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Pittsburgh Public School Grounds Greening Charettes Participants: Donald Berg, Director of Plant Operations, Pittsburgh Public Schools Maria Moio, District Operations Supervisor, Pittsburgh Public Schools Mark Boyd, District Operations Supervisor, Pittsburgh Public Schools Carla Berdnik, Principal, Linden School K-5 Edward Littlehale, Principal, Pittsburgh Mifflin School Pre K-8 Nancy Lonnett Roman, Pashek Associates Maria Riley, Klavon Designs Alan Rader, Terra Design Studios Christine Lauble, Designscape Judy Wagner, Senior Director, Community Gardens and Greenspace Program, WPC David Wilson, School Grounds Greening Project Coordinator, WPC Jessica McPherson, Ecologist, WPC Cara Armstrong, Fallingwater Curator of Education, WPC Lee Pouliot, Fallingwater Landscape Intern, WPC Lixia Xiao, Fallingwater Landscape Intern, WPC

July 7, 2008 Day One: Landscape upgrade/greening external features Develop a “kit of parts” that can be used on multiple sites. The kit includes: • Elements from 3 different “palettes” o Sustainability o Hardscape o Native Plant • Solutions for : o Different common problem areas o Replacing and rehabilitating existing landscape features o Greening existing features with unattractive and problematic characteristics (i.e. fences, walls, parking lots, and slopes), etc. • Design parameters o Natural building materials only – avoid tires, pressure-treated wood, toxic building materials, etc.; must be durable as well o Non-invasive plants and trees


o o o o o o o o o

Native plants only Must be low-maintenance Plants must be durable Sustainable model is critical Manual on how to maintain space; must be comprehensive and volunteer-friendly Must provide slope and storm water management, habitat enhancement, and energy efficient solutions Consider designs which will engage and involve children from ages 7 – 18 Consider lighting to create dramatic effects Solutions must be simple

Sustainability Palette—How to Keep Successful Sustainable Models •

• • • • • • • •

Train maintenance staff and get their buy-in o Include sessions for different types of maintenance—installation, long term pruning, mowing, etc. o Create a visual guide of materials o Short term and long term care o Provide, along with the plant list, general maintenance instructions. o Advise that the staff do NO pruning on any new plant material. o Provide mature plant size information, height and spread, for the entire plant list to help the user understand the ultimate growth potential and the actual amount of size each plant will take up to prevent continued overplanting. o Provide a photograph of each mature plant so that maintenance will not prune it into a misshapen wreck and continue overpruning and overmaintaining, losing money and time. Create and enforce clause in specs to replant any damaged or killed plants Create signage for community and student education Develop and meet quantifiable goals, i.e. 30% less mowing, 40% decrease in use of fossil fuels Develop opportunities for community groups to use outdoor spaces, i.e. Scouts use outdoor classroom space Communicate direct benefits of greening; i.e. shade trees modulate classroom temperature, sun protection Create and implement cyclical maintenance plan Plant in spring and fall so students see plantings; classes visit during installation Trade hardscape for permeable paving


• • • • • •

Design charette with kids input o For their own school o Answer to one question, such as how should art be integrated in greenspace Create school garden or environmental club to maintain plantings Create plant palette with aggressive plants to cover Keep all plant palettes, designs, simple and easy to plant and maintain High school paints murals at elementary schools Use drought tolerant plants Create events with special plants such as “pumpkin painting festival”, “leaves arrangement competition”, etc. to activate spaces

Hardscaping Palette— Fencing • Repair/replace fencing as needed for security, to define areas, etc. Consider: o Scale ƒ Can fence heights be reduced? o Traffic Control—Perimeter space/definition o Hierarchy • Fencing can serve multiple purposes, can also act as: o Landscape/green ƒ Using greenscreen or trellises, grow vines to cover sections of the fence. ƒ http://www.greenscreen.com/home.h tml o Art ƒ Modular Art Pieces--Use a simply designed anchor to hang art on fencing. ƒ Use chainlink fence as the base of a weaving. Use either appropriate fabrics (synthetic), metal, fiberoptic light. ƒ Welded found objects/metal. Fence panels become art panels o Scrims ƒ Translucent Scrim (a la Ken Smith and PS 19 in NYC) allows for the transformation of the chain link fence with photographs, color, etc. into art space. Creates visual interest.


Choose fencing that is consistent from school to school or situation to situation. This will help in visual impact and cohesion as well as pricing. o Type ƒ Omega Fencing http://www.omegafence.com/ ƒ Legi http://www.fences.com/ o Replacement • Replace fences that can’t be repaired, or as the opportunity arises, with Omega Fencing or Legi. • Replace fencing with other types of barrier: o Shrubs and cables o Cable alone o Configuration ƒ Ensure that the toe to fence placement is appropriate. ƒ Maintain a reasonable relationship between the plantings and the fence. o Visual interest ƒ Vary the heights of the panels – the fences do not have to run straight across the top.

ƒ

Cut windows and doors (facades) into the fencing. Create a “streetscape” out of fencing.

The fence does not have to run a straight line – it can meander, creating interesting areas for plantings and art. o Fencing as Ceiling ƒ


Inexpensive fencing can be used as an overhead trellis to create shade in places where trees are unable to be used (or whether the design calls for it). o Use screening, fabric, and other materials to create water collecting “flowers”. The canopies created can provide shade below, while collecting water into storage tanks for use on sites that do not have access to water for plantings. ƒ

Walls: • Use walls as a design element. • Types o Seat Walls: ƒ Consider economies in standardizing • Prefabricated module • Classic garden models o Stone o Concrete ƒ In community supported conditions, a seat wall could be treated as an art project • Grant’s Tomb • Gaudi tile • Community built • Mural/Art Piece • Community participation/Buy in • Bench additional piece or attachment (metal or wood) o Building Walls ƒ Can serve multiple purposes, can also act as: • Place for sports—handball, etc. • Projection (electronic changeable): o Art o Daily Announcements/menu/student art • Gallery o Projection o Fixed traditional slide projection o Hanging hardware for art panels o Mural


o Kinetic art (Children’s Museum) Green screen – Plant material could be edible (squash/sunflowers/tomatoes) • Weather Station o Rain catchers o Whirly gigs, wind gages, etc. o Snow/Ice catchers o Retaining Walls ƒ Find a best solution product (recommend a quality concrete unit) • Artistic Gabion • Planted Gabion • Concrete o Veneered o Form Liner • Mural/Tiles • Amphitheater seating (low maintenance slope solution) •

Hardscape Mitigation • Trade hardscape for permeable paving, when possible and as appropriate • Repair/replace for safety • Treatment/application • Drainage • Cover • Abandoned tree wells • Paths • Site • Construction correction • Storm water management/erosion • Tree sustainability Furnishings • Find a best solution product for: o Benches o Lighting o Trash/recycling containers o Classroom accessories

Native Plant Palette •

Use a simple plant palette—see Appendix A, Native and Perennial Plant Lists


• • • • • •

• • •

Selected best use plants by situation o Slope o Dry o Shade o Wet o Beds o Containers, etc. Use native plants to create high/low visual impact areas on-site o Consolidate/focus existing plants o Use plants in masses to reduce maintenance o No pruning—reduce weeds o Eliminate stray plants on-site Plant trees to create shade Use native plants to create habitat Maximize educational value through plantings o Classroom evaluation of plots o Change over time (documentation) Plant pits/tree pits Follow Treevitalize concepts Identify difficult to maintain areas o Suggest alternatives—example, discontinue slope mowing, add wildflowers o Salt areas o Perennials only in areas that will have constant maintenance Plant for sensory experience—fragrance, texture, sound, etc. Plant mature size with maintenance guidelines o Photos Volunteers/community service for plant care o School programs (grad requirements/NHS)

Solutions for Sloped Areas: Low maintenance plan (for large sloped areas): • • • • •

Stop mowing and see what develops Interplant desired species. o If there is a concern with visibility, use herbaceous species only. o Otherwise, include shrubs and/or trees if desired. Focus attention on removing highly invasive non-natives Determine a desired mowing schedule (every 2-3 years) Educational component crucial! o Educate Maintenance staff! o Do outreach to parents, school staff, community about the project and its goals.


o Place signage on-site about habitat value, conservation goals, etc.

Habitat areas (moderate slopes, smaller size) •

• • •

Remove undesirable plants. If cool season grasses are established, native warm season grasses and perennial wildflowers often cannot compete. In these cases, or in other cases where persistent, highly competitive undesirable species are present, it will probably be necessary to mow, scrape, or spray, completely eliminating vegetation, before establishing natives. Seed with native field and wildflower mix. Smaller areas add planted shrubs/trees. Larger areas, shrub seeds.

Steep slopes with shade • • •

Maintain tree cover to discourage weed growth If herbaceous additions are desired, utilize small plugs and plant away from tree root systems. Shrubs are difficult to establish where trees are already established.

Solutions for Dry Areas: • •

Add organic material to soil to improve moisture retention. If soils are also compacted: o Scarify soil surface to loosen soil o Incorporate organic matter at the same time o Incorporate further topsoil if needed Plant drought tolerant species.

Solutions for Wet Areas: • •

Areas which are used or trafficked heavily – remediate drainage issues. Unused areas – establish wetland plant beds for educational, ornamental purposes.

Solutions for Parking Lots and Asphalt Areas: •

Install trees o Trees require a minimum of 30 SF trenches; as deep as possible, 23” minimum (refer to City of Pittsburgh planting specifications and recommendations). o Add trees within parking lots only if they are not in small individual islands.


• •

• • • •

o Place height restrictions and recommendations for installing new trees. ƒ Advise user that where overhead wires exist, choose a tree from the list of species recommended for overhead wire areas. ƒ Continue to make user aware of common overplanting mistakes. Eliminate grass from parking lot islands. o Replace with salt tolerant groundcover and/or o Replace with shrub massings. Create consistent parking lot entrance enhancements and buffering.

Install vines for fences, where appropriate o Considering security, site lines, etc. Include annual plantings only where it may be supported by the students, teachers or PTO (“special case” scenario). Paint murals on large areas of asphalt: the state tree, bird, flower, animal, etc., art murals, maps, sun dial, etc. Install outdoor seating areas with shade trees and benches or 18” ht. shrub planters to accommodate seating.


• • •

Reduce overall asphalt square footage by replacing with permeable pavers. If budget allows, soften outdoor classroom with shrub “walls”. Create sculpture courtyards. o Students create sculpture and learn about the sustainability of different materials o Some percentage of the ultimate goal each year is to create permanent sculpture that will last for many years and permanently beautify the paved area. Install trellis structure on buildings to help prevent people from parking immediately adjacent to building.

Solutions for Reducing Site Landscape Maintenance • • • • • •

• • •

Eliminate scattered planting beds or individual plants in lawn areas, especially in less visible locations. Create consolidated planting beds in most highly visible locations (building entrances, outdoor learning spaces, etc.). Limit shrub beds, and utilize lawn and trees for scale and interest. Develop planting plans using masses of only a few plants (select plants that fit the site, will develop full shapes, and will grow together). Allow massed plantings to grow together (reduces future weed growth, and need for mulch). Avoid pruning of shrubs and trees! o When the correct plant is selected, severe pruning and shaping is not necessary, and actually creates future maintenance. o Eliminating pruning allows plants to develop into their natural shape, have more leaf mass, flower (some pruning eliminates flowering), and contribute more to the environment. Limit pruning only to removal of deadwood, crossing branches, or diseased wood. o Develop maintenance guidelines (with pictures) o Conduct educational sessions for maintenance crews Use herbicides in limited amounts, especially during early establishment of planting beds. This is a good way to control weed growth, and reduce need for future weeding (herbicides kill weeds down to the roots, discouraging regrowth; pulling weeds usually results in the need for future pulling). Discontinue mowing on slopes exceeding 3:1. o Implement a “Let it go and see what grows” approach (discontinue mowing; allow what is there to grow). Usually, wildflower species will establish. o Supplement the non-mowed areas with planted wildflower and field grasses.


•

o Then mow every two to three years (timed to avoid disruption of bird and animal nesting) to reduce woody growth; or allow woody growth to establish, eventually reverting the area back to forest. Optional approach for areas where creation of a specific habitat is desired (i.e., butterfly habitat, etc.): o Cut and remove existing vegetation o Spray herbicide to eliminate existing vegetation, and plant a native wildflower / field grass mixture o Weed for first year or two to eliminate undesirable species. o Then mow every two to three years (timed to avoid disruption of bird and animal nesting).


July 9, 2008 Day Two: New Green Spaces and Eco-Prototypes Create workable and replicable “Eco-prototype” designs for new green space types

Eco-Prototype 1A Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with little existing greenspace • Create shade and private space by installing tree grates and shade trees on grid system • Install pavers on top of tree grates so space underneath can be used


Eco-Prototype 1B Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with little existing greenspace • Trellis system provides shade/shelter and visually softens space • Shrubs define edges • Color coat paving to reduce heat and provide visual interest


Eco-Prototype 1C Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with little existing greenspace • Raised unit walls with plantings define edges of space • Overhead canopy creates shade and shelter • Color coat paving to reduce heat and provide visual interest


Eco-Prototype 1D Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with existing greenspace • Use trees to define space • Mound earth and plant to create enclosure • Smaller trees create shade and more intimate scale • Use stump seating to keep natural feel to the area


Eco-Prototype 1E Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with existing greenspace • Use trees to define space • Shrubs create enclosure • Benches provide seating • Umbrellas can be used to create shade o Prior to trees maturing o Permanent solution in lieu of trees


Eco-Prototype 1F Quiet reading/thinking spaces Use features to define small areas where a few students can comfortably sit/read/think/work quietly For schools with unused entrance/doorway • Define entry with new use—reading space • Use existing stairs as seating • Overhead canopy can be added to create shade • Color coat paving to reduce heat and provide visual interest


Eco-Prototype 2A Classroom Learning Spaces Use features to support small groups for outside learning For schools with existing greenspace or courtyard: • Define edges with fence and shade trees • Create “windows” (missing section of the fence) to allow access to areas outside the classroom • Use moveable benches so teachers and students can decide what configuration is best for the day’s activities • Evergreen groundcover softens area • Paver area acts as a focal point for speaker and platform for blackboard, lectern, etc.


Eco-Prototype 2B Classroom Learning Spaces Use features to support small groups for outside learning For schools with existing open space (green or paved): • Define edges with shade trees and ground cover • Create interior boundary with hard surface that kids can personalize with mosaics, paint. Etc. • Use moveable block seating so use can be flexible, fun • Work tables at perimeter edge allow for smaller breakout learning/play sessions


Eco-Prototype 2C Classroom Learning Spaces Use features to support small groups for outside learning For schools with existing open space (green or paved): • Install anchor posts (posts could be wheeled for greatest flexibility) • Use hinged screens to define space o Screens could be chalkboards, greenscreens, etc. depending on use.


Eco-Prototype 3A Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active play For schools with existing landscaped slope • Use natural materials, such as plants, stone, sand, wood • Use combination of native plants and beautiful ornamental plants (not invasive plants) to attract butterflies, insects, etc. • Use stones to make steps and sitting areas • Plant trees to provide shade


Eco-Prototype 3B Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active play For schools with existing moderately sloped to flat green space • Use large canopy trees on the edge of natural play ground, providing shade, but allowing people to look through and keep an eye on kids. • Use small shrubs and herbaceous plants to provide “hiding” space for kids that still enables adults to see kids • Use soft ground covers, such as grass or sand


Eco-Prototype 3C Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active or quiet play The Reading Tree For schools with existing shade tree • Shade tree drip line defines area • Visual screen planting defines smaller quiet areas for reading, etc. • Benches provide seating • Wind chimes activate area • Ornamental fence around tree provides protection and visual interest


Eco-Prototype 3D Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active or quiet play Made Shade For schools without existing shade tree in asphalt jungle • Saw-cut asphalt edge and create tree pits • Install shade trees • Define edge of tree pits with seat wall o protection for tree o Place for reading and other quiet activities • Paint asphalt o Visual interest o Play/learning opportunities


Eco-Prototype 3E Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active or quiet play For schools without existing shade tree in asphalt jungle • Soften tall chain link fences o Scrim or art work o Groupings of bird houses • Create “walls” with loose borders of large shrubs o Select plant material to encourage touch, smell, sound, and sight


Eco-Prototype 3F Natural Play Spaces Use features to encourage children to safely and comfortably play tag, jump rope, and other moderately active or quiet play For schools with large sloping areas • Exploit slope to use for unstructured play—kite flying, running, rolling, ball kicking, etc. • Use or create rock outcropping for seating, climbing, jumping • Group shrubs to create time-out and other contemplative spaces • Put peep holes in walls • Create bird watching blind with varied height viewing areas


Eco-Prototype 4A Creative Play Space Use features to spark creative play Clothesline Maze or Stage For schools with existing open space (green or paved): o Posts o Clothesline connecting posts o Weather proof fabric ƒ Use horizontally for shade ƒ Use vertically for walls—door and windows can be cut out


Eco-Prototype 4B Creative Play Space Use features to spark creative play Disco Room For schools with small pocket space • Reflective materials • Fencing • Mounded earth with ground cover • Plastic balls


Eco-Prototype 4C Creative Play Space Use features to spark creative play Music Garden For schools with green space • Screen plantings • Musical installations from found objects o Door chimes o Mufflers o Hubcap gongs, etc. • Water table ripple pool • Shade trees • Themed plantings related to music o Trumpet vine o Grass for whistles o Blue bells, etc.


Eco-Prototype 5A Rain Garden Raindrop For schools with green space • Raindrop shaped bed filters and disperses water runoff • Use sensory plants that are also habitat attracting • Can be incorporated into lesson plans--water testing, rain cycle, insects, etc.


Eco-Prototype 5B Rain Garden For schools with sloped shady conditions • Depression at bottom of hill contains water—water is filtered and dispersed as it moves downhill • On slope, implement a “let it go and see what grows” approach (discontinue mowing; allow what is there to grow). Usually, wildflower species will establish. • Supplement the non-mowed areas with planted wildflower and field grasses.


Eco-Prototype 5C Rain Garden Outdoor Classroom Rain Garden For schools with open space (paved or green) • Plantings define edges of outdoor classroom space • Combination of foundation plantings, rain garden plants, drought tolerant plantings add visual interest and could be used as teaching tool • Incorporating rain barrel creates water source


Eco-Prototype 6A Raised Beds Retrofitting For schools with existing under-utilized raised beds • Beds are reconfigured for other uses that create habitat, reduce maintenance, provide natural play areas, and foster community-school connections i. The Habitat Attractor • Use stone pavers to create a pathway experience through habitat plantings • Allows students to interact with plant materials as well as forms of wildlife—butterflies, insects, etc.

ii. The Canopy • Plant covered canopy formed by vines growing on installed arches • Design allows for the interaction with sun and light patterns and with plant material • Vines with interesting flowers and/or fruits recommended iii. The Art Platform • Form art display area by intermixing habitat plantings with pavers, poles, or other needed surfaces for the display of community and student artwork • Allows for community interaction and the creation of art events for both community and school


iv. Living Theater • Living theater space created by low growing plants that can handle foot traffic; i.e. Steppables • Moveable backdrops can be added to create a stage for a variety of performance art possibilities


Eco-Prototype 6B Raised Beds For schools with asphalt areas • Create new raised beds at edge of ugly asphalt spaces • Use combination of shade trees, shrubs, and ground cover • Use curved walls to create interest, making new outdoor study areas, or play spaces for kids


Eco-Prototype 6C Raised Beds For schools with large asphalt areas • Create new raised beds in 4 corners of paved space • Make new sitting space with beautiful focal points, butterflies and encouraging students to go out

attracting


Eco-Prototype 6D Raised Beds The Sensory Garden For schools with flat open space (paved or green) • Create planting beds at a height that creates seating walls at “transfer height” • Configure to encourage students to interact with natural building materials and plants materials • Building materials should be regionally specific (i.e. stone) • Plants should be selected for scents, interesting bark, leaf color, flower and fruit production, and evergreen qualities. In doing so, the space becomes valuable as teaching and calming space in all seasons • Center of the garden becomes an area for a sundial or other sculptural elements that allows for student interaction


Appendix A Native and Perennial Plant Lists


Latin Name

Common Name

Cultivars

Sun/Shade

Dry/Moist Size (height x width)

Comments

* Bold plants are Allegheny County Natives

Trees Large Acer x freemanii

Freeman Maple

Autumn Blaze, Autumn Fantasy, Celebration, Marmo

Full sun

Moist only

45'- 70' x 25'- 40'

Raingardens

Betula nigra

River Birch

Heritage®, Dura-Heat™

Full sun/Part Shade

Moist only

40'- 50' x 30'- 40'

Raingardens

Full sun

Dry/Moist

50'- 60' x 20'- 40'

Raingardens

Full sun/Part Shade

Dry/Moist

40'- 60' x 40'

Wildlife/Habitat value, Raingardens

Full sun

Moist only

30'- 50' x 40'- 55'

Catalpa speciosa

Northern Catalpa

Celtis occidentalis

Common Hackberry

Cladrastis kentukea

Yellowwood

Ginkgo biloba

Maidenhair Tree

Autumn Gold, Magyar, Princeton Sentry

Full sun

Dry

50'- 80' x 30'- 40'

Use male cultivars only

Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis

Common Honeylocust

Fairview, Greeen Glory, Halka™, Shademaster™

Full sun

Dry

40'- 80' x 30'- 70'

Use in extreme conditions only

Gymnocladus dioicus

Kentucky Coffeetree

Expresso (non-fruiting, male form)

Full sun

Dry/Moist

50'- 70' x 40'- 50'

Liquidambar styraciflua

American Sweetgum

Grandmaster™, Moraine

Liriodendron tulipifera

Tulip Poplar

Prairie Pride

Full sun

Moist only

50'- 75' x 40'- 65'

Full sun

Moist only

70'- 90' x 35'- 50'

Raingardens

Quercus acutissima

Sawtooth Oak

Full sun

Dry/Moist

40'- 50' x 35'- 55'

Quercus macrocarpa

Bur Oak

Full sun

Moist only

60'- 80' x 60'- 90'

Habitat value

Quercus palustris

Pin Oak

Full sun

Moist only

50'- 70' x 40'- 50'

Habitat value, Raingardens

Quercus rubra

Red Oak

Ulmus americana

American Elm

Habitat value

Full sun

Dry/Moist

60'- 80' x 50'- 70'

Habitat value

Valley Forge

Full sun

Dry/Moist

60'- 80' x 40'- 80'

Cultivar needed for Dutch Elm's disease resistance

Small Acer ginnala

Flame Maple

Compacta, Flame

Full sun/Part shade

Moist only

10'-20' x 10'-20'

Non-native, but worthy substitute for Sumac

Amelanchier arborea/laevis

Serviceberry

Autumn Brilliance, Cole's Select, Refzam, Tradition, Trazam

Full sun/Part shade

Moist only

20'- 30' x 15'- 25'

Wildlife value

Carpinus caroliniana

Musclewood

Full sun/Part shade

Moist only

30' x 25'

Cercis canadensis

Eastern Redbud

Chionanthus virginicus

Fringetree

Cornus mas Liquidambar styraciflua

Forest Pansy

Full sun/Part shade

Moist only

20'- 30' x 25'- 35'

Prone to disease when under stress

Full sun/Part shade

Moist only

12'- 20' x 12'- 20'

Wildlife value, Need male for fruit production on females

Corneliancherry Dogwood Golden Glory

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

20'-25' x 10'-15'

Non-native

American Sweetgum

Clydesform

Full sun

Moist only

30' x 10'- 15'

Raingardens

Prunus virginiana

Chokecherry

Canada Red Select, Schubert

Full sun

Moist only

25' x 20'

Wildlife value

Quercus ilicifolia

Bear Oak

Full sun

Dry/Moist

12'- 20' x 12'- 20'

Robinia pseudoacacia

Black Locust

Globe, Inermis, Bessoniana

Full sun/Full shade

Dry

30' x 20'

Aronia arbutfolia

Red Chokeberry

Brilliantissima

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

6'- 8' x 6'

Wildlife value

Aronia melanocarpa

Black Chokeberry

Autumn Magic, Elata

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

4'- 8' x 4'- 6'

Wildlife value

Ceanothus americanus

New Jersey Tea

Full sun/Full shade

Dry/Moist

3'- 4' x 3'-5'

Clethra alnifolia

Summersweet Clethra

Hummingbird, Sixteen Candles

Full sun/Full shade

Moist

4'- 8' x 4'- 6'

Raingardens

Cornus foemina (racemosa)

Grey Dogwood

Geauga

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

10'-15' x 10'-15'

Wildlife value, Raingardens

Cornus sericea (stolonifera)

Tatarian Dogwood

Cardinal

Full sun/Part shade

Moist

6'-8' x 5'-8'

Raingardens

Fothergilla major/gardenii

Fothergilla

Blue Mist, Blue Shadow, Mt. Airy

Full sun/Part shade Part shade/Full shade Moist

15'-20' x 8'-12'

Habitat value

Densa

Full sun/Full shade

Moist

6'-10' x 6'-12'

Wildlife value

Shrubs

Hamamelis virginiana

Common Witchhazel

Ilex glabra

Inkberry

Ilex verticillata

Winterberry Holly

Jim Dandy (male), Southern Gentleman (male), Red Sprite (female), Sparkleberry (femaleFull sun/Part shade

Moist

6'-10' x 6'-10'

One male plant needed for every ten female, Wildlife value, Raingardens

Itea virginica

Virginia Sweetspire

Henry's garnet, Little henry

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

3'-6' x 4'-6'

Raingardens

Lindera benzoin

Spicebush

Full sun/Full shade

Moist

6'-10' x 6'-12'

Morella (Myrica) pensylvanica

Bayberry

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

5'-12' x 5'-12'

Physocarpus opulifolius

Eastern Ninebark

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

6'-8' x 6'-8'

Rhododendron maximum

Rosebay Rhododendron

Rhus aromatica

Fragrant Sumac

Sambucus canadensis

Black Elderberry

Virburnum dentatum

Arrowwood Viburnum

Xanthorhiza simplicissima

Yellowroot

Summerwine, Coppertina, Diabolo Gro-low Autumn Jazz, Blue Muffin, Chicago Lustre

Part shade/Full shade Moist

20' x 20'

Full sun

Dry/Moist

2'-12' x 10'-20'

Full sun/Full shade

Moist

5'-12' x 5'-12'

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

8'-12' x 8'-10'

Full sun/Full shade

Dry/Moist

2'-3' x variable

Habitat value

Concern with Viburnum Leaf Beatle, Wildlife/Habitat value, Raingardens


Vines Aristolochia macrophylla

Dutchman's Pipe

Campsis radicans

Trumpetcreeper

Clematis virginiana

Virgin's Bower

Flamenco, Flava, Judy

Full sun/Part shade

Moist

20'-30'

Slightly aggressive native

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

30'-40'

Aggressive native, Wildlife value

Full sun/Part shade

Moist

12'-20'

Hydrangea anomala ssp. petiolaris

Climbing Hydrangea

Part shade/Full shade Dry/Moist

Varying

Lonicera sempervirens

Trumpet Honeysuckle

Full sun/Part shade

10'-20'

Moist

Non-native

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia Creeper

Full sun/Full shade

Dry/Moist

30'-50'

Aggressive native

Vitis labrusca

Fox Grape

Full sun/Full shade

Dry/Moist

30'

Aggressive native, Possibly difficult to find under cultivation

Wisteria frutescens

American Wisteria

Full sun/Part shade

Moist

30'

Amethyst Falls, Longwood Purple

Grasses Andropogon gerardii

Big Bluestem

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

4'-8'

Habitat value

Chasmanthium latifolium

Northern Sea Oats

Part Shade

Dry/Moist

2'-3'

Aggressive native

Panicum virgatum

Switch Grass

Cloud Nine, Dallas Blues, Heavy Metal, Prairie Sky, Shenandoah

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

4'-6'

Habitat value

Schizachyrium scoparium

Little Bluestem

The Blues

Full sun/Part shade

Dry/Moist

4'-5'

Habitat value

Sorghastrum nutans

Indian Grass

Full sun

Dry/Moist

5'-7'

Habitat value

Sporobolus heterolepsis

Prairie Dropseed

Full sun

Dry/Moist

2'-3'

Habitat value

Perennials *See Seed Mix/Source List


*Perennial Seed Mixes & Sources The following plant list reflects seed mixtures that could be utilized under the most common conditions existing at many of Pittsburgh’s public schools. The seed mixes listed are taken from the Prairie Moon Nursery catalog and represent plants that would perform best under the circumstances presented. Following the lists, the contact information for multiple seed sources is included. Please note that this is not a complete list of all possible seed mixtures. Further mixes for consideration can be found at any of these seed sources’ websites. G Shady Woodland Mix o Wild Leek, Columbine, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Poke Milkweed, Drummond’s Aster, Arrow-leaved Aster, Short’s Aster, Hairy Wood Mint, Tall Bellflower, Honewort, Wild Geranium, Great Waterleaf, Sweet Sicely, Jacob’s Ladder, Woodland Knotweed, Lion’s Foot, Hairy Mountain Mint, Solomon’s Plume, Zig Zag Goldenrod, Elm-leaved Goldenrod, Early Meadow Rue, Meadow Parsnip G Tall Sedge Meadow for Wet Soils o Forbs: Sweet Flag, Mud Plantain, Swamp Milkweed, New England Aster, Flattopped Aster, Tall Swamp Marigold, Decurrent False Aster, Turtlehead, Joe Pye Weed, Boneset, Sneezeweed, Hairy Rose Mallow, Southern Blue Flag, Prairie Blazing Star, Cardinal Flower, Great Blue Lobelia, Monkey Flower, Marsh Betony, Obedient Plant, Mountain Mint, Common Arrowhead, Riddell’s Goldenrod, Great Bur Reed, Blue Vervain, Common Ironweed o Grasses: Fringed Brome, Mix of five sedges, Reed Manna Grass, Mix of three bulrushes, Cord Grass G Short Grass Prairie for Dry Mesic Soils o Forbs: Columbine, Butterfly Weed, Sky Blue Aster, White Wild Indigo, Prairie Coreopsis, Pale Purple Coneflower, Rattlesnake Master, Flowering Spurge, Stiff Gentian, Button Blazing Star, Wild Quinine, Wood Betony, Foxglove Beardtongue, White Prairie Clover, Purple Prairie Clover, Black-eyed Susan, Old Field Goldenrod, Ohio Spiderwort, Prairie Violet, Heartleaf Golden Alexanders, Lead Plant, New Jersey Tea o Grasses: Little Bluestem, Side-Oats Grama, Prairie Brome, Plains Oval Sedge, June Grass G Mixed Height Prairie for Dry Mesic Soils o Forbs: Prairie Sage, Butterfly Weed, Sky Blue Aster, White Wild Indigo, Prairie Coreopsis, Pale Purple Coneflower, Rattlesnake Master, Stiff Gentian, Early Sunflower, Round-headed Bush Clover, Button Blazing Star, Wild Bergamot, Wild Quinine, Foxglove Beardtongue, Purple Prairie Clover, Yellow Coneflower, Blackeyed Susan, Sweet Black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan, Wild Petunia, Compass Plant, Stiff Goldenrod, Showy Goldenrod, Ohio Spiderwort, Hoary Vervain o Grasses: Big Bluestem, Little Bluestem, Side-oats Grama, Prairie Brome, Plains Oval Sedge, Canada Wild Rye, Indian Grass


G Seed Sources o Audubon Center for Native Plants at Beechwood Farms ƒ 614 Dorseyville Rd. Pittsburgh, PA 15238 ƒ Phone: 412-963-6100 ƒ Fax: 412-963-6761 ƒ www.aswp.org/acnp.html o Ernst Conservation Seeds ƒ 9006 Mercer Pike Meadville, PA 16335 ƒ Phone: 800-873-3321 ƒ Fax: 814-336-5191 ƒ www.ernstseed.com o J.F. New ƒ 128 Sunset Dr. Walkerton, IN 46574 ƒ Phone: 574-586-2412 ƒ Fax: 574-586-2718 ƒ www.jfnew.com/nativeplant-nursery.asp o Prairie Moon Nursery ƒ 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987 ƒ Phone: 866-417-8156 ƒ Fax: 507-454-5238 ƒ www.prairiemoon.com o Spence Restoration Nursery ƒ 2220 East Fuson Rd. Muncie, IN 47302 ƒ Phone: 765-286-7154 ƒ Fax: 765-286-0264 ƒ www.spencenursery.com


Greening Pittsburgh Public School Yards