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Pets And Petting Zoos Used Items For Sale The Problem - Foodborne Illness 10 Tips To Healthy Eating


2 ALBERTA POVERTY NEWSMAGAZINE


Contents Pets And Petting Zoos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Healthy Eating Tip: Add Calcium For Strong Bones. . . . . . . 7 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Used Items For Sale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 The Problem - Foodbourne Illness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Almost Half The World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10 Tips To Healthy Eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Donate Food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Extreme Poverty And Hunger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 What To Do About Food Allergies In Schools . . . . . . . . . . 19 Keep Food Cool In The Summer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Have you ever thought about where your clothes come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Structural Causes of Homelessness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 The Status of Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Child Poverty in Canada an overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Thinking About Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Pleasure of Food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Healthy Eating Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Food Tampering Consumer Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

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Pets and Petting Zoos Tips for preventing infections Can my pets make me sick? Pets are like family members in many Canadian households, but like all animals, they can carry dangerous organisms. You can come into contact with harmful bacteria, viruses or parasites when you play with and clean up after your pets, handle pet food, and when you visit a petting zoo. Diseases called “zoonoses” can be passed from animals to

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humans or from humans to animals. Some zoonoses are very dangerous to humans including: •

infection with E. coli O157:H7

salmonellosis

toxoplasmosis

tuberculosis

rabies

Animals can transmit harmful organisms in several ways:

feces and fecal dust

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If you get these harmful organisms on your hands, you could spread them to your face, mouth, eyes or your food. If you have touched an animal, their toys, their food and treats or cleaned up after them, wash your hands right away before touching anything else!

1. Keep your pet healthy

How are zoonoses transmitted from animals to humans?

scratches, bites and saliva

coughs, sneezes or mucus

Four ways to protect yourself and your family

These diseases can be especially dangerous for young children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems. If left untreated, they can even be deadly.

Take your pet to the veterinarian regularly and have it checked for diseases.

Keep your pet clean and its claws trimmed (if applicable).

Beware of what your pet eats: garbage, raw meat and water from the toilet bowl can be dangerous.

Keep away from wild animals: you and your pet can catch diseases from wild animals and their feces. (Don’t forget that squirrels and other rodents can be dangerous too.)

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2. Watch out for animal waste •

wash your hands well with soap and warm water for 20 seconds. Do this before touching your face and before handling food.

Use waterproof, disposable gloves and wear a mask when cleaning cages, litter boxes, animal pens and fish tanks.

Clean cages, boxes and pens daily. Put feces in a plastic bag then in the garbage.

4. Take care at petting zoos

Never use pet feces for fertilizer or compost: it can carry dangerous organisms!

Cover your child’s sandbox since cats like to use sandboxes as litter boxes.

Did you know?

Did you know? •

Pregnant women should not be exposed to cat litter boxes since these might be contaminated with parasites harmful to the fetus.

Cover your child’s sandbox since cats like to use sandboxes as litter boxes.

Keep pets away from food preparation, storage and dining areas.

Handwashing is your best defence! After you touch, always wash your hands!

Reptiles (like turtles, lizards and snakes) and amphibians (like newts, frogs and toads) can shed Salmonella bacteria on their skin or in the water.

3. Keep clean •

After touching your pet and its toys, treats or food,

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HEALTHY EATING TIP: Add calcium for strong bones Calcium is one of the key nutrients that your body needs in order to stay strong and healthy. It is an essential building block for lifelong bone health in both men and women, among many other important functions. You and your bones will benefit from eating plenty of calcium-rich foods, limiting foods that deplete your body’s calcium stores, and getting your daily dose of magnesium and vitamins D and K—nutrients that help calcium do its job. Recommended calcium levels are 1000 mg per day, 1200 mg if you are over 50 years old. Take a vitamin D and calcium supplement if you don’t get enough of these nutrients from your diet.

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Good sources of calcium include: • Dairy: Dairy products are rich in calcium in a form that is easily digested and absorbed by the body. Sources include milk, yogurt, and cheese. • Vegetables and greens: Many vegetables, especially leafy green ones, are rich sources of calcium. Try turnip greens, mustard greens, collard greens, kale, romaine lettuce, celery, broccoli, fennel, cabbage, summer squash, green beans, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, and crimini mushrooms. • Beans: For another rich source of calcium, try black beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, white beans, black-eyed peas, or baked beans.

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Clothing Clothing refers to any covering for the human body. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on functional considerations (such as a need for warmth or protection from the elements) and social considerations. In some situations the minimum amount of clothing (i.e. covering of a person’s genitals) may be socially acceptable, while in others much more clothing is expected. Functionality is the primary purpose of clothing. It can serve as protection from the elements. Clothes also enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Further, clothes provide a hygienic barrier, keeping toxins away from the body and limiting the transmission of germs. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and sexual differentiation, and social status. A uniform, for example, may identify civil authority figures, such as police and

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military personnel, or it may identify team, group or political affiliations. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can and has in history been made from a very wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs, to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered accessories rather than clothing, as are footwear and hats. However, if functional due to local and weather condition and benefits your well being, footwear can be considered clothing.

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USED ITEMS FOR SALE

Used, unwearable clothing was once used for quilts, rags, rugs, bandages, and many other household uses. It could also be recycled into paper. Today, used clothing is usually thrown out or donated to charity. It is also sold to consignment shops, dress agencies and flea markets and in online auctions. There are many concerns about the life cycle of synthetics, which come primarily from petrochemicals.

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Unlike natural fibers, their source is not renewable (in less than millions of years) and they are not biodegradable. A charity shop, thrift shop, thrift store, hospice shop (U.S., Canada), resale shop (when not meaning consignment shop [U.S.]) or op shop (Australia/N.Z.) (from “opportunity shop”) is a retail establishment run by a charitable organization to raise money.

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Charity shops are a type of social enterprise. They usually sell mainly second-hand goods donated by members of the public, and are often staffed by volunteers. Because the items for sale were obtained for free, and business costs are low, the items can be sold at very low prices. After costs are paid, all remaining income from the sales is used in accord with the organization’s stated charitable purpose. Costs include purchase and/or depreciation of fixtures (clothing racks, bookshelves, counters, etc.), operating costs (maintenance, municipal service fees, electricity, telephone, limited advertising) and the building lease or mortgage. Charity shops are often popular with people who are frugal. In the United States, shopping at a charity store has become popular enough to earn a slang term: thrifting. Environmentalists may prefer buying second-hand goods as this uses fewer natural resources and would appear do less damage to the environment than by buying new goods would, in part because the goods are usually collected locally. In addition, reusing second-hand items is a form of recycling, and thus reduces the amount of waste going to landfill sites.

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People who oppose sweat shops often purchase second-hand clothing as an alternative to supporting clothing companies with dubious ethical practices. Second-hand goods are considered to be quite safe. The South Australian Public Health Directorate says that the health risk of buying used clothing is very low. It explains that washing purchased items in hot water is just one of several ways to eliminate the risk of contracting infectious diseases. Some charity shops, such as the British Heart Foundation, also sell a range of new goods which may be branded to the charity, or have some connection with the cause the charity supports. Oxfam stores, for example, sell fair trade food and crafts. Other stores may sell new Halloween supplies and decorations where old vintage clothes are popular for use as costumes. Some stores specialise in selling books, music, or bridalwear. Charity shops may receive overstock or obsolete goods from local for-profit businesses; the for-profit businesses benefit by taking a tax write-off and clearing unwanted goods from their store instead of throwing the goods out, which is costly.

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The Problem Foodborne Illness Foodborne illness, often called “food poisoning”, occurs when a person gets sick from eating food that has been contaminated with bacteria, parasites or viruses, also known as ‘microbes’ and ‘pathogens’. Foodborne illness is the largest class of emerging infectious diseases. This is due to changing population demographics, changing patterns of food production and consumption and new, re-emerging or drug resistant disease agents. According to recent Canadian population studies, Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada estimate that 11-13 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year.

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Foodborne illness costs Canadian health services, industry and society as a whole an estimated $12 - 15 billion dollars annually. It is estimated that between 1 in 10 and 1 in 50 cases of common foodborne bacteria related illness are reported in our monitoring systems. Contamination may occur as food travels through long industrial chains; production and harvest, initial processing and packing, distribution, and final processing. However, it is estimated that most cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by the consumer.

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Almost half the world 1. Almost half the world — over three billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day. At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day. 2. More than 80 percent of the world’s population lives in countries where income differentials are widening. Source 2 3. The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income. 4. According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty. And they “die quietly in some of

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the poorest villages on earth, far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world. Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death.” 5. Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. The two regions that account for the bulk of the deficit are South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

9. Infectious diseases continue to blight the lives of the poor across the world. An estimated 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, with 3 million deaths in 2004. Every year there are 350–500 million cases of malaria, with 1 million fatalities: Africa accounts for 90 percent of malarial deaths and African children account for over 80 percent of malaria victims worldwide.

If current trends continue, the Millennium Development Goals target of halving the proportion of underweight children will be missed by 30 million children, largely because of slow progress in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 6. Based on enrollment data, about 72 million children of primary school age in the developing world were not in school in 2005; 57 per cent of them were girls. And these are regarded as optimistic numbers. 7. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names. 8. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet it didn’t happen.

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10 Tips To Healthy Eating 1 Eat a variety of nutrient-rich foods. You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health, and no single food supplies them all. Your daily food selection should include bread and other whole-grain products; fruits; vegetables; dairy products; and meat, poultry, fish and other protein foods. How much you should eat depends

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on your calorie needs. Use the Food Guide Pyramid and the Nutrition Facts panel on food labels as handy references. 2 Enjoy plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Surveys show most Americans don’t eat enough of these

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foods. Do you eat 6-11 servings from the bread, rice, cereal and pasta group, 3 of which should be whole grains? Do you eat 2-4 servings of fruit and 3-5 servings of vegetables? If you don’t enjoy some of these at first, give them another chance. Look through cookbooks for tasty ways to prepare unfamiliar foods.

5 Eat regular meals. Skipping meals can lead to outof-control hunger, often resulting in overeating. When you’re very hungry, it’s also tempting to forget about good nutrition. Snacking between meals can help curb hunger, but don’t eat so much that your snack becomes an entire meal.

3 Maintain a healthy weight. The weight that’s right for you depends on many factors including your sex, height, age and heredity. Excess body fat increases your chances for high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer and other illnesses. But being too thin can increase your risk for osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities and other health problems. If you’re constantly losing and regaining weight, a registered dietitian can help you develop sensible eating habits for successful weight management. Regular exercise is also important to maintaining a healthy weight.

6 Reduce, don’t eliminate certain foods. Most people eat for pleasure as well as nutrition. If your favorite foods are high in fat, salt or sugar, the key is moderating how much of these foods you eat and how often you eat them. Identify major sources of these ingredients in your diet and make changes, if necessary. Adults who eat high-fat meats or whole-milk dairy products at every meal are probably eating too much fat. Use the Nutrition Facts panel on the food label to help balance your choices. Choosing skim or low-fat dairy products and lean cuts of meat such as flank steak and beef round can reduce fat intake significantly. If you love fried chicken, however, you don’t have to give it up. Just eat it less often. When dining out, share it with a friend, ask for a take-home bag or a smaller portion.

4 Eat moderate portions. If you keep portion sizes reasonable, it’s easier to eat the foods you want and stay healthy. Did you know the recommended serving of cooked meat is 3 ounces, similar in size to a deck of playing cards? A medium piece of fruit is 1 serving and a cup of pasta equals 2 servings. A pint of ice cream contains 4 servings. Refer to the Food Guide Pyramid for information on recommended serving sizes.

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7 Balance your food choices over time. Not every food has to be “perfect.” When eating a food high in fat, salt or sugar, select other foods that are low in these ingredients.

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If you miss out on any food group one day, make up for it the next. Your food choices over several days should fit together into a healthy pattern.

or ice cream. Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and variety that are vital to good health.

8 Know your diet pitfalls. To improve your eating habits, you first have to know what’s wrong with them. Write down everything you eat for three days. Then check your list according to the rest of these tips. Do you add a lot of butter, creamy sauces or salad dressings? Rather than eliminating these foods, just cut back your portions. Are you getting enough fruits and vegetables? If not, you may be missing out on vital nutrients. 9 Make changes gradually. Just as there are no “superfoods” or easy answers to a healthy diet, don’t expect to totally revamp your eating habits overnight. Changing too much, too fast can get in the way of success. Begin to remedy excesses or deficiencies with modest changes that can add up to positive, lifelong eating habits. For instance, if you don’t like the taste of skim milk, try low-fat. Eventually you may find you like skim, too. 10 Remember, foods are not good or bad. Select foods based on your total eating patterns, not whether any individual food is “good” or “bad.” Don’t feel guilty if you love foods such as apple pie, potato chips, candy bars

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Donate Food

Most Food Banks have specific items that they are in need of on a regular basis. These items can be perishable or non-perishable product as well as non-food items.

• Granola Bars / Cookies / Crackers

Please contact your local food bank for their specific Most Needed Items list.

• Juice Boxes or other items for school lunches

An Example of a Non-Perishable Food List: • Beans with or without Pork

An Example of a Perishable Food List: • Bread • Pastry

• Macaroni and Cheese

• Fruit or Vegetables

• Pasta and Sauce

An Example of a Non-Food List:

• Canned Fish or Meat

• Baby Diapers

• Peanut Butter

• Feminine Hygiene Product

• Powdered Milk

• Toiletries

• Soup

• Dish Soap

• Canned Fruit or Vegetables

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• Baby Food or Baby Formula

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EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER

Inability to afford some basic needs like healthcare, nutrition and clothing is poverty or destitution. It may be state of an individual, society or the whole nation where it has few resources and income as compared to other nations’ averages.

Lack of industrialization has rendered most people jobless, they have no source of income, they cannot afford basic human needs. This reduces the living standards of people and little Gross Domestic Product realized by the country since very less money is collect in terms of revenue. Increased costs of living through increase in taxes by the government which raises the price of basic commodities like food and clothing makes it unaffordable for most of the citizens. Centralization, many resources, facilities, industries and headquarters being located in the capital city leads to rural-urban migration. Old people who provide less work force are left in the village as juveniles migrate for better jobs, unfortunately they get none while those lucky only work on minimum wages hence increase in number of slums in urban areas while lack of any economic activity as the elderly can only produce less.

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Laying off of workers through a forced retirement scheme, retrenchment, so as to have a manageable number of employees by the government has greatly increased poverty. Privatization of many institutions to foreign investors who take back most of their profits to their native lands hence the government also getting taxes from the firms while the citizens get low paying jobs since foreigners don’t understand the problems of the locals so they don’t consider other factors in their wages. Poor education system also leads to poverty since the students aren’t trained well to exercise their full potential. The major factor causing poverty in Kenya is corruption, mismanaging state funds by political leaders leading to collapse of state firms, showing no respect to state resources and giving employment opportunities to unqualified personnel after receiving bribes or due to tribalism. Citizens may be blamed of not working hard or smart to raise their living standards but their efforts aren’t appreciated by the government as it literally steals fro them hence denying them the opportunity of eradicating poverty.

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WHAT TO DO ABOUT FOOD ALLERGIES IN SCHOOLS Allergies on the rise Statistics Canada said in its 2005/2006 Census at School that about one third of elementary school students across Canada reported having allergies of one sort or another. Food allergies of all kinds are the concern for students. Health Canada identifies nine priority food allergies: Peanuts, eggs, milk, tree nuts, wheat, soy, sesame seed, seafood, and sulphites. There is no cure for food allergies, which are essentially the body’s overreaction to certain substances, so avoidance is necessary to prevent a reaction. But

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reactions can often be mitigated by the quick injection of adrenaline. How allergens spread in schools Allergens can spread quickly in schools through the sharing of utensils, toys and equipment, through residue from food that can be transferred around the room as well as directly from person to person. Anaphylaxis Canada says it’s impossible to tell if a child with an allergy will have a mild or potentially deadly allergy attack. The problem for those with high-risk allergies is the ease

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with which allergens are passed in classrooms, especially when it comes to food. It can be as simple as sharing a crayon with a child who recently came into contact with peanut oil in a packaged food. And it’s not only peanut allergies. Those allergic to wheat could have reactions to some common classroom craft projects. Protection across the country Across Canada, provinces have been adopting rules to try to prevent allergy attacks from happening in schools. British Columbia enacted the Anaphylactic Student Protection Act last spring, which makes it mandatory for all school boards to have emergency plans in place in case a student goes into shock. Prince Edward Island has released statements from its ministry of education that clearly outlines the responsibility of school boards, principals, parents and students. Under this plan, the school board must make it easy to identify students with allergies; parents must provide

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correct documents to the school; and the education ministry provides additional EpiPens (adrenaline injectors) to schools depending on the number of students who register with allergies. Both New Brunswick and Alberta have programs set up to train teachers how to recognize and treat anaphylactic shock. In New Brunswick, all school staff, including bus drivers and custodians take the annual training. Both Anaphylaxis Canada and the York Region School Board think preventing allergic reactions is a shared responsibility. That includes educating children in schools about allergy attacks, and communicating with parents to prevent certain foods from being packed in lunches. They say teachers at schools should be prepared to double-check at least some lunches and promote good clean-up measures. Anaphylaxis Canada has no official stance on the suggestion of marking lunch bags with ingredients. It feels mistakes can happen anyway and that there are reasonable expectations of the level of security that can be maintained.

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Keep Food Cool in the Summer • As temperatures rise, so does the incidence of food borne illness. On warm summer days the temperature of foods quickly reaches the danger zone (between 4 ° C and 60 ° C) where illness causing bacteria multiply rapidly. So at the grocery store, pick up refrigerated and deli food last. • If the drive home will take longer than 30 minutes, pack these foods in an iced cooler. • When you get home from grocery shopping, place meat, poultry and fish on a tray to prevent their juices dripping onto other foods. Store these perishable foods in the coldest part of the refrigerator and use within the following times or freeze for later use. Ground meat and poultry should be used within 24 hours. Use other cuts of poultry within 2 days and other cuts of meat within 3 to 4 days. Use fresh fish within 2 days. • Regularly check the temperature of your refrigerator

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and freezer. They may need to be put on colder settings during the summertime in order to store foods at temperatures below the danger zone . The refrigerator should register below 40 ° F/4 ° C and the freezer temperature should be 0 ° F/-18 ° C or lower. • Store leftovers in the refrigerator or iced cooler within 1 hour of cooking. To help large amounts of food, like a big batch of chili, cool more quickly, divide into smaller batches and put into shallow containers. • When transporting raw, home cooked, or take-out food to a picnic or camp site, chill ahead of time. Then transfer the chilled food directly from the refrigerator into an iced cooler with sufficient ice, dry ice or freezer gel packs to keep food at a safe temperature, below 40 ° F/4 ° C. • Use a separate cooler for drinks so the food-cooler won’t be constantly opened.

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1224 - Main Street Big Town, PROV G1G 1G1 Phone: 999-156-5656 Fax: 999-158-5858

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UN Claims 76 Million on African Continent are Without a House Slums, which lack adequate shelter often grow up in and around large urban centers in developing countries as rural populations migrate to the cities in search of employment. Slum dwellers lack the solutions for alleviating houselessness and proper measures are yet to be successfully introduced to change the condition.  Countries in sub-Saharan Africa host some of the world’s highest number of urban slum households.   Slums are emerging as the dominant settlement type in

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many sub-Sahara cities including those in South Africa and Nigeria.  In the past, conventional wisdom suggested slum dwellers were less vulnerable to incidents of disease and hunger.  However, recent reports have begun to show otherwise, In addition, residents of slums are less educated and are subject to very high unemployment rates. According to Nigerian President Umaru Yar’Adua, ”African cities must be strengthened to generate

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substantial income if city managers are to meet the ever increasing demand for better infrastructure and enhanced services ” including shelter.  President Yar’Adua blamed African cities for failing to act as engines of economic development citing ”The cities should provide avenues for national prosperity, but instead of that, they only breed slums,” he said. The slums are a product of the informal nature of settlement and a lack of planning for the poor by government officials.  Additionally, informal settlements often face the brunt of natural and man-made disasters, such as landslides, as well as earthquakes and tropical storms making the burden to replace services more challenging. Painting a clear picture of the condition, UN-HABITAT Executive Director, Dr Anna Tibaijuka, said that about eight per cent of the African populations had no homes.  It is estimated that the population of Africa is 955 million people and has been growing exponentially over the past century.  This meant over 76 million people are without a home.  Based on an average family of 5, Africa is in need of 15.3 million homes. Much of the continent is also in need of fresh water supplies, adequate sanitation, durable housing, adequate living space and secure tenure ”Even if the rate of slum

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formation drops, we need to be under no illusion that the continuing fast expansion of towns and cities will make it difficult to improve living conditions” she said. Tibaijuka, however, said that her organization was prepared to work in active collaboration with African governments to develop and implement programs capable of eliminating slums on the continent There are also private sector businesses willing to weigh in to help deliver solutions.  One such company is IADDIC Shelters, a social enterprise committed to working with UN-HABITAT and government bodies to improve the living conditions of slum dwellers by offering shelters specifically designed to be low cast, durable, and improvements over currently available building materials. The challenge is to be able to provide affordable shelters quickly to stem the tide.  Otherwise the condition of affecting the urban poor will simply continue to get worse.  There is no denying these slums took a long time to form, however; the rate of expansion has continued to accelerate as the rural population has migrated to the urban centers.  Extreme measures need to be initiated with respect to infrastructure and shelter if the slum residents are to have an opportunity to live in dignity.

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1224 - Main Street Big Town, PROV G1G 1G1 Phone: 999-156-5656 Fax: 999-158-5858

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Have you ever thought about where your clothes come

from?

Take the example of a simple High Street t-shirt. The cotton might have been grown and harvested in Uzbekistan, then turned into pieces of cloth in China, dyed in Thailand, sewn into a t-shirt in Bangladesh and sold in a shop in London, New York or Sydney. Along the way, there’s a great opportunity for the t-shirt to create jobs, and enable local communities to trade their way out of poverty. But, unfortunately, this long and complex supply chain can also be full of sad stories where people suffer low wages, exploitation, and lack of health and safety conditions in order to produce cheap clothes for the developed world. Labour Behind the Label are leading this charge by asking high street brands to take responsibility for workers’ rights in the entirety of their supply chains, and provide support to workers in their battle for decent working conditions. You can check your favourite brand’s profile in Labour Behind the Label’s company profile report. If you are not satisfied, let them know that you care about people who are making your clothes. The voice of the consumers is the main driver to lead the change for the irresponsible companies of fashion industry Action Aid has revealed that in countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, wages for garment workers fall below the UN defined poverty line of $2 per day. Often they are forced to work overtime - sometimes without even a break to eat!

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The majority of the garment workers in those countries are women. Although women make up half of the world population, they represent 70% of the world’s poor. Garment factory work - with good conditions and wages - could be a route out of poverty for many of these women, but the signs are that right now, that’s often not the case. The Love Fashion, Hate Sweatshops Campaign from War on Want is asking retailers to pay a living wage to workers throughout their supply chain. Currently, all of the biggest retailers say that they are committed to paying living wage, but taking action is always slower than words. You can have your say to the retailers by joining War on Want’s campaign. Asking a few simple questions while we shop helps too. It shows that we are aware and concerned about the situation of the garment workers, and drives retailers to improve their supply chains. When you are shopping ask if they know where their products come from, who made them, how workers are treated and how much they are paid. There’s an excellent guide to help you with this produced by the Ethical Trading Initiative. If you are not satisfied with the answers you get, let them know. Join War on Want’s campaign by sending a letter to ask the giant high street brands pay a living wage, and refuse to buy unethical clothes. The voice of the consumers is the main driver to lead the change for the irresponsible companies of fashion industry. The power is in our hands!

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POVERTY “... 1.4 billion people are living in extreme poverty - more than one-quarter of the population of developing countries” “... the number of people living on less than $2.00 a day has remained nearly constant [from 1981 to 2005] at 2.5 billion.”

CHILD MORTALITY Every year 10 million children in developing countries die before the age of five. Undernourishment is responsible for 55 percent of all under five deaths. “Undernutrition contributes to the deaths of about 5.6 million children under five in the

developing world each year.”

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Structural Causes of Homelessness What causes homelessness? There is a strong consensus in the Canadian literature that the causes of homelessness are structural. Continuously high unemployment rates have particularly affected youth. The weakening of family ties, coupled with family violence, causes crisis situations for many women, forcing them to seek temporary shelter with their children. In addition, large mental institutions have been closed down, leaving many ex-mental patients on the streets to fend for themselves. Lack of stability and shelter is often devastating, and it in turn leads to further problems. Combine the above with the economic pressures of rising costs of housing and the cancellation of government-supported housing programs, and you have an intractable problem. No one needs to go hungry in Canada because we have ‘soup kitchens’ and food banks, but finding a decent place to live is quite another story. Cutting funding for housing is saving the taxpayer money and reducing the deficit. Well, they are just deferring the costs until later — there is an HIV epidemic in this area because of drug use, and a host of other costly problems. When decent housing is provided for people their lives tend to stabilize, while those who remain in shelters have a tendency to use drugs and alcohol and so forth.

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The Status of Women Another critical area of concern is the status of women’s health and their access to health care, which have been identified as pivotal links between the health of a population and its prospects for sustainable development.

The feminization of poverty is a problem in industrialized countries as well. By the end of the 1980s, some 75 per cent of all poverty in the United States was to be found among women, particularly those who were single parents.

Despite the fact that in households and often in communities women are the primary providers of health care. they often lack access to such care for themselves. Data cited by the report show that in many countries there are fewer women than men who are treated in hospitals, receive prescriptions for medication and timely treatment from qualified practitioners, and survive common diseases.

Uneven burden What is clear, is that female poverty is a persistent and unevenly distributed burden that threatens the sustainability of the development process and that is, in the long run, likely to translate into slower rates of economic growth.

Among the important topics to be considered in relation to women’s health are reproductive health, fertility, ageing, malnutrition, mental health and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS.

The emphasis within the development debate has shifted from economic growth as the principle objective of society to human-centred sustainable development, concerns of the quality of life and hence to poverty alleviation as the main goal of the development process.

Women also comprise a disproportionate share of the world’s poor. Over the past 50 years, the number of rural women in developing countries living in absolute poverty has risen by about 50 per cent versus some 30 per cent for rural men.

A gender perspective on the relationship between women’s advancement and poverty has focused attention on differences in the incidence, causes and dimensions of poverty as experienced by men and women.

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1224 - Main Street Big Town, PROV G1G 1G1 Phone: 999-156-5656 Fax: 999-158-5858

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Child Poverty in Canada

an overview

Many people mistakenly assume that child poverty is a challenge only people in developing countries are facing. This is sadly untrue. In Canada, the situation of child poverty has gone from bad to worse. UNICEF’s report on Child Poverty in developed countries ranks Canada near the bottom for children’s well-being, at 17 out of 23 countries. This is unacceptable for a country that prides itself on being consistently chosen as the best place in the world to live.

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• Single mothers and their children experience the worst levels of poverty. 81% of single mothers with children under the age of 7 live in poverty. Countries such as Sweden and France provide far greater help to single mothers so that they and their children do not live in poverty. • Food banks: A U.N. Human Rights committee noted that the number of food banks in Canada grew from 75 in

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1984 to 625 by 1998. passed bylaws requiring that all city contractors pay their • A U.N. Human Rights Committee workers a living wage. Perhaps Canadian criticized Canada for adopting policies cities and provinces should be asked to that have increased poverty and make the same commitment. homelessness among many vulnerable • Each province and the federal groups (such as children and women) government have minimum wage laws. • Canada is one of the richest during a time of strong economic All workers must be paid at least the countries in the world. However, growth and increasing affluence. minimum wage. But, taking account about 1,400,000 of its children live • The federal government says that its of inflation, these minimum wages are in poverty (almost one and a half million). Children of single parents Child Tax Benefit helps poor children. 25-to-30% lower today than they were and those of aboriginal descent But the benefit is far too low and twenty years ago. have suffered the most. the poorest children are disqualified • Children are poor because they from receiving it. Children living in The UN Convention on the Rights of the live in disadvantaged families. families receiving welfare - who are Child (UNCRC) The way to end child poverty is to the poorest children in Canada - have Canada has ratified the United Nations allow families the ability to support themselves in a meaningful way. the benefit taken away from them by Convention on the Rights of the Child. The last thing a parent wants is to their provincial government. This is In doing so, it is obligated to provide have their children go hungry. wrong and must be ended. Apart from basic human rights to all children. The Newfoundland and New Brunswick, Convention, for example, obligates the poorest children and their families Canada to provide an adequate standard of receive no help from the Child Tax Benefit. living for all children. • Children of full-time working parents make up almost 30% of poor children in Canada. Their parents do not But hundreds of thousands of Canadians are going get paid a living wage. Workers in developing countries hungry and have to go to food banks because they do not making shoes for Nike or goods for Wal-Mart should be have enough to eat. It is a sad fact that almost half of the paid a living wage. Workers in Canada should also people using food banks are children. receive a living wage. In the United States 32 cities have

Child poverty in Canada

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Thinking About Poverty Different people think about poverty in different ways. Some people think that poverty is about being able to buy and sell but other people think about getting a fair share of education and health care or about being given respect, and having some influence over what happens in their life. Because of these differences it is useful to think about two main types of poverty - income poverty and non-income poverty Income poverty happens when a household takes in less than one US dollar per day. This means that people will not have enough food or medicine and they will have poor clothes and houses. Income poverty is due to people not having access to money or other assets. If people do not have any other assets like land to grow their own food, then income poverty can result in stunted growth and early death. The best way to reduce income poverty is to encourage and support the development of effective businesses (small, medium and large) which make good use of our natural resources and talents to create wealth and jobs Non income poverty happens when people may have a

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little bit of money but otherwise the quality of their life is not good. They do not have access to affordable social and physical services (schooling, health care, medicines, safe water, good sanitation, good transport) and they may not feel safe in their homes either because they cannot trust the authorities or because they belong to some particularly vulnerable group The best way to reduce non-income poverty it to make sure that people have access to affordable and good quality social services and infrastructure, that they feel secure in their homes, that they trust the authorities and, if they are vulnerable, that there are safety net programmes to protect them

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FIGHTING HUNGER AND POVERTY Despite the bounty of our agricultural production here, one of our most complex and serious health problems is hunger.

Most low-income families must receive food assistance from several sources, relying on Federal food assistance programs as well as emergency food programs.

Eliminating hunger is a moral issue, driven by compassion for others, as well as a practical issue involving the long-term future of millions of our Nation’s children.

Even with federal assistance and the work of charities and nonprofit organizations, last year nearly 20 percent of the requests for emergency food assistance went unmet.

Chronic hunger and malnutrition take a heavy toll on children’s lives. Days missed from school, inattention in class, stunted growth, and frequent illness jeopardize their education and their futures as productive citizens.

Ending Food Waste

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Food recovery is one creative way to help reduce hunger. It supplements federal food assistance programs by making better use of a food source that already exists.

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The Pleasure of Food

E

ating is truly one of life’s most pleasurable and sensuous activities. Quite simply, food tastes good. It pleases all your senses of taste. Food offers delightful aromas and textures. It refreshes us. Enjoying food, especially delicious food, is one of the most natural experiences in the world. Hooray!

So why do we persist in our love-hate relationship with food? It’s so unnecessary. Food in and of itself cannot make you fat. It has no such power. The power resides in you and your eating habits. If you overeat any food, you can gain weight. If you eat food using the 0-5 approach, you can reach your ideal size. A Healthy Appetite Really Is Healthy Just as hunger is a valuable feeling you don’t want to suppress, a normal appetite is a good thing, too. Appetite is the desire for food. Your normal appetite for certain foods fluctuates from day to day. You should honour

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your appetite. Don’t ignore or resist its natural function. For instance, you might have an appetite for eggs and bacon for breakfast. You don’t have to resist your appetite and eat only cereal. Go ahead and eat the eggs and bacon. Crazy About Those Cravings Unfortunately, there is such a thing as a false appetite. A false appetite is basically an irrational craving. Your brain becomes self-programmed to desire something so strongly that it incites you to compulsive consumption. Your false appetite often is for foods that can be harmful, such as allergic foods, lots of sugar, and highly processed refined starches such as breads, pasta, cookies, and cakes. We call these fluffy starches. Mike, a college student, is allergic to wheat, corn, and milk products. They give him stomach cramps and frequent diarrhea. He can’t resist eating certain wheat products, especially sandwich bread ... even when it

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makes him sick. His craving for bread can be so extreme that he will even put a fancy steak between two pieces of bread with a couple slices of cheese. Like someone who needs a daily fix of coffee, his desire for bread compels him to eat irrationally. His eating habits are ruining his fun and health. Of course, he can ultimately control his urge for these allergic foods by substituting other foods he loves that aren’t harmful.

times of stress, the body can take in food and process some of it, but digestion doesn’t work correctly to extract all the nutritional goodness from the food.

You can manage your appetite by directing it toward good-for-you foods such as the basics--meat, fruits, vegetables, and fats. If one day you have an urge for broccoli, give in to it. Ditto for steak, salmon, salad, and so on. Your body will be glad you did. You don’t need to battle your appetite. Just manage it as one part of your overall eating approach.

If you eat when you are stressed, anxious, or nervous, you might as well be eating cardboard for all the nutrients your body gets. Yes, eating when stressed is a gaining situation. Now you might think, well, gosh, if I’m not digesting, the calories aren’t getting handled, so I should be losing weight. Good idea, but wrong reality. When digestion is impaired, the body starts “starving” from lack of necessary nutrients. Yes, it goes into starvation metabolism and starts hoarding fat and energy. It thinks it’s in a famine. The good news is that it’s easy to make some corrections and get rid of stress at mealtimes.

Good Digestion Comes with Pleasurable Eating Many people who are overweight have poor digestion. For the most part, poor digestion is not inherited or genetic. We give it to ourselves through the way we eat. Eating to soothe stress or anxiety is often the culprit. Alas, poor digestion can lead to weight problems. Here’s how: When a person feels stressed, the part of the central nervous system that regulates digestion switches off. This is called the parasympathetic nervous system. At those

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Poor digestion is not always obvious by observing symptoms. You could get heartburn, diarrhea, or constipation, but not always. Poor digestion can be seemingly silent.

If you feel stressed often, it can be helpful to take a supplement that contains multiple B vitamins. These help, but you could still find yourself stressed at mealtimes. Here’s how to make meals a pleasant “losing” experience.

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Healthy Eating Strategies Slow down, enjoy and actually taste your food. It takes at least twenty minutes for your stomach to signal your brain that it is full. Slowing down will help to curb the urge to go back for a second helping. Slowing down can also help to ensure proper digestion. To help yourself slow down, take sips of your beverage between bites, put your fork down in between bites, and enjoy the conversation of others. Sit down to eat instead of eating while standing at the counter, driving, or watching television. Eating while doing other things means you are eating unconsciously, and you may consume more than you plan to. Controlling Portion Sizes Portion sizes are crucial when you’re trying to eat a healthy diet. In fact, one of the primary reasons people are overweight is lack of portion control. To follow the

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Food Guide Pyramid guidelines, you need to be aware of serving or portion sizes. Serving sizes are specific, standardized amounts of food and are meant as general guidelines to help you plan and judge your own portions. The portion sizes you consume contribute directly to the amount of calories and the amount of fat that you consume per day. Essential: The best approach to ensuring that you don’t skip meals is to plan your meals and snacks ahead of time. Planning ahead is the key to eating a healthy diet throughout the day. This will also help to prevent haphazard eating, which often results in high-calorie, high-fat eating. To follow a healthy diet, you don’t need to weigh and measure all of your food each day. Keep in mind that portion sizes are meant as general guidelines, so the aim is to come close to the recommended serving sizes, on average, over several days. Use these visual comparisons to help estimate your portion sizes: • A 3-ounce portion of cooked meat, poultry, or fish is about the size of a deck of playing cards. • A medium potato is about the size of a computer mouse. • 1 cup of rice or pasta is about the size of a fist or a

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tennis ball. • An average bagel should be the size of a hockey puck or a large to-go coffee lid. • A cup of fruit or a medium apple or orange is the size of a baseball. • ½ cup of chopped vegetables is about the size of three regular ice cubes. • 3 ounces of grilled fish is the size of your checkbook. • 1 ounce of cheese is the size of four dice. • 1 teaspoon of peanut butter equals one die; 2 tablespoons is about the size of a golf ball. • 1 ounce of snack foods-pretzels, etc. equals a large handful. • 1 thumb tip equals 1 teaspoon; 3 thumb tips equal 1 tablespoon; and a whole thumb equals 1 ounce. To help you eat only the portions you measure out, portion out your food before bringing it to the table. You will be less likely to eat more when serving bowls are not on the table. Another clever trick is to use a smaller plate to make your portion sizes look bigger. Smart Snacking Contrary to popular belief, snacking can be part of a healthful eating plan. Choosing snacks wisely can help fuel your body between meals, give you an

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energy boost, and add to your total intake of essential nutrients for the day. Snacking can also help to take the edge off hunger between meals. The longer you wait between meals, the more you tend to eat at the next meal. Leaving only about three to four hours between meals is an ideal amount of time to keep blood sugar levels in control. The key to smart snacking is the type and amounts of food that you choose. Mindless snacking or nibbling on high-fat, high-calorie foods can lead to trouble in the form of unwanted and empty calories. To make snacking a healthy part of your diet, try these tips: • Choose snacks that are lower in fat and nutrient rich. • Make snacks part of your eating plan for the day instead of thinking of them as an extra. • Make snacking a conscious activity. • Plan and eat snacks well ahead of mealtime. • Eat smaller portion snacks, not meal-size ones. • Try some of these smart snacks as part of your healthy eating plan: • ½ bagel with peanut butter • Raw vegetables with low-fat or fat-free dressing • Fruit yogurt topped with low-fat granola cereal • Low-fat cottage cheese topped with fresh fruit

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• Fresh fruit • Light microwave popcorn • Pita bread stuffed with fresh veggies and low-fat dressing • Low-fat string cheese • Whole-grain cereal and fat-free milk • Vegetable juice Can eating smaller meals more than three times a day be part of a healthy diet? Yes. Eating small meals means eating smaller portion meals throughout the day, with the same goals of variety, balance, and moderation. For healthful grazing, make sure you still get your needed number of servings from all of the food groups. Balance the amount of food you eat, and eat smaller portions.

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FOOD TAMPERING CONSUMER INFORMATION WHAT IS FOOD TAMPERING? Product tampering, and specifically food tampering, is the act of intentionally altering a product, its content, container, label, or its safety, without authority to do so. Food tampering, even intended as a prank, is taken seriously and may be punishable as an offence under the Criminal Code of Canada.

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Fortunately, food tampering incidents are rare. Nevertheless, consumers are encouraged to be vigilant and familiarize themselves with all aspects of food safety, including food tampering. WHY ARE THERE INCIDENTS OF FOOD TAMPERING? Food tampering can originate from any number of possible sources and may, at times, appear to be

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accidental. Often, the motive is unclear but may be related to:

somewhere along the food system. In either case, a suspicious product shouldn’t be consumed.

• extortion for personal gain • labour-management problems • an attempt to draw attention to a “cause” by obtaining free publicity • revenge, by causing financial damage or discredit to an organization through lost sales or damaged reputation • mischief • reasons known only to the perpetrator • possible terrorist act

Signs of tampering may include:

WHEN and WHERE DOES FOOD TAMPERING OCCUR? Despite government and industry systems that are in place to monitor product security, a product may still be altered or contaminated at any point in the food supply chain from farm, processing, storage, warehousing, transit, retail, all the way to the consumer. AS A CONSUMER, HOW DO I RECOGNIZE TAMPERED FOOD? It is sometimes difficult to tell whether a product has been tampered with or simply been accidentally damaged

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• packaging that has been, or looks like it has been opened and/or resealed • products with damaged or missing safety seals • dirty or damaged products • product or packaging that is cut, slit, torn, punctured, and/or discoloured • cans or jars with signs of leakage, spillage or corrosion • vacuum-packed products with no vacuum seal, including a popped bottle lid • packaging that has been altered, including labels, product lot codes and other identifying information • presence of a foreign object WHAT DO I DO IF I FIND A SUSPICIOUS PRODUCT? • STOP: Do not consume the product. • Seek medical attention if anyone becomes injured or sick. • Notify the police and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

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• DO NOT HANDLE THE FOOD unnecessarily and DON’T THROW IT OUT. • Place the suspected product in a plastic bag or a sealable container (even if it is already chewed, half-eaten, partially-cooked, etc.). • Label the saved material clearly with the date of purchase or consumption. Include warning information such as, “Do not eat.” • Keep the suspicious container/packaging and any labelling information. • Keep any unopened containers of similar product, but do not open. • Write down any information or details you may remember about the product, such as where and when it was purchased. • Keep the product separate from your regular food supply and away from family members. • Don’t give it to pets or livestock. WHO DO I CONTACT IF FOOD TAMPERING IS SUSPECTED? If food tampering is suspected, notify the police and call the CFIA at 1-800-442-2342. Phone numbers for your local CFIA office are available in the blue pages of your telephone directory.

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WHAT ACTIONS ARE TAKEN TO RESPOND TO TAMPERING INCIDENTS? In situations where product tampering is likely, the CFIA and/or the company involved will notify local police to conduct a criminal investigation. The CFIA conducts an investigation, which can include retail and plant level inspection, health and safety risk assessment, detention of product, scope of distribution and, if there is a threat to public health, the CFIA will issue an advisory and/or recall warning. CONSUMER AWARENESS While government and the food industry have many important checks and balances in place to contribute to food safety and quality, the consumer also plays an increasingly important role in helping to ensure Canada’s food supply is safe. By personally inspecting food products prior to use, the consumer becomes an important component of Canada’s integrated food safety system.

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