peninsula was a favourite landscape subject.

Brighton College of Art, 1939–41 and 1946–9, for his design diploma (painting), teaching diploma 1949, studies interrupted by Royal Navy service, 1941–6. He held full-time teaching appointments, 1949–82, from 1967–82 lecturing in the history of art and design at University of Sheffield, taking early retirement. Stone rejected earlier abstraction for representation, seeking “empathy without explanation.” He lived along the Sussex and Cornish coasts, from 1997 near Portscatho, exhibiting with the Art Society there. Mixed shows included the RA Summer Exhibition, RWA, RWS, RSMA, Barnes and Hyde Park Galleries, in Penzance with the Arts Club and New Contemporary Gallery, at Mid-Cornwall Gallery, Par, and abroad. Stone had a solo exhibition with The University Fine Art Society, Sheffield. He illustrated several books.

Designer, engraver, letter- cutter and watercolourist. After education at Eton College and Cambridge, Stone studied printing at Cambridge University Press. He worked for a printing house, then became a freelance designer and engraver. Studied lettering and engraving with Eric Gill, 1931. Worked mainly for printers and publishers, but also engraved glass and designed and executed memorial tablets. Carried out the lettering for the Winston Churchill memorial for Westminster Abbey, 1965; official heraldry for HM Stationery Office; designed Bank of England notes; also stamp designs and headings for The Times newspaper. Illustrated many books. Exhibitions of watercolours New Grafton Gallery and wood engravings William Weston Gallery, 1975. The Victoria & Albert Museum, which gave him a show in 1982, and the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford hold Stone’s work. Stone lived with his wife Janet at Litton Cheney, Dorset. She was a photographer, who died in 1998, who depicted their many friends, including Henry Moore, L P Hartley, John Piper, and David Jones. Her book Thinking Faces was published in 1988 and a collection of her prints is held by the National Portrait Gallery archive.

Reynolds STONE 1909–1979

Painter, lecturer and administrator, born in India, who studied at Brian STONEHOUSE 1918–1998 Illustrator and Michael STONE 1922–

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portrait painter, born in Torquay, Devon, full name Brian Julian Warry-Stonehouse, signing some work Brian. Stonehouse, was brought up at Wimereux, near Boulogne, in northern France, being educated at the local Lycée and bilingual, although when he was 12 the family settled in Stowmarket in Suffolk. From Ipswich Art School Stonehouse gained a job at Vogue magazine, mainly drawing ladies’ underwear. When World War II broke out he joined the Army, was commissioned and was chosen by the Special Operations Executive to be dropped into France in June 1942. During a radio transmission he was captured by the Vichy French, enduring unremitting brutality and degradation at their hands and those of the Gestapo and the SS, being liberated from Dachau concentration camp in April 1945. After appearing as a witness at war crimes trials, Stonehouse was demobilised mid1946, returned to Vogue, and from then until 1979, when he returned to England, drew for it, Harper’s Bazaar, Elizabeth Arden and others. In London and Suffolk Stonehouse concentrated on portraits, still lifes and landscapes. His portraits of H M Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother are in The Special Forces Club, of which he was a member, and the King Edward VII Hospital for Officers. He died in London.

education at Blundell’s School, Stoneman rejected studying law for painting at Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1967–70. A period at Stanley Hayter’s Atelier 17 in Paris taught Stoneman fine etching and the possibilities of print as a primary artists’ medium and from then on his life course was set. Dia Al-Azzawi, Eileen Cooper, Arturo Di Stefano, Patrick Heron, Andrzej Jackowski, Christopher Le Brun, Terry Frost, Ian McKeever, Adam Lowe, Raymond Moore, Breon O’Casey and Bill Woodrow were among the many artists whose work was handled by Stoneman. He collaborated with photographers including Eve Arnold and Linda McCartney on photogravure, undertook commissions for the dealers Alan Cristea and Flowers Graphics and Paragon Press and editioned many prints for Tate St Ives. Stoneman was also a trustee of the Borlase Smart Trust, which managed historic studios in Cornwall, ensuring they remained available for serious artists.

Tim STONER 1970– Figurative artist whose pictures

included “images of lifestyle, desire and materialism, the expectations of modern living.” His 1998 oil on linen SYZYGY was included in East International at Norwich School of Art & Design in 1999. Stoner was born in Essex and studied at Norwich, Royal College of Art and Rijksakademie, J Gareth STONE-JONES 1925– Painter, teacher and Amsterdam. He also showed at The Approach and writer on art, born in Pont Yates, Carmarthenshire. won the Beck’s Futures Award at the ICA, 2001. After Trinity College, Carmarthen he attended Lived in London. University College in Swansea and then for a dozen years taught English, art and economics, returning Alan STONES 1947– Painter and printmaker, born to Trinity College to specialise in art teaching. in Manchester. Trained, 1967–71, at St Martin’s Reviewed for the Anglo-Welsh Review and took School of Art and settled in Cumbria from 1982, part in the Royal National Eisteddfod/WAC 1973 living at Blencarn, near Penrith. His oil paintings show Portraits of Welsh People, the same sponsors’ and lithographic prints reflected a concern with 1974 exhibition An Iconograph of the Mabinogion people, labouring on farms, in an urban context or through close study of family or friends. He as well as other Welsh group shows. produced a series of farming lithographs as the Hugh STONEMAN 1947–2005 Versatile and result of a bursary from the Gulbenkian innovative printmaker, born in Islington, north Foundation. His oil on linen, Portsmouth, was London, where from 1972 he set up Islington commissioned for the city’s Central Library. Studio as a specialist printmaking business. He National Science Museum, IBM UK Ltd, Lord returned there in 1988 after running the Print Centre Devonport and Dista Products also commissioned in Covent Garden, moving to Cornwall in 1995 Stones. Gulbenkian Foundation provided a bursary where he established Stoneman Graphics. After to fund a series of lithographs. 208


Andrew STONES 1960– Artist, teacher, curator and writer on media such as performance and video art, born and based in Sheffield, Yorkshire, who in 1983 gained a first-class honours degree in fine art at the City Polytechnic there. From 1984, Stones was a visiting and part-time lecturer on undergraduate and postgraduate courses; from 1986 held residencies and research fellowships in Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield; and from 1989 gained frequent commissions for installations, site-specific and public artworks. He was a board member of Site Gallery in Sheffield. Stones’s work aimed “to produce work which has a strong sensual impact”, often on a large scale, and was related to “the history and cultural effects of science and technology, and cultural politics, especially in the context of post-colonial Britain.” His mixed shows included Video Positive, Tate Gallery Liverpool, 1993, and As it Is, Ikon Gallery, Birmingham (one of several collaborations with Frances Hegarty). Among his later solo exhibition venues was BAC in 1999. Stones’s neon Normal Numbers 1998 was permanently sited on the exterior of the Pump House People’s History Museum, in Manchester. Angela STONES 1914–1995 Artist in oil, watercolour

and gouache, and teacher, born and lived in London. Her teachers included Harold Workman, Jack Merriott and Patrick Larking. She studied at Birmingham School of Art, Heatherley’s School of Fine Art and Sir John Cass College. After World War II she was an Inner London Education Authority teacher of adults for 14 years. Was at various times a member of SWA, NS, Chelsea Art Society and Exmouth Art Group. Showed with ROI, PS and elsewhere and had a solo show at Gallery 19.

Prolific sculptor, painter, illustrator, designer and lecturer, born in Glossop, Derbyshire, who attended Manchester Regional College of Art, 1951–2. In 1952 he emigrated with his parents to New Zealand, working at sculpture and drawing between jobs, then attended Auckland Teachers’ College, 1959–61. From 1963 Tony Stones was employed by Television New Zealand, Anthony STONES 1934–

initially as a set designer, latterly as head of design, 1978–83, while continuing to sculpt. In 1983 Stones returned to England, as a full-time sculptorpainter living in Oxford for many years, although latterly he was based in Lechlade on Thames, Gloucestershire. He was president of the SPS, a fellow of the RBS, a member of the Sculptors’ Society of Ireland and of the common room, Wolfson College, Oxford. Stones won a Henry Moore Foundation Research Grant, 1989, a Winston Churchill Travelling Fellowship in Sculpture, 1992, and in 1996 a Derby Civic Society Special Award for his equestrian statue of Bonnie Prince Charlie. It was one of dozens of commemorative bronze statues, reliefs, equestrian bronze statues, portrait bronzes and trophies completed by Stones. These included Lord Freyberg, VC, Freyberg Place, Auckland, 1978; Jean Batten, Auckland International Airport, 1989; Captain Cook, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, 1993, and Cook’s Landing Place, Gisborne, 1994; Rodin, private collection, Chicago, America, 1998; and Arthur Brooke, founder of Brooke Bond Tea, Trafford Centre, Manchester, 1999. Among his many portrait bronzes were Liam O’Flaherty, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin; John Piper, Reading Civic Centre; John Wain and Philip Larkin, both for St John’s College, Oxford; Ben Kingsley, The Theatre Museum, Stratfordupon-Avon; and Orpheus & Eurydice and King & Queen for Royal Norwegian Cruise Lines. His seven statues of Pacific explorers were exhibited at Expo ’92 in Seville, Spain, in 1992. In 1994 there was a Stones retrospective at Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, New Zealand. Several of Stones’s sculptures are on permanent show at the National Museum in Wellington. Century Galleries, Henley-on-Thames, showed his rowing and river paintings. Frederick Henry STONHAM 1924– Painter, printmaker, woodcarver and teacher, born in Reading, Berkshire. Attended Oxford School of Art, 1948–52, under Hubert Hennes, then Bournemouth College of Art, 1952–3, with Hermon Cawthra. Showed at RA, RP, NEAC and

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on the continent. For some years taught art in prisons, including Parkhurst on the Isle of Wight. Lived at Binstead, on the island.

Andrew STONYER 1944– Sculptor and teacher who

studied at Northampton School of Art, 1961–3, sculpture at Loughborough College of Art and Design, 1963–7, architecture at the Architectural Association’s School of Architecture, then went to Ankara, Turkey for two years. From 1975–8 did doctoral research into The Development of Kinetic Sculpture by the Utilisation of Solar Energy. He gained many awards including travelling scholarships to Germany and Canada and in 1982– 9 lectured and undertook research at Concordia University, Montreal, also carrying out sculpture commissions. Stonyer returned to England to teach at Falmouth School of Art and Design as head of fine art in 1989, then from 1993 was reader in fine art and design at Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education. Showed widely, solo shows including Architectural Association Gallery, 1971, and Leicester Polytechnic, 1978. Exhibited as an associate member of Newlyn Society of Artists at Newlyn Orion from 1991 and was included in Falmouth Connections at Falmouth Art Gallery, 1994, also Fall Show, Plus One Plus Two Galleries, 2002.

Artist, teacher and administrator, born in London, who studied at Chelsea and Wimbledon Schools of Art and Royal College of Art school of painting. Served in the Army in World War II. After periods on the staff of Guildford and Bradford Colleges of Art, Stoppani was seven years vice-principal and then 12 years principal of West Surrey College of Art and Design, Farnham, near which he lived. He was elected a member of SWE in 1951 and from 1968 was an honorary member of Farnham Art Society, being its vice-chairman, 1985–8. He was involved in the running of Farnham Maltings arts centre and was chairman of the trustees of the New Ashgate Gallery from 1976. Stoppani was involved in numerous bodies to do with art education in Britain and abroad. In 1984 the annual Stoppani Lecture was founded by the southern region of the National Len STOPPANI 1919–1989

Society for Art and Design Education. In the same year he was made director, honoris causa, École des Beaux-Arts, by the city of Aix-en-Provence, France. Showed at Leicester, Wilton and Piccadilly Galleries, at Victoria & Albert Museum, Bradford City Art Gallery and abroad, as well as in Arts Council touring shows and locally. Victoria & Albert, Skopje Museum of Modern Art, Swedish Lloyd Shipping Line and many private collectors hold examples. Had cancer for a year before he died.

John STOPS 1925–2002 Painter, relief printer and teacher, born in Radlett, Hertfordshire, who attended Northampton School of Art, 1947–51, and Leeds College of Art, 1951–2, teachers including Alicia Boyle, Henry Bird and Lionel Brookes. Teaching appointments included Bristol Polytechnic. Was elected fu