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Open 3D Printing and Open Hardware How Software Paradigms Are Kick starting the Industrial Revolution 2.0

Outline • • • • •

Industrial Revolution 1.0 – perspective Industrial Revolution 2.0 Open Source Software vs. Hardware Woodshop 2.0 Learning with Open Hardware

Industrial Revolution 1.0

Industrial Revolution 1.0 • Tooling and technology is good at producing many identical parts quickly • As such it promotes a commodity-driven economy

Industrial Revolution 1.0 • The price difference between CREATING a line’s best and worst products becomes increasingly small • As the size of the economy grows, niches are created where small retailers can thrive • Creates a situation where a mainline manufacturer needs artificial scarcity to drive demand by either: • Decreasing the price of the lowest performers (sell more for less) • Increasing the features of the highest performers (sell less for more)

Industrial Revolution 2.0

Public open source repository

Industrial Revolution 2.0 • Recognizes that value is in the ideas, not the things, and that the valuation increases as an idea gets utilized and scrutinized Without Lanyard Hook

Thin Profile

Original Whistle

Giant Whistle

Open Source in the New Economy • The Industrial Revolution 2.0 is based on an economy of openness • Not just open source software, but open source processes and procedures, firmware, hardware, even operating and financial transparency • Basically, all aspects of operation promote and in some cases demand collaboration with consumers, competitors, and producers

Open Source: Software vs. Hardware • Open Source Software shares the code, libraries, and operating details of a piece of software with a license that allows the end user to remake, redesign, and redistribute – It can be free as in beer or free as in ideas – Producers earn revenue by offering value-add services or taking advantage of the open source marketplace – As the software is bettered by the community, everyone benefits

• Open Source Hardware shares the design, construction, and operation of a piece of hardware with a license that allows the end user to remake, redesign, and redistribute – Is typically free as in ideas, not free as in beer – Producers earn revenue by create implementations of the designs

The tools for Open Hardware Subtractive – traditional material working technologies. Start with a block of something and shape it down to final form – Computer Numerical Control (CNC) – Laser Cutter – Water Jet

Homemade CNC router

The tools for Open Hardware Additive – Rapid Prototyper 3D printer. Create a thing by building up thin layers of thermoplast or some other quick-setting fluid – Fused Deposition Modeling – Laser Sintering – Paste extrusion (plaster, PDMS, etc)

MBI Thing-omatic 3D printer

Acquiring a Toolset for Open Hardware There are many routes to a 3D printer* – –

Open Source – RepRap is a 3D printer with open plans, makeable on a 3D printer Inexpensive; multiple vendors of electronics

– Semi-Open / Commercial – Ultimaker, Makerbot, others supplies lasercut 3D printer kits with open source designs Relatively inexpensive; easy-ish to assemble – Commercial – PP3DP, Z-Corp, Solido Can be pricey; delivered fully assembled

*By no means exhaustive – apologies to all the many great printers and manufacturers not listed here


Woodshop 2.0

Mathematics & Physics

Chemistry • Lab apparatus – Test Tube Racks, Ring Clamps, etc.

• Molecular models • Materials research (PDMS, ceramics, pastes)

Biology & Biochemistry • DIY BIO project is creating open source labware: – DNA Electrophoresis, centrifuges, orbital shakers

• Microfluidic (Lab on a Chip) designs are within the tolerances of most 3D printers. Biological applications such as cell cloning, sorting, and incubating are possible • In Biology, models of cells, tissue, molecules are available • Open source scan data is available for most human anatomy

Robotics • Automated Circuit Fabrication • Chassis and structural components • Gearing and CAMs

Scientific Research Biotransistor by mrkim (

Thermotyp PCR block

More Information There are a great many resources on the web about Open Source Hardware and 3D printing: – Open source printer designs, including “RepStraps” – RepRap like machines that can be built with hand tools, then used to print a real RepRap – Open source repository for things. Over 7,000 designs and derivatives with a variety of licenses available already – The open source hardware platform running most open source 3D printers

MakeZine – Often features articles on 3D printing Google – many DIY type sites feature articles on using, assembling, or designing your own 3D printer – my hometown’s hackerspace (and all the other great FabLab / hackerspace websites out there!)