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Vol 32 No 2 Maart • April 2018

CHIPS

Die enigste tydskrif vir die aartappelbedryf • The only magazine for the potato industry

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The relationship between conservation tillage practices and cover crops in the Sandveld

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Prospects for the coming seasons, minimum wage and drought in the Western Cape


1. Omvattende oplossing vir beheer van grondgedraagde siektes 2. Verseker optimale opkoms, sterk groei en gesonder plante 3. Verbeterde skilset en-kwaliteit AMISTAR®. Die slim in-voor behandeling vir beheer van silwerskurf, swartskurf en swartspikkel.

LEES DIE ETIKET VIR VOLLEDIGE BESONDERHEDE. AMISTAR® bevat asoksistrobien (Reg Nr. L6230, Wet Nr. 36 van 1947) VERSIGTIG. AMISTAR® is ‘n geregistreerde handelsmerk van ‘n Syngenta Groepmaatskappy. Syngenta Suid-Afrika (Edms) Beperk, Privaatsak X60, Halfway House, 1685. Tel. (011) 541 4000. www.syngenta.co.za © Syngenta Ag, 2000. Kopiereg op hierdie dokument word voorbehou. Alle ongemagtigde reproduksie word verbied.

@SyngentaSA

16617/A IDEA ENGINEE ® S

maak die ver-skil met planttyd


CHIPS is die amptelike tydskrif van Aartappels Suid-Afrika. CHIPS is the official magazine of Potatoes South Africa. Redakteur/Editor Gawie Geyer Advertensies/Advertisements Gawie Geyer Sel/Cell: 082 388 0524 gawie@potatoes.co.za E-faks/E-fax: 086 685 6524 Aartappels Suid-Afrika, De Havillandsingel 6, Persequor Technopark, Persequor Park, Pretoria, 0020. Tel: 012 349 1906. Faks: 012 349 2641

COVER | VOORBLAD

Potatoes South Africa, 6 De Havilland Crescent, Persequor Technopark, Persequor Park, Pretoria, 0020. Tel: 012 349 1906. Fax: 012 349 2641 Ontwerp en uitleg: Henco Schoeman (HJ Ontwerp) Gedruk deur BusinessPrint vir die eienaar en uitgewer: Aartappels Suid-Afrika, Privaatsak X135, Pretoria, 0001. Design and layout: Henco Schoeman (HJ Design) Printed by BusinessPrint for the owner and publisher: Potatoes South Africa, Private Bag X135, Pretoria, 0001. Die menings wat uitgespreek word is die menings van die skrywers en verteenwoordig nie noodwendig die mening van die redaksie van CHIPS of die mening van Aartappels Suid-Afrika nie. Aartappels Suid-Afrika aanvaar geen verantwoordelikheid vir aansprake wat in advertensies en artikels gemaak word nie. The opinions expressed are the opinions of the writers and do not necessarily portray the opinion of the editorial staff of CHIPS or that of Potatoes South Africa. Potatoes South Africa does not accept any responsibility for claims made in advertisements and articles.

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The relationship between conservation tillage

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Prospects for the coming seasons, minimum

practices and cover crops in the Sandveld

wage and drought in the Western Cape

Alle regte voorbehou. Geen gedeelte van hierdie publikasie mag op enige wyse gereproduseer word nie. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. www.potatoes.co.za

CHIPS


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INHOUD | CONTENT ARTIKELS | ARTICLES Maart | April 2018 GESPREK 6

Transport in the potato industry

CONVERSATION 8

Vernaamste redes vir afmerkings op markte:

NUUS / NEWS

2017-kalenderjaar 50

BEDRYFSDIENSTE / INDUSTRY SERVICES

International news

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Plaaslike nuus / Local news

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Wes-Vrystaat kultivarproef onder besproeiing

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KOMMUNIKASIE / COMMUNICATION

BEMARKING / MARKETING Potatoes, enemy of the plate and health … Not!

TEGNIESE NUUS / TECHNICAL NEWS The relationship between conservation tillage

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op Bultfontein in 2017

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Potatoes South Africa Board of Directors 2017 – 2019 66 In gesprek met dr. André Jooste

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KONTREINUUS / REGIONAL NEWS

practices and cover crops in the Sandveld

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Oorlewing van Ralstonia solanacearum in grond

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Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelinligtingsdag groei jaar na jaar

invloed op stolonlengtes?

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Aurora uiters geslaagd

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Tuber blemish hotline

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Hulle wat gee maak die verskil

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Publikasies – 2018

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Effek van stikstofbestuur op knolle II Het stikstof ’n

Januarie / Februarie 2018

Prospects for the coming seasons, minimum

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

PROKON Aartappellewerings aan varsproduktemarkte –

EKONOMIESE NUUS / ECONOMIC NEWS wage and drought in the Western Cape

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Sandveld Aartappelwerkgroep se inligtingsdag op

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ALGEMEEN / GENERAL Diskriminasie in die werkplek

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DAGBOEK / DIARY 88 UIT DIE ARGIEWE – FROM THE ARCHIVES 89 SKYFIE SÊ – SKYFIE SAYS 90 APAC Markagente – Market agents

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ADVERTENSIES ADVERTISEMENTS Syngenta

Binneblad - voor

Haifa

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ANSA

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Wesgrow 14 Woodford Car Hire

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RSA Saad Beurs

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Woodford Car Hire

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Uniekum 23 ASA Tegniese Publikasies – 2018

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LWO

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Buckle Packaging

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Ivanhoe Seed Potatoes

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CHIPS (Advertensietariewe)

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GWK

Agterblad CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Aartappels ontsluit ekonomiese en sosiale geleenthede

Dit is absoluut onmoontlik om die belangrikheid van die aartappelbedryf in Suid-Afrika te oorbeklemtoon. Dit is derhalwe van kardinale belang dat die bedryf se bydrae tot ekonomiese stabiliteit en vooruitgang voortdurend beklemtoon word! Suid-Afrika produseer vars-aartappels 12 maande van die jaar in 16 verskillende produksiestreke regoor die land, en daar is min lande in die wêreld wat met hierdie onderskeiding kan spog. In die Verenigde State van Amerika en Europa byvoorbeeld is daar slegs kort produksievensters en gevolglik word aartappels vir lang periodes gedurende 'n 12 maande produksiesiklus opgeberg. (In werklikheid bied dit die Suid-Afrikaanse aartappelbedryf 'n unieke geleentheid, maar vereis “uit die boks denke”). Die primêre aartappelbedryf het gemiddeld 'n indiensnemingsvermenigvuldiger van 1.2 wat beteken dat vir elke hektaar geplant, 1.2 indiensnemingsgeleenthede geskep word. Indien dit na syfers omgeskakel word beteken dit Page 6 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

dat indien ons tussen 50 000 en 54 00 hektaar jaarliks beplant (die langtermyntendens), die bedryf tussen 60 000 en 65 000 werksgeleenthede skep vir permanente- en seisoenarbeiders wat gelykstaande is aan bykans 10% van alle persone in diens van die primêre landboubedryf. Hiermee saam gaan die gemeenskapsvermenigvuldigers, d.i.: • Lone wat die weg vind na plattelandse gemeenskappe wat weer aktiwiteite in plattelandse ekonomieë stimuleer, en in baie gevalle die lewenslyn is van menige plattelandse dorpe vir sover dit voedselsekerheid vergroot, armoede vlakke verminder, die vermoë om toegang tot opleiding- en gesondheidsfasiliteite te verkry, die skep van geleenthede vir ander lede van die gemeenskap om betrokke te raak by ondernemersaktiwiteite wat die behoeftes en voorkeure van die wat 'n inkomste in die aartappelbedryf verdien te bevredig – die lys word net al hoe langer! In baie plattelandse dorpe


Gesprek • Conversation

oorskry die loonrekening vir arbeiders wat werksaam is in die primêre aartappelbedryf jaarliks etlike miljoene rande. • Vir baie ondernemers (informele handelaars) in plattelandse en stedelike gebiede wie 'n bestaan maak uit die verkoop van voedsel, is aartappels die hoofproduk van die versameling van produkte wat aan verbruikers gebied word. Na raming vloei bykans 70% van aartappels wat jaarliks op die varsproduktemarkte verkoop word na die informele handelskanaal. Dit skep volhoubare ekonomiese geleenthede en bevorder voedselseker heid aan menige lede van die gemeenskap wie etlike kilometers verwyder is vanwaar aartappel produksie plaasvind. 'n Mens kan jou nie indink wat die impak sou wees as dit nie vir aartappels was nie! • In die aartappelwaardeketting skep groot verwerkingsmaatskappye, groothandelaars en kleinhandelaars honderde werksgeleenthede, betaal aansienlike bedrae aan belasting aan plaaslike munisipaliteite en verskaf aartappel produkte aan 'n toenemende getal verbruikers wat afhanklik is van uit-die huis maaltydoplossings. Indien plaaslike vars-aartappels nie beskikbaar is nie, sal dit vervang word met ingevoerde verwerkte aartappelprodukte en gepaardgaande duurder kos en 'n afname in plaaslike werksgeleent hede wat armoede skep en ons vermoë inperk om opkomende produsente met markte te verbind. Laasgenoemde is veral belangrik aangesien verwerkers in besonder 'n uiters belangrike skakel in die ketting is om opkomende produsente te kommersialiseer. Die rede hiervoor is dat dit 'n kanaal skep vir insetverskaffers om insette aan opkomende produsente te verskaf teen voordelige terme en terselfdertyd ook die nodige sekuriteit aan eersgenoemde verskaf om hulle geld te in. Die waarde van die primêre aartappelbedryf beloop meer as R7 miljard, terwyl die sekondêre bedryf waarde van meer as R22 miljard toevoeg; dit sluit nie die bogenoemde vermenigvuldiger-effek in nie. Al hierdie waardeskepping vind plaas op minder as een persent van grond wat aangewend word vir landboudoeleindes. Wat nog meer indrukwekkend is, is dat aartappels een van die mees-effektiewe omsetters van water na voedsel is – iets wat deur internasionale studies bewys is. Dit is derhalwe geen verrassing nie dat die Sjinese in 2008 aartappels as hul produk van voorkeur aanvaar het in plaas van rys om voedselsekerheid te verhoog. Die Sjinese regering en privaatsektor belê jaarliks miljarde Amerikaanse Dollars om hul eie aartappelbedryf te ontwikkel om

voorgenoemde redes. Op die tuisfront het ons egter gesien dat die getal aartappelprodusente afgeneem het van meer as 2 000 in die vroeë 1990s tot sowat 560 in 2018 as gevolg van ekonomiese realiteite. Om aartappels te produseer kos ongeveer, afhangend van die produksiegebied en metode (besproeiing of droëland), agt tot tien maal meer vergeleke met graanproduksie. Bykomend is daar betekenisvolle klimaat- en biologiese risiko’s betrokke, terwyl bykomende beleggings van etlike miljoene benodig word vir toerusting en pakhuise. Min mense besef dat dit meer as vyf jaar vir die tafelaartappel neem om die verbruiker se bord te bereik vanaf die datum dat die moer-produksiesiklus geïnisieer is. Die feit is dat Suid-Afrika selfversorgend bly wat aartappelverbouing betref, en bykomend al die vermenigvuldigers wat hierbo uiteengesit is! Dit is indikatief van die kwaliteit en professionaliteit van ons moer-, tafel- en verwerkingsprodusente wie gerugsteun word deur wêreldklas navorsing, inligtingstelsels, markontwikkeling en generiese produkbevordering, transformasie-inisiatiewe, laboratoriumdienste en 'n aartappelsertifiseringsdiens wat beny word deur baie internasionale eweknieë. Ons varsprodukte-markstelsel is uniek wêreldwyd en moet gekoester word. (Die hoofboodskap aan ons as bedryf van 'n produsenteafvaardiging vanuit die Verenigde Koninkryk 'n paar jaar gelede, was dat ons alles moontlik moet doen om te verseker dat ons varsprodukte-markstelsel behoue bly as prysvormingsmeganisme). Natuurlik ontwikkel markkanale en sal dit verander dienooreenkomstig verbruikerdinamiek, en gevolglik behoort en sal die kosmos van markkanale geoptimaliseer word gegewe die gees van ondernemerskap wat in die bedryf heers. Met inagneming wat hierbo gesê is, is mens bewus van die ekonomiese realiteite en onsekerhede wat ieder en elk in die aartappelwaardeketting in die gesig staar, maar huidig is daar ander onsekerhede in die politieke milieu wat moontlik die aartappelbedryf se bydrae tot die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomiese kan laat ontspoor. Gegewe ons veerkragtige gemeenskap, moet ons waardeketting-rolspelers voortgaan om hul beste te gee en aanhou om die waardeproposisie soos hierbo uiteengesit aan die bevolking te lewer met “Faith like Potatoes”. Aartappelgroete Dr. André Jooste Hoofuitvoerende Beampte CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Potatoes unlock economic and social opportunities

The importance of the potato industry in South Africa cannot be over emphasised. It is therefore of paramount importance that the industry’s contribution to economic stability and progress is emphasised continuously. South Africa produces fresh potatoes 12 months of the years in 16 different production regions across the country, and there are very few countries in the world that can claim this distinction. For example in the United States of America and Europe there are only short production windows and hence potatoes are stored for long periods during a 12 month production cycle. (This in fact presents a unique opportunity for the South African potato industry and requires “out of the box” thinking). The primary potato industry has, on average, an employment multiplier of 1.2, meaning that for every hectare planted 1.2

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

employment opportunities are created. Putting this into figures mean that if we plant between 50 000 and 54 000 hectares annually (the long term trend), this industry creates between 60 000 and 65 000 job opportunities annually for permanent and seasonal labourers, which equates close to 10% of people employed in the primary agricultural sector. Along with this goes the societal multipliers, i.e. • Wages that go into rural communities that in turn stimulate rural economic activity and in many cases are the lifeline of many rural towns in terms of enhancing food security, reducing poverty levels, providing the means to access education and health facilities, creating the opportunity for other members of society to engage in entrepreneurial activities to service the needs and preferences of those who earn wages in the potato industry –


Gesprek • Conversation

the list just goes on! In many rural towns the wage bill for labour in the potato industry annually exceeds several millions. • For many entrepreneurs (informal traders) in rural and urban areas who make a living from selling food, potatoes take centre stage in terms of their product offering. It is estimated that close to 70% of potatoes that are sold annually on fresh produce markets goes into the informal trade channel. This is creating sustainable economic opportunities and enhanced food security to many members of society that are many kilometres away from where potato production is taking place. One can’t imagine what the impact would have been if it was not for potatoes! • Along the value chain big processing companies, wholesalers and retailers create hundreds of job opportunities, pay significant taxes to local municipalities and provide potato products consumed by the increasing number of consumers reliant on out-of-home meal solutions. If locally produced potatoes are not available, it will be replaced by imported processed potato products and accompanying more expensive food which translates into exporting job opportunities, creating poverty and reducing our ability to link emerging producers to markets. The latter is particularly important since processors in particular are a vitally important link in the chain to commercialise emerging producers. The reason is that it provides the avenue for input suppliers to provide inputs to emerging producers at favourable terms while the necessary security is provided for input suppliers to recoup their money. The value of the primary potato industry is over R7 billion, while the secondary industry creates value in excess of R22 billion; this is not inclusive of the multiplier effects discussed above. All of this value creation takes place on less than 1% of the land being utilised for agricultural purposes. Even more significant is that potatoes are one of the most efficient converters of water into food – proven by international studies. It is therefore no surprise that the Chinese has adopted potatoes as their product of preference to enhance food security instead of rice in 2008. The Chinese government and private sector is investing billions of US Dollars annually to develop their potato industry for all the reasons mentioned above.

number of potato producers decline from over 2000 producers in the early 1990s to around 560 in 2018 due to economic realities. To produce potatoes costs more or less, depending on the production region and method (irrigation or dryland), 8 to 10 times more than to produce grains. In addition there are significant climatic and biological risks involved, while additional investments required in equipment and pack houses exceed millions. Few people realise that it takes up to five years for a potato to reach the plate of a consumer from the time that the seed potato production cycle has been initiated. The fact is that South Africa remains self-sufficient to produce potatoes with all the multipliers described above! This is indicative of the quality and professionalism of our seed, table and processing producers supported by world class research, information systems, market development and generic product promotion, transformation initiatives, laboratory services and a potato certification service that is envied by many international peers. Our fresh produce market system is unique worldwide and should be cherished. (The main message of a delegation of United Kingdom producers a few years ago to us as an industry was that we should leave no stone unturned to make sure that our fresh produce market system remains intact as price formation mechanism). Of course market channels evolve and will change with consumer dynamics, and hence the cosmos of market channels should and will be optimised given the entrepreneurial spirit prevalent in the industry. Having stated the above, one is mindful of the economic realities and uncertainties everyone in the potato value chain faces, but currently there are other uncertainties in the political realm that can potentially derail the potato industry’s contribution to South Africa’s economy. Given our resilient society our value chain stakeholders must do what they do best and continue to provide the value proposition as described above to our population and have “Faith like Potatoes”. Potato regards Dr André Jooste Chief Executive Officer

Nevertheless, on local soil we have seen the CHIPS • March/April 2018

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international

NEWS

Potato DNA markers could keep potatoes fresher for longer

storage problems. This means they need to import over 50 000 tonnes of potatoes each year.

Scientists funded by the European Union have discovered genetic markers that could allow potatoes to be selected for their ability to be stored at low temperatures, keeping them fresh and avoiding the use of anti-sprouting chemicals.

Potatoes used for crisps and chips are usually stored at eight degrees which is high enough to prevent starch from breaking down into glucose and fructose. To slow sprouting, potato producers often use a suppressant like chlorpropham, a chemical the European Union is looking to phase out due to health concerns.

Ireland is world-renowned for producing potatoes, but Irish crisp and chip manufacturers face a shortage of locally grown potatoes mainly due to long term tuber

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Hoping to find an alternative to chemical sprout suppressors, the GENSPI (Genomic Selection for Potato Improvement) project has developed a


Nuus • News

between the breeding lines, they were able to identify a smaller number of DNA markers that gave us a good ability to predict fry colour. “This means we can develop an inexpensive DNA-based test to predict fry colour that can be applied to tens of thousands of plants in a potato breeding programme”, says Stephen Byrne, the Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellow who carried out the research. Traditionally, potato breeders inter-cross plant varieties to produce up to 100 000 seedlings, and then eliminate poorly performing plant types over a period of ten years. Varieties that are resistant to glucose and fructose formation can only be identified at the end of this time, meaning that many potential varieties have already been eliminated from the breeding process. genetic marker system to identify plants that display a resistance to glucose and fructose formation. Their tubers can be stored at three or four degrees, low enough to keep sprout growth at bay for very long periods. “Glucose and fructose formed during cold storage can cause very dark fry colours, leaving potato crisps and chips with an unacceptably bitter taste. The sugars can also cause a build-up of acrylamide, a potential carcinogen”, says Dan Milbourne, GENSPI project coordinator. GENSPI developed new genomic selection breeding methodologies which will allow potato breeders to select the varieties of potato that seem to be resistant to sweetening at low temperatures.

GENSPI carried out its research in collaboration with a commercial potato breeding program. Its newlydeveloped technique allows resistant plants to be identified early in the ten year breeding program. The team hopes the project will lead to the release of one or more varieties that give an excellent fry colour even at low-temperature storage, avoiding chemical sprout suppressants. The researchers hope to see these varieties released in the next five years. Source: European Union Publications Office / FreshPlaza.com

Potatoes gain credibility for performance of Olympic athletes

To do this, researchers gathered a large collection of potato plants and fried thousands of tubers - the equivalent to 10 000 bags of potato crisps - that had been held in different storage conditions. They then measured their colour once fried and drew the links between fry colour and the genetic variation of the plant. Because the fry colour is controlled by many genes the best approach was to scan the genome for variation at many sites to find correlations between colour and genetic variation. Researchers then used the latest techniques in genome sequences to identify over 100 000 regions across the genome where the DNA sequence varied among the plants. They combined data on variation on the potato phenotype and genome to build statistical models that could predict fry colour from DNA sequencing information. From the 100 000 regions showing genetic variation

Potatoes as a performance food have gained notoriety during the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea, with the Olympian Menu and announcement

CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Nuus • News

that performance nutrition is now a critical part of athletes’ strategy to win. The PyeongChang 2018 athlete’s village kitchen had 180 chefs serving 7 000 meals a day at its peak, and two senior sports nutritionists appointed to the United States Olympic Committee. Team USA shipped 85 pallets of food and equipment, including potatoes, to ensure athletes had exactly what they needed for fuel at all times. One of the nutritionists, Susie Parker-Simmons commented on the recommended dinner for a female cross-country skier, “a bun or roll with four ounces of meat, a cup of vegetables, a cup of quinoa, and a cup of baked potato wedges, as well as yogurt and fruit,” confirming that potatoes are a balanced part of a performance enhancing meal. In addition to the 26 grams of carbohydrates necessary for performance, potatoes contain 620 milligrams of potassium - an important electrolyte that aids in muscle, cardiovascular and nervous system function. Potatoes also have one of the highest overall antioxidant activity among vegetables. This data and additional information on potato nutrition as well as performance driving recipes and links to Performance Magazine are available on the Side Delights® website nutrition page. “Athletes of all levels know that potatoes are fuel for athletic performance,” said Kathleen Triou, President and CEO of Fresh Solutions Network. “The recent RunDisney Health & Fitness Expo at the 25th Anniversary Walt Disney World Marathon in Orlando, Florida, included a Potatoes USA Nutrition Program giving credibility for potatoes as fuel for athletic performance, with 75 000 athletes and spectators receiving recipes and nutritional information on potatoes from the Potatoes USA team.” For marathon runners and Olympic athletes or anyone who chooses to stay healthy through exercise and nutrition, potatoes are an important vegetable to include in their menu. Source: ktriou@freshsolutionsnet.com

More Chinese take a liking to potatoes Potato buns are among the various potato-based versions of traditional Chinese offerings, including fried dough twists and mooncakes. Currently, foods Page 12 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

made from potatoes are more popular than before in China. The changes have come about as China began boosting the total potato cultivation acreage, making the tuber one of the country's top staples to better ensure food security under the pressure of dwindling farmland, water and labour assets, among other issues. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, China will have more than 6.67 million hectares of potato planting areas by 2020. As the government campaign develops, more companies are taking a bigger slice of the market. The booming potato industry is also benefiting farmers. A farmer in Dingxi said that in the past an irregularly shaped potato could not fetch a good price, and would be used to feed livestock or even discarded. "But now such potatoes have a place in the market thanks to the rapid development of the potatoprocessing industry.” Since 2015, China has selected more than ten potato varieties suitable for processing into foodstuffs, and developed more than 300 potato-based versions of such foods. English.eastday.com quoted a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences as saying: "Eating potatoes can help the Chinese form healthier dietary habits and ensure food security.” Source: FreshPlaza.com

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CHIPS • March/April 2018

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plaaslike

NUUS

Kynoch Kunsmis – reeds 100 jaar in Suid-Afrika

Kynoch Kunsmis het op 23 Maart 2018 hul 100ste bestaansjaar in Suid-Afrika gevier. Tydens die eeufeesvieringe het Niren Murugan, die maatskappy se Streekshoof: Suid-Afrika gesê dat Kynoch Kunsmis een van die bekendste en gerespekteerde handelsmerke in die Suid-Afrikaanse landbousektor is. “Ons vier ons ryk erfenis en sien met groot verwagting uit na die volgende 100 jaar. Kynoch sal voortgaan om innoverende produkte en dienste aan ons landboukliënte te lewer.” Die oorspronklike maatskappy wat vandag bekend staan as Kynoch Kunsmis, het sy ontstaan in Page 16 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

ltr: Chad Aitken (Financial Director), Niren Murugan (Regional Head Fertilizer SA), Bruce Shuker (Commercial Manager), Mark Tayler (Marketing and Sales Manager).

Birmingham, Engeland gehad en was aanvanklik 'n ammunisie- en plofstofvervaardiger. In die vroeë 1900s is grond van die destydse Natalse regering gekoop om 'n plofstofaanleg by Umbogintwini buite Durban te bou om plofstof vir die mynbedryf aan die Witwatersrand te vervaardig. Na afloop van die eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1918 was daar 'n ooraanbod van plofstof en het Kynoch sy fokus verskuif en die aanleg aangepas om superfosfaatkunsmis


Nuus • News

te vervaardig – die land se eerste chemiese kunsmisaanleg. In 2014 verkry Export Trading Group (ETG), 'n multinasionale landboukommoditeitsmaatskappy in Afrika, die Midde-Ooste en Asië, 100% aandeelhouding in Kynoch. Dit het tot gevolg dat Kynoch-produkte sedertdien saam met ETG se handelsmerke, Falcon en Zamfert, in Afrikalande verkoop word. Voorts word uitgesoekte Kynochvermengings ook in ETG se aanlegte regdeur Afrika vermeng. “By Kynoch glo ons nie in die enkeletoediening van 'n spesifieke produk nie, maar in die kombinasie van produkte sodat ons voedselprodusente die beste voordeel kan geniet en sodoende meer geld per hektaar kan verdien. Ons groot verkoops- en landboukundige ondersteuningspan wat strategies regoor Suid-Afrika gebaseer is met depots landswyd asook invoer- en vermengingsfasiliteite in alle groot hawens, maak dit vir ons moontlik om 'n omvattende produkreeks te bied en 'n wydverspreide diens te lewer”, het Murugan verder gesê. Wat dienslewering betref is die klem op 'n gewas-, groeistadium- en plekspesifieke benadering, presisielandbou asook navorsing en ontwikkeling. Niren Murugan het ten slotte gesê dat waar Kynoch se fokus voorheen hoofsaaklik op die grootskaalse gewasse soos mielies, sojabone, kring en suikerriet was, fokus die maatskappy nou ook op intensiewe en spesiale gewasse soos aartappels en ander groentes, tropiese vrugte en sitrus en is 'n reeks spesialiteitsprodukte vir die doel ontwikkel.

PMA Fresh Connections SA Conference and Trade Show promises to be something special

The Produce Marketing Association’s (PMA) Fresh Connections Southern Africa Conference and Trade Show which will be held at the CSRI Conference Centre in Pretoria on 15 and 16 August 2018

promises to be something special. Ms Lindie Stroebel, General Manager: PMA Southern Africa said at the announcement on Thursday, 21 February that it is the aim of the association to upscale the event and increase the value thereof for members in the fresh produce and floral value chains by providing the ideal platform for conveying relevant information, networking and the establishment of connections in order to assist the latter to succeed in today’s complex economy, locally and globally. “PMA’s global vision is to grow a healthier world through the involvement of our members in the fresh produce and floral industry. At present we have close to 2 900 member companies in 53 countries which makes it a truly global association. As far as South Africa is concerned we stand at nearly 80 members which cover the full spectrum of stakeholders in the industry, i.e. producers, producer organisations, exporters, input suppliers, traders, wholesalers, fresh produce markets, financiers and retailers”, she said. The 2017 South African PMA Fresh Connections Conference and Trade Show was attended by about 500 participants which included the members referred to above as well as local and global supply chain leaders throughout southern Africa. Ms Stroebel expressed confidence that with the program content for this year’s event, the figure will be surpassed. “The two-day event will focus on paving the way for profitable connections for businesses, featuring a tradeshow and an impressive educational program.” Of special interest to farmers will be the sessions on the state of the fresh produce industry with the emphasis on where it is heading globally, what the local fresh produce market environment looks like taking into account export opportunities and the informal trade versus the formal trade, the latest technology available to the farmer to enhance the farming operation, e-commerce, the importance of the fresh produce department in a retail outlet and the impact of the local economic and political situation on investments in agriculture as well as on the production of fresh produce. “As is the case annually, the conference program will cover a variety of dynamic topics which I am sure will have that special something for everybody. However, what is especially exiting is our Young Professional’s Breakfast for the under 35’s and the fact that we have managed to secure Adv. Thuli Madonsela to deliver the keynote address at our Women’s Fresh Perspective Event”, she added.

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 17


Nuus • News

As far as marketing products and services to the participants, the trade show will make provision for 42 “in-the-face” stands which will allow exhibitors ample opportunity to interact with the attending agricultural industry leaders and decision makers over the two days. Ms Stroebel also stressed the fact that the trade show is the only one in Africa that involves the entire value chain. For more information on the PMA Fresh Connections SA Conference and Trade Show contact Lindie Stoebel at 079 4971594 / lstroebel@pma.com

Minister of Finance. South Africa is indeed the richer for this noble appointment. The Board, Manco and employees salute and honour Ntate Nhlanhla Nene and bade him great success as our great country, South Africa, needs him.

McCain gives the “Skinny” on potatoes for Potato Chip Day

Radical transformation for Chairman of GROW

14 March 2018 marked an auspicious occasion in which the humble spud, in possibly its greatest form, was celebrated worldwide. On International Potato Chip Day 2018, McCain Foods South Africa gave South African consumers the “skinny” on everything related to the delicious and much-loved potato chip. Whether you like your potato chips crispy, soft, golden or slap there is a chip to suit every taste and preference. Mr Nhlanhla Nene was recalled from Chairman of GROW to serve as Minister of Finance for South Africa, again. Amongst other leadership roles in the business community, Mr Nene was the Chairman of the GROW Group of Companies, which included BothaRoodt, Marco and Green Network Fresh Produce Agencies. From the onset, as experienced by producers in Ceres, in the agricultural sector, Mr Nene was afforded the highest level of honour when more than 90 producers converged to listen to him in Ceres during 2017, announcing the formation of GROW. By August 2017, Mr Nene delivered a speech at AFASA in which he emphasized that the purchase of 51% shares in Botha Roodt was radical economic transformation. Throughout his tenure as Chairman at GROW during the last year, Mr Nene had the ear of the captains of industry in the agriculture sector. He was fond of telling all that his title at Thebe Investments were that of Resident Advisor, which should actually be President Advisor, prophetic words indeed. The loss of Mr Nene to the GROW Group of Companies is severe, yet, we are overjoyed to see this man of integrity and talent reinstated in this prominent strategic position as

Page 18 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Almost 2.2 million tons of potatoes are produced annually in 16 geographical areas within South Africa, with the bulk of potatoes being harvested in the Western Free State and Limpopo. Just like not all things are created equal, not all potatoes are the same. There are many different potato cultivars (types) and each is for a different purpose. They have different textures, colours and flavours and this is how they are classified in terms of boiling, roasting, oven bake, mash or our favourite, frying. At McCain, only the best potatoes are selected to produce chips. Their spuds are cut, blanched and frozen within just a few hours after harvesting, in order to lock in nutrition. Potatoes are packed with vitamin B5, B6 and vitamin C, which aids metabolism. McCain has been working with South African farmers to ensure that you have the perfect potatoes to fry, roast or bake in the oven. We trust that you got the family together, cook up your favourite chips and enjoy International Potato Chip Day with McCain! C


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CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 19


POTATOES, ENEMY OF THE PLATE AND HEALTH‌

NOT!

Nicola Walters (RD), Claire Julsing-Strydom (RD) and Immaculate Zinde, Potatoes South Africa For the longest of time potatoes have been labelled the enemy of health, nutrition and plate. Despite their humility and the ongoing fight to take up their rightful place as the number one vegetable in the world and hero carb on a plate, potatoes are still met with some resistance. Thank goodness, it is hard to keep a naturally nutrient dense food crop, like potatoes, down. After numerous studies carried out on potatoes and heart health, Potatoes South Africa (Marketing), can now reveal the BIG FAT TRUTH behind the humble spud. The humble potato is a versatile, cost-effective and easy to cook vegetable that is wholesome and nutritious when prepared correctly. Potatoes baked, boiled and/ or steamed with their skins on and properly dressed have heart. A 13-year-long study of 69 000 Swedes published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that potato intake is NOT associated with higher risk of heart attacks, strokes or heart failure. The most important factor to consider when enjoying potatoes is how you prepare them. When potatoes are Page 20 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018


Bemarking • Marketing

boiled, steamed or baked with their skin intact they provide health benefits. This study highlighted that the preparation and cooking methods used, really make or break the potential health benefits of any food. Potatoes are packed with minerals and vitamins when cooked using better preparation methods. To showcase that potatoes can be scrumptious, consumed as a hero carb on a plate and are suitable for any meal time: breakfast, lunch and supper, Potatoes South Africa (Marketing) in close working with chef and foodie Anna Montali, photographer Roelene Button as well as a team of registered dieticians from Nutritional Solutions developed twenty heart healthy recipes for South African consumers to try out. These recipes also mark the start of a new journey for potato marketing in South Africa. After many years of research and deliberations on whether or not potatoes can be considered a heart healthy product, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of South Africa (HSFSA) has found merit in approving the limited use of the Heart Mark as part of the Heart and Stroke Foundation eating plan when: • • •

community print media. The hand picked personalities were surprised with a beautifully designed box containing a word from the Chief Executive Officer, Dr Jooste, information piece on potatoes and heart health, heart healthy recipe cards, and an image bank of our newly developed heart healthy recipes. This drive is aimed at creating awareness to consumers, health professionals and media at large that potatoes

Potatoes are prepared healthily as the starchy part of a meal. Prepared in a healthy way, e.g. boiled, baked and steamed with skins on. The Heart Mark endorsement may not be used on actual product packaging or by members or affiliates of Potatoes South Africa.

Potatoes South Africa (Marketing) launched a PR drive to announce the great news to all stakeholders through strategically chosen 20 print media personalities in lifestyle, health/food, news and

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 21


Bemarking • Marketing

are not the enemy of the plate. As the year unfolds more research and information will be carried out to unpack the beauty that is potatoes in all their magnificence. We know it is starting to sound cliché, but the truth is it is not the potato that is harmful to your health, it is the way in which it is prepared. Potatoes in their natural form and with their skins on; are fat-free, provide the body with loads of vital energy and are a superior source of potassium. One of the lesser known nutritional treasures of potatoes is their chromium content. Chromium is a metallic element that is essential for the adequate control of blood sugar. It also plays a role in the transport of sugar (glucose) into cells of the body, together with a hormone called insulin. A medium sized serving of potatoes (150g) contains 15 mcg of Chromium. This means between 43-60% of daily estimated Chromium requirements are achieved through eating just one medium serving of boiled or steamed potato, with the skin intact. Chromium can help maintain a normal metabolism and storage of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Adequate intake of chromium can assist in improving good cholesterol levels, and may play a role in preventing heart disease. C

Heart and Stroke Foundation: Endorsement of potatoes Potatoes have been endorsed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation South Africa following an application by Potatoes South Africa. The Heart Mark is significantly important for potatoes as it identifies foods that are inherently healthy. The inclusion of fresh potatoes speaks volumes because the humble potato in its natural form, with skin on and correctly prepared (i.e. boiled, baked, or steamed) is a versatile, costeffective and easy to cook vegetable and carbohydrate that is wholesome and nutrient dense. Consumers will experience potatoes in a whole fresh light: quick and easy to prepare, economical and one healthy yet delicious bite at a time!

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

HINTS AND TIPS: • Consumers should not be removing the skin of

potatoes, deep frying them and then dumping loads

of salt on them.

• The World Health Organisation (WHO)

recommends less than 5g of salt per day for adults.

A Cape Town Study found that South Africans have

a high discretionary salt intake – 33 to 46% of total

salt intake. Discretionary salt is that which is added

at the table or during cooking.

• For maximum health potatoes must be well dressed.

Add herbs, splashes of flavourful vinegar, good oils,

yoghurts or cheeses.

• Fresh potatoes can be stored successfully for 2-3

weeks in a cool, dark and dry place which is well

ventilated. If potatoes are exposed to natural light

(the sun) or artificial light, they become green.

• Do not store potatoes in the refrigerator because

at temperatures below 5 degrees Celsius, the starch

in potatoes is converted into simple sugars which

may result in rot or glassy texture with sweet taste.


CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 23


The relationship between conservation tillage practices and cover crops in the Sandveld Dr Jacques van Zyl, Western Cape Department of Agriculture

Conservation tillage Conservation tillage embraces crop production systems involving the management of surface residues. These practices and cover crop management have the potential to limit the degradation of soil and to maintain crop yields as well as ecosystem stability. The frequent cultivation of fields removes plant residues and organic matter, causing increased rates of soil mineralisation, resulting in losses of soil organic carbon. Tillage plays a major role in modification of soil structure as it influences the distribution of energy rich organic matter within the soil profile and thus Page 24 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

impacts on the energy flow and the dynamics of soil geo-chemical functions.

Cover crops Cover crops are plants that are grown primarily to: • Improve and build soil fertility and quality: Cover crops can be good scavengers of soil N and can cycle significant amounts of recovered N to the follow-up crop. • Manage soil erosion: The run-off from a field will be reduced and thus the cover crop will protect the waterways and downstream


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Figure 1: Trial sites on Fisantevlug. • •

ecosystems from excessive erosion. The roots also produce pores in the soil which allow for water to penetrate deep into the soil and thus help to conserve water in the soil. Suppress the growth and development of weeds and help to control diseases and pests: The occurrence of bacterial and fungal diseases in a soil will be reduced due to the break in disease cycles by the cover crops. It will positively improve the biodiversity of an area by increasing the variety of species.

Grasses or legumes are usually utilised as cover crops, but it can comprise other green plants or mixtures of plants. Three tillage treatments are investigated: • a conventional tillage treatment which includes a mouldboard plough to a depth of 350 mm combined with a rip treatment 600 mm deep between planting rows, • a conservation rip treatment to a depth of 600 mm between planting rows and • a paraplough treatment over two planting rows to a depth of 600 mm. Three cover crop treatments were also investigated in combination with the three tillage treatments, the cover

A long term project to evaluate the effect of conservation agriculture is currently underway in the Sandveld near Aurora on the farm Fisantevlug (Figure 1) with owner, Albert de Villiers, as co-worker. The first cycle of four years has been completed. The second and third cycles will follow in the years to come.

crops were: • Black oats (C1), • rye (C2) and • rye+small grain (C3). The cover crops were planted post potato harvest and in the rye+small grain treatment the rye was planted just after harvest and the small grain was planted the year before the establishment of the potato crop of the following cycle, coinciding with the first winter rains. The percentage cover (Figure. 2) of the cover crop treatments was determined by utilising the line-transect method in March of each year.

Cover offered by the cover crops In the first season it was evident that the rye cover CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 25


Page 26 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

95

Percentage Cover

90

91 a

89.5 a

89 a

86.5 ab

85 ab

85

83.5 ab

83 ab

81.5 ab

76 b

80

75 70

65

C2 C3 C2 C2 Rip Mould Mould Para

C1 C1 C3 Rip Mould Rip

C3 Para

C1 Para

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 2 Year 2 70

Percentage Cover

60

66 a

62 ab

55 b

53 b

52 b

50 b

50

34 c

40 30

28 c

24 c

20 10 0

C3 C2 Mould Mould

C2 Rip

C3 Rip

C3 Para

C2 Para

C1 Mould

C1 Para

C1 Rip

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 2 Year 3

Percentage Cover

The data of the second season showed that the rye and rye+small grain cover crops resulted in the highest percentage cover ranging from 50-66%. The black oats treatments gave the lowest cover of 24-34% which was statistically lower than the other cover crop treatments. The number of cover crop plants per square metre showed that only the rye mouldboard treatment differed statistically from the black oats rip and black oats paraplough treatments. The rye mouldboard treatment resulted in 194.25 plants/m2 whereas the latter had 148.25 and 146.25 plants/m2 respectively. These obtained values were lower than that of the previous season, but this was due to adverse climatic conditions. Rye and rye+small grain cover crop treatments resulted in the highest percentage cover ranging from 37-43% in the third year of the trial. These values are acceptable because it is above the 30% norm which hopefully can be maintained up to the next potato cycle. The black oats resulted in 13-17% cover which were statistically lower than the other cover crop treatments and can therefore not be recommended as cover crop under the current conditions.

Figure 2 Year 1

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

43 a

42 a

41.4 a

39.5 a

37.5 a

37 a 17.5 b

C2 C2 C3 C3 Mould Para Mould Para

C2 Rip

C3 Rip

14 b

13 b

C1 C1 C1 Para Mould Rip

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 2 Year 4 30

Percentage Cover

treatment resulted in the highest percentage cover with an average of 91% cover with the rip treatment, 89.5% with the conventional mouldboard treatment and 86.5% with the paraplough treatment. All values were high in the first year; the target percentage cover is at least 30% before commencement of planting by conservation farming standards. These percentages of cover will, however, decline as these values are for the first season after planting of cover crops and the potato planting will only commence after four years. The black oats paraplough treatment gave the lowest cover of 76%, but it is not statistically different from the treatments that gave up to 86.5% cover. The number of cover crop plants per square metre showed that the paraplough tillage treatments gave the highest number of plants per square metre with all cover crop treatments with 367.50, 356.25 and 301.25 plants/m2 for the black oats, rye and rye+small grain treatments respectively in year one. Rye always provided a good cover as illustrated in Figure 3 with normal rainfall after establishment as in the first season with 124.4 mm in the period from August to December.

25

24 a

21.5 ab

20

17.0 bc

16.5 bcd

15

14.0 cde

13.0 cde

C Rip

C2 C2 Para Mould

11.5 de

11.5 de

9.5 e

10 5 0

C3 C1 Mould Mould

C1 Rip

C1 Para

C3 Rip

C3 Para

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 2: Percentage cover (means followed by the same letter did not differ significantly at the 5% level).


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Dry Weight (g) per square meter

Figure 4 Year 1 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

653.25 607.15 a ab 556.8 547.34 516.5 ab ab ab 457.88 bc 302.13 cd 240.03 d 187.16 d

C2 C3 C2 Mould Mould Para

C3 Rip

C3 Para

C2 C1 Rip Mould

C1 Rip

C1 Para

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Due to the absence of sufficient follow-up rains, 73.9 mm in the period from August to December in the fourth season, the highest achievable cover was 24%, which was not sufficient to provide cover up to the next potato planting. The number of cover crop plants ranged from 64 up to 100.25 plants/m2, which was lower than in the previous years. The lowest percentage cover achieved was 9.5% which will have a minimal effect on the follow up potato crop.

The interaction between tillage treatments and cover crop treatments Over the period of four years (Figure 4), the highest total dry weight production was 653.25 g/m2 in the conventional tillage regime with rye as cover crop. The results clearly indicated that the black oats cover crop treatment resulted in the lowest dry mass per square metre. The comparison of the three cover crop treatments per tillage regime shows that rye and rye+small grain cover crop treatments statistically outperformed the black

Dry Weight (g) per square meter

160 140

150 147.5 140 a ab ab

120

135 127.5 ab 115 ab b

100

65 c

80 60

57.7 c

50 c

40 20

0

C3 C3 Mould Rip

C2 Rip

C2 C2 C3 Para Mould Para

C1 Para

C1 C1 Rip Mould

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 4 Year 3 Dry Weight (g) per square meter

The overall cover percentage the third season was lower than the previous two seasons which can also be attributed to the serious drought conditions which prevailed earlier in the season, just after establishment of the cover crop with only 6.6 mm rain from August to December. The number of cover crop plants per square metre ranged from 210.5 plants/m2 to 279.25 plants/m2 for the black oats and rye respectively.

Figure 4 Year 2

160 140

150 a

128.5 123.5 a a

120

117 a

116 a

105 a

100

54.5 b

80 60

47.5 b

42 b

C1 Rip

C1 Mould

40 20 0

C3 Mould

C3 Rip

C2 Rip

C2 C2 C3 Para Mould Para

C1 Para

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 4 Year 4 Dry Weight (g) per square meter

Figure 3: Good cover achieved with rye in first season after establishment.

120 100

114 a

111.5 99.5 ab b

80 60

98 c

84 cd

74 d

55.5 e

55.5 e

49 e

40 20 0

C3 C2 C2 Mould Mould Para

C3 C2 Rip C3 Rip C1 C1 C1 Rip Para Para Mould

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 4: Total cover crop dry mass production: Year 1-4 (means followed by the same letter did not differ significantly at the 5% level). CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 27


Weed control

Figure 5: Cover crops 12 months after sowing, black oats encircled. oats treatment at this timeline of the trial with all three tillage treatments. The highest total dry cover crop mass in the second year was 150.0 g/m2 in the conventional tillage regime with rye+small grain. Rye and rye+small grain combinations only showed significant differences between the rye+small grain mouldboard and the rye+small grain paraplough treatments which showed a difference of 35 g/m2 dry mass. The results indicate that the black oats cover crop treatment resulted in the lowest mass of dry matter per square metre when compared to the other cover crop treatments. It is evident from the results, from the first to fourth year, that when black oats was used as cover crop in any of the tillage regimes it had the lowest dry mass production throughout the first four year cycle of the trial. The black oats combinations had significantly lower bio-mass when compared to any of the treatment combinations, encircled in red in Figure 4. The dry mass per square meter production of the other treatments resulted in no statistical difference between any of them in the third year and only in the fourth year of the cycle the rip rye treatment outperformed the rip rye+small grain treatment. The comparison of the three cover crop treatments per tillage regime showed that the cover crop treatment rye and rye+small grain statistically outperformed the black oats treatment in all four seasons. During the second cycle of potato production it is now recommended that fodder barley as cover crop should be planted in place of black oats to achieve higher cover crop outputs. Figure 5 shows clearly how the black oats were outperformed by the other cover crop combinations. The higher dry matter production experienced in the first year was due to good follow up rains that followed the establishment of the cover crop after the potatoes were harvested. The three seasons thereafter did not produce the high optimum dry matter production as was experienced in the first year due to drier conditions after the establishment of the cover crops. Page 28 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

During the first four years of the trial weeds were not problematic. White Goosefoot (Chenopodium album), Withondebossie, numbers ranged from 4.5 to 21.0 plants/m2 over all treatment combinations in the first season. The paraplough treatment with rye as cover crop treatment showed the lowest number of White Goosefoot, but it only differed significantly from the rip black oats and conventional black oats treatment. Sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceas), Sydissel, only showed significant differences between the lowest paraplough rye treatment of 8 plants/m2 and the highest rip rye+small grain treatment of 19 plants/m2. The total dry mass of all weeds showed that the paraplough treatments with cover crop combinations rye+small grain and rye resulted in the lowest dry matter mass of weeds i.e. 10.36 and 7.2 g/m2 respectively (Fig. 6) which indicates that the minimum tillage produced by the paraplough did not lead to increased weed infestation. When only cover crop is considered it is evident that the black oats cover crop treatment resulted in the highest dry mass of weeds per square metre which was 76.71 g/m2 for the conventional treatment, 83.56 and 31.45 g/m2 for the rip and paraplough treatments respectively. These results are due to the lack of performance by the black oats as sufficient cover crop. The cover crop treatment eventually recommended will have to suppress weed development and contain the spread thereof. No significant differences were found when cover crop treatments inside tillage regimes were compared. The pivot location in the second year of the trial was relatively weed free and therefore resulted in low numbers of weeds. The total dry mass of all weeds showed that the mouldboard treatments with cover crop combinations black oats and rye resulted in the highest dry matter mass of weeds i.e. 7.55 and 0.32 g/m2 respectively. White Goosefoot (Chenopodium album) numbers were 0.5 plants/m2 with the black oats and rye mouldboard treatment combinations. The other treatments showed no White Goosefoot (Chenopodium album) infestations. Sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceas) was only present in the black oats mouldboard treatment at 1.0 plants/ m2 which did not pose a risk. The other cover crop treatments inside tillage regimes showed no recorded presence of weeds. The total dry mass of weeds, in the third season, ranged from 0.49 to 2.28 g/m2 which were very low, due to very low rainfall of only 6.6 mm from August to December. White Goosefoot (Chenopodium album) numbers ranged from 1.5 to 4.75 plants/m2. White


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

The results after the first cycle are very positive regarding conservation tillage and cover crops, it will be of great significance if these outcomes are to be repeated in the forthcoming growth cycles, when potatoes are established again, as this could set new standards for potato production due to the fact that it will not only conserve the soil dynamics but will eventually regenerate it over time. Black oats will be replaced by fodder barley due to its lack of performance, possibly due to the low rainfall which was encountered after establishment of the cover crops from August to December for all years except the first year, in order to achieve higher cover percentages which could suppress the development of weeds. C

I wish to thank Albert de Villiers and his team for their valuable contribution to the success of this trial. Contact Dr. J. van Zyl (021 8085302) at the Western Cape Department of Agriculture for any information regarding the trial.

Dry Weight of Weeds (g) per square meter

83.56 76.71 a a

34.25 31.45 b bc 27.26 bc

C1 Rip

16.29 bc 10.63 10.36 bc bc

7.2 c

C1 C2 C1 C3 C2 C3 C3 C2 Mould Rip Para Rip Mould Mould Para Para Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 6 Year 2 Dry Weight of Weeds (g) per square meter

The results thus far on the prevalence of weeds showed no negative effects as a result of the paraplough treatment compared to the conventional tillage practices. Should the data follow the same trends in the future, it is evident that the weeds prevalent in the Sandveld would not be an inhibitive factor in the process to convert to conservation tillage practices.

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

8

7.55 a

7 6 5 4 3 2 0.32 b

1 0

0 b

0 b

0 b

0 b

0 b

0 b

0 b

C1 C2 C1 Rip C2 Rip C1 Para C3 Rip C3 C3 Para C2 Para Mould Mould Mould

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 6 Year 3 Dry Weight of Weeds (g) per square meter

During the fourth year, once again, very low weed numbers were encountered and ranged from 0 to 3 plants/m2 with a dry matter mass ranging between 0 and 8.4 g/m2 with no significant differences between treatments. Stinkkruid (Oncosiphon grandiflorum) was the only weed present in all tillage regimes with a maximum number of 3 plants/m2. White Goosefoot (Chenopodium album) was only present in the mouldboard treatment ranging from 0 to 1 plants/m2.

Figure 6 Year 1

2,5

2.28 2.185 2.124 a a a

2

1.53 ab

1,5

1.52 1.505 1.495 1.49 ab ab ab ab

1

0.495 b

0,5 0

C3 C1 C3 C2 C1 C2 C1 C3 C2 Para Mould Mould Rip Rip Para Para Rip Mould Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 6 Year 4 Dry Weight of Weeds (g) per square meter

Goosefoot was the only weed that was present in all treatments, but it was present in such low numbers that it posed no problems for production purposes.

9

8

8.4 a

6.73 a

7 6

4.23 a

5

4

3.39 a

3 2

2.12 a

1

0

C2 Mould

C2 Rip

C1 C2 Mould Para

C3 Rip

1.19 a

0.13 a

C3 C3 Mould Para

0 a

0 a

C1 Rip

C1 Para

Treatment: C1-Black Oats C2-Rye C3-Rye+Small grain

Figure 6: Total dry mass of weeds per square meter (means followed by the same letter did not differ significantly at the 5% level). CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 29


Oorlewing van Ralstonia solanacearum in grond Dr. Rene Sutherland, ARC-VOP, Roodeplaat Kennis oor die oorlewing van ’n patogeen (biologiese agent wat siektes kan veroorsaak) is noodsaaklik aangesien dit kan help met die ontwikkeling van beheerstrategieë deur te fokus op die kwesbare eienskappe van die patogeen. Aangesien Ralstonia solanacearum, wat bakteriese verwelk op verskeie plantsoorte veroorsaak, nie spore vorm om ongunstige toestande te oorleef nie, het patoloë lank kop gekrap oor die meganisme waarop die patogeen oorleef. Sedert 2001 het navorsing daarop gedui dat daar verskeie vorme is waarin R. solanacearum kan oorleef in ongunstige omgewingsomstandighede, insluitend die lewend-maar-nie-kweekbaar-fase (LMNK). In Engels: Viable but not culturable (VBNC). LMNK is ’n nuwe begrip vir die aartappelbedryf en baie vrae word gevra. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om van die vrae te beantwoord. “Lewend maar nie-kweekbaar (LMNK)” LMNK is ’n oorlewingsmeganisme vir niePage 30 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

spoorvormende bakterieë onder ongunstige omgewingstoestande. LMNK-selle is lewende selle wat metabolies aktief is, maar wat die vermoë verloor het om op roetine-groeimedia te groei. So wat beteken dit? As R. solanacearum in die LMNK-fase is, kan dit nie op media gekweek word nie en is dan baie moeilik om op te spoor. Dit is dus nie dood nie en kan steeds versprei en plante infekteer. Wanneer gaan bakterieë in ’n LMNK-fase? Stresvolle en ongunstige toestande plaas R. solanacearum in die LMNK-fase. Oor die algemeen kom gram-negatiewe bakterieë in die LMNK-toestand voor as gevolg van beperkte voedingstowwe, ongunstige temperature, verandering in osmotiese of suurstofkonsentrasies, of blootstelling aan swaar metale. Daar is gevind dat in die latere stadiums van plantinfeksie in tamatieplante (na ±60 dae), 99% van die R. solanacearum selle in die LMNK-fase gaan.


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Wat is die kenmerke van LMNK-selle? LMNK-selle is verdwerg, met beperkte respirasie, afname in makro-molekuulsintese, veranderinge aan die buitenste membraan en die verandering van die selle van bacilli tot kokkievorm. LMNK-selle is steeds metabolies aktief, en die uitdrukking van virulensie- gene is goed gedokumenteer. Gedurende die LMNK-fase is die meerderheid proteïene funksioneel en stabiel. R. solanacearum LMNK selle is hoogs geaggregeer in ’n ekstrasellulêre matriks wat beskerming bied aan selle tydens die LMNK-fase. Hoe kan LMNK-selle opgespoor word? Aangesien LMNK-selle nie deur konvensionele patologiese metodes opgespoor kan word nie, word opsporing van LMNK-selle hoofsaaklik uitgevoer deur twee metodes, naamlik: • “BacLight Live / Dead” toets tydens mikroskopiese analise; en • molekulêr deur die gebruik van RT-PCR om geenuitdrukking op te spoor. In die geval van die “BacLight Live / Dead”-toets, sal selle met 'n intakte membraan groen onder ’n fluorescensie-mikroskoop vertoon, terwyl dooie selle rooi is. Die gebruik van RT-PCR is ook ’n uitstekende metode om die lewensvatbaarheid van selle te bepaal, aangesien die halfleeftyd van RNA slegs drie tot vyf minute is. Is daar ’n verhoogde tolerasie van LMNKselle teen chemikalieë? 'n Groot bekommernis is dat selle in die LMNK-fase meer bestand is teen chemikalieë en dus moeiliker is om te beheer.

‘n Datalogger wat grondtemperatuur en vog meet oor ’n tydperk van een jaar. Navorsing om oorlewing in grond te bestudeer Dit is baie belangrik om te bepaal hoe lank R. solanacearum in Suid-Afrikaanse gronde oorleef. Omdat die studie nie op aartappellande getoets kan word nie, is kleigrond van die Dendron- en sandgrond van die Sandveld-area in Ziploc-sakke geplaas (’n grond mikro-kosmos word geskep). Die grond is daarna geïnokuleer met R. solanacearum onder verskillende vog- en temperatuurtoestande. Die gemiddelde R. solanacearum vlakke in die grond word elke 1-3 maande bepaal, wat verband hou met die oorlewingsyfer van R. solanacearum. Verder word die temperatuur- en voginhoud bepaal in aartappellande in die Dendron- en Sandveld-area oor ’n tydperk van een jaar by verskillende dieptes met behulp van dataloggers (Ibuttons) sodat die oorlewing in die veld geraam kan word. Met hierdie resultate wil ons nie net die oorlewing bepaal nie, maar moontlike beheermaatreëls ontwerp. C

Kan LMNK-selle weer verander na aktiewe patogeniese selle? Daar is gerapporteer dat die bakterieë na opheffing van strestoestande terug verander en dan weer op media gekweek kan word. Verskeie studies het getoon dat patogene gewoonlik hul virulensie (die vermoë om ’n plant siek te maak) behou nadat hulle terug verander van die LMNK-fase. Dit is egter nog nie op aartappels bewys nie. Hoe lank kan selle in LMNK-fase verkeer? Daar word gespekuleer dat R. solanacearum onbepaald kan oorleef in geraniums. Geen toetse is egter al uitgevoer op aartappelplante nie. Wat wel bevind is, is dat indien die aanvanklike konsentrasie patogeenselle hoog is, die oorlewing verleng word.

Grondmonsters wat met R. solanacearum geïnokuleer is, word onder toestande van verskillende temperature en grondvog geberg en monsters word gereeld getoets vir die teenwoordigheid van R solanacearum. CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 31


Reeks: Effek van stikstofbestuur op knolinisiasie II Het stikstof ‘n invloed op stolonlengtes? Chantel du Raan (Aartappels Suid-Afrika) en prof. Martin Steyn (Universiteit van Pretoria)

Agtergrond 'n Stolon is 'n horisontale, kruipende, gewysigde stingel wat bestaan uit lang internodes en 'n haak aan die apikale punt. Knolle word op hierdie stolons gedra uit nodes wat hoofsaaklik ondergronds voorkom, en wat reeds vroeg na opkoms begin vorm. Stolons vorm eers 'n hakie, wat dan differensieer en swel om uiteindelik 'n klein knolletjie te vorm. Hoë lugtemperature, wat geassosieer word met lang fotoperiodes en hoë ligintensiteite, bevorder stolongroei, terwyl knolinisiasie inhibeer word. Die studie het ondersoek hoe verskillende stikstofpeile en Page 32 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

stikstoftoedieningstye die stolongroei (lengte) van drie kultivars (BP1, Eos en Lanorma) beïnvloed aangesien hulle daarvoor bekend is dat hulle in knolinisiasieeienskappe verskil. Behandelings Die behandelings is in detail in die vorige artikel beskryf en kan as volg kortliks opgesom word: • 3 kultivars: BP1 (C1; standaard vergelyking), Eos (C2) en Lanorma (C3) • 3 verskillende N peile, gebaseer op die grond klei-inhoud en potensiële opbrengs: - Lenteseisoen: 160 kg/ha N (R1), 240 kg/ha N


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

(R2) en 320 kg/ha N (R3) - Herfsseisoen: 140 kg/ha N (R1), 220 kg/ha N (R2) en 300 kg/ha N (R3). • 3 N toedieningstyd was toegedien in beide seisoene: - 30% N met plant en 70% na knolinisiasie (T1), - 50% N met plant en 50% na knolinisiasie (T2), en - 70% N met plant en 30% na knolinisiasie (T3) Waarom is stolonlengte belangrik? Lang stolons, veroorsaak 'n hoë risiko vir knolle om naby die grondoppervlak te vorm. Die grond wat vlak-liggende knolle bedek kan weens harde reën of besproeiing wegspoel en die knolle kan later bo die grond uitsteek. Sulke knolle wat bo die grond uitsteek word blootgestel aan sonlig, wat die vorming van chlorofil in die selle direk onder die skil veroorsaak en word vergroening genoem. Behalwe die ongewensde eksterne gehalte, lei dit ook tot ’n bitter smaak en kan dit giftig wees vir die mens as gevolg van glikoalkaloïede wanneer dit in groot hoeveelhede verteer word. Vergroening is die hoofrede vir die afmerking van aartappels op die mark deur Prokon, soos geïllustreer in Figuur 1. Dit is daarom van kardinale belang dat korter stolons in walle gevorm word, aangesien dit die aantal groen knolle verminder en die bemarkings- en kleinhandelprobleme sal verlaag. Kultivareffek Stolon-lengte in the wal hang grootliks af van die kultivar. Let wel, dat die gemiddelde stolonlengtes per kultivar in Figuur 3 aangedui word. Daar was groot variasie tussen stolonlengtes op een plant wat gewissel het vanaf 0.5 cm tot 24 cm soos aangedui in Figuur 2. Lanorma (groen lyn) het in die algemeen langer stolons van 2 tot 9 weke na 50% opkoms gehad in vergelyking met Eos (rooi lyn) en BP1 (blou lyn) (Figuur 3). BP1, aan die ander kant, het reeds van die begin-af die kortste stolons gehad, maar teen die einde van die seisoen (11 weke na 50% opkoms) was daar egter geen betekenisvolle verskille tussen die drie kultivars nie. Effek van stikstofpeile ‘n Tendens is waargeneem dat ’n verhoging in stikstofpeil stolonlengtes verhoog het. Die twee hoogste N-vlakke van 240 en 320 kg/ha N het vir die grootste deel van die groeiseisoen langer stolons tot gevolg gehad as 160 kg/ha N (Figuur 4). Aan die einde van die seisoen (week 11) het die hoogste N-peil betekenisvol langer stolons gehad as die laagste N -peil (160 kg/ha N). Stolonlengte by 'n N vlak van 240 kg/ha het egter nie beduidend van die ander twee peile verskil nie.

Top 10 redes vir afgradering: 2014 Insek beskadiging 6% Sandspleet 9%

Mot skade 9%

Bederf 3%

Misvorming 3%

Ander 21%

Aalwurm 9%

Verbruining 11%

Meganiese beskadiging 12%

Vergorening 17%

Top 10 redes vir afgradering: 2015 Insek beskadiging Bederf 5% 4%

Mot skade 6%

Misvorming 4%

Sandspleet 6%

Ander 24%

Aalwurm 9%

Verbruining 12%

Meganiese beskadiging 13%

Vergorening 17%

Top 10 redes vir afgradering: 2016 Insek beskadiging 4% Bederf 4% Sandsplete 6%

Te klein 4%

Nerf af/los 4% Ander 27%

Aalwurm 6%

Verbruining 12% Meganiese beskadiging 14%

Vergroen 19%

Figuur 1: Top 10 redes vir afgradering van aartappels op die varsprodukte markte deur Prokon vanaf 2013 tot 2016

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 33


Page 34 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

240 kg/ha N

BP1 Bp1

240 kg/ha N

320 kg/ha N 320 kg/ha N

240 kg/ha N

160 kg/ha N 160 kg/ha N

Kultivars by verskillende N peile

Eos Eos

240 kg/ha N 240 kg/ha N

160 kg/ha N 160 kg/ha N

Lanorma

Lanorma

320 kg/ha N

320 kg/ha N 320 kg/ha N

240 kg/ha N

160 kg/ha N

160 kg/ha N

Werklike stolonlengte (cm)

Figuur 2: Voorbeeld van een herhaling om die effek van kultivar, N peil en N toedieningstyd op werklike stolonlengtes (nie gemiddelde) te illustreer.

0

5

10

15

20

25

320 kg/ha N

70%;30%

50%;50%

30%; 70%

N Toedieningstyd


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Gemiddelde stolonlengte (cm)

4.5

a

4.0

BP1

a a

3.5 3.0

b

a a

2.5 2.0

ab

b

b

b

c

1.5 1.0

a

a

b

b

b

b

a

a

b

a

b

a

Eos Lanorma 2de kunsmis toediening Week 1 2 3 4 5 7 12 9 11

b

0.5 0.0 0

2

4

6

8

10

Weke na 50% opkoms

SE

KBV

KV%

0.0804

0.5236

28.9

0.1874

1.220

22.8

0.2620

1.706

18.1

0.0894

0.582

27.2

0.1576

1.0263

27.1

0.0609

0.8554

28.9

0.0699

0.9814

16.8

0.1395

1.9574

23.2

*Punte met dieselfde letter per week verskil nie betekenisvol by P<0.01 volgens die Tukey-toets nie.

Figuur 3: Gemiddelde stolonlengte vir kultivars BP1, Eos en Lanorma in die lenteseisoen.

Gemiddelde stolonlengte (cm)

Effek van stikstoftoedieningstye Dieselfde tendense is waargeneem as vir N-peile, naamlik dat die hoogste hoeveelheid N toegedien tydens plant (behandeling 50% N tydens plant; 50% N na opkoms en behandeling 70% N tydens plant; 30% N na opkoms) gelei het tot die langste stolons, in vergelyking met 30% N met plant; 70% N na opkoms (vanaf week 2 tot 5; Figuur 5). In week 9 het die hoogste N% toegedien met plant (70% N met plant; 30% N na opkoms) aansienlik langer stolons as die ander twee behandelings getoon. Teen die einde van

3.5

a

3

a

2.5 2

a a

1.5

a

a a

b b

a a b

a

ab

b

b

Interaksie-effek Kultivar x N toedieningstyd Baie vroeg in die seisoen (week 1 na 50% opkoms) is stolonlengte beïnvloed deur die interaksie tussen

N peil:

a

a

a

die seisoen (week 11) het die hoogste N% met plant, aansienlik langer stolons gehad as die laagste N% met plant. Die behandeling wat 50% N met plant en 50% N na opkoms ontvang het, het egter nie wesenlik van die ander twee behandelings verskil nie.

160 kg/ha N

a

b

ab b

b

1 0.5 0 0

2

4

6

8

Weke na 50% opkoms

10

12

240 kg/ka N 320 kg/ha N 2de kunsmis toediening Week 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 11

SE 0.104 0.123 0.094 0.128 0.121 0.152 0.094 0.131

KBV 0.393 0.468 0.356 0.485 0.460 0.602 0.370 0.516

KV% 28.9 22.8 18.1 27.2 27.1 28.9 16.8 23.2

*Punte met dieselfde letter per week verskil nie betekenisvol by P<0.01 volgens die Tukey-toets nie

Figuur 4: Stolonlengte soos beïnvloed deur stikstofpeile (gemiddelde vir kultivars BP1, Eos en Lanorma) in die lenteseisoen. CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 35


Gemiddelde stolonlengte (cm)

3.5

a

3

a

2.5

b

a b

a

c

b

a a a

2 1.5

N toedieningstyd:

a a

a a b

a

b

a

b

30%; 70%

0.5 0 2

4

6

8

ab

50%; 50%

b

70%; 30% 2de kunsmis toediening

1

0

(met plant; na

a

a

10

Weke na 50% opkoms

Week 1 2 3 4 5 12 7 9 11

SE 0.104 0.123 0.094 0.128 0.121 0.152 0.094 0.131

KBV 0.393 0.468 0.356 0.485 0.460 0.602 0.370 0.516

KV% 28.9 22.8 18.1 27.2 27.1 28.9 16.8 23.2

*Punte met dieselfde letter per week verskil nie betekenisvol by P<0.01 volgens die Tukey-toets nie

Figuur 5: Stolonlengte soos beïnvloed deur N toedieningstyd (gemiddelde vir kultivars BP1, Eos en Lanorma) in die lenteseisoen. Tabel 1: Stolonlengte soos beïnvloed deur die interaksie effek tussen kultivars (BP1, Eos en Lanorma) en N toedieningstyd in die lente seisoen. Stolonlengte (cm) Week 1 Tyd van toediening

BP1 Eos Lanorma

30% met plant; 70% 3-4 weke na opkoms 0.844 g 1.9 de 1.811 def

50% met plant; 50% 3-4 weke na opkoms 0.633 g 2.922 a 2.589 abc

70% met plant; 30% 3-4 weke na opkoms 0.867 g 2.878 ab 2.311 abcd

Laagste waarde

Hoogste waarde

* Waardes gevolg deur dieselfde letter per week verskil nie beduidend by P<0.01 volgend die Tukey-toets nie. *Week 1: SE = 0.1796; KBV = 0.6812; KV% = 28.9. kultivar x N toedieningstyd (Tabel 1). Kultivar BP1 het geen beduidende verskille in stolonlengte tussen die drie N toedieningstye getoon nie. In teenstelling hiermee het Eos en Lanorma langer stolons getoon as die behandelings waar 50% N met plant en 50% N na opkoms, asook 70% N met plant en 30% N na opkoms toegedien is. Laasgenoemde twee behandelings het nie wesenlik van mekaar verskil nie.

ha N (aanbevole N peil) in kombinasie met 30% N met plant en 70% N na opkoms, asook 50% N met plant en 50% N na opkoms ontvang het, het aan die anderkant albei die kortste stolonlengtes in week 9 getoon. In week 11, daarenteen, het die behandelingskombinasie van 160 kg/ha N tesame met verdeling van 50% N met plant en 50% N na opkoms aansienlik korter stolons getoon.

N peil x N toedieningstyd Betreffende die interaksie tussen N-peil x N toedieningstyd, het die behandelingskombinasie van 320 kg/ha N (hoogste N-peil) saam met 70% N met plant en 30% N na opkoms in beide week 9 en 11 aansienlik langer stolons gevorm. Die behandelings wat 160 kg/ha N (laagste N-peil) en 240 kg/

Opsomming 'n Opsomming van al die faktore wat stolonlengte beïnvloed, word in Tabel 1 uiteengesit: • Lanorma is geneig om langer stolons deur die seisoen te maak, maar teen die einde van die seisoen het kultivars nie beduidend van mekaar verskil nie.

Page 36 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Tabel 2: Stolonlengte per plant soos beïnvloed deur die interaksie effek tussen N-peil en N-toedieningstyd in die lente seisoen. Stolonlengte (cm) Week 9 Tyd van toediening 30% met plant; 70% 3-4 weke na opkoms

N peil 160 kg/ha N 240 kg/ha N 320 kg/ha N

1.87 1.772 2.108

c c c

50% met plant; 50% 3-4 weke na opkoms

1.612 1.9 3.072

c c ab

Week 11 Tyd van toediening 70% met plant; 30% 3-4 weke na opkoms

2.342 3.175 3.395

bc ab a

30% met plant; 70% 3-4 weke na opkoms

2.19 bc 1.927 bc 1.958 bc

50% met plant; 50% 3-4 weke na opkoms

1.64 c 2.607 abc 3.005 ab

70% met plant; 30% 3-4 weke na opkoms

1.987 bc 2.632 abc 3.538 a

Laagste waarde

Hoogste waarde

* Waardes gevolg deur dieselfde letter per week verskil nie wesenlik by P <0.01 volgens die Tukey-toets nie. *Week 9: SE = 0.1620; KBV = 0.6407; KV% = 16.8. *Week 11: SE = 0.2261; KBV = 0.8944; KV% = 23.2.

• The hoogste N peil het aan die einde van die seisoen aansienlik langer stolons getoon, in vergelyking met die laagste N peil. • 'n Toename in die hoeveelheid N met plant het langer stolons tot gevolg gehad. • Vroeg in die seisoen was daar 'n interaksie tussen kultivar en stikstoftoedieningstyd, wat in Tabel 3

opgesom word. • Later in die seisoen het 'n interaksie-effek van stikstofpeil en stikstoftoedieningstyd 'n effek getoon en word ook in Tabel 3 opgesom. In die volgende CHIPS-artikel sal ons verken hoe stikstofbestuur knolinisiasie beïnvloed. C

Tabel 3: Opsomming van stolonlengte soos beïnvloed deur kultivar, N-peil en N toedieningstyd. Skematiese opsomming van kultivar en N behandelings op stolonlengte Kultivar Lanorma

BP1

Stikstof peil Eos

Stikstof toedieningstyd

R1 (Tekort)

R2 (Aanbevole)

R3 (Oormaat)

160 kg/ha N

240 kg/ha N

320 kg/ha N

T1 (30%; 70%)

Langer stolons in vergelyking

-

-

T2 (50%; 50%)

T3 (70%; 30%)

Intermediêre

Intermediêre reaksie

reaksie

met BP1 en Eos

Interaksie effek Kultivar x N toedieningstyd Lanorma

BP1

Eos

T1 (30%; 70%)

T2 (50%; 50%)

T3 (70%; 30%)

T1 (30%; 70%)

T2 (50%; 50%)

T3 (70%; 30%)

Geen effek Langer stolonlengte Langer stolonlengte N peil x N toedieningstyd R1 (Tekort)

R2 (Aanbevole)

R3 (Oormaat)

160 kg/ha N

240 kg/ha N

320 kg/ha N

Langer stolonlengte Korter stolonlengte Korter stolonlengte

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 37


TUBER BLEMISH HOTLINE 074 603 1096

WANTED: TUBERS with CORKY CRACKS or POWDERY SCAB If you observe either of these symptoms on your tubers, WhatsApp the following to the number above: 1. Location

2. Your name

3. Cultivar

4. Planting date

5. Previous crop Someone will contact you as soon as possible after receiving your message. The Potato Pathology Programme @ UP (PPP @ UP) requires your help to advance research on corky cracks and powdery scab specifically. Our aim is to exchange knowledge to solve problems with practical solutions, and to share research that will benefit multiple investigators and the public. In alerting us of outbreaks you will supply us with valuable information regarding: susceptible cultivars, effects of previous crop and soil type on disease incidence, and localities where the causal pathogens are present.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Corky cracks (Fig. 1) must not be confused with growth cracks (sandspleet) (Fig. 2). Powdery scab (Fig. 3) should also not be confused with common scab (Fig. 4). We need as many diseased tubers as possible from all growing regions for our research! Thank-you in advance for your time and cooperation!

BE PART OF THE SOLUTION! Alternatively contact Jacquie van der Waals directly on 082 8999 088, or Jacquie.vdwaals@up.ac.za TUBER BLEMISH HOTLINE managed by Prof Jacquie van der Waals, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria

Page 38 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Publikasies

2018 TIPE

Titel Handleiding vir Aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika @ R300

Handleidings

Beskrywing van 16 aartappelplae in Suid-Afrika

(BTW ingesluit en posgeld uitgesluit)

Junie 2017

Beskrywing van 16 aartappelpeste in Suid-Afrika (2017)

Beste praktyke-reeks

Bundel CHIPS-artikels

Beste praktyke vir die hantering van moere (2015) Verantwoordelike gebruik van gewasbeskermingsprodukte (2016) Na-oesverrotting van aartappels / Post harvest decay of potatoes (2015).

ALTERNARIA-SIEKTES

Opslagaartappels / Volunteer potatoes (2017). Plakkaat

Intene kwaliteit (2016)

Saamgestel en gepubliseer deur Aartappels Suid-Afrika (Departement: Navorsing en Ontwikkeling) September 2016 Kopiereg. Die inligting vervat in hierdie publikasie mag slegs vir eie gebruik, navorsing of studie gebruik word. Die kopiereg (geheel of gedeeltelik) van hierdie publikasie mag nie vir enige kommersiĂŤle of ander doelwit gekopieer, gereproduseer, oorgedra of gewysig word, sonder die uitdruklike geskrewe toestemming van Aartappels Suid-Afrika nie en dit mag slegs gedoen word onderhewig aan die voorwaardes ingevolge waarvan sodanige toestemming verleen word. Voorgestelde verwysing: Aartappels Suid-Afrika. 2016. Feiteblad: Alternaria-siektes. http://www.potatoes.co.za/research/factsheets.aspx Vrywaring ten opsigte van publikasies. http://www.potatoes.co.za/contact/disclaimer.aspx

Aartappelblaarmyner (2015) Aartappelmot (2015) Alternaria siektes (2017) Bakteriese verwelk (2015) Bruinskurf (2015) Feiteblaaie

Fisiologiese knolafwykings (2016) Na-oesverlies (2017) Interne kwaliteit (2016)

Verantwoordelike gebruik van gewasbeskermingsprodukte Junie 2016

Poeierskurf (2016) Sagtevrot-swartstam (2015) Silwerskurf en swartspikkel (2015) Virussiektes en plantluise (2016) Beskikbaar by kantore van Aartappels Suid-Afrika. Met die uitsondering van die Handleiding vir Aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika, is al die publikasies elektronies beskikbaar op www.potatoes.co.za/research Opslagaartappels Volunteer potatoes

2017 CHIPS

www.potatoes.co.za/research


Prospects for the coming seasons, minimum wage and the drought in the Western Cape Pieter van Zyl, Potatoes South Africa and Divan van der Westhuizen and Marion Delport, Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP)

The food and agricultural production environment is associated with volatile and uncertain conditions which is repeatedly characterised by instability in the macro-economic environment, changing and fluctuating weather patterns, volatility in commodity markets and rising agricultural input costs. The combination and interaction of these drivers make decision-making and more importantly, the ability to farm profitable and sustainable, exceptionally Page 40 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018

challenging. This is not only true for domestic small and commercial producers, but also in the global agricultural environment. Producers are continually facing new challenges ranging from droughts, input cost shocks, uncertain markets and policy uncertainty. This article focusses on some of these key drivers of change and places this changing environment in the context of realities at farm-level.


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

Prospects for potato hectares, production, consumption and market prices Potato production in South Africa has increased by an average 2.3% per annum over the past 20 years; mainly driven by yield improvements (see Figure 1). The total potato area planted has remained largely constant around 51 thousand hectares, however a marginal decrease of 0.3% per annum can be observed over long-term. On the other hand, the average national potato yield has increased by an average 2.8% per annum over the past two years. These statistics tell a true success story where yield improvements (driven by technological advancements and improved agricultural practices) have driven production increases despite area under potatoproduction declining. The projections generated by BFAP’s (the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy) potato partial equilibrium model are based on a set of macroeconomic assumptions as well as the latest industry information. For 2018, the potato production is projected to decrease by 3% to 2.37 million tons after a near-record harvest in 2017 (2.44 million tons). The area planted is projected to decline by 1 170 hectares in 2018 and the national average yield is also projected to decline by 0.7% in 2018, mainly due to adverse weather conditions experienced in some production regions. Potato production is projected to increase gradually over the next ten years to just over 2.6 million tons. The increase is primarily driven by higher yields. In the long term it is assumed that factors such as research, cultivar development, better production practices and better plant protection products will drive an average increase in yield of 1% per annum.

Potato prices are driven by domestic supply and demand dynamics as potatoes are not typically traded in bulk. During the 2016 drought, production decreased by 14% inducing a 56% increase in the nominal potato price. In 2017, prices decreased to an average R34.50/10 kg bag. The real average market price (deflator CPI all products, December 2012 = 100) since 2002 is moving sideways at a level of around R30/10 kg bag up to 2021 where after it will increase slightly, according to Figure 2. Sideways real market price movement implies that nominal prices increase at roughly the same rate as inflation over the long run. In the short term however, the real potato market prices increased by 48% in 2016 to R37.93/10 kg bag and subsequently declined by 25% back to R28.40/10 kg in 2017. A 4% decline in real prices is expected in 2018. Due to a decline in real potato prices, total domestic use is projected to increase by 1.3% in 2018. Fresh formal consumption (at fresh produce markets and retailers) makes up 38% of the total domestic use, 30% of the potato market goes to informal fresh consumption while 22% of potatoes produced in a given year are processed and the balance is “seed”production. Since 2008, the formal to informal consumption ratio has declined by an average 1.1% per annum. Over the past decade, total informal potato consumption has increased by 35% to 730 thousand tons in 2017, while formal potato consumption increased by only 17% to 660 thousand tons. A similar trend is projected for the outlook period albeit at a slower rate – formal potato consumption is projected to increase by 9% while informal potato consumption is projected to increase by 18% from 2017 to 2027. Even though the total growth rate for

Table 1: Drought implication on a typical potato farm in the Sandveld region: Effect as a result of less area being planted

Effect on Net Farm Income

Effect on Net Farm Income: Absolute Rand terms (deviation from a normal season)

Total overhead cost per hectare

-

-

+/- R7 000

Area under potato production decrease by 20%

- 30%

- R1.1 million

+/- R8 700

Area under potato production decrease by 40%

- 60%

- R2.2 million

+/- R11 600

Area under potato production decrease by 60%

- 90%

- R3.3 million

+/- R17 200

Scenario:

Baseline: Total area under potato production amounts to 214 hectares

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 41


Western Cape Department of Agriculture, the gross value added of agriculture in the province amounts to R18.6 billion or, 22% of South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total agriculture gross value added. Employment in primary agriculture is estimated at 216 000 jobs where agriprocessing employs 251 000 jobs. Horticulture in the Western Cape represents more than 50% of total crop production with export revenue estimated at R40 billion.

3 000

60

2 500

50

2 000

40

1 500

30

1 000

20

500

10

0

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027

Thousand ton

The continuous drought in the Western Cape Agriculture under irrigation in the Western Cape is a key driver for economic growth, jobs and rural development in the province. According to the

Production (ton)

Consumption (ton)

Area planted (ha)

Thousand hectares / Ton per ha

the informal potato market is projected to be almost double that of the formal potato market, it is from a lower base and the informal market is not projected to outpace formal potato consumption in absolute terms by 2027.

The persistent drought in the province raises major concerns in urban and rural areas as a result of water availability and water allocation towards agriculture. Recent research indicated that the region has experienced its third winter with relatively low rainfall. For the primary potato industry, less water availability will force producers to plant less hectares. In 2017 the Sandveld area planted 600 hectares less, while Ceres could only manage to plant a third of their normal hectares. From a production perspective, the impact on the availability of potatoes is significant with a total loss in produce estimated between 6 to 8 million 10 kg bags, decreasing the real gross value added1 from potatoes in the province by about R45 million (22% of the provinceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s real gross value added). The area reduction will affect farming businesses

0

Yield (t/ha)

Figure 1: Projection till 2027 - production, consumption, hectares planted and average yield per hectare Projection of production volumes and estimated average real price.

1

Page 42 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

in various ways where the ability to service fixed costs will be a challenging task. Fixed or overhead expenses are those costs that are not linked to a specific production activity, but remains essential in order for the business to continue its operations. Hence, these costs cannot be directly associated with generating profits, but are still vital in the sense that it provides critical support for the business in order to carry out its normal production activities. Examples include banking and accounting fees, interest paid on medium- and long term loans and in many cases the cost of labour. In a scenario where the total area under production deviates from its normal practise, hence as a result of a drought, total farm production and gross returns will decrease which entails that the fixed costs will be spread over a smaller area opposed to a normal production season. Table 1 illustrates the implication on net farm income for a typical Sandveld producer located in the Western Cape as a result of a reduction in total area being cultivated under potatoes. Net farm income can be defined as all cash receipts minus all cash expenses, excluding family living costs, principal debt payments and income and land taxes. In a normal production season, a typical farm will plant 214

hectares under potatoes. The reduced area scenarios make the assumption that (1) area is reduced by 20% or by 43 hectares, (2) area is reduced by 40% or 86 hectares and (3) area is reduced by 60% or 128 hectares. The reduced area scenarios make the assumption that (1) area is reduced by 20% or by 43 hectares and (2) area is reduced by 40% or 86 hectares. Depending on the allocation of expenditure, overhead costs for the region can vary between 5-10% of total farm expenses. Under the scenario where total area is reduced by 20% or 43 hectares, net farm income will decrease by R1.1 million or 30% from a normal season. For the 40% reduction in area scenario, net farm income will decrease by R2.2 million (60% from baseline). This will imply that the total overhead cost per hectare will increase from R7 000 per hectare under normal conditions to R11 600 per hectare in the event that the area is reduced by 40%. The implication of the national minimum wage on labour-intensive industries2 Agricultural producers are currently facing an increasing trend in real production costs which entails that the cost of production is increasing at a faster

50

3 000

45 2 500

40

2 000

Real prices

30

25

1 500

20

Tousand tons

Rand per 10kg bag

35

1 000

15

10

500

0

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027

5

Production (ton)

Real market price (Dec 2012=100)

0

Nominal market price

Figure 2: Nominal and real market prices versus production See also: ‘’A national minimum wage and the potato industry’’, CHIPS, January/February 2017.

2

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 43


Table 2: Potato labour cost: Increasing labour costs are becoming a real issue at farm-level Eastern Free State3

KwaZulu-Natal4

Limpopo

Sandveld

Per hectare Labour cost in 2012

R5 487

R11 750

R10 504

R5 818

Labour cost in 2017

R8 548

R20 475

R17 187

R8 635

Labour cost in 2018 (90% of NMW*)

R9 998

R23 947

R20 102

R10 099

Labour cost in 2019 (100% of NMW)

R11 109

R26 608

R22 335

R11 222

Difference in labour cost: 2017-2019

R2 561

R6 133

R5 148

R2 587

2012

8%

11%

6%

4%

2017

13%

17%

12%

6%

2019

14%

19%

13%

7%

Labour cost as percentage of total direct costs:

Ranking â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Labour costs in terms of single largest cost item: 2012

6th largest

2nd largest

5th largest

6th largest

2019

3rd largest

2nd largest

4th largest

5th largest

*National Minimum Wage Dry land production

3

Seed production

4

R 20 2018: Increase by 17%

R 18

Rand per hour

R 16

2017: Increase by 8%

R 14 R 12

2013: Increase by 51%

R 10

2019: Increase by 11%

R8 R6 R4

Figure 3: Nominal minimum wage for farm workers Page 44 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Ekonomiese Nuus â&#x20AC;˘ Economic News

minimum wage, four prototype potato farms across South Africa have been analysed to determine the additional cost as a result of the newly imposed national minimum wage. Table 2 illustrates a summary for the four regions. Labour cost has differ between R8 548 to R20 475 per hectare in 2017. The respective increase as a result of the national minimum wage (NMW) will lead to an increase of between R2 561 to R6 133 per hectare. For the total farm labour bill, the Eastern Free State will pay R471 134 more in 2019 for labour, KwaZulu-Natal R613 319 more, Limpopo an additional cost of R849 467 and the Sandveld region, R553 527. Reflecting back to 2012, the additional cost for labour for Limpopo totals nearly R2 000 000. For the farms considered, labourâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ranking towards direct cost will rank between the 2nd most expensive input for KwaZulu-Natal to 5th most expensive for Sandveld. For the Eastern Free State region, labour will increase from 6th most expensive in 2012 to 3rd in 2019. rate than annual CPI inflation. The increase in real production costs and sideways movement in real market prices (as seen in Figure 2) have resulted in a much tighter cost price squeeze situation over the last number of years and consequently the sustainability of agricultural production in many regions is increasingly being threatened. In order to ensure the sustainability of agricultural industries, producers have to either increase output, which is a function of efficiency/ productivity, or producers have to cut back on expenses. In concurrence with increases in cost items such as fertilisers, seed, chemicals and various capital items, administered cost inflation such as tariffs for electricity and the minimum wage further contribute to the consolidated cost inflation at farm-level. For labour-intensive industries such as potatoes, the cost implication will be substantial and various producers will face severe financial challenges. Figure 3 illustrates the wage rate trend since 2003. The introduction and phasing in of the new national minimum wage in 2018 and 2019 indicates that the cost of labour has increased by nearly 400% since 2003 (CPI inflation over the same period totalled 180%). In 2013, the adjustment caused an immediate increase of 51.2% followed by a 17.0% increase in 2018 and a consecutive increase of 11.1% in 2019. The average per annum labour cost inflation over the period equals 10.9%, 4.7% per annum higher opposed to CPI inflation. In order to illustrate the cost implication of the new national minimum wage in 2018 and 2019 where agriculture is exempted from the 2018 national

Whether a farm can afford the minimum wage will depend on many factors and will differ between the various industries and regions in South African agriculture. However, the reality is that production cost will increase (substantially for labour-intensive producers) and ultimately a decision will need to be taken whether a farm can afford it and/or whether the mechanisation threshold has been reached. Thus, competitiveness which is associated with productivity and efficiency will remain a key driver in farm decision-making. Conclusion From a risk perspective, the margin for error is becoming remarkably small and competitiveness, not only in a domestic environment, but also globally will remain vital to ensure long term sustainability and food security. Events such as the persistent drought conditions in some areas and input costs inflation such as the implementation of the national minimum wage will negatively influence the financial performance and sustainability at farm-level. The reality is that these shocks cannot be observed in isolation, but should be considered in the context of other related shocks and policy decision making, not only in the potato industry, but in agriculture at large. For example, national production and consumption trends effect national average prices which in turn have implications back to local (e.g. provincial) and national agricultural contributions and performance. A conducive businessand policy environment is therefore essential to assist farm businesses, especially during uncontrollable events such as droughts. C

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2018

Page 45


Transport in the potato industry Max Braun, Max Braun Consulting Services

As we approach the end of the first quarter of 2018 road transport costs continue to move north, this even although the outlook for agriculture and commodities continue to improve along with more optimistic expectations for better governance and less corruption following the election of Mr Cyril Ramaphosa as president of the country. Table 1 clearly indicates the ongoing increases in the cost of owning and operating trucks engaged in the movement of freight logistics as it applies to agricultural and freight logistics generally. The vehicle type depicted in the Table 1 is a Sevenaxle Tautliner Interlink with a payload of 35 tons covering 180 000 kilometres a year. Based on the typical operating factors such as transporting potatoes from farms to municipal markets Page 46 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018

and other bulk users it is important to note the cost per day is more than a R12 900 when working 250 days a year . The fixed costs (standing/owning costs) account for R5 100 a day or R425 an hour based on a 12 hour working day. A scary figure when we take into account the many factors that result in delaying vehicles wherever they may be operating. Unwelcome and unaffordable costs of this magnitude need to be tightly controlled if the cost of transport is to be contained and recovered. A major factor contributing to excessive, but not always an easy cost to eliminate or reduce, is the dreaded empty return leg â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this is when the vehicle returns to the farm or homebase with a small or no payload at all. Returning to Table 1 it highlights the average cost elements making up the majority of the total cost of owning and operating


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

vehicles of this size and payload capacity. Fuel, maintenance and wages account for almost 63% of the total owning and operating costs. Fuel price, the largest single cost for the past ten years has doubled since 2007/8. The wholesale inland price (before adding the zone transport amount) at R12.09 a litre in March 2018 is almost 3 cpl higher than the average price per litre for all of 2017. However, come April 2018 the price will rise by 52 cpl due to increases in the fuel levy (22 cents) and 30 cpl added to the road accident fund (RAF) as announced in the recent national budget. This is about 8% more than the 2017 average price, providing there are no other increases due to the change in the April fuel price. Looking back to 2016 the fuel price as described above will have increased by just under 20% when measured against the average for 2016 at R10.63 a litre. What can we expect going forward into the second quarter of 2018 and perhaps even a bit further into the year? As we well know the amount we pay for petrol and diesel depends on the price of Brent crude oil, the strength of the Rand against the US$ and any changes to current taxes imposed by government. Based on the latest forecasts the expected price of crude oil over the next few months resides mainly with the members and supporters of the oil producing and exporting countries (OPEC) and the US oil industry. OPEC`s stance is to maintain a lower level of production in an endeavour to reduce the huge oil inventories held in the US and other countries, record levels of oil production in the US, now at more than 10 million barrels a day is topping Saudi Arabia’s production – the long standing largest producer of oil in the world. The OPEC objective is to strive for a better balance between demand and production. They want to see the price of oil reach somewhere around $70 to $75 a barrel at least. On the other hand the US oil industry has a different objective. It uses the current higher price per barrel to pay oil industry investors a long-awaited dividend. They also strive for a level of sustainable energy independence. Speculators are keen to secure oil futures contracts especially when the dollar is weak. The number of drilling rigs in production is currently much higher than it was two years ago. Taking this thumb nail sketch into account the top industry analysts suggest the price of oil is likely to be range bound between the high fifties and low seventies a barrel for the next two quarters. It is important to keep in mind that oil price forecasts are about as reliable as the weather forecasts we get in the Western Cape. The price of oil changes not only daily but also hourly as it responds to all manner of developments, especially where it concerns geo

political events and currency movements. From a South African perspective the strength and stability of the Rand exchange rate has the most impact on the price we ultimately pay for fuel. There are other factors to consider. These include the coming introduction of carbon tax. Treasury has been sitting on this for the past couple of years. Part of the reluctance to finalise this important matter has been procrastination around the production of the cleaner fuels = especially those needed to meet the requirements of Euro 4 to Euro 6 powered vehicles. The motor industry is frustrated as it waits to make the substantial investments needed to set up the production facilities to bring these vehicles to the market. The question as to whether we are going to produce the cleaner fuels or import it as a refined product is still on the back-burner. Reason to expect a decision anytime soon would be optimistic given the sale of Chevron SA assets to Sinopec (and/or other bidders) and the future of Petro SA, especially as it refers to the recent suggestion the government enterprise establish a new refinery in the Coega area to produce cleaner fuels. Then there is the announcement by SASOL that it intends to cease producing GTL (gas to liquid) fuels. There is also the appointment of yet another minister of energy, this time in the person of Mr Jeff Radebe; at one time the minister of transport for a short period will need some time to get with all matters energy. Probably before this long outstanding matter is decided carbon tax will be introduced, likely in a further addition to the fuel levy somewhere in the region of 11 to 13 cpl. Driver and assistant wages is another important matter to consider. The three-year wage agreement secured by the RFEA and the NBC (Road Freight Employers Association and the National Bargaining Council) came to an end this month. Employers who are part of this agreement increased drivers’ wages around nine percent for heavy vehicle drivers and a lesser amount for light vehicle drivers and assistants. Yes, it is important to note that drivers' wages vary considerably between provinces, metro and rural areas and industries. The increase in VAT is likely to prompt unions to press for larger increases, however, the large and most professional carriers have implemented attractive driver packages with the aim to reduce accidents and incidents, improve and sustain compliance with regulations and lower fuel consumption. Together with the increasing adoption of the Road Transport Management System (RTMS) and driver wellness programmes unions may find more drivers are less inclined to strike. The availability of properly trained and experienced drivers with CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 47


legitimate driving licenses is in short supply. Drivers holding foreign licenses may present employers with some aspects that need to be fully understood, these include validity of the licence in the country where it was obtained and confirmation insurers accept the licence is valid. Maintenance or the lack of maintenance currently tops the list of poor fleet management disciplines. This comment is based on the findings of the FleetWatch/ BrakeWatch road-worthy tests conducted countrywide over the past few years. These comprehensive tests carried out with highly qualified inspectors reveals that nearly 70% of big rigs on the road were found to be not roadworthy. Details of these tests can be viewed on the FleetWatch website. Without going into detail about these tests we need to take seriously just how important regular, timely and proper maintenance is. It impact on the TCO and the consequences of noncompliance. Vehicle manufacturers indicate the cost of appropriate maintenance should be about 14% to 16% of the original cost of the vehicle over its useful life depending on the operation. Well maintained vehicles have fewer breakdowns and repairs and realise better value when replaced. When you do the sums it becomes clear the maintenance cost of about 16% over the useful (or designed life) is likely to exceed the total original cost of the vehicle. After years of introducing intended and emerging traffic and transport regulations, amending existing and intended regulations the DoT (Department of Transport) released a draft White Paper for comment by the end of March 2018. National policy as it refers to roads is being subjected to a major review along the lines of the 1995/6 National Transportation Policy review. The intention is to implement on overarching Act to be known as the Road Management Act (RMA) consolidating all existing Acts. The single Act will include the NRTA, AARTO, NFLS, NLTA, OCAS, Natplan and others. It is envisaged all stakeholders – government at the three levels, other government departments, transport and logistics industries, other organisations such as CBRTA, PPECB, RFA, FESARTA, Academia, etc will be invited to join working groups to work through the present and emerging regulations to give effect to the new policies. Quoting from the White Paper published in March 2018 for comment, the following outlines the objective and goals for transport in South Africa: ‘’To support the goals of the prevailing, overarching plan for national development to meet the basic Page 48 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

accessibility needs of the residents of South Africa, grow the economy, develop and protect human resources and involve stakeholders in key transportrelated decision making; • To enable customers requiring transport for people or goods to access the transport system in ways that best satisfy their chosen criteria; • To improve the safety, security, reliability, quality, and speed of transporting goods and people; • To improve South Africa's competitiveness and that of its transport infrastructure and operations through greater effectiveness and efficiency to better meet the needs of different customer groups, both locally and globally; • To invest in infrastructure or transport systems in ways that satisfy social, economic or strategic investment criteria; and • To achieve the above objectives in a manner that is economically and environmentally sustainable, and minimises negative side effects.’’ It is anticipated that the AARTO Act will be implemented during the course of this year. The RMA proposals confirm the government will remain committed to the user pays principle. Funding the infrastructure will require private sector participation. Access to the infrastructure will include vehicle licences, toll road fees as well as distance and mass road user charges. As the RMA and its many aspects are discussed and emerge regular updates will be included in CHIPS articles. Taking these factors into account it seems likely road transport and logistics costs will continue to rise in 2018. Identification of all transport cost elements must be monitored and controlled by establish simple plans, policies and procedures all persons responsible for transport operations observe and are fully committed to. Glossary of Terms AARTO – Administrative Adjudication of Traffic Offences CBRTA – Cross Border Road Transport Agency FESARTA – Federation NBC – National Bargaining Council NFLS – National Freight Logistics Strategy NRTA – National Road Traffic Act NLTA – National Land Traffic Act OCAS –CBRTA Compliance System PPECB – Perishable Products Export Control Board RFA – Road Freight Association RFEA - Road Freight Employers Association RMA – Road Management Act C


Ekonomiese Nuus â&#x20AC;˘ Economic News

Table 1: Based on a 7-axle Interlink covering 180 000 km per annum, working 250 days a year Payload (tons)

35

The rig can haul 36 tons legally

Pallets

34

36 pallets may be transported

Useful Life Truck-Tractor

5

The T-T will have covered 900 000 km at the end of five years

Useful Life Trailers

6

The tautliner links will have covered a million plus kilometres

Average Work days per annum

250

Based on five days a week for 50 weeks

Capital Cost (value to replace with a new item) Truck-Tractor

Tautliner Links

1 730 000

Financial calculation is based on a residual value of 35% after 48 months and 50% for the trailers, provided they are well maintained and in good condition.

470 000

Total Capital Cost

2 200 000

Annual Payment

525 216

Vehicle licenses

30 195

The annual lease payment is based of a monthly rental of R43 768 per month. The interest rate is 12% paid at beginning of the month.

2018 licenses fees have not been announced at this time

Insurance

144 650

7% pa for the T-T and 5% pa for the trailers

Overhead & Admin Exp

120 000

About 5% of standing costs

Wages

455 000

Total Standing/Owning Costs (A) Fuel Lube oils

1 275 061 1 244 191

39% of total At R12.0963 per litre - zone amount not added

62 209

5% of fuel cost

Total Fuel Cost

1 306 400

Maintenance

307 024

Approximately 16% of the T-T at the factory gate and a 6 ckm per trailer axle

Tyres

189 000

5 cpk for new and retreads

Unforeseen Expenses

150 000

To cover insurance excess and unclaimable incidents

Total Operating/Variable Costs (B)

1 952 424

TOTAL COSTS (A+B)

3 227 485

Rand per km

17,93

Standing/Owning Cost per day

5 100

Cents per t/Km - 100% load factor (return load as well)

R 0,51

Cents per t/Km - 50% load factor (no return load)

R 1,02

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2018

Page 49


Vernaamste redes vir afmerkings op markte: 2017-kalenderjaar Pieter van Zyl en Laryssa van der Merwe, Aartappels Suid-Afrika

Vergroening, verbruining en meganiese beskadiging is die mees algemene redes vir afmerkings wat regoor Suid-Afrika in al die produksiestreke voorkom. In sommige streke kom dit sterker na vore as ander vanweĂŤ verskillende omgewingsgroeifaktore, asook verskillende weersomstandighede.

afmerkings. Die vier vernaamste redes vir afmerkings is verantwoordelik vir sowat 50% van alle afmerkings. Meganiese beskadiging kan tydens alle stadia van die oes- en hanteringsproses opgedoen word. Verskillende tipes beskadiging kan opgedoen word, byvoorbeeld snye, krake en kneusplekke.

Figuur 1 dui die vernaamste redes vir afmerkings vir die 2017-kalenderjaar aan. Meganiese beskadiging (20%) was die vernaamste rede vir afmerkings deur Prokon. Vergroening (15%), asook motbeskadiging en verbruining (7%) is 'n verdere rede vir heelwat

In Figuur 2 word daardie persentasie van elke maand se lewerings wat deur Prokon afgemerk is, aangedui. Dit is duidelik dat die maande van Januarie, Februarie, Maart, Julie en September relatief baie afmerkings gehad het, naamlik meer as 8% van

Page 50 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

Bederf 5%

Insek Beskadiging 5%

Sandsplete 4%

Te groot 5%

Ander 27%

Aalwurm 5%

Mot 7%

Verbruining 7%

Meganiese Beskadiging 20%

Vergroen 15%

Figuur 1: Vernaamste redes vir afmerkings: 2017 kalenderjaar.

14%

% afgemerk

12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2%

Jan

Feb

Mrt

Apr

Mei

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Okt

Nov

Des

Figuur 2: Persentasie van lewerings elke maand afgemerk: 2017.

alle lewerings. Die genoemde maande se redes vir afmerkings word hieronder bespreek. Sien ook die volgende twee artikels wat onder andere tegniese data bevat insake voorkomingsmaatreëls: • Vernaamste redes vir afmerkings op markte vir sekere streke – 2015/2016: CHIPS; November/Desember 2016. • Verbruining, vergroening en meganiese beskadiging van aartappelknolle van nader bekyk: CHIPS; Maart/April 2017.

‘’te groot’’ knolle (28%) die vernaamste rede vir afmerkings was, gevolg deur meganiese beskadiging (14%) en verbruining (9%). Die Oos-Vrystaat het begin om hul grootste oes tot op datum te bemark wat beteken het dat baie Groot aartappels beskikbaar was. Die gevolg was dat te veel Groot-medium aartappels in Medium sakkies gegooi is en te veel Groot aartappels in Groot-medium sakkies gegooi is. Kort daarna is ’n dispensasie verkry dat dit wel mag geskied, met dien verstande dat die knolle almal van uniforme grootte moet wees.

Gedurende Januarie was verbruining (25%), meganiese beskadiging (12%) en ‘’te klein’’ knolle (11%) die hoofredes vir afmerkings, aldus Figuur 3. Figuur 4 dui die afmerkings vir Februarie aan waar

Gedurende Julie was 36% van alle afmerkings as gevolg van vergroening, aldus Figuur 5. Meganiese beskadiging (24%) en sandsplete sowel as insekbeskadiging (6%) was ook redes vir afmerkings. CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 51


Ander 22%

Verbruining 25%

Aalwurm 3% Grootte 3%

Meganiese Beskadiging 12%

Nerf af/los 5% Bederf 5% Te groot 6%

Te klein knolle 11%

Vergroen 8%

Figuur 3: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk: Januarie 2017.

Ander 19%

Te groot knolle 28%

Uintjies 4% Vergroening 4% Bruinskurf 5%

Meganiese Beskadiging 14%

Aalwurm 5% Bederf 6%

Te klein 6%

Verbruining 9%

Figuur 4: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk: Februarie 2017.

Meganiese beskadiging (24%) en vergroening (21%) was die vernaamste redes vir afmerkings in September, aldus Figuur 6. Nie net word daar gedurende sekere maande meer aartappels afgemerk as ander nie, maar die totale afmerkings per streek verskil ook van mekaar. Limpopo, Oos-Vrystaat, Wes-Vrystaat, Sandveld en Noord-Kaap se afmerkings vir 2017 word in Figure 7 tot 11 uiteengesit. Figuur 7 dui die totale afmerkings aan vir Limpopo. Meganiese beskadiging (31%) is die vernaamste rede vir afmerking, gevolg deur vergroening (21%) en Page 52 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

sandsplete (16%). Meganiese beskadiging (24%), mot (13%) en insekbeskadiging (12%) was die mees prominente redes vir afmerkings in die Oos-Vrystaat vir 2017, soos gesien in Figuur 8. Die Oos-Vrystaat streek “stoor” hulle aartappels vir baie lank onder die grond. Hoe langer die aartappels onder die grond gelaat word, hoe groter word die risiko vir motprobleme. Die Wes-Vrystaat se redes vir afmerkings word in Figuur 9 aangetoon. Vergroening (34%) is die vernaamste rede vir afmerkings, gevolg deur meganiese beskadiging (14%) en sandsplete (12%).


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

Lentiesel 3% Aalwurm 3% Bruinskurf 3% Skilaalwurm 4%

Ander 10% Vergroen 36%

Mot 5% Sandsplete 6% Insek Beskadiging 6%

Meganiese Beskadiging 24%

Figuur 5: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk: Julie 2017.

Bederf 3%

Bruinskurf 3%

Ander 16%

Meganiese Beskadiging 24%

Uitgeloop 4% Aalwurm 5%

Vergroen 21%

Silverskurf 5% Skilaalwurm 9%

Mot 10%

Figuur 6: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk: September 2017.

Sandsplete kom onder andere voor tydens wisselende grondvog en –temperature. Sommige kultivars is dan ook meer vatbaar vir sandsplete as ander. Figuur 10 dui die totale afmerkings vir die Sandveld aan. Verbruining (57%) is by verre die vernaamste rede vir afmerkings. Die Noord-Kaap se redes vir afmerkings word aangedui in Figuur 11. Aalwurm (21%) is die vernaamste rede vir afmerkings, gevolg deur bruinskurf (14%) en meganiese beskadiging (14%). Wisselboustelsels kan help om aalwurmprobleme te onderdruk.

In Figuur 12 word die tendense van vergroening, verbruining en meganiese beskadiging oor ’n tydperk (2014-2017) uitgebeeld. Dit word uitgedruk as persentasie van alle afmerkings op alle markte. Dit is duidelik dat vergroening meer prominent word gedurende die maande Junie tot September. Dit kan onder andere vermy word deur deeglik op te erd, knolle dieper te plant in goed voorbereide grond, asook verpakkingsmateriaal te gebruik wat lig voldoende afskerm. Verbruining is weer ’n probleem gedurende die somermaande. Verbruining kom voor wanneer aartappels geoes word wanneer die skil nog nie geset is nie. Sulke aartappels se houvermoë is nie goed nie. C CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 53


Silverskurf Ander BederfVerbruining 2% 9% 2% 2% Te klein 2%

Meganiese Beskadiging 31%

Te groot 5% Bruinskurf 5% Nerf af/los 5% Vergroen 21%

Sandsplete 16%

Figuur 7: Limpopo: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk - 2017 kalenderjaar. Ander 21%

Meganiese Beskadiging 24%

Silverskurf 4% Verbruining 4%

Mot 13%

Vergroen 4%

Bruinskurf 5%

Te groot 5%

Aalwurm 8%

Insek Beskadiging 12%

Figuur 8: Oos-Vrystaat: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk - 2017 kalenderjaar.

Stingelent Bruinskurf 2% 2% Bederf 3%

Ander 15% Vergroen 34%

Lentisel 4%

Silverskurf 6%

Mot 8% Sandsplete 12%

Meganiese Beskadiging 14%

Figuur 9: Wes-Vrystaat: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk - 2017 kalenderjaar. Page 54 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Ekonomiese Nuus â&#x20AC;˘ Economic News

Insek Beskadiging Bederf Ander 2% 2% 10% Bruinskurf 3% Te groot 3% Te klein 3% Nerf af/los 4% Vergroening 4%

Verbruining 57%

Meganiese Beskadiging 12%

Figuur 10: Sandveld: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk - 2017 kalenderjaar.

Te groot 3% Vergroening 6%

Verbruining 3%

Ander 11%

Aalwurm 21%

Bederf 8%

Bruinskurf 14%

Insek Beskadiging 9% Meganiese Beskadiging 14%

Mot 11%

Figuur 11: Noord-Kaap: Persentasie van lewerings afgemerk - 2017 kalenderjaar. 45% 40%

Persentrasie van afkeurings

35% 30% 25% 20%

15% 10% 5% 0%

Jan

Feb

Mrt

Vergroening

Apr

Mei

Jun

Verbruining

Jul

Aug

Sept

Okt

Nov

Des

Meganiese beskadiging

Figuur 12: Tendense in vergroening, verbruining en meganiese beskadiging oor tyd op alle markte (2014 - 2017). E:\HJ Design\ASA\CHIPS\2018\CHIPS Maart April 2018\Artiekels\Chips 2 2018 Mrt Apr Arts\15 Vernaamste redes.xlsx

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2018

Page 55


Wes-Vrystaat kultivarproef onder besproeiing op Bultfontein in 2017 Izak Cronjé (Produsent), Chantel du Raan en Herman Haak (Aartappels Suid-Afrika) Die Wes-Vrystaat is tans verantwoordelik vir sowat 14% van die totale nasionale aartappelproduksie wat die tweede hoogste aartappelproduksie in Suid Afrika is, naas Limpopo. Hierdie streek plant vir die gebruik van moere, tafel- en verwekingsaartappels. Die streek se bydrae tot die verwerkingsbedryf in

Page 56 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Suid Afrika beloop 4%. Die standaardkultivars vir tafel- en verwerkingsaartappels is Mondial (69%), Up-to-date (17%) en Sifra (13%). Die Wes-Vrystaat produksiegebied (Bultfontein) (Figuur 1) wat 'n somerreënvalgebied met 'n matige klimaat is, kry 'n jaarlikse gemiddelde reënval van tussen 369mm


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Figuur 1: Ligging van Bultfontein in die Wes-Vrystaat produksiegebied. tot 549mm. Matig tot baie warm somers (warmste Januarie) kom voor, terwyl die winters weer koud is met strawwe ryp (wat vanaf April kan voorkom). Die aartappels wat onder besproeiing geproduseer word in die Wes-Vrystaat, word hoofsaaklik einde Oktober tot middel Februarie geplant en in April tot Oktober geoes en bemark. Die proef is op Bultfontein uitgevoer

op 'n perseel met sandleemgrond en is geplant in 'n ewekansige blokontwerp met drie herhalings. Verdere tegniese inligting rakende die proefperseel en uitleg is opgesom in Tabel 1. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat groeiperiodes die oesopbrengs van kultivars kan beïnvloed.

Totale reënval per maand 2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde reënval

Kumulatiewe reënval 2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe reënval

300 250

Reënval (mm)

200 150 100 50 0 Januarie Februarie Plant

Maart

April

Mei

Junie

Julie

Augustus

2017

Oes

Datum Figuur 2: Reënval gedurende die groeiseisoen (2017) asook die langtermyn gemiddelde reënval. CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 57


Tabel 1: Opsomming van tegniese inligting rakende proef area en uitleg. Plaas:

Oasis

Boer:

Mnr. Izak Cronjé

Plantdatum:

12 Januarie 2017

Oesdatum:

8 Augustus 2017

Besproeiing / Droëland:

Besproeiing

Dubbel- of enkelrye:

Dubbelrye

Loofafsterwe:

Natuurlik

Tussen-ryspasiëring:

1.00 m

Proefperseel:

20 m2

Plantestand:

25 000 plante / hektaar

Rakende die kumulatiewe reënval gedurende die 2017groeiseisoen het dit meer as die normale gereën in Januarie toe die proef geplant is. Gedurende Februarie en Maart (opkoms en vegatatiewe groei) was daar egter geen reën terwyl die res van die seisoen dieselfde patroon as vorige jare gevolg het as die langtermyn gemiddelde reënval (Figuur 2).

Bemestingsprogram: Voedingswaarde:

Totaal

N (kg/ha)

P (kg/ha)

K (kg/ha)

280

80

95

Groeiperiodes word gedefinieer as die aantal dae van opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen. Die presiese tydsberekening van die vyf groeifases (spruitontwikkeling, vegetatiewe groei, knolinisiasie, knolvulling en volwassenheid) hang af van die omgewing en die bestuurspraktyke wat wissel tussen lokaliteite asook kultivars, onder andere as gevolg van verskillende groeiperiodes (Tabel 2). Oesopbrengs en knolgrootte word ook beïnvloed deur die aantal hoofstamme per area en dus deur die aantal moere geplant asook die aantal halms per moer. Die aantal halms per moer is andersyds afhanklik van die aantal ogies, die aantal spruite per ogie en die aantal stamme per spruit. Die aantal ogies per knol is kultivar-afhanklik, terwyl die aantal spruite per ogie en die aantal stamme per spruit beïnvloed word deur die plantgereedheid van die moere. Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat die ogies tussen kultivars varieer. Die kultivars, plantgereedheid van moere, stand (%) en halmtelling van hierdie proef word aangedui in Tabel 2. Temperatuur, dagliglengte en water is die belangrikste abiotiese faktore wat die groeipatroon, opbrengs en kwaliteit van aartappels beïnvloed. Om te bepaal wat die aanpassingsvermoë van nuwe kultivars in die Bultfontein omgewing is, is dit belangrik om hierdie faktore in aanmerking te neem wanneer die prestasie van verskillende kultivars geëvalueer word. Dit is ook belangrik dat die kultivars vir 'n aantal seisoene geëvalueer word omdat klimaat van seisoen tot seisoen verskil. Daaglikse en langtermyn weerdata is verkry vanaf die LNR se Bultfontein stasie (-28.15282, 26.06358). 'n Probleem was egter ondervind by die Bultfontein weerstasie en daaglikse data kon slegs vanaf Januarie tot April versamel word. Rakende die res van die seisoen was gemiddelde gekry vanaf drie stasies rondom Bultfontein (Hoopstad: Vryheid – 69km vanaf Bultfontein; Welkom: Sandvet – 33km vanaf Bultfontein; Dealsville – 67 km vanaf Bultfontein) waarvan die Page 58 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

gemiddelde bereken en gebruik is vir die res van die seisoen.

Die minimum- en maksimumtemperature (Figuur 3) vir die 2017- groeiseisoen was baie wisselvallig maar het min of meer dieselfde patroon as vorige jare gevolg met die uitsondering dat die maksimum temperature vanaf Mei tot Augustus hoër vertoon het terwyl die minimum temperature effens laer was in vergelyking met die langtermyn data. Die minimum temperature was ook gereeld onder vriespunt (ryp) vanaf Junie tot aan die einde van die groeiseisoen wat gedurende die vullingstydperk sou geval het. Hitte-eenhede is ook 'n belangrike faktor om in ag te neem aangesien die ontwikkeling van die plant hoofsaaklik gebaseer is op die versameling van hitteeenhede. Daar word dus aanvaar dat die plant 'n sekere aantal hitte-eenhede moet versamel om 'n ontwikkelingsfase te voltooi. Die hitte-eenhede van die 2017- groeiseisoen het omtrent dieselfde patroon gevolg (met slegs 'n afwyking van 6.8%) as die langtermyn


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Tabel 2: Karaktereienskappe rakende groeiperiode, plantgereedheid, stand (%) en halmtellings vir elke kultivar in 2017. Kultivar

Groeiperiode (Dae)1

Generasie

Plantgereedheid2

Stand (%)

Halms per plant

Halms per hektaar

Almera

Kort

(85)

7

1

80

4

100 000

Arizona

Kort tot medium

(100)

7

1

10

3

75 000

Bonnata

Medium

(90-110)

7

3

90

4

100 000

Challenger

Medium

(110)

4

2

85

4

100 000

Electra

Kort tot medium

(100)

3

2

75

6

150 000

Fandango

Medium

(110)

2

2

75

3

75 000

Farida

Medium

(110)

2

2

65

4

100 000

Grandeur

Medium

(90-110)

4

2

70

3

75 000

Labadia

Short to medium

(90-100)

7

3

100

3

75 000

Lanorma

Kort

(80-90)

4

3

95

4

100 000

Laperla

Kort

(70-80)

3

3

95

4

100 000

Markies

Medium

(110)

7

3

100

3

75 000

Mondeo

Medium

(90-110)

7

3

100

5

125 000

Mondial

Kort tot medium

(95-100)

1

1

100

5

125 000

Navigator

Kort tot medium

(100)

4

3

25

3

75 000

Panamera

Medium

(90-110)

3

2

100

3

75 000

Savanna

Medium

(90-110)

3

3

80

3

75 000

Sifra

Kort tot medium

(90-100)

3

3

90

3

75 000

Taisiya

Kort tot medium

(100)

3

3

90

4

100 000

Algemene riglyne en kategorieë (dae van opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen): Kort = 70-90 dae; Kort tot Medium = 80-100 dae; Medium = 90-110 dae; Medium tot Lank = 90-120; Lank = 90-140 dae. 2 Plantgereedheid van moere 1 – Vars; 2 – Effens vars; 3 – Plantgereed; 4 – Effens oud; 5 – Oud. 1

gemiddelde hitte-eenhede en word aangedui in Figuur 4. Die opbrengsdata is statisties verwerk met behulp van die GenStat® program en die gemiddelde was geskei deur gebruik te maak van die Tukey KBV-toets. Die kultivareffek gedurende die 2017-proewe (Figuur 5) was statisties hoogs beduidendend (p<0.01) ten opsigte van opbrengs terwyl die koeffisiënt van variasie laag (10.3%) was. Dit dui dus aan dat die proewe uitstekend uitgevoer is en die resultate

betroubaar is. Die proefgemiddeld van al die kultivars word as 100% geneem. Die opbrengs van die individuele kultivars word dan deur die proefgemiddeld gedeel en elke kultivar se opbrengsprestasie word as 'n persentasie van die proefgemiddeld uitgedruk (opbrengsindeks). Die gemiddelde opbrengs (57.2 t/ha) vir die 2017seisoen was 3.26 t/ha laer in vergelyking met die proefgemiddelde van die vorige drie jaar (60.46 t/ ha). Gedurende die 2017 proewe (Figuur 5) het CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 59


die kultivars Panamera, Electra, Laperla, Mondial, Lanorma en Fandango die hoogste opbrengste gelewer. Navigator en Arizona, het andersyds die swakste opbrengste gelewer. Arizona en Navigator se swak prestasie kan toegeskryf word aan 'n stand van 10% en 25% onderskeidelik. Hoër opbrengste as die proefgemiddeld (57.2 t/ha) was behaal deur die kultivars Panamera, Electra, Laperla, Mondial, Lanorma, Fandango, Mondeo, Sifra, Savanna, Bonnata, Taisiya en Farida.

gehad het. Ongeag die feit dat die meeste daarvan klas1 aartappels (Figuur 7) was, het die kultivar min groot knolle gehad (Figuur 6). Groottegroepverspreiding en gradering is dus ook van die faktore wat gebruik word om aartappels te klas, daarom is dit belangrike faktore om in ag te neem om optimale ekonomiese bemarkbare opbrengs te verseker. In Figuur 6 word die groottegroepverspreiding, Figuur 7 die gradering van die opbrengs en Tabel 3 die hoofredes vir afgradering van die onderskeie kultivars aangetoon.

Ten einde die prestasie van die kultivars in terme van opbrengs en kwaliteit te bepaal, is die opbrengs, groottegroepverspreiding en klas gebruik om teen die gemiddelde markpryse vir die betrokke dag 'n bemarkingsindeks te bereken. Die opbrengs, vermenigvuldig met die heersende prys wat bepaal word deur die groottegroepverspreiding en gradering, gee die bemarkingsindeks (Figuur 5). Panamera het die hoogste bemarkingsindeks behaal wat toegeskryf kan word aan 'n hoë opbrengs en persentasie klas 1 aartappels (Figuur 7) wat die kultivar gelewer het. Dit is opvallend dat Electra 'n laer bemarkingsindeks het as gevolg van 'n kombinasie van 'n lae persentasie klas 1 (Figuur 7) en groot aartappels (Figuur 6). Navigator het egter die laagste bemarkingsindeks getoon hoofsaaklik omdat die kultivar 'n lae opbrengs

Dit is ook belangrik om te let op die kultivars se vermoë om konsekwent te presteer, ten spyte van fluktuasies in die klimaat oor tyd. In Figuur 8 word die drie-jaar data aangetoon vir die kultivarproewe in die Bultfontein produksie-area. Dit blyk dat kultivars Savanna, Sifra, Mondial en Markies die minste variasie toon vir die Bultfontein area. Verder is dit ook belangrik om op die interne kwaliteit van die produk te fokus om ekonomiese optimale bemarkbare opbrengs en dus winsgewendheid te verseker. Dit sluit belangrike faktore in soos vleeskleur en inwendige defekte (holhart, bruinvlek en vaatbundelverkleuring) wat opgesom word in Tabel 4.

Maksimum temperatuur 2017

Minimum temperatuur 2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde maksimum temperatuur

Langtermyn gemiddelde minimum temperatuur

40

Temperatuur (°C)

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -10

01-Jan-17 09-Jan-17 17-Jan-17 25-Jan-17 02-Feb-17 10-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 26-Feb-17 06-Mar-17 14-Mar-17 22-Mar-17 30-Mar-17 07-Apr-17 15-Apr-17 23-Apr-17 01-May-17 09-May-17 17-May-17 25-May-17 02-Jun-17 10-Jun-17 18-Jun-17 26-Jun-17 04-Jul-17 12-Jul-17 20-Jul-17 28-Jul-17 05-Aug-17 13-Aug-17 21-Aug-17 29-Aug-17

-5

Plant

2017

Datum

Oes

Figuur 3: Minimum- en maksimumtemperatuur (°C) gedurende die groeiseisoen (2017) asook langtermyn. Page 60 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

C


Bedryfsdienste â&#x20AC;˘ Industry Services

Totale hitte-eenhede 2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde hitte-eenhede

Kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede 2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede

1400 6.8%

Hitte-eenhede

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -200

Januarie

Februarie

Maart

April

Mei

Junie

Julie

Augustus

Maand *Totale hitte-eenhede spesifiek bepaal vir aartappels (drumpel temperatuur = 5°C) as gewas [bereken vanaf uurlikse data]. Figuur 4: Hitte-eenhede gedurende die groeiseisoen (2017) asook langtermyngemiddeld. Opbrengs (%)

133.1 a

Opbrengs van kultivars verskil nie statisties nie

Panamera

Bemarkingsindeks (%)

Electra Laperla Mondial Lanorma Fandango

130.9 ab 128.1 a-c 119.9 a-d 117.8 a-e 114.4 b-f 110.6 d-g

Mondeo

108.9 d-h

Kultivar

Sifra Savanna

107.7 d-i

Bonnata

107.4 d-j 107.0 d-k

Taisiya

101.9 e-l

Farida

98.4 f-m

Labadia Almera

95.8 g-n

Markies

94.9 g-o

Proefgemiddeld = 57.2 t/ha

83.1 m-p

Challenger

78.9 n-q 37.6 r

Arizona

23.5 rs

Navigator

0

20

40

p < 0.01 KBV = 17.24 KV% = 10.3

Opbrengs van kultivars verskil nie statisties nie

Grandeur

60

80

100

120

140

Opbrengs en bemarkingsindeks as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%) vir 2017

160

*Waardes gevolg deur dieselfde letter is nie beduidend verskillend van mekaar nie. Figuur 5. Totale opbrengs en bemarkingsindeks per kultivar as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld. CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2018

Page 61


Baby

Klein

Medium

Groot medium

Groot

Proefgemiddeld

80

Grootteverspreiding (t/ha) vir 2017

70 Proefgemiddeld van die vorige 3 jaar = 60.46 t/ha

60

2017 = 57.2 t/ha

50 40 30 20 10 0

Kultivar

Figuur 6. Grootteverspreiding van elke kultivar tydens finale oes.

80

Uitskot

Klas 3

Klas 2

Klas 1

Proefgemiddeld

70 Proefgemiddeld van die vorige 3 jaar = 60.46 t/ha

60 Gradering (t/ha) vir 2017

2017 =57.2 t/ha

50 40 30 20 10 0

Kultivar

Figuur 7. Gradering van elke kultivar tydens finale oes.

Page 62 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Tabel 3: Hoofredes vir afgradering tydens die 2017 Bultfontein-oes.

Almera

Waterpuisies

Vergroening

Sekondêre groei

Silwerskurf en swartspikkel

Bruinskurf

Sandspleet

Misvorming

Fusarium

Hergroei

Aalwurm

Kultivar

Hoofredes vir afgradering

x

Arizona Bonnata

x

Challenger Electra

x

x

Fandango

x

Farida

x

Grandeur

x

x

x

Labadia

x

Lanorma Laperla

x

x

x

Markies Mondeo

x

x

Mondial

x

Navigator

x

Panamera Savanna

x x

Sifra Taisiya

x x

x

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 63


Opbrengs as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%)

2017

140

2016

2015

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Almera

Electra

Markies

Mondial

Navigator

Panamera

Savanna

Sifra

Kultivar

Figuur 8. Prestasie van kultivars oor drie jaar uitgedruk as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld.

Page 64 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018

Taisiya


Bedryfsdienste â&#x20AC;˘ Industry Services

Tabel 4: Vleeskleur en interne kwaliteit van opbrengs vir 2017 in Bultfontein

Almera

Arizona

Bonnata

Challenger

Electra

Fandango

Farida

Grandeur

Labadia

Lanorma

Laperla

Markies

Mondeo

Mondial

Navigator

Panamera

Savanna

Sifra

Taisiya CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ March/April 2018

Page 65


Potatoes South Africa Board of Directors 2017 - 2019 Hanrie Greebe, Potatoes South Africa As the governing body of Potatoes South Africa, its Board of Directors is responsible to manage and direct the business and affairs of the organisation activities to ensure that the interests of the potato industry are served. The Board is constituted as follows:

VICECHAIRPERSON

CHAIRPERSON JF van der Merwe

Rudi Heinlein

NORTHERN REGION Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, Loskop Valley

Izak Cronjé

Bernhardt du Toit

Jan van Zyl

Nicolaas Lourens

WESTERN REGION

SOUTHERN REGION

SOUTHERN REGION

EASTERN REGION

North West, Northern

Sandveld, Ceres,

Sandveld, Ceres,

KwaZulu-Natal,

Cape, North Western

Eastern Cape, South

Eastern Cape, South

Eastern Free State,

Cape, Western Free

Western Cape,

Western Cape,

North Eastern Cape

State, South Western

Southern Cape

Southern Cape

Free State

WORKING COMMITTEES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

INDUSTRY INFORMATION

André Coetzee (Chairperson)

Jan van Zyl (Chairperson)

Johan Holtzhausen

Johan Holtzhausen

Gerhard Posthumus

Wouter Van Amstel

Page 66 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018


Kommunikasie • Communication

Wouter van Amstel

Johan Holtzhausen

Mike Green

André Coetzee

Gerhard Posthumus

NORTHERN REGION

NORTHERN REGION

EASTERN REGION

WESTERN REGION

Limpopo,

Limpopo,

KwaZulu-Natal,

North West, Northern

Mpumalanga,

Mpumalanga,

Eastern Free State,

Cape, North Western

CHAIRPERSON NATIONAL SEED POTATO COMMITTEE

Gauteng, Loskop

Gauteng, Loskop

North Eastern Cape

Cape, Western Free

Valley

Valley

State, South Western Free State

Joseph Bantom

Siseko Vikilahle

Rodney Mbuyazi

Gift Mafuleka

SOUTHERN DISTRICT

EASTERN DISTRICT

CENTRAL DISTRICT

Sandveld, Ceres,

SOUTH EASTERN DISTRICT

KwaZulu-Natal

Gauteng, Limpopo,

Eastern Cape, South

North Western

Mpumalanga, Free

Western Cape,

Cape, Eastern Cape

State

Southern Cape

Potatoes South Africa has four working committees on which the Board of Directors serve as Chairpersons and members. This provides Directors with first hand knowledge of the activities of the core businesses of Potatoes South Africa and enables them to make informed decisions during Board of Directors Meetings. For more information on the governance of Potatoes South Africa, visit our website at www.potatoes.co.za

TRANSFORMATION Bernhardt du Toit (Chairperson)

GENERIC PRODUCT PROMOTION AND MARKET DEVELOPMENT

Joseph Bantom

Rudi Heinlein (Chairperson)

Mike Green

Nicolaas Lourens

Gift Mafuleka

Gerhard Posthumus

Rodney Mbuyazi Siseko Vikilahle

CHIPS • March/April 2018

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IN GESPREK MET

dr. André Jooste Gawie Geyer, CHIPS

Dr. André Jooste, hoofuitvoerende beampte van Aartappels Suid-Afrika het tydens die Oos-Vrystaat aartappelwerkgroep se onlangse inligtingsdag op Warden ʼn oorsig verskaf van suksesse wat behaal is tot voordeel van die aartappelprodusent in besonder en die bedryf in die algemeen. CHIPS het na afloop van die dag ʼn gesprek met hom gevoer oor die suksesse waarna hy verwys het.

CHIPS – Volgens u is samewerking in die bedryf van kardinale belang om sukses te behaal – vertel ons meer. AJ – Dit is soos die leuse sê: Eendrag maak Mag! Toe die invoere van bevrore aartappelskyfies die volhoubaarheid van die Suid-Afrikaanse aartappelprodusent en verwerkingsbedryf bedreig het, het Aartappels Suid-Afrika namens die produsente suksesvol kragte saamgesnoer Page 68 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

met die verwerkingsmaatskappye McCain Foods SA, Lambertsbay Foods en Nature’s Garden om handelsmaatreëls, d.i. beskermingsmaatreëls vir die periode 2013 tot 2016 en anti-stortingsmaatreëls vir die periode 2016 tot 2021, ingestel te kry. In kort, deur saam te werk was dit moontlik om die koste te verdeel, kennis te verpoel en uit een mond te praat. Deur hierdie samewerking het ons daarin geslaag om tot dusver 'n finansiële voordeel van sowat R 384 miljoen vir die bedryf as geheel te beding


Kommunikasie • Communication

vir die periode 2013 tot 2017. Dit moet aanvaar word dat die invoer van bevrore aartappelskyfies niks goed inhou vir die plaaslike aartappelbedryf nie aangesien minder produk na die verwerkers vloei wat beteken dat meer aartappels na die varsprodukte vloei met gepaargaande druk op pryse weens oorvoorsiening. Dit is verder belangrik dat die negatiewe impak op werkskepping ook in ag geneem word. CHIPS – U het genoem dat Aartappels Suid-Afrika daarin geslaag het om verskeie dispensasies met die Direktoraat: Voedselveiligheid en Gehalteversekering van die Departement van Landbou, Bosbou en Visserye te beding. Kan u daarop uitbrei? AJ – Dit is so dat daar knelpunte in die bedryf was wat produsente finansieel erg benadeel het en tot 'n volskaalse fiasko in die bedryf kon lei. Verskeie aartappelproduksiestreke het teen einde 2016 begin probleme kry om te voldoen aan graderingsregulasies wat van toepassing is op groottegroepe wat verskeie jare terug in werking gestel is. Dit het veroorsaak dat heelwat besendings na die laagste klas afgemerk is. Dit het natuurlik enorme finansiële probleme vir aartappelprodusente tot gevolg gehad en dit terwyl hulle reeds gebuk gegaan het onder die negatiewe impak van die kosteknyptang. Aartappels SuidAfrika se ingryping het meegebring dat genoemde direktoraat ’n dispensasie op klas 2 aartappels vir die periode 19 Januarie 2017 tot 31 Januarie 2018 toegestaan het wat voorsiening gemaak het vir die verhoging van die toleransie van 15% na 25%. Voorgenoemde dispensasie het nie die verlangde uitwerking gehad nie en is ’n verdere dispensasie aangevra waar aartappels in ’n sakkie wat eenvormig vertoon, nie afgradeer word nie. Hierdie dispensasie is toegestaan vir die periode 16 Februarie 2017 tot 31 Desember 2017. Genoemde dispensasie het in reële waarde R51 miljoen vir aartappelprodusente in die eerste maand van die dispensasie beteken. Dit is verder verblydend om te kan noem dat die Direktoraat die dispensasies verleng het tot tyd en wyl die nodige regulasiewysigings in die Staatskoerant afgekondig is. Ek sal my plig versaak as ek nie die verteenwoordigers van die Departement van Landbou, Bosbou en Visserye en Prokon bedank nie, want sonder hulle betrokkenheid en bereidwilligheid om 'n werkbare oplossing te vind sou dit die bedryf

finansieël erg geknou het. Dan is daar natuurlik ook die dispensasie op die uitvoer van klas 3 aartappels na Lesotho wat Aartappels Suid-Afrika namens die Oos-Vrystaatse aartappelprodusente beding het. Ook in hierdie geval het die Direktoraat ingewillig om die dispensasie onveranderd te laat totdat die regulasies verander is. Hierdie dispensasie hou ook wesentlike finansiële voordele vir aartappelprodusente in. Laastens is dit noodsaaklik dat aartappelprodusente kennis neem van die dispensasie wat verkry is ten opsigte van die lettergrootte op aartappelsakkies. Waar dit in die verlede gespesifiseer het dat die letters minstens 5mm moet wees, het die Direktoraat bepaal dat dit nou slegs leesbaar moet wees. Hierdie dispensasie sal ook geld totdat die gewysigde regulasies afgekondig is. CHIPS – Wat gaan die wysiging van die regulasies betref? AJ – Wat die wysiging van die regulasies betref gaan daar in besonder aandag geskenk word aan die harmonisering van die definisies wat op plaaslike- en uitvoerbesendings geld en die daar stel van nuwe maatstawwe ten opsigte van groottegroepe vir graderingsdoeleindes. Ander aspekte waarna gekyk word is die hantering van nuwe kultivars, sowel as gewaste versus ongewaste aartappels. Die wysiging van die regulasies sal egter voorafgegaan word deur 'n konsultasieproses met bedryfsrolspelers en verbruikers. As gevolg van die probleme wat met die groottegroepe ondervind word, is die aanbeveling dat dit so eenvoudig moontlik gehou moet word. Die huidige voorstel wat bespreek word, is dat daar slegs vier primêre aartappelgroepe sal wees en vier verdere opsionele groottegroepe. CHIPS – Daar is deesdae al hoe meer gerugte in omloop dat van die varsproduktemarkte die gevaar staan om hul deure te sluit. Is daar enige waarheid in die gerugte? AJ – Laat ek by die begin begin. Die optimale werking van die varsproduktemarkte landswyd is van kardinale belang vir die aartappelbedryf aangesien byna 50% van alle besendings op die markvloere verhandel word. Dan kan die belangrikheid van die markte as aankooppunte vir die informele handelaars en kopers uit naburige lande nie genoeg beklemtoon word nie. Bogenoemde was van die belangrikste oorwegings wat gelei het tot die CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Kommunikasie • Communication

Dit sal ongetwyfeld ons generiese reklameveldtog 'n hupstoot in die regte rigting gee. Tweedens het die rolspelers in die groentebedryf ingestem tot die vestiging van die Suid-Afrikaanse Groentebedryfsforum en is goedkeuring vanaf die Departement van Landbou, Bosbou en Visserye ontvang vir die daarstelling van 'n Groentewaardeketting-tafelronde wat as platform vir die groentebedryf sal dien om uit een mond met die owerhede, en in besonder met genoemde departement, te skakel oor aspekte wat die bedryf as 'n geheel raak.

bekendstelling van Project Rebirth om rolspelers in die varsproduktebedryf byeen te bring om markfasiliteite en dienslewering op markte wat op die rand van deurtoemaak is, reg te ruk deur die implementering van kodes van beste-praktyke. Tot die varsproduktebedryf se voordeel het van die munisipaliteite en provinsiale owerhede fondse bewillig om die infrastrukture van hul markte op te gradeer en uit te brei. Voorbeelde ten opsigte hiervan is Springs Mark (R185 miljoen), Pietermaritzburg Mark (R15 miljoen), Tshwane Mark (R37 miljoen) en, Vereeniging Mark (R25.8 miljoen). Ongelukkig is daar huidig ses varsproduktemarkte wat steeds probleme en uitdagings ervaar aangesien die markte en die betrokke munisipale owerhede nie gehoor gegee het aan die opdragte om hulle markte reg te ruk dienooreenkomstig die neergelegde kodes vir beste praktyke nie. Aartappels Suid-Afrika is in noue kontak met hierdie markte en is daar reeds betekenisvolle vordering gemaak om prosesse in plek te stel sodat die nodige aksies geneem kan word. CHIPS – Watter ander suksesse het Aartappels Suid-Afrika onlangs behaal wat verdere melding regverdig? AJ – Daar is heelwat suksesse, maar ek sal my beperk tot die volgende: Na uitgerekte onderhandelings het Aartappels Suid-Afrika daarin geslaag om die Heart and Stroke Foundation se goedkeuring te kry vir die gebruik van die Hartmerk op aartappels met ingang van 1 April 2018 – iets wat ons beslis gaan doen.

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Soos reeds bekend is die administrasie van die moerkwekeraangeleenthede op streek- en nasionale vlak terug by Aartappels Suid-Afrika ingevolge 'n besluit van die Moerkwekersforum en die Aartappels Suid-Afrika Kongres. Ons het reeds begin met die harmonisering van die aktiwiteite van moer- en tafelaartappelstreke en tot datum verloop alles goed. Dit was die regte besluit ten einde eenheid in die bedryf te verseker en dienslewering aan die bedryf as geheel te optimaliseer. Me. Sanette Thiart, besturende direkteur van Aartappelsertifiseringsdiens, verdien die lof vir die leiersrol wat sy vertolk het om die oorgang van dienslewering aan die moerkwekers vanaf Aartappelsertifiseringsdiens na Aartappels Suid-Afrika uiters glad te laat verloop. Dit maak my opgewonde dat Aartappels Suid-Afrika tred hou met die tegnologie wanneer dit onder andere kom by inligting- en kennisoordrag. 'n Sprekende voorbeeld hiervan is die bekendstelling van 'n nuwe toep later vanjaar. Met die regte foon sal dit vir die aartappelprodusent moontlik wees om byvoorbeeld inligting te bekom oor die situasie op 'n bepaalde tydstip op 'n mark wat van groot hulp sal wees in bemarkingsbesluite. Met Aartappels Suid-Afrika se beperkte hulpbronne sal dit altyd moeilik gaan om dit wat ons graag ten opsigte van transformasie wil bereik reg te kry, veral omrede aartappelproduksie geweldig hoë finansiële-, produk- en vaardigheidsinsette verg. Gelukkig vir ons is daar bedryfsrolspelers wat hulle bereid verklaar het om vennootskappe met ons te sluit wat sal bydra tot die sukses van transformasie in die aartappelbedryf. Met die steun van al die bedryfsrolspelers sal dit vir Aartappels Suid-Afrika werklik moontlik raak om na 'n volgende rat oor te skakel wat die implementering van sy transformasieplan betref, met die klem op die besigheidsontwikkelingsprogram.


APAC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE AGENTS COUNCIL

REGISTERED FRESH PRODUCE AGENTS BLOEMFONTEIN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Bloemfontein Market Agency Modise Market Agency RSA Bloemfontein Market Agency Subtropico Bloemfontein Market Agency Vrystaat Market Agency CAPE TOWN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Boland Market Agency Fine Bros Market Agency Rhoda’s Market Agency RSA Cape Town Market Agency Subtropico/Spes Bona Market Agency CAPE TOWN Laeveld Somerset Market Agency DURBAN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Delta Market Agency Hanly Market Agency Port Natal Market Agency RSA Durban Market Agency Wenpro Durban Market Agency EAST LONDON FRESH PRODUCE MARKET AA Market Agency Border Farmers Market Agency Martin & Scheepers Market Agency Subtropico East London Market Agency GEORGE Garden Route Fresh Express Market Agency Maverick Market Agency JOBURG FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha Roodt Johannesburg Market Agency C L de Villiers Market Agency Catu-Fresh Market Agency Citi Deep Waatlemoen Market Agency Citifresh Market Agency Dapper Market Agency DW Fresh Produce Johannesburg Market Agency Egoly Johannesburg Market Agency Exec-U-Fruit Market Agency

Marco Market Agency Matla Market Agency Metro Market Agency Pula Nala Market Agency RSA Johannesburg Market Agency Subtropico Johannesburg Market Agency Swartberg Market Agency Target Market Agency Wenpro Johannesburg Market Agency KEI FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Farmers Direct Market Agency KING WILLIAM’S TOWN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET King William’s Town Market Agency KIMBERLEY FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Kimberley Market Agency Squires & Sons Market Agency Subtropico Kimberly Market Agency KLERKSDORP FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Garfield Market Agency J Frances & Son Market Agency Matlosana Market Agency Subtropico Klerksdorp Market Agency W.L. Ochse & Kie Market Agency LIMPOPO PROVINCE RSA Limpopo Market Agency RSA Mooketsi Market Agency NELSPRUIT Laeveld Nelspruit Market Agency Nelspruit Market Agency NOORDEINDE FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Noordeinde Market Agency PIETERMARITZBURG FRESH PRODUCE MARKET G.W. Poole Market Agency Natalia Market Agency

Nkosi Market Agency Peter & Co Market Agency Subtropico Pietermaritzburg Market Agency PORT ELIZABETH FRESH PRODUCE MARKET African Market Agency Algoabaai Market Agency Gouws & Co Market Agency Lansdell Market Agency W Finlayson & Co Market Agency SPRINGS FRESH PRODUCE MARKET AM Meyer Market Agency New Africa Market Agency RSA Springs Market Agency Springs Market Agency (Vegetables) Subtropico Springs Market Agency TSHWANE FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha Roodt Pretoria Market Agency Du Plessis & Wolmarans Market Agency DW Fresh Produce Tshwane Market Agency Egoly Tshawane Market Agency Farmers Trust Market Agency Fresh Way Market Agency Noordvaal Market Agency Prinsloo & Venter Market Agency RSA Tshwane Market Agency Subtropico/Protea Market Agency Tshwane Green Market Agency VEREENIGING FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Impala Market Agency Subtropico Vereeniging Market Agency WELKOM FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha & Roodt Welkom Market Agency Opkoms Market Agency Subtropico Market Agency WITBANK FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Subtropico Witbank Market Agency Witbank Market Agency

VISIT APAC’S WEBSITE REGULARLY Do you know if your fresh produce agent practise sound financial management? Did your agent received an audit qualification on his last audit report? Does your agent submit their monthly trust reconciliation timeously and has no trust account shortages? Ensure that you visit our website monthly as it is updated regularly with information on the financial status of agencies.

SUITE NUMBER 69, PRIVATE BAG X 9, EAST RAND, 1462 TEL: (011) 894-3680, 0870951335, FAX: (011) 894-3761,www.apacweb.org.za

REGISTRATEUR • REGISTRAR : L PRETORIUS


Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelinligtingsdag groei jaar na jaar Gawie Geyer, CHIPS Die Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelwerkgroep doen iets baie reg gemeet aan die feit dat hulle daarin slaag om jaar na jaar die Aartappelinligtingsdag te laai groei in statuur en getalle, en dan is daar ook al hoe meer borge wat hul gewig agter die inligtingsdag ingooi. Tydens die Aartappelsinligtingsdag wat op 8 Maart Page 72 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Maart/April 2018

2018 op Warden aangebied is, het Aartappels SuidAfrika se Hoofuitvoerende Beampte, dr. AndrĂŠ Jooste en mnr. Pieter van Zyl, Bestuurder: Bedryfsinligting onderskeidelik 'n oorsig verskaf van organisasie se suksesse tot voordeel van die aartappelprodusente in besonder en die bedryf in die algemeen oor die


Kontreinuus • Regional News

afgelope paar jaar, en hoe die huidige stand van die ekonomie die aartappelbedryf affekteer, en in besonder aartappelpryse. Laasgenoemde het ook inligting verskaf oor die produksie- en bemarking van aartappels landswyd met die klem op die OosVrystaat. Die motiveringspreker, mnr. Jannie Putter, het as hoofspreker tydens die dag opgetree en het 'n paar lesse wat op sy eie lewe gebaseer is, met die teenwoordiges gedeel. Die leerders van die Hoërskool Witteberg en die Hoërskool Voortrekker, beide in Bethlehem, het ook die dag bygewoon. Om die dag vir hulle die moeite werd te maak het Mnr. Gert Bester, aartappelprodusent van die Reitz-omgewing sy kennis met hulle gedeel vir sover dit die verbouing van aartappels betref. Aartappels Suid-Afrika se suksesse 'n Opsomming van dr. André Jooste se voorlegging is vervat in die artikel In gesprek met dr. André Jooste op pp. 68.

tyd styg. Wat veral verblydend is, is dat die vraag na aartappels ook styg wat daartoe gelei het dat huidig in reële terme sowat R 1 miljard meer aan aartappelaankope bestee word as tien jaar gelede. “Ten einde 'n realistiese beeld van die reële markpryse te bekom, is dit weens die abnormale produksietoestande van 2016 sinvol dat 2017 (tweede grootste oes tot dusver) se pryse met die van 2015 (grootste oes tot dusver) vergelyk word. Markpryse was in 2017 sowat 21% beter (die effek van inflasie is uitgehaal), terwyl een persent meer aartappels verkoop is”, het hy verder gesê. Soos gebruiklik was markpryse vir die eerste drie maande van vanjaar ook onder druk wat toegeskryf kan word aan die verhoogde aanbod van aartappels omrede die Oos-Vrystaat aartappelproduksiegebied vroeër begin bemark het, die swakker houvermoë weens die hitte en natuurlik die verbruiker se laer spanderingsvermoë wat verband hou met die nagevolge van die feesgety en uitgawes wat die heropening van skole tot gevolg het.

Produksie en bemarking van aartappels Grootte van aartappeloes bly bokant 200 miljoen sakkies Mnr. Pieter van Zyl het ter inleiding gesê dat die grootte van die aartappeloes sedert 2010 nog nie weer onder die 200 miljoen 10 kg sakkies gedraai nie. “Die grootste aartappeloes is in 2015 gerealiseer toe sowat 250 miljoen 10 kg sakkies geproduseer is. Die oes het weliswaar in 2016 teruggesak na 215 miljoen sakkies, maar dit was die gevolg van die droogte en ongekende hittetoestande wat in van die produksiestreke tydens die betrokke produksieseisoen ervaar is. Wat 2017 betref het die produksiestreke in die suidelike gedeelte van die land swaar getrek weens die voortslepende droogte, maar gelukkig is normale produksietoestande in die res van die land ervaar, veral in die Oos-Vrystaat en Limpopo, en het 2017 'n aartappeloes van bykans 245 miljoen 10 kg sakkies opgelewer.” Maandelikse verkoopsvolumes versus markpryse Mnr. Van Zyl het verdere genoem dat as die maandelikse volumes van aartappelverkope op die varsproduktemarkte landswyd vergelyk word met die reële pryse die huidige stand van die ekonomie nie werklik 'n impak op aartappelverkope en aartappelpryse het nie, veral as in ag geneem word dat die verkoopsprys wat die verbruiker vir dieselfde volume aartappels betaal, deurlopend oor

Arbeidskoste bly 'n kopseer vir die bedryf Dit is 'n erkende feit dat die aartappelbedryf geweldig arbeidsintensief is, en derhalwe is die deurlopende styging in arbeidskoste 'n toenemende kopseer vir die bedryf. Dit is dan ook een van die hoofredes waarom groot aartappelprodusente hulle neig tot meganisering wat ongelukkig gaan bydra tot groter werkloosheid en armoede, en wat veral die plattelandse dorpe se ekonomieë negatief sal raak. Soos reeds in die media aangehaal styg die nominale lone van plaaswerkers op 1 Mei 2018 met 90% van die afgekondigde R20.00 per uur en vanaf 1 Mei 2019 tree die res van die verhoging in werking. Dit verteenwoordig 'n styging van 160% in die plaaswerker se nominale loon sedert 1 Maart 2012. Produksiekoste laat rooilig flikker vir bedryf Volgens mnr. Van Zyl laat die verhoging in aartappelproduksiekoste oor tyd 'n rooilig vir die bedryf flikker, veral as in ag geneem word dat produksiekoste vinniger as inflasie styg. “Die huidige tendens ten opsigte van produksiekoste versus markpryse dui daarop dat reële markpryse sywaarts beweeg terwyl produksiekoste skerp toeneem. Vir die aartappelprodusent om te oorleef is dit van kardinale belang dat maniere gevind moet word om opbrengs verder te verhoog, en dui alles daarop dat die antwoord in genetika en bestuur gesetel is. Dit is egter verblydend dat die aartappelprodusent oor die afgelope 20 jaar wel daarin kon slaag om CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Kontreinuus • Regional News

die gemiddelde opbrengs onder besproeiing en droëlandproduksie vanaf 30 ton per hektaar na 47 ton per hektaar te verhoog.”

oor die laaste drie jare vroeër begin as gevolg van die feit dat die reënseisoen die afgelope paar jaar aangeskuif het.

Ter illustrasie van die aartappelprodusent se dilemma kan die Oos-Vrystaat aartappelproduksiegebied, wat as 'n droëland-produksiegebied geklassifiseer word, as voorbeeld gebruik word. Die totale tafelaartappelproduksie- en bemarkingskoste per hektaar beloop R96 206.00 wat eienaarsvergoeding, depresiasie en grondhuur, waar van toepassing, insluit. Die gemiddelde opbrengs per hektaar vir die gebied is 30 ton per hektaar wat beteken dat die produsent 'n prys van R31.41 per 10 kg sakkie moet ontvang om gelyk te breek. In 2017 was die gemiddelde prys R28.20 wat boekdele spreek dat die volhoubaarheid van die aartappelprodusent en -bedryf in verhoogde opbrengs gesetel is.

Mnr. Van Zyl het ook verwys na moontlike opbrengsverliese in die gebied as gevolg van die koue wat in November 2017 voorgekom het en hittegolf wat in Januarie vanjaar ervaar is. “Met inagneming van moontlike opbrengsverliese weens die genoemde ongunstige weerstoestande aan die een kant en goeie toestande gedurende die res van die groeiseisoen, word die siening gehuldig dat sowat 18,6 miljoen 10 kg sakkies aan die varsproduktemarkte 'n moontlikheid is, wat heelwat minder is as die meer as 22,2miljoen sakkies wat laasjaar gelewer is – die meeste ooit.”

Oos-Vrystaat se 2018-aartappeloes Wat die Oos-Vrystaat aartappelproduksie betref, het mnr. Van Zyl gesê dat beskikbare inligting daarop dui dat die 2018-aartappelaanplantings in die Oos-Vrystaat 11 620 hektaar beloop wat 'n nuwe rekord vir die produksiestreek is en 950 hektaar meer as in 2017. “Waar aartappels tot onlangs meestal onder droëlandtoestande verbou is, is daar 'n groeiende tendens om ook aartappels onder besproeiing te verbou. Wat 2018 betref word 31% van alle aanplantings onder besproeiing gedoen, d.i. 3 557 hektaar teenoor die 8 063 hektaar droëlandaanplantings. Wat die totale aanplantings betref is 8 666 hektaar geoormerk vir die tafelmark, 2 524 hektaar vir die verwerkingsmark en 430 hektaar vir moerproduksie.” Aangesien die Oos-Vrystaat hoofsaaklik aartappels onder droëlandtoestande verbou, het die plantseisoen

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CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Wat die aktiwiteite van die Afdeling: Bedryfsinligting betref het mnr. Van Zyl het ten slotte gesê dat die optimalisering van vervoer om verwante koste te verlaag, groter effektiwiteit in die pakstoor en verlaagde meganiese beskadiging van aartappels van die aspekte is wat Aartappels Suid-Afrika ondersoek in 'n poging om produksie- en bemarkingskoste te verminder en daardeur rendement te verhoog en groter volhoubaarheid te verseker. Oos-Vrystaat proewe – 2018 As gevolg van baie reën wat in die Wardenomgewing ontvang is, was dit nie moontlik nie om tydens die Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelinligtingsdag die kultivar-, chemie- en kunsmisproewe te besigtig wat op die proefperseel wat deur Sesisonke Boerdery beskikbaargestel is, uitgevoer is. Die uitslag van die proewe sal later vanjaar in CHIPS gepubliseer word en ook tydens die Navorsingsimposium – 2018 voorgedra word.

C


Kontreinuus • Regional News

CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Foto's Piet Brink

Sandveld Aartappelwerksgroep se inligtingsdag op Aurora uiters geslaagd Dr. Fienie Niederwieser, Aartappels Suid-Afrika en Sandveld Werkgroep Die kultivarproef op die plaas Fisantevlug van Albert de Villiers in die Aurora-distrik is op 13 Oktober 2017 geplant. Twee weke na doodspuit, is die proef geoes. Tydens die volgende besige dag is die resultate verwerk en skyfies gebraai sodat Piet Brink (voorsitter van die werkgroep) die resultate namens die span kon aanbied. Knolle en skyfies van elk van die 20 tafel- en verwerkingskultivars is tydens die inligtingsdag uitgestal. Die eerste vraag wat deur almal se kop gegaan het, was “Het Chantel die opbrengste reg uitgewerk, dit kan mos nie so hoog wees nie?”. Chantel du Raan het verskeie persone gevra om haar resultate na te gaan, en almal het op dieselfde waardes uitgekom: Die gemiddelde opbrengs van die proef was 119 t/ha en die opbrengste van die kultivars het van 95 tot 145 t/ha gewissel. Page 76 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Statistiek het gewys dat die koëffisiënt van variasie baie laag was – dus was daar geen fout met die uitvoering van die proef nie. Die opbrengs van die verwerkingskultivar FL2801 van 'n aanplanting reg langs die proefperseel was 78 t/ha. Ons wil dus vir Albert en sy span geluk te wens met ’n indrukwekkende nuwe rekord vir die Wes-Kaap se kultivarproewe. Tydens die Navorsingsimposium op 24 en 25 Julie 2018, sal weerdata beskikbaar wees en sal die resultate van die proef bespreek kan word teen die agtergrond van temperatuur, dagliglengte en die ander faktore tydens die groeiseisoen wat tot die rekordoes kon bygedra het. Plantluismonitering Dr. Kobus Laubscher (Departement van Landbou Wes-Kaap) het terugvoering gegee oor die plantluisaktiwiteite die afgelope seisoen in vergelyking met


Kontreinuus • Regional News

vorige seisoene. Die 2017 data het gewys dat as gevolg van die droogte in die Wes-Kaap, plantluisdruk weer gedurende Oktober geweldig toegeneem het wat toegeskryf kan word aan die vinnige verdroging van onkruide en ander gasheerplante in die Sandveld gedurende daardie periode.

plantluisaktiwiteite te onderdruk. • Spuitbalkdoeltreffendheid hang af van: - Korrekte druppelgrootte. - Spuitpatroonkeuse. - Watervolume per hektaar. - ’n Deurlopende spuitpunthoogte van 500 mm.

Daar is afgesluit met die volgende aanbevelings om plantluis effektief te beheer: • Moet geen gapings in beheerprogram laat nie. • Hou by beheerprogram (weekliks). • Wissel plaagbeheermiddels af. • Sorg vir voldoende bedekking. • Indien aalwurmbeheer toegepas word, moet plantluise ook beheer word. • Aartappelmotprogram moet ook help om

Op 15 Maart 2018 het meer as 70 persone uit die Sandveld, Ceres en Suidwes-Kaap in Aurora byeengekom vir terugvoer oor van resultate van die kultivarproef op Aurora en ander nasionale projekte wat betrekking het op aartappelproduksie-probleme in die WesKaap.

CHIPS • March/April 2018

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Verticilliumverwelk veroorsaak dat plante voortydig afsterf en dus nie die verwagte oes kan lewer nie. Die doel van hierdie projek is om ’n geïntegreerde beheerprogram vir die siekte te ontwikkel. Na die eerste jaar van die projek het Estianne Retief (ARC-PHP, Stellenbosch) monsters van simptomatiese aartappelplante van vyf verskillende kultivars van vyf plase in verskillende dele van die Sandveld versamel. In die laboratorium is altesaam 256 Verticillium spp. isolate geïsoleer en hulle is almal as Verticillium dahliae met behulp van molekulêre tegnieke geïdentifiseer. In ’n studie van 1995 – 2000 is twee Verticillium spesies geïdentifiseer. In daardie studie is daar slegs van konvensionele tegnieke gebruik gemaak. Die waarde van molekulêre identifikasie is in die huidige navorsing goed geïllustreer. In die volgende seisoen, is rotasiegewasse (hawer, rog, beet, uie, blomkool, seradella en broccoli) van vier plase versamel. Verticillium dahliae is vervolgens uit die kroon en wortels van hawer, pienk serradella, en die wortels van ’n rogplant verkry. Van die vrae wat die projek in die volgende twee jaar moet beantwoord, is om die verskillende V. dahliae isolate vanaf aartappels te vergelyk ten opsigte van virulensie. Die mees virulente isolate sal geïdentifiseer word en in toekomstige proewe gebruik word wanneer daar na beheerprogramme gekyk word. Verder sal daar ondersoek word of die V. dahliae isolate uit die rotasiegewasse patogenies is tot aartappels. Dit sal ’n aanduiding gee of die rotasiegewasse dien as alternatiewe gashere van V. dahliae en dus sal bydrae tot die siekte inokulum oor seisoene.

Vroeë afsterwing van Verticillium-besmette aartappels (Foto: E Retief) Page 78 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

Grondwaterbronne van die Sandveld Kommer dat die grondwaterbronne van die Sandveld tydens die huidige droogte sou uitdroog, of besig is om dramaties af te neem, is aangespreek deur nog ’n jaar se grondwatermonitering. Geohidroloog, Julian Conrad, het daarop gewys dat sedert die 2017 metings gemaak is, die grondwatervlakke gemiddeld met 0.23 m gedaal het (n = 28) en grondwaterkwaliteit gemiddeld met 19.5 ms/m versleg (n = 56) het. Die watervlak in die Verlorenvlei is die laagste sedert 2010. Julian Conrad het ook verduidelik hoe reënwater vanuit die Piketberg, Winterhoek en Cederberge, al langs die komplekse geologiese foutlyne in ’n noordwestelike rigting vloei om eindelik die akwafirs onder die Sandveld te bereik. Julian het afgesluit met die volgende opmerkings: • Wydverspreide stres word nou duidelik. • Munisipale boorgate toon ook tekens van verminderde aanvulling. • Aanvulling is nou te laag as gevolg van die lae reënval. • Verlorenvlei-opvanggebied – boorgate op Piket-Boberg raak droog. • Monitering is noodsaaklik – vir produksie boorgate en vir die plaaslike omgewing. • Stadig met die sink van boorgate. • Bewaar grondwater. Indien langtermyn-moniteringsdata nie beskikbaar was nie, sou die aartappelbedryf nie geweet het wat is besig is om te gebeur in die Sandveld se grondwaterbronne nie. Die data dra baie by tot die identifisering van bronne waarvan die watervlakke en kwaliteit beslis afneem. Aartappels Suid Afrika befonds hierdie projek sedert 2004. Die data het getoon dat die bronne redelik standhoudend is as gevolg van goeie grondwater-stoorkapasiteit.

Diagram wat illustreer hoe Sandveld se akwafirs vanaf berge aangevul word


Kontreinuus • Regional News

Doeltreffendheid van water- en elektrisiteitsverbruik in die Sandveld Terugvoer oor die projek Doeltreffendheid van water- en elektrisiteitsverbruik in die Sandveld, is deur prof. Martin Steyn gegee. Die projek is deur die Bedryfsinligting-kernbesigheid van Aartappels Suid-Afrika geïnisieer met die doel om die effektiwiteit van aartappelproduksie te verhoog. Spilpunte wat tipiese scenario’s verteenwoordig, is gekies (kus versus binneland; Landrate versus Ruraflex; hellings versus gelyk; boorgate versus dam). Energie- en waterverbruik van elke scenario is bepaal. Afleidings wat gemaak is: • Stelseluniformiteite en -doeltreffendhede was oor algemeen goed. • Opbrengste was meestal goed. • Oorbesproeiing slegs in enkele gevalle. • Waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid was redelik tot goed. Geleentheid om water te bespaar: • Pas besproeiingshoeveelhede by gewas behoeftes aan deur gebruik te maak van besproeiingskedulering. Grootste geleentheid vir besparing van elektrisiteitskoste • Omskakeling van Landrate na Ruraflex. Kostekoste kan binne een jaar herwin word. • Plantdatum: Midsomer- tot laatsomer-aanplantings (later as September) in die Sandveld is nie gewens nie vir die volgende redes: Hoe later die plantdatum, hoe hoër die gemiddelde temperature, hoe meer moet besproei word, hoe laer is die potensiële opbrengs en die waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid, en hoe hoër is die energiekoste per mm water. Weeklikse satellietbeelde gratis beskikbaar Die Wes-Kaap Department Landbou befonds ‘n diens waar weeklikse satellietbeelde gratis beskikbaar gestel word aan vrugte- en ander boere in die

’n Eenvoudige manier om te bepaal of die spuitkoppe op die spilpunt uniforme volumes lewer, is om reënmeters uit te plaas tydens besproeiing en die water in elkeen te meet (Foto: M. Steyn). Wes-Kaap. Annaline Smith van Fruitlook het aan die hand van voorbeelde in die vrugtebedrywe, verduidelik hoe satalietbeelde gebruik kan word om probleme in die land op ‘n vroeë stadium op satalietbeelde te sien, sodat dit moontlik is om die probleem van naderby te gaan ondersoek. Op hierdie stadium is die diens van Augustus tot April beskikbaar en Fruitlook bied opleiding in die gebruik daarvan aan. Die potensiele waarde van Fruitlook se diens ten opsigte van besproeiingskedulering vir aartappels in die Sandveld sal getoets word in ‘n nuwe projek op die water- en voedingsgebruiksdoeltreffendheid wat deur Yara en Aartappels Suid-Afrika befonds word, en deur prof. Martin Steyn gelei word. Om toegang te kry tot Fruitlook se diens, skakel Annaline Smith by 076 621 2211; of 074 322 6574 of epos: help@fruitlook.co.za of info@fruitlook.co.za

C

Die sprekers van links na regs: Annaline Smith (Fruitlook), Estianne Retief (ARC-PHP, Stellenbosch), Julian Conrad (GEOSS), Piet Brink (Yara), dr. Kobus Laubscher (WKDL, Elsenburg) en prof. Martin Steyn (UP)

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Hulle wat gee maak die verskil Gawie Geyer, CHIPS Hulle wat gee maak die verskil maak. ’n Sprekende voorbeeld hiervan in die aartappelbedryf is die JA Malherbe Laerskool op Petrus Steyn se Aartappelgholfdag wat vir die afgelope 10 jaar met die finansiële steun van rolspelers in die aartappelbedryf moontlik gemaak word. Nie net maak hierdie rolspelers hulle beursies oop deur middel van borgskappe en deelname aan alle soorte truuks wat die skool tydens die gholfdag uitdink om die deelnemers se beursie verder platter te maak nie, maar is ook bereid om vêr te ry om aan die Page 80 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

toernooi deel te neem. Dan is daar natuurlik die aartappelboere van die omgewing wat onder andere produkpryse verskaf asook toerusting en arbeid beskikbaarstel om die skoonveld in tip-top toestand te kry. Maar om terug te kom na die borge: dit is jaar na jaar meestal dieselfde maatskappye wat die dag moontlik maak – party van hulle vandat die gholfdag 13 jaar terug vir die eerste keer aangebied is. Maak dit finansiële sin? – moontlik nie. Ons kan nou wel


Kontreinuus • Regional News

sê dat die aartappelprodusente hulle insette by die deelnemers koop of dat die boer sy produk na die markagent stuur, maar ek is van mening dat die wete dat dit 'n verskil kan maak in 'n kind se lewe en hom / haar die geleentheid bied om akademies en op sportvlak te presteer, wat die katalisator is. Die skool spog vanjaar ook met 'n nuwe skoolhoof, mnr. Bokkie Bosman. Tydens 'n gesprek met hom het hy aangedui dat hy getref is deur die gees van welwillendheid en goedhartigheid wat onder die bedryfsrolspelers heers en sy waardering uitspreek teenoor die gholfers en ander borge wat elke jaar hul steun aan die dag verleen. “Die fondse wat die skool van die Departement van Onderwys ontvang is nie genoeg nie om te verseker dat leerders die beste moontlike onderrig ontvang en sportgeleenthede

gebied word, en hier praat ek in besonder van minderbevoorregte leerders. Voorts gebruik ons ook die eie-gegenereerde fondse om die sportgronde in stand te hou en tred te hou met rekenaartegnologie tot voordeel van die leerders. Die inkomste wat dus met die gholfdag gegenereer word, is vir Laerskool JA Malherbe 'n uiters welkome inspuiting aangesien plattelandse skole beperkte geleenthede het om addisionele fondse te genereer.” Vanjaar het 30 spanne deelgeneem wat drie meer is as die aantal spanne wat verlede jaar deelgeneem het. Dit verder onderstreep die aartappelbedryfsrolspelers se bereidwilligheid om hul sosiale verantwoordelikheid teenoor die jeug van Suid-Afrika te aanvaar. C

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Prokon Nuus Gedurende Januarie en Februarie 2018 het 16 aartappelproduksiestreke asook nie-produserende verskaffers aartappels aan die varsproduktemarkte landwyd gelewer STREEK

% VAN LEWERINGS

SAKKIES GELEWER

DRIE HOOF KULTIVARS

% AFMERKINGS

HOOFREDES VIR AFMERKINGS

SANDELD

6.85%

1,038,996

Sifra (35.51%) Mondial (31.33%) Vanderplank (10.68%)

5.18%

Verbruining (58.96%) Meganiese beskadiging (20.61%) Bederf (7.90%)

CERES

0.06%

9,065

Avalanche (70.38%) Vanderplank (27.19%) Sifra (2.42%)

0.00%

Geen

SUIDWESKAAP

0.57%

86,326

Lanorma (67.60%) Mondial (19.84%) Sifra (10.32%)

2.97%

Binne bruinvlek (28.08%) Holhart (17.55%) Bruinskurf (17.16%)

NOORDKAAP

0.59%

88,909

Laperla (57.50%) Sifra (23.38%) Mondial (10.27%)

14.24%

OOS-KAAP

1.12%

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Mondial (66.48%) 170,174 Sifra (21.07%) Taisya (3.85%)

Bederf (40.56%) Verbruining (25.19%) Hitte skade (19.63%)

Nerf-af/los (40.84%) 12.60% Vergroening (18.23%) Insekbeskadiging (11.90%)


PROKON

STREEK

% VAN LEWERINGS

SAKKIES GELEWER

DRIE HOOF KULTIVARS

SUID-KAAP

0.40%

60,547 Valor (100%)

NOORDOOSKAAP

4.01%

Mondial (59.80%) 608,117 Sifra (39.27%) Almera (0.25%)

WES-VRYSTAAT

3.57%

Sifra (74.67%) 541,103 Mondial (23.76%) Lady Rosetta (0.65%)

% AFMERKINGS

HOOFREDES VIR AFMERKINGS

0.00% Geen Vergroening (%) 3.62% Meganiese beskadiging (15.45%) Bederf (13.16%) Meganiese beskadiging (16.59%) 17.78% Silwerskurf (15.02%) Bederf (11.89%)

OOS-VRYSTAAT

Mondial (69.93%) 14.56% 2,208,395 Sifra (24.04%) Savana (4.03%)

Meganiese beskadiging (30.47%) 13.25% Aartappelmot (13.94%) Verbruining (6.25%)

SUIDWESVRYSTAAT

19.26%

Sifra (84.80%) 2,921,857 Mondial (13.66%) Panamera (1.06%)

Meganiese beskadiging (24.43%) 4.53% Lentisel-beskadiging (17.67%) Aartappelmot (14.88%)

KWAZULUNATAL

7.74%

Mondial (50.46%) 1,174,079 Valor (20.55%) Lanorma (8.04%)

Poeierskurf (21.99%) 5.23% Bruinskurf (17.50%) Gemengde groottes (15.62%)

MPUMALANGA

5.37%

Mondial (88.82%) 815,207 Lanorma (7.95%) Valor (1.42%)

Meganiese beskadiging (27.47%) 8.36% Bruinskurf (12.53%) Sandspleet (11.77%)

LIMPOPO

5.79%

Mondial (69.37%) 877,454 Lanorma (16.35%) Taisya (4.37%)

Meganiese beskadiging (39.44%) 9.28% Vergroening (13.13%) Aartappelmot (11.58%)

12.83%

Sifra (76.99%) 1,946,257 Mondial (16.20%) Lanorma (3.57%)

Meganiese beskadiging (24.79%) 7.30% Binne bruinvlek (19.46%) Vergroening (16.60%)

GAUTENG

8.63%

Mondial (39.56%) 1,308,137 Sifra (38.54%) Lanorma (9.48%)

Meganiese beskadiging (27.89%) 10.89% Bruinskurf (15.09%) Bederf (11.08%)

LOSKOPVALLEI

0.12%

NIE-PRODUSERENDE VERSKAFFERS

8.53%

NOORDWES

18,467 Sifra (100%) Sifra (45.55%) 1,293,694 Mondial (26.97*%) Markies (6.53%)

0.00% Geen Meganiese beskadiging (23.01%) 16.50% Verbruining (19.21%) Bederf (1.97%)

Relevante statistiek ten opsigte van lewering gedurende Januarie / Februarie 2018 is soos volg: • 15 166 784 sakkies vanuit 16 streke asook die nie-produserende verskaffers is aan die varsproduktemarkte landwyd gelewer. • 480 321 sakkies het nie aan die voorgeskrewe merkvereistes voldoen nie. Dit was 112 204 sakkies meer as gedurende November / Desember 2017 waartydens 368 117 sakkies nie daaraan voldoen het nie. • 107 636 sakkies het nie die nodige kultivar aangedui nie, wat 11 115 sakkies minder as die 118 751 sakkies vir November / Desember 2017. • Die verslag toon 'n verhoging in die gemiddelde persentasie afmerkings van 5.30% teenoor die 8.85% vir November / Desember 2017.

Totale aantal sakkies gelewer in Januarie / Februarie 2018 = 15 166 784

Gemiddelde persentasie afgemerk 8.85%

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Prokon Nuus STREEKLEWERINGS OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 JANUARIE - 28 FEBRUARIE 2018

SANDVELD OOS-KAAP NOORDOOS-KAAP WES-VRYSTAAT OOS-VRYSTAAT SUIDWES-VRYSTAAT KWAZULU-NATAL MPUMALANGA LIMPOPO NOORDWES GAUTENG NIE-PRO.VERSKAFFERS

6,85% 1,12%

8,53% 12,83%

4,01%

8,63%

3,57%

5,79% 14,56%

5,37% 7,74%

19,26%

ANDER: CERES (0.06%), SUIDWES-KAAP (0.57%), NOORD-KAAP (0.59%), SUID-KAAP (0.40%), LOSKOPVALLEI (0.12%).

AFMERKINGS PER STREEK OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 JANUARIE - 28 FEBRUARIE 2018 5,18% 10,89%

16,50%

2,97% 14,24%

12,60% 7,30%

3,62%

9,28%

17,78%

8,36%

4,23% 4,53%

13,25%

ANDER MET MINDER AS 0% AFMERKINGS: CERES (0.00%), SUID-KAAP (0.00%), LOSKOP VALLEI (0.00%). Page 84 |

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SANDVELD SUIDWES-KAAP NOORD-KAAP OOS-KAAP NOORDOOS-KAAP WES-VRYSTAAT OOS-VRYSTAAT SUIDWES-KAAP KWAZULU-NATAL MPUMALANGA LIMPOPO NOORDWES GAUTENG NIE PROD. VERSKAFFERS


PROKON

HOOF KULTIVARS GELEWER OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 JANUARIE - 28 FEBRUARIE 2018 MONDIAL

LANORMA VALOR 0,56%

65,00%

SAVANA VANDERPLANK

3,28%

44,92%

MARKIES PANAMERA UP-TO-DATE AVALANCHE

0,65%

TAISYA

0,74% 0,77%

ANDER

39,62% 1,43% 2,49%

4,89%

ANDER: LAPERLA, ALMERA, ELECTRA, BP1, FIANNA, INOVA, TRIOMF, HERTHA, LADY ROSETTA, INOVATOR, DARIUS, SYNERGY, FL2108, MONDEO, AMI, FABULA, LABADIA, SERENADE

REDES VIR AFMERKINGS OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 JANUARIE - 28 FEBRUARIE 2018 MEGANIESE BESK. VERBRUINING 22,76%

3,40%

AARTAPPELMOT

25,10%

BRUINSKURF

BEDERF

3,67%

LENTISELLE BESKADIG

3,95%

8,57% 8,08%

4,89%

7,59%

5,23% 6,86%

VERGROENING SANDSPLEET NERF-AF/LOS SILWERSKURF ANDER

ANDER: GROOTTE, POEIERSKURF, GRONDBESMEER, AALWURM, UINTJIES, INSEK BESKADIGING, TE GROOT, VERLEP, ANTRAKNOSE, RHIZOCTONI, HOLHART, SKILAALWURM, WATERIGHEID, VOORKOMS, GB KNOLLE, STINGELENT, MISVORMD, UITGELOOP, BESMET/BESMEER, DROE VROT, BINNE BRUIN VLEK, HITTE SKADE, GEMENG, POEIER SKURF, VREEMDE STOWWE.

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Diskriminasie in die werksplek Elmari Lemmer, LWO

Die Wet op Billike Werksgeleenthede is van toepassing op alle werkgewers en het ten doel om onregverdige diskriminasie in die werksplek uit te skakel deur gelyke geleenthede en billike behandeling te bevorder. Hierdie Wet maak ook voorsiening vir regstellende aksie met betrekking tot voorheen benadeelde aangewese groepe (swartmense, vroue en mense met gestremdhede wie Suid-Afrikaanse burgers is) in terme van indiensname. Die volgende gronde vir onregverdige diskriminasie word deur die Wet gespesifiseer: “ras, seks, geslag, swangerskap, huwelikstatus, familie verantwoordelikheid, etniese of sosiale oorsprong, kleur, seksuele oriëntering, ouderdom, gestremdheid, godsdiens, MIV-status, gewete, geloof, politieke oortuiging, kultuur, taal, geboorte, of enige ander arbitrêre grond”. Werkgewers se verpligtinge Die Wet op Billike Werksgeleenthede vereis dat alle werkgewers ‘n afskrif van die wet in die werksplek vertoon. Die wet sonder ook ‘n groep werkgewers uit wat aan verdere vereistes moet voldoen. Hierdie werkgewers staan bekend as “aangewese werkgewers”. Wie is 'n “aangewese werkgewer”? ‘n “Aangewese werkgewer” is ’n werkgewer met: • 50 of meer werknemers, of • ’n totale jaarlikse omset soos uiteengesit in Skedule 4 van die Wet: - Landbou - R6 miljoen - Mynbou en Steengroewe - R22.5 miljoen - Vervaardiging - R30 miljoen - Elektrisiteit, Gas en Water - R30 miljoen - Konstruksie - R15 miljoen - Kleinhandel, Motorhandel en Hersteldienste R45 miljoen - Groothandel, Kommersiële agente en Geallieerde handel - R75 miljoen

- Spyseniering, Akkommodasie en ander Handel Page 86 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018

- - -

R15 miljoen Vervoer, Stoor en Kommunikasie - R30 miljoen Finansies en Besigheidsdienste - R30 miljoen Gemeenskaps-, Spesiale en Persoonlike dienste R15 miljoen

Wat word verwag van ‘n “aangewese werkgewer”? 1) Aanstel van ’n Senior Billike Werksgeleenthede Bestuurder Die verantwoordelikheid vir die ontwikkeling, implementering en monitering van die plan moet toegeken word aan een of meer senior bestuurders wie aan die volgende vereistes voldoen: - Permanent in diens wees - Direk aan die direkteur/eienaar/lid rapporteer - Posbeskrywing moet sleutel billike werksgeleenthede uitkomste insluit - Oor die nodige mandaat of outoriteit beskik - Tyd af gegun word van ander verpligtinge - Toegang hê tot nodige hulpbronne - Oor ’n toepaslike begroting beskik 2) Komitee “Aangewese werkgewers” moet 'n komitee in die werksplek stig om aspekte rondom die voldoening aan die Wet te bespreek tydens konsultasies. Die komitee moet uit die volgende persone bestaan: - Werknemers uit elke beroepsvlak (vaardig, semi-vaardig, ongeletterd, ens.) - Werknemers uit aangewese groepe (swartmense, vroue en mense met gestremdhede) - Werknemers uit nie-aangewese groepe - Vakbonde in die werksplek Die komitee moet ten minste vier keer per jaar vergader. Tydens konsultasies moet die volgende bespreek word: - Analise van uitdagings en aksiemaatreëls in die werksplek


Algemeen • General

- Voorbereiding en implementering van die plan - Indiening van die verslae (EEA2 en EEA4) - Vordering en monitering van die plan

3) Opstel van die analise (EEA12) “Aangewese werkgewers” moet ‘n analise van uitdagings en aksiemaatreëls in die werksplek opstel ten opsigte van die volgende: - Beleide en prosedures wat die onderverteen woordiging van aangewese groepe en ‘n gebrek aan diversiteit in die werksplek kan aanspreek - Praktyke en faktore wat billike werks geleenthede positief kan bevorder - Onderverteenwoordiging van aangewese groepe en beroepsvlakke 4) Billike Werksgeleenthede plan (EEA13) “Aangewese werkgewers” moet, volgens die Wet, ‘n plan opstel en implementeer hoe om billike werksgeleenthede in hul werksplek te bewerkstellig. Hierdie plan word nie ingedien by die Departement van Arbeid nie, maar moet op die perseel beskikbaar wees vir inspeksie. Die plan is geldig vir tussen een tot vyf jaar en moet die volgende inligting bevat: - Doelwitte vir elke jaar van die plan - Regstellende aksie maatreëls - Numeriese doelwitte om billike verteenwoor diging te bereik - ’n Tydrooster vir elke jaar - Interne monitering en evaluasie prosedure, insluitend interne dispuutoplossingmeganismes - Identifisering van persone, insluitend senior bestuurders, om die plan te monitor en te implementeer 5) Billike Werksgeleenthede verslae (EEA2 en EEA4) Bykomend tot die plan, moet alle “aangewese werkgewers” jaarliks verslae by die Departement van Arbeid indien. Hierdie verslae rapporteer rondom vordering ten opsigte van die implementering van die plan en is die rapporteringsperiode ‘n twaalfmaande periode. Daar is twee verslae wat moet ingedien word, naamlik die EEA2 en EEA4 verslae. Die EEA2 verslag fokus op die demografiese strukture van die werkgewers, spesifiek ten opsigte van geslag, ras en beroepsvlakke. Die EEA4 verslag vervat inkomsteverskille van die werksmagprofiel. “Aangewese werkgewers” kan verslae elektronies indien op die Departement van Arbeid se webtuiste tussen 1 September en 15 Januarie jaarliks. Elektroniese indiening is meer doeltreffend aangesien werkgewers die elektroniese ingediende verslae, asook die bewys van indiening terug ontvang per

e-pos. Afskrifte van hierdie verslae (EEA2 en EEA4) moet ook op die perseel gehou word sou daar ’n inspeksie wees deur die Departement van Arbeid. Verslae kan ook jaarliks per hand by die naaste Departement van Arbeid ingedien word voor of op die eerste werksdag van Oktober. Die Wet op Billike Werksgeleenthede is ‘n baie belangrike aspek van arbeidsreg en daarom is dit noodsaaklik dat werkgewers seker maak of hulle ‘n “aangewese werkgewer” is ten einde te verseker dat hulle tydig aan die vereistes voldoen. “Aangewese werkgewers” wat versuim om aan hierdie vereistes te voldoen kan beboet word met R2.7 miljoen of 10% van die werkgewer se jaarlikse omset, wat ook al die grootste is. C

Elmari Lemmer is ʼn Regsadviseur by die LWO Werkgewersorganisasie – geregistreer by die Departement van Arbeid. Sy het ’n sertifikaat in Gevorderde Arbeidsreg vanaf die Universiteit van Pretoria en het 10 jaar se toepaslike ervaring in arbeidsreg.

uit

arbeidswetgewing --LWO, LWO,spesialiste specialists in in arbeidsreg labour lawvir fordie thewerkgewer employer

Word

VANDAG

lid by die LWO en ontvang gemoedsrus:

Stresstropie

Gebruik vir spanning gekoppel aan: Swak werksprestasie, Waarskuwings (personeel), Dissiplinêre verhore, KVBA (”CCMA”) sake, Diefstal en misbruik van die werkgewer se eiendom, Herstrukturering, Personeelvermindering, Stakings, Vakbondonderhandelinge, Departement van Arbeid ondersoeke, ens.

Jy as werkgewer voldoen aan arbeidswetgewing EN het 24/7 ondersteuning. Die LWO bied ‘n doelontwerpte oplossing vir werkgewers in die landbousektor. Kontak ons VANDAG vir lidmaatskap opsies!

CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 87


Dagboek / Diary

2018

Aartappels Suid-Afrika / Potatoes South Africa Direksievergadering / Board Meeting: 8 & 9 Mei / May Aartappelbedryfsforum / Potato Industry Forum: 16 Mei / May SAKO AJV / SAKO AGM: 24 Mei / May Transformasiesimposium / Transformation Symposium: 7 Junie / June Tom Burke Bemarkingsdag / Tom Burke Marketing Day: 7 Junie / June Aartappelnavorsingsimposium / Potato Research Symposium: 24 – 26 Julie / July

Aartappelsertifiseringsdiens / Potato Certification Service Direksievergadering / Board Meeting: 6 Junie / June OSRA / ICCSP: 6 Junie / June

Potato Industry Development Trust Trustee-vergadering / Trustee meeting: 17 Mei / May

PIDT

Potato Industry Development Trust

Ander Nampo: 15 – 18 Mei / May (Bothaville) World Potato Congress: 27 – 31 Mei / May (Cusco, Peru) PMA Fresh Connection SA Conference and Trade Show: 15 – 16 Augustus / August (Pretoria) Page 88 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018


Uit die argiewe From the archives CHIPS Februarie / Maart / April 1988

Ordelike bemarking Die aartappelbedryf het hom reeds herhaaldelik ten gunste van ordelike bemarking uitgespreek. Dit beteken nie noodwendig dat die vryemarkstelsel waarin die bedryf hom bevind versaak word nie, maar eerder dat ordelike bemarking binne die vryemarkstelsel moet plaasvind. Vir die aartappelbedryf beteken dit dat markkragte toegelaat moet word om met die minimum inmenging te werk ten einde markgerigte produksie aan te moedig. Daar is egter reëls wat deur die bedryf self daargestel is om eerstens die bemarkingsproses te orden, tweedens die behoeftes van die verbruiker te bevredig en derdens om die algemene beeld van die bedryf te verbeter. Die fasette van ordelike bemarking wat sekerlik die meeste verwaarloos word en wat die produsent dikwels baie rande kos is gradering, verpakking en die aanbring van merkvereistes. Tydens die onlangse Verbruikerskonferensie het die verteenwoordiger van die kleinhandel hom uitgespreek teen die vaalheid van die verpakking van aartappels.

Hoewel die meeste produsente daarna streef om hulle verpakking op te helder en te verbeter is daar tog ʼn aantal euwels wat steeds kop uitsteek. Een van die grootste hiervan is die verspreiding van aartappelsakkies waarvan die drukwerk daarop nie na wense is nie. Die drukwerk op hierdie sakkies is goedkoop, onnet en dikwels dof en onleesbaar. Soms is die blokmerk, waar die produsent sy merkvereistes moet aanbring, weens ʼn fabrieksfout nie ooreenkomstig die regulasie-voorgeskrewe vereistes gedruk nie. Die blokmerk is soms skeef gedruk en in ander gevalle word deur die stiksel verdring of is die stiksel van die sakkie dwarsoor die blokmerk aangebring. Dit gebeur dan dat die vervaardigers van die sakkies hierdie uitskotsakkies goedkoper (een tot drie sent goedkoper) aan produsente verkoop. Wanneer die boer dan sy aartappels in dié sakkies bemark, verbied die inspekteurs van die Direktoraat: Landbouprodukstandaarde in die toepassing van die regulasies hierdie aartappels vir verkoop op die mark. Die produsent se hele besending kan hieronder ly deurdat dit aanleiding gee tot ʼn afname in kwaliteit, gewigsverliese, ensovoorts en eindelik ook tot ʼn afname in prys. Dit is van kardinale belang dat die produsent merkvereistes soos graad, grootte, kultivar en sy naam en adres aanbring. Dit ondersteun ook die verbruiker se beroep op die aanbring van hierdie inligting. Voorafgaande is ook ooreenkomstig die besluit van die 1986 Aartappelkongres op Bethal dat die aartappelbedryf moet streef na die verbetering van die beeld van die bedryf. CHIPS • March/April 2018

Page 89


Skyfie sê Skyfie says Dis nou kort praat Mnr. Willem du Plessis van Atlas Kunsmis wie opgetree het as een van die hoofborge van die Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelinligtingsdag het tydens die dag gesê dat hy nie van plan is om lank te praat nie en dit vergelyk met hoe kort tydjie ʼn Enterprise weenseworsie op die rak lê.

André Jooste word 50 op Warden

Lnr: Dawie Schoeman, JF van der Merwe, Nicolaas Lourens, dr. André Jooste en Stephan Fourie. As jy lekker wil verjaar en baie mense by jou partytjie wil hê, verjaar op Warden. Dr. André Jooste, hoofuitvoerende beampte Aartappels Suid-Afrika, het tydens die Aartappelinligtingsdag te Warden op 8 April 2018 sy 50ste verjaarsdag gevier. Mnr. JF van der Merwe, voorsitter van Aartappels Suid-Afrika het namens die Oos-Vrystaat Aartappelwerkgroep ʼn skildery as geskenk aan hom oorhandig. Die skildery beeld ʼn aartappelland in die Oos-Vrystaat uit. Page 90 |

CHIPS • Maart/April 2018


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CHIPS March/April 2018  

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