Port Nikau Whangarei:
“the sustainable waterfront”
Studio 7227 Daisy, Jasmine, Stephanie, Sue, Vicky
Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 2. REGION
3.1 Geological data Topography Soil Slope Aspect Erosion prone areas 3.2 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways Rainfall Storm events 3.3 Biological data
4.1 Geological data Topography Soil Slope Aspect Erosion prone areas 4.2 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways Rainfall Storm events 4.3 Biological data
a) Terrestrial environment Land cover Native vegetation Ecological connectivity b) Marine environment Salt water condition Tidal ranges Seabed condition c) Air Prevailing winds Pollution Noise Vibration 3.4 Sea level rise
a) Terrestrial environment Land cover Native vegetation Ecological connectivity b) Marine environment Salt water condition Tidal ranges Seabed condition c) Air Prevailing winds Pollution Noise Vibration 4.4 Sea level rise 4.5 Cultural data Introduction and areas of interest Land use Transportation networks and building footprints Proximities Heritage, open space and civic buildings Cadastrals Views Economic factors
2.2 Climate 2.3 Geological data Topography Soil Slope Aspect Erosion prone areas 2.4 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways Rainfall Storm events 2.5 Biological data a) Terrestrial environment Land cover Native vegetation Ecological connectivity b) Marine environment Salt water condition Tidal ranges Seabed condition c) Air Prevailing winds Pollution Noise Vibration 2.6 Sea level rise 2.7 Cultural data Introduction History Areas of interest Land use Transportation networks and building footprints Proximities Heritage, open space and civic buildings Cultural and economic factors
3.5 Cultural data Introduction and areas of interest Transportation networks and building footprints Proximities Heritage, open space and civic buildings Economic factors
Baltimore (floating wetland???)
5.4 Taree (NSW) Manning River (pg 658 The Principles of Green Urbanism)
RETHINKING THE MASTER PLAN
Resetâ€™s master plan
6.7 Master plan overlay - areas of proposed development
1. Introduction The development of urban waterfronts around the world continues with the dominance of industry on these sites now being replaced with public/private real estate ventures. The aesthetics of sea and sky within the urban realm, and waterfront access for both commercial and recreational users, has become highly valued. The concentration of shipping and industry pollutants, alongside contaminated stormwater and sea level rise, provide significant challenges to the creation of ecologically healthy waterfront environments. Using Green Infrastructure methodology as a framework and Port Nikau Whangarei as the site, this report will document and analyse the region, the sub catchment and the site, with a view to developing a strategic and urban master plan for Port Nikau. Using GIS mapping and supporting research, social, cultural and environmental factors, ecological health and connectivity of the site will be examined. The compiled data will provide an outline of the opportunities and constraints of the site with regards to future development.
2. Region 2.1 Landscape Character 1. Elevated Slopes & Bushclad Hills This land is predominantly used for forestry, farming or is covered in bush. These areas can be remote with a low level of development allowing natural views and areas of native bush. 2. Upper & Midslopes - Ridges & Gulleys Higher value soils and waterways mean farming and some forestry dominate these areas. Low levels of development. 3. Pastoral lowlands, Valleys, Wetlands & Waterways Moderate to flat contours allow horticulture including orchards and plant nurseries. Moderate levels of development.
2.2 Climate Whangarei enjoys close to 2,000 hours of sunshine yearly, yet with enough rainfall to keep the area lush and green. The sub-tropical Northland region, in the far north of the North Island, is New Zealand’s warmest region, with humid summers, mild winters and warm temperatures year round. Average summer daytime temperatures range from 22°C to 26°C, while in winter daily maximum temperatures reach 14°C to 17°C. Average annual rainfall (mm): 1,490 Average annual sunshine hours: 1,973 Average summer temperature (°C): 24 Average winter temperature (°C): 14 http://www.nzs.com/new-zealand-weather/northland/ whangarei/
4. Coastal, Inlets, Estuaries & Harbours Areas include cliffs, valleys, terraces, dunes, wetlands, rocky shores, spits and headlands. There is sporadic development around beaches and other high value areas. www.wdc.govt.nz/
2.2 Geological data Topography The 20m contour maps highlights the low-lying area of the town basin and Port Nikau, and the surrounding rolling hillscape.
Soils Soils information for the region was gained from the 1964 map held by the Northland District Council. Marua light brown clay loam and Te Ranga steepland soils, clay loam and stony clay loam predominate north of the CBD, while Waiotira clay and Mata clay predominate to the south.
Aspect North and flat Northeast and northwest East and West South, south east and southwest
Erosion prone areas Legend northland-erosion-prone-l
ENVIRONMEN Port Nikau northland-marine-manageme
High : 254
Low : 0
2.3 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways blah blah blah
Rainfall Average annual rainfall (mm): 1,490
Storm events blah blah blah
2.4 Biological data a) Terrestrial environment Land Cover Northland is representative of four broad indigenous ecosystem types spanning throughout the Ecological districts. These ecosystems include: A) forest and shrublands 1. Mixed lowland kauri-podocarp-broadleaf forest 2. Upland podocarp-broadleaf forest 3. Volcanic broadleaf forest 4. Kauri forest 5. Podocarp forest 6. Coastal forest 7. Riverine flood/alluvial forest 8. Duneland forest 9. Shrubland 10. Exotic forest B) fresh water wetlands 1 Rivers and streams 2 Lakes, swamps and bogs i. Dune lakes, volcanic lakes, ngawha thermal lakes ii. Swamps iii. Peat bogs, intermediate wetlands, ephemeral wetlands, modified/constructed Source: Whangarei Ecological District, Abstract into methodology wetlands C) coasts, dunelands and estuaries a. Estuarine i. Mangroves, saltmarsh, intertidal sandmudflat, shellbanks b. Coastal i. Hard coasts, soft coasts (foredunes and beaches, duneland and spits) D) offshore islands and stacks N.B. In addition to these there is Podzol Gumland.
Refer Table of Ecological Districts in the Whangarei District. Source: State of the Environment, pg.29-30.w
Ecological connectivity According to Meurk and Hall model, the ecological linkages are strong and healthy, there are around 10 big patches (at least 6.25ha) in Whangareiâ€™s region, and distance for big and medium patches are within 1km. But in some areas small patches (stepping stones) are missing.
Small patches (<0.01ha) Medium patches (<1.56ha) Large patches (<6.25 ha)
Ecological Districts of the Whangarei District Land environments (LENZ) is an environmental classification framework for conservation management, which utilizes the natural relationship between the environment and species distributions. At the highest LENZ group - Level I â€“ the country is divided into 20 land environments. Of these 20 environments, three are present in the Whangarei district reflected in the following land environment distribution patterns: Northern Lowlands (Environment A) 75.3% or 203,408ha Northern Hill Country (Environment D) 17.2% or 46,403ha Northern Recent Soils (Environment G) 7.2% or 19,358ha A further 0.3% is unclassified. See distribution of these environments pg. 24 of SOE report on Biodiversity, chapter 3 pg. 24 (opposite). The most significant land environmental classification for the Whangarei district is Northern Lowlands (Environment A) encompassing the extensive lowlands of the northern North Island, with the majority occurring in Northland, Auckland and Waikato. Climatically, Environment A is warm, with very high annual and winter solar radiation. Annual water deficits are low, however, the environment is susceptible to drought in years with lower than average rainfall. Minimum winter temperatures are also high, with frosts occurring only infrequently from Auckland north. Landforms are generally flat to gently rolling, with parent materials that include deeply weathered sandstone and greywacke, older volcanic tephra, alluvium from various sources, peat and older basaltic rocks. Most soils are poorly to moderately drained and of low natural fertility, reflecting the intense weathering caused by the warm, moist climate (Leathwick et al., 2002) cited in SOE
report on Biodiversity, chapter 3 see map of environments A, D, G on pg. 24 Environment D (Northern Hill Country) represents the next most significant land environment classification characterized by hill country of low-moderate elevation in the central and northern regions of the North Island. Climatically, Environment D has a warm climate, high annual and winter solar radiation, low monthly water balance rations and slight annual rainfall deficits. The topography is hilly with moderate to steep slopes. Soils are generally moderately drained and of low-moderate fertility Environment G (Northern Recent Soils) represent the least significant land environment classification for the area and consists of recent soils in the lowlands of the northern two- thirds of the North Island and is dominated by two contrasting landforms. 1. narrow alluvial floodplains along rivers and larger streams distributed throughout Northland, Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty and Gisborne, and extending into northern Hawkeâ€™s Bay in the east and to coastal Taranaki in the west. 2. coastal sand dunes that are most extensive along the west coast of the northern North Island. Environment G has a warm climate, high annual and winter solar radiation â€“ reflecting its northern location. Average water deficits are low but the monthly water balance ration results in droughts in years with below-average rainfall, particularly on the east coast. Topography is characterized as flat to gently sloping, with soils generally well drained but of low to moderate fertility (Leathwick et al, cited in author, date (State of the Environment report on biodiversity).
Protected natural areas The Protected Natural Areas Programme is a process whereby all remaining natural areas of ecological significance (significant natural areas) throughout New Zealand are identified, surveyed, evaluated and mapped by the Department of Conservation (Northland Regional Council, 2007). The process was initiated in 1983 to fulfil obligations under the Reserves Act (1977): “ensuring as far as possible, the survival of all indigenous species of flora and fauna, both rare and commonplace, in their natural communities and habitats, and the preservation of representative samples of all classes of natural ecosystems and landscape which in their aggregate originally gave New Zealand its own recognizable character.” sites are grouped into levels of ecological significance (Level 1 or 2). Level 1 sites are the highest priority for protection, and include areas that: - Contain best representative or only example of a habitat type in an ecological district, support fauna endemic to Northland or Northland-Auckland. - Contain or are regularly used by threatened or regionally significant species. Contain rare or threatened habitat types. - Have a high diversity of taxa or habitat types. - Have a high degree of ‘naturalness’. - Form ecological buffers, and linkages with other areas of significant habitat. - Cover a large geographic area. - Have a high or medium long-term viability. Of the sites in Whangaruru Ecological District 69/183 or 92% contain Level 1 sites of significant vegetation and/ or habitats of indigenous fauna, which are a priority for protection (table 6, pg. 34) SOE
Threatened environments The structure of the Threatened Species Classification System is outlined in Figure 12. Species not included in the classification system are not considered to be threatened. See fig 12 pg. 38 SOE There are 205 species classified using this system in the Whangarei District. Approximately 21% (45) are described as ‘threatened’ and 79% (160) as ‘at risk’. Of the total number, 125 (60%) are animals, such as the New Zealand fairy tern, white heron, and Pateke (brown teal). There are also 80 species of threatened plants (40% of total), including kakabeak, royal fern and the dune species pingao. Appendix D and E list the threatened animal and plant species found in the Whangarei District along with their status, and detail on location (when known). Insert maps Fig 13 observations of threatened animal species, SOE Fig 14 observations of threatened plant species pg. 41, SOE Fig 15 observations of threatened fish species pg. 43, SOE
The Threatened Environment Classification is a combination of three national databases: land environments (LENZ), land cover classes (LCDB2), and protected areas (PAN-NZ). The classification divides New Zealand into six categories of ‘threatened environments’ as follows: Environments with poorly protected indigenous biodiversity (acute, chromic and at risk categories), Environments with much reduced indigenous biodiversity (critically under protected/underprotected), and Environments where indigenous biodiversity is less reduced and better protected: (less reduced and better protected). See diagrams pie graph pg. 35, and districts pg. 35 SOE
Threatened Invertebrates (Source: NZ census 2004) Minimum population size estimates for Placostylus hongii (large, air-breathing land snail), Amborhytida tarangiensis (New Zealand dotterel) 100,000, and Anagotus turbotti (Turbott’s weevil) are 1,500, 100,000 and 350 respectively. Threatened Plant species Hebe aff. bishopiana Hebe aff. bishopiana is located at three sites; Wairua River Government Purpose Wildlife Management Reserve, Tanekaha Pumping Station (Borrow Cut Wetland), and Matarau Island Scenic Reserve. Pittosporum obcordatum population number less than 1,000 individuals, and regeneration has not been seen for 10 years (Lisa Forrester, Northland Regional Council, pers. comm.) The species is located at one sites; Wairua River Government Purpose Wildlife Management Reserve.
Priority natural areas for protection Priority Natural Areas for Protection in Whangarei Ecological District (DoC, District summary conclusions. Pg 257 1. Habitat types and landforms that are nationally and regionally uncommon - all freshwater wetlands, in particular Otakairangi peat bog, Wairua River wildlife management reserve (peripheral areas that are unprotected), and Wheki Stream swamp - riverine forests, especially Pukenui Forest Akerama Bridge riverine forest, Mangere River and Whakapara River remnants swamp forests, especially Hikurangi Swamp remnant salt marsh, mangrove forests and shell banks in Whangarei Harbour volcanic broadleaf forests on scoria cones and volcanic soils - kauri forests, especially in Waipu Bush and Maungatapere walkway. 2. Sites that contribute to the retention and expansion of the range of the threatened North Island brown kiwi Areas include Parahaki, Waiotama, and Wairua Falls Scenic Reserves, Pukenui Forest (peripheral areas that are unprotected), Dunford Road bush and Riponui Road bush remnants. 3. Areas containing vegetation types and associations uncommon in the Ecological District and in Northland. These areas include Jordan Valley forest remnants representing a kahikatea-kowhai forest Matarau Road remnants (kahikatea-kauri forest) Otuhi Road bush (taraire-puriri-tawa forest), and Kerehunga Road remnants (puriri forest). Source: Whangarei Ecological District Summary conclusions Refer Whangarei Ecological District level 1 sites for records of threatened flora and fauna in each area.
Threats to the Environment Coastal and Estuarine habitats Source, Whangarei Ecological District – abstract into methodology ecological character pg. 33) Coastal and estuarine habitats of the Whangarei Ecological District have suffered a long history of exploitation and misuse, and with this human settlement, significant modification and loss of indigenous ecosystems. “The majority of natural habitats today are often little more than islands in a sea of exotic landscape” (WED, abstract into methodology, xxxxyear). Specific threats to these habitats include: Reclamation Subdivision Weed invasion Livestock intrusion Leachate of fertilisers Sewage Pollution For example, the intertidal mudflats of Whangarei Harbour - once a flourishing, aquatic meadow of eelgrass, have been destroyed by discharge of sediment by the Portland Cement Works. This highlights the urgency for planning to address issues of mixed use, in fragile ecosystems – aquatic, terrestrial and air. Wetlands Wetland degradation is the direct result of human settlement /activities e.g. Water drainage and abstraction, clearance of riparian and catchment vegetation, fertiliser run-off and animal wastes, weir construction, grazing and trampling by stock and invasion of weeds and noxious fish. Volcanic scoria cones of the Whangarei Ecological District are threatened by quarrying activity.
The built environment The natural environment plays an important role in defining the character of the district. The Ministry for Culture and Heritage (2008) stated“ one of the main reasons people come to Northland is the quality of the environment, and the main reason for staying, is again the environment” (NDC, State of the Environment report on Biodoversity, xxxx). This highlights the urgency to protect, manage and control activities in remaining significant natural areas. Whangarei city and the encroachment of lifestyle blocks into ‘country areas’ attracts more domestic animals (dogs) which pose a serious threat to already endangered species such as kiwi).
b) Marine environment Salt water condition
Sea level rise The effect of a 2 metre seal level rise was considered for the district.
2m sea level rise Present sea level
c) Air Prevailing winds Pollution Noise Vibration
2.5 Cultural data Introduction The city of Whangarei is the largest urban centre north of Auckland with an urban population of approximately 50,000 and the balance of the districtâ€™s 80,500 people living in a number of smaller rural or coastal communities. REF whangareinz.com/about/population_and_people
History The Māori iwi Ngāpuhi occupied Whangarei from the early 19th century, and the Te Parawhau hapū lived at the head of the harbour. In the 1820s the area was repeatedly attacked by Waikato and Ngāti Paoa raiders during the Musket Wars.
Whangarei was the most urbanised area in Northland towards the end of the 19th century, but grew slowly in the 20th century. The district slowly exhausted most of its natural resources but was sustained by agriculture, especially dairying.
Captain James Cook and the crew of the Endeavour were the first Europeans to contemplate the Whangarei Harbour entrance. On 15 November 1769 they caught about one hundred fish there which they classified as ‘bream’ (probably snapper) prompting Cook to name the area Bream Bay.
Shipping was the main transport link until the North Auckland railway line reached the town in 1925, and the road from Auckland was not suitable for travel in poor weather until 1934. These terrestrial travel routes forced a rapid decline in coastal shipping but stimulated Whangarei to become the service centre for Northland. The population was 14,000 in 1945, but grew rapidly in the 1960s, incorporating Kamo and other outlying areas. In 1964, Whangarei was declared a city. Its population the following year was 31,000.
The first European settler was William Carruth, a Scotsman and trader who arrived in 1839 and was joined, six years later, by Gilbert Mair and his family. For the most part, relations between the settlers and local Māori were friendly, but in February 1842, all settler farms were plundered in revenge for transgressions of tapu. In April 1845 all the settlers fled from Whangarei most never to return but by the mid-1850s there were a number of farmers and orchardists in the area. From 1855, a small town developed, driven by the kauri gum trade. Today’s ‘Town Basin’ on the Hātea River was the original port and early exports included kauri gum and native timber followed later by coal from Whau Valley, Kamo and Hikurangi. Coal from the Kiripaka field was exported via the Ngunguru River. By 1864, the nucleus of the present city was established. Fire bricks made from fire clay deposits near the Kamo mines supported a brick works over several decades. Good quality limestone was quarried at Hikurangi, Portland, and Limestone Island, and initially sold as agricultural lime and later combined with local coal to produce Portland cement at the settlement of Portland on the south side of the harbour. Local limestone is still used in cement manufacture but the coal is now imported from the West Coast of the South Island.
The second half of the twentieth century brought the establishment and expansion of the oil refinery at Marsden Point on Bream Bay and the adjacent development of timber processing. A container port could follow, linked by rail to Auckland. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whangarei
Scale: 1:100,000 0
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http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/resources/data/our-environment Legend Pre-human wetlands Bog (h) Fen (h) Gumland (h) Inland saline (h) Marsh (h) Pakihi (h) Seepage (h) Swamp (h)
Areas of interest Twin Coast Discovery Highway A circular, scenic touring route around the region. The Poor Knights Islands Off the Tutukaka Coast, the Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve is a renowned divers’ paradise, but equally as appealing to snorkellers and kayakers. There are more than 50 dive spots around the islands - underwater arches and tunnels and the largest sea cave in the world. Waitangi Treaty Grounds Historical sites and artifacts can be found throughout the region, the birthplace of New Zealand. Bay of Islands, an Aquatic Playground Golden beaches fringed by pohutukawa trees, secluded coves and turquoise water. Boating, sailing, surfing, fishing are popular sports.
Luxury Lodges Hidden in tropical greenery, nestled in turquoise bays, overlooking the Pacific Ocean or set amidst gardens and native bush, these character retreats are a delightful part of the Northland landscape. Swim with the Dolphins Take a dive and meet some of the ocean’s friendliest inhabitants ... the dolphin. Take this incredible opportunity to swim with bottlenose dolphins in their natural environment. Interact with the dolphins, and observe their unique nature and personalities.
KEY TO MAP Twin Coast Route Alternative Tourist Drives Other Major Roads Airports Cities
A Twin Coast Discovery
90 MILE BEACH KERIKERI
ref http://www.northlandnz.com/visitor_information/ top_10_must_do%27s
HOKIANGA HARBOUR MATAURI BAY
BAY OF ISLANDS RUSSELL CAPE BRETT
Cape Reinga & 90 Mile Beach Tour along 90 Mile Beach and toboggan down giant sand dunes at Te Paki Stream. Witness the meeting of the Tasman Sea and Pacific Ocean at Cape Reinga - a spiritual place for Maori where the spirits of the departed leap to begin the voyage back to their final resting place in the ancestral homeland. Food & Wine Northland is one of NZ’s up and coming destinations for gastro tourists, people who head off in search of fresh food experiences and delectable wines. Waipoua Forest, Day or Night The giant kauri trees of the Waipoua Forest are some of the largest and oldest living rainforest trees in the world. Stand in awe at the base of Tane Mahuta – the 2000 year old ‘Lord of the Forest’. Explore by day or enjoy a guided night tour.
BAY OF ISLANDS
HOKIANGA NGAWHA SPRINGS
TWIN COAST CYCLE TRAIL
TUTUKAKA COAST BAYLYS BEACH
TANGOWAHINE MARSDEN POINT
WHANGAREI & SURROUNDS
WAIPOUA FOREST KAURI COAST
Fishing Game fishing legend Zane Grey described the Bay of Islands as the “Angler’s Eldorado” and for the thousands of kiwis who rank fishing top of their favourite leisure activities, Northland, home to the legendary 90 Mile Beach fishing competition, is the best place to cast a line.
Transportation networks and building footprints Cruise ships anchor in the chanel in the Bay of Islands where they ferry their passangers to Russell or Waitangi wharves. From there tourists may take a number of day tours including a trip to Cape Reinga or just spend the day in Russell. 15 ships were scheduled to visit from January to March 2013. REF www.tapeka.com There are three working Port Facilities in the Whangarei Harbour, Two at Marsden Point which serve the New Zealand Refining Co. and one at Portland. Buses and trains also link Whangarei with Auckland and there is a proposed rail link of Marsden Point with Oakleigh (South of Whangarei). http://www.nrc.govt.nz/Your-Council/Council-Projects/ Marsden-Point-Rail-Link/ Proposed rail link Whangare CBD is concenetrated in Whangarei Town Basin, which underwent extensive redvelopment in 19xx. Since then, there have been satellite towns developed at Marsden Point cove ( 10 minutes drive off State HIghway 1 heading south of Whangarei Town centre) and Port Nikau, a recent council initiative to attract mixed use development, in a zone that was formerley zones industrial. Port Nikau
State Highway New Zealand railway tracks Bus routes citylink Legal roads Pedestrian walkway
Proximities Whangarei is located two hours North of Auckland on State Highway 1 within close proximity to iconic tourist destinations - The Bay of Islands, Waitangi, 90 Mile Beach and Cape Reinga. Northland is also a well loved holiday destination because of its beaches, diving and walking tracks. Whangarei has one of the three airports in the Northland Region; Whangarei, Bay of Island and Kaitaia. Whangarei Airport has six to nine 35 minute flights from Auckland each day. A new bridge over the Hatea River means that the distance from Whangarei wharf to the airport will be reduced as it will no longer be necessary to drive through the township.
State Highway New Zealand railway tracks Bus routes citylink Legal roads Pedestrian walkway
Heritage, public open space and civic buildings
Cultural and economic factors Ethnicity -‐ Whangarei
$ T$housands Thousands
Data for graphs taken from 2006 census data . www.stats. govt.nz/
Ethnicity -‐ Auckland
45 40 35
Auckland New Zealand
Whangarei residents have a much lower median income than those of Auckland or the rest of NZ
45 40 35 30
Whangarei lacks the racial diversity of Auckland with less Pacific and Asian peoples, thought there is a higher percentage of Maori in Whangarei than in Auckland.
No Qualiﬁca1on School Qualiﬁca1on
Whangarei has a larger number (37%) of people over 15 yrs who have no qualifications compared to Auckland and the rest of NZ. This means that there would be a lower number of qualified applicants available for any industry that was to establish in Whangarei.
under 15 years 15-‐34 years
35-‐65 years over 65 years
Whangarei has a larger number of people over 65 years and there are much fewer 15-34 year olds as people to tend to leave the area for education and work purposes.
60 50 Whangarei
Rotorua New Plymouth
Whangarei has a similar population to these cities. Photo from Author. Ship building and repairs is a major industry in Whangarei along with horticulture and forestry.
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Whangarei Rotorua New Plymouth Invercargill Whanganui Gisborne Jobs Adver1sed on Seek
Full time Jobs advertised on Seek.co.nz for 10th March 2013. Note 633 full time jobs were advertised for Rodney Northshore on the same date.
3. Catchment 3.1 Geological data Topography
The Town Basin is mostly flat with 0-2m contours that are gradual slopes. The edges along the Hatea River slope down into the river at 2m or more.
The majority of Onerahi Airport is flat which facilitates the runway. The surrounding edge drops steeply 30-40m in the North Western areas.
In the Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve there is a 2m change.
Pohe Island, where the BMX and Skate tracks are located, changes gradually from 0-2m and meanders through the Island. West of our site contains more changes in grade compared to the Eastern side. The hills/mountains provide panoramic views of the site and harbour from most directions. The surrounding areas of Port Nikau are mostly high in contours.
erosion Legend Soil
Majority of the catchment is Omahuta sandstone and bus-routes-citylink-whang Puhipuhi-Whangarei Volcanic fiel soils. Onerahi consists of LegalRoads only these soils.
BuildingFootprints The third most common soil is Whangai Formation. Geology
<all other values>
northland-erosion-prone-l Kamo Coal Measures Mahurangi limestone ENVIRONMEN Maungarei Dacite
Port Nikau Omahuta sandstone Onemama Formation
northland-marine-manageme Parahaki Rhyolite Puhipuhi-Whangarei Volcanic Fiel hillshade
High : 254 Whangai Formation
ENVIRONMEN Low : 0 Port Nikau northland-erosion-prone-l northland-marine-manageme
Aspect The catchment border is surrounded with different facing slopes including the airport.
Pohe Island, the industrial area and most of the city centre is flat.
3.2 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways The catchment comprises rivers, minor streams and ridges. This map shows that the airport is the largest flat part of the catchment.
3.3 Biological data
Most of the vegetation in the catchment are Indigenous forests.
Along the coast are mangroves.
Other patches are Pine forests, manuka and kanuka, land-cover-database-versi exotic forests and cropland.
LCDB1NAME Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods Coastal Sand and Gravel Forest Harvested Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation Herbaceous Saline Vegetation High Producing Exotic Grassland Indigenous Forest Low Producing Grassland Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Pine Forest - Open Canopy Short-rotation Cropland Urban Parkland/ Open Space nz-mangroves northland-marine-manageme
Native vegetation Port Nikau
The catchment contains mostly large patches with a few scattered medium, small and native patches too. land-cover-database-versi
<all other values>
Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods Indigenous Forest Manuka and or Kanuka northland-marine-manageme
b) Marine environment Sea level rise Sea level rise of 2m floods pratically all of the city including the industrial area north of Port Nikau.
If the sea level rises to this height, the city would need to be moved or the water will need to be mitigated.
2m sea level rise Present sea level
Legend ENVIRONMEN Port Nikau
northland-marine 0 1
c) Air The catchment is situated within the Whangarei Airshed which means that the concentration of air pollutants i.e. smoke, soot must be carefully managed as it can affect peopleâ€™s health.
3.4 Cultural data Introduction
The Town Basin is a beautiful place, enjoyed by many local and foreign visitors. It consists of a mix of trees, art galleries, history and heritage buildings and food and souvenir shops. Located East of Whangarei CBD, the Town Basin is only a 2 minute drive heading towards the Hatea River. There is plenty of outdoor seating, or if you prefer, relaxing in the grass under the over-arching trees. Enjoy the everchanging view that flows with the season, flow of the tide, and the coming and going of boats, people, birds and animals. http://www.whangareinz.com/activities/detail/the-townbasin-whangarei - Reference Paraphrase The Town Basin is a perfect place for the kids to enjoy climbing, sliding, running, swinging and spinning. The playground is a bundle of joy for the kids, and there are barbeques available for public use. http://www. whangareinz.com/activities/detail/the-town-basinwhangarei - Reference Paraphrase â€œEnjoy an easy stroll, or bike, along the flat walkway along the Hatea River.â€? http://www.whangareinz.com/activities/ detail/the-town-basin-whangarei - Reference Direct Quote
Town Basin Marina Image taken from: http://www.whangarei.seniornet.co.nz/
Areas of interest There are popular places within the catchment area of Port Nikau. These are • Town Basin Marina • Onerahi Airport • Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve • Skate Park/BMX Track The Onerahi Airport, located South East of the Town Basin at Handforth Street, is an easy 10 minute drive from Whangarei CBD. There is plenty of Accommodation for those wishing to stay prior to their flight including Kingsgate Hotel which is only an 8 minute drive on the way to the Airport.
Pohe Island - Skate Park, BMX Track Image taken from: http://www.whangarei.seniornet.co.nz/
Various forms of transport are available for those who don’t have their own cars including taxis, rental cars and the City Link bus which runs from the Whangarei CBD to the entrance of Onerahi Airport. The nearest shops is a 3 minute drive or 20 minute walk from the Airport. http://www.whangareiairport.co.nz/index.htm - Reference The Skate Park has a good open layout and flow that is suitable for beginners to advanced. The park is popular and well used by local visitors.
Onerahi Airport Image taken from: http://www.whangareiairport.co.nz/images/aerial. jpg
Those who prefer a two-wheeled adventure can enjoy an exhilarating race of the UCI International Standard BMX 400m track directly next door. It is also open for public use. A skater designed park with good open layout and flow, and suitable for beginners to advanced. The park is popular and well used by local boarders. Also enjoy the street art on show at the bowl. The Skate & BMX Track is a 5 min drive east of the Town Basin, over the Hatea River. http://www.whangareinz. com/activities/detail/whangarei-skate-park-bmx-track Reference
Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve Image taken from: http://www.sail-world.com/photos/Alt_ Whangarei_Harbour.jpg
Current Zoning Zonning? The area mostly contains living 1 zones which surrounds Port Nikau. Legend
The business 4 zone is located in the middle of the Environments catchment which is highly industrial mainly for boat related work. <all other values>
Transportation networks and building footprints
Transport around Whangarei is well structured as the Citylink Bus travels throughout the city and runs every half hour Monday - Sunday. The railway track runs through Whangarei from Marsden Point and is available only for logging. There is easy access of roads throughout the city.
Proximities The airport and Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve is more than 5km away from State Highway 1.
The city, including the town Basin is located less than 2km from State Highway 1.
Town Basin Marina
Proximity/ Distance from CBD 800 metres
Time by Car
site proximity Skate Park/BMX Track
Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve
site2k site1k siteshape
ENVIRONMEN Port Nikau sh nz-railway-tracks bus-routes-citylink-whang LegalRoads
Heritage, open space and culture civic buildings There are several sized patches located within the catchment and are short driving distances from each other.
Pohe Island where the BMX Track and Skate Park is located, is the largest Urban Parkland/Open Space in the catchment land-cover-database-versi area. <all other values>
Urban Parkland/ Open Space
4. Waterfront 4.1 Geological data Topography The flat site had previously been zoned for heavy industrial use, however a recent plan change has seen a separate zone created, Port Nikau Environment, allowing mixed use commercial and residential development.
Soil Port Nikau is an area of reclaimed land made from “a variety of natural and processed materials” (Northland Regional Council (NRC), 2011). The soil on the site is Takahiwai clay, a soil of “estuarine flats and former lakes beds” known to be “imperfectly or very poorly drained” (NRC, 2011). Takahiwai soils in Auckland are considered to be “lowland soils under low-intensity use” and are one of the soils considered for priority monitoring due to “high risks of structural breakdown and nutrient loss. Physical erosion is also possible but the risk is low to moderate” (Auckland Regional Council, 2009).
Slope Flat terrain.
Aspect Due to the nature of the terrain aspect is good.
4.2 Hydrological data Watersheds and waterways Ridges and valleys, rivers and lakes.
4.3 Biological data a) Terrestrial environment Land cover blah blah
Native vegetation blah blah
ÂŻ Small patches (<0.01ha) Medium patches (<1.56ha) Large patches (<6.25 ha)
b) Marine environment
= Whangarei Harbour is a large drowned river estuary (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), 2006). = Main rivers flowing into the harbour are Hﾄ》ea River, Mangapai River, Limeburners Creek, Raumanga Stream and Otaika Creek. (Wikipedia, 2012)
= a marine reserve was formally established in two locations in the Whangarei Habour in October 2006 and is managed by the Department of Conservation (DOC) (DOC, 2011). = uniquely the marine reserve proposal, which began in 1990, was instigated by local students who chose to do something for the environment and gained the support of marine experts (DOC, 2011). = the reserve comprises 253.7 hectares, 2.54% of the Whangarei Harbour (DOC, 2011). = the two sites area Motukaroro (Aubrey/Passage Island) near Reotahi, the other is at Waikaraka, around the bay to the east of Port Nikau (DOC, 2011). = Waikaraka marine reserve is an intertidal mudflat/ mangrove environment (DOC, 2011). = Mangrove forests, or mangals, tend to grow in quiet waters where the mud or sand is fairly stable and plants can take root. The Waikaraka mangal is a typical example (DOC, 2011). = Mangrove forests are highly productive zones, where the gentle flowing waters and mud surrounding their roots are home to a diverse range of fish, shellfish and bird life. Other marine species found include worms, crabs, and shrimps (DOC, 2011). = Both marine reserve sites help to sustain different types of marine life and are important links in the sustainable management of the harbour (DOC, 2011).
= Habitats include intertidal flats, mangroves and saltmarsh (MAF, 2006). = intertidal flats are to south of the main channel of the middle harbour and also small pockets in the lower harbour (MAF, 2006).
The Marine Reserve is approximately a 4 minute drive, north east of Onerahi airport.
Salt water condition = Salinity increases up-harbour (MAF, 2006). = Salinity during the summer is generally well mixed (MAF, 2006). = Salinity during winter is partially mixed in the upper harbour (MAF, 2006).
Tidal ranges = Tidal range of 1.7m (neap tides) to 2.3m (spring tides) (MAF, 2006). = Tidal variation means during low tide much of the harbour is mud flats and exposed sand bars (MAF, 2006).
Seabed condition = Main harbour channel water depths at coast are 15-31m (MAF, 2006).= Seafloor at harbour entrance and middle harbour dominated by coarse sands and muddy sands (MAF, 2006). = From 1920s to 1970s a major source of mud was waste material from the Portland cement works which were directly discharged into the upper harbour (MAF, 2006). = Sediments in the lower harbour are mainly fine-medium sands (MAF, 2006).
Seagrass meadows = Almost all of Whangarei Harbour’s 12km2 of seagrass was lost in the 1960’s (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), n.d.). = Seagrass meadows play a vital part in marine environment health by providing nursery grounds for young fish (NIWA, n.d.). = Erosion from land smothering the beds in run-off and pollutants, invasive marine plants, grazing by black swans, dredging and coastal development, along with damaging recreational activities all contribute to the decline of seagrass (NIWA, n.d.). = NIWA has been working with Northland Regional Council and the local kaitiaki roopu to establish trials of transplanted, locally sourced healthy seagrass plants to the area where degradation occurred with encouraging results including that snapper have now returned to the area (NIWA, n.d.). = Restoration has helped the return of seagrass; as well as a lot of natural recovery thanks to better management of discharges in the upper harbour since the 1970s improved water clarity in the lower harbour (NIWA, n.d.).
Fauna of the marine reserve area Fish – such as snapper, trevally, kahawai, kingfish and mackerel, banded kokopu and eels (DOC, 2011). Shellfish - including oysters, little black mussel, and barnacles, mud snails, mudflat whelks, cat’s-eyes (DOC, 2011). Birds - including shags, pied stilts, spoonbills, banded rail, kingfishers and herons. Seabirds such as the white fronted tern. (DOC, 2011).
Biosecurity threat = The fan worm (Sabella spallanzanii), a high priority unwanted organism under the Biosecurity Act, listed among the worst 10 marine pests in the world, has been discovered in Whangarei waters this summer but not yet in Northland’s other 14 harbours (Laird, 2013). = Auckland’s waters are heavily infested and there is concern vessels are knowingly carrying the fan worm into Whangarei’s port, jeopardising the harbour, seafood and marine reserves in the area (Laird, 2013). = An infested boat is currently (8 March 2013) berthed at Port Nikau and Northland Regional Council are working with the owners of the vessel to get the boat hauled out of the water and cleaned (Laird, 2013).
Sea level rise
sea level rise map ??
4.3 Cultural data Introduction
Areas of interest
”Port Nikau Joint Venture” is the single owner of the 106-hectare former land and assets formerly known as Port Whangarei.
Significant features of the area include: • Deep water access • A choice of three wharves • Flat terrain
Northland Port Corp. sold this block to private investors for $14million in 2004 (http://www.northernadvocate. co.nz/news/port-land-for-sale/1402005/) and it is now fully owned and operated by Port Nikau Joint Venture.
http://www.northernadvocate.co.nz/news/port-land-forsale/1402005/ [photo from port nikau website]
The site itsel is reclaimed coastal land situated to the south of the Whangarei central business district (Port Nikau, 2008). The Port Nikau block of reclaimed flat harbour-side land is mostly bare, with some heavy industry plant and warehousing along the seaward side. There are three wharves adjacent to the property, currently used for berthage by a mix of casual recreational users, commercial fishing vessels and larger craft. There are a number of buildings within the Port Nikau landholding some of which are leased to industrial tenants on a wide variety of terms. The largest building on site, a 5963 square metre high-stud warehouse with 1056sqm of additional office space is the former Tenix complex, which was involved in building part of the New Zealand Navy’s new frigates and inshore patrol vessels. The site is served directly by rail.
History Port Whangarei = developed during the 1920’s to 1940’s (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), 2006) = served by road and rail (MAF, 2006). = required maintenance dredging of the main channel approaches in the upper harbour adjacent to Port Whangarei to keep the wharf basin and upper harbour deep enough for cargo vessels (MAF, 2006). = dredging required the removal of up to 155,000 m3 of spoil per year (MAF, 2006). = spoil was pumped into dredge ponds at the rear of the port area (planned to be used for further reclamation development) (MAF, 2006). = during the early 2000s ran out of space to dispose of the dredging (MAF, 2006). = in addition, the berthing basin and channel were too small to service larger export trade ships (MAF, 2006). = also wharves were aging and did not have the loadbearing strength for modern cargo-handling machinery (MAF, 2006). = ceased primary Port activities once lease expired in 2007 (MAF, 2006).
Transportation networks and building footprints
State Highway New Zealand railway tracks Bus routes citylink Legal roads Pedestrian walkway
Proximities Distances to Port Nikau:
Airport 10k 16min Hospital 4k 8min High School-boys 4.4k 10min High School-girls 4.0 9min W. Heads full primary 31k 35min Port Mardsen 31k 25 min
Port Nikau sh
Heritage and open space
5. CASE STUDIES
6. RETHINKING THE MASTER PLAN
Green Infrastructure Modeling Cities on Ecosystems Cities can become more sustainable (self-sustaining) by modeling urban processes on ecological principles of form and function, by which natural systems operate within the wider ecological network. Characteristics of healthy ecosystems Diversity, Adaptiveness Interconnectedness, Resilience, Regenerative capacity Symbiosis. These qualities can be incorporated in the development of strategies to make them more productive and regenerative, resulting in ecological, social and economic benefits.
Concepts This highlights the need for a collaborative approach between architecture, landscape architecture, planning, engineering and social disciplines in the development of sustainable cities, within an open systems framework.
Sustainability model – triple bottom line sustainability MTN_SusModel.jpg circular metabolism – Giradet cited in http://terristorias.com/2012/08/metabolism-circularoakland-ecology-zero-waste/ image 2 Hollings http://anjalisa.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/holling-2001figure42.jpg Diagram of green infrastructure innovations for Port Nikau – variation of pg. 19, green urbanism book DAISY
Source: Newman, P and Jennings, I (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems: Principles and Practices. Island Press, Washington. Insert image – green graphic (desktop) source:
Considerations in developing sustainable economies Transport and eco-mobility Urban infrastructures: culture and public space culture heritage and identity urban water systems urban energy systems climate-responsive passive design technologically innovative green infrastructures to support Zero waste concepts Material flows and food supply
High Technoogy Commercial +residential Local Market
Enhance Existing character
Re-establishing ecological connectivity through open public space and a 25m coastal buffer, in response to projected population growth, recreation needs, sea level rise and environmental considerations.
References Auckland Regional Council, 2009. Ranking of Auckland soils susceptibility to degradation. Retrieved from: http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/documents/technicalpublications/ TR2009_044%20-%20Ranking%20of%20Auckland%20soils%20susceptibility%20to%20degradation.pdf Department of Conservation. (2011). Marine and coastal. Retrieved from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/publications/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-protected-areas/whangarei-harbourmarine-reserve-information-sheet/ Department of Conservation. (2011). Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve. Retrieved from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-protected-areas/marine-reservesa-z/whangarei-harbour/ Laird, L. (2013). Biosecurity Threat To Local Waters. Retrieved from: http://www.northernadvocate.co.nz/news/biosecurity-threat-to-local-waters/1784296/ Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. (2006). Whangarei Harbour (Whangarei Port and Marsden Point): baseline survey for non-indigenous marine species. (Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No: 2005/16). Wellington, NZ: Graeme Inglis, Nick Gust, Isla Fitridge, Oliver Floerl, Chris Woods, Barbara Hayden, Graham Fenwick (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA)). Retrieved from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/files/pests/saltfreshwater/2005-15-whangarei-marina.pdf National Institute of Atmospheric Research (NIWA). (n.d.) Where will the young fish play? Retrieved from: http://www.niwa.co.nz/publications/wa/water-atmosphere-2-february-2011/where-willthe-young-fish-play Port Nikau. (2008). Retrieved from: http://www.portnikau.co.nz/index.html Whangarei Weather. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.nzs.com/new-zealandweather/northland/whangarei/