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Constructing Meaning in Constructing Meaning in Packaging Design 2012

Packaging Design PHOEBE CHEN


Constructing Meaning in Packaging Design


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Introduction

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Quick view - What is Packaging Design ? - The functions of Packaging Design

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Packaging Holy Trinity 3 Paradigms - Surface graphics (Imagery- Typography, Photography, Illustration; Colour ) - Material - Structure

29 What Drives the Design Process? - TA, Cost, Culture, Client, Environmental issues

36 Transposition Method and Design Process

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Bibliography

Introduction Firstly, welcome to Constructing Meanings in Packaging Design, as a postgraduate student in Visual Communication specialising in packaging design, I would like to share my experience in learning packaging design. The book that will introduce you packaging design and give you the useful information to engage these area effectively.

helps your understanding and also displays design processes for you to follow easily. Applying transposition methodology to design packaging and making use of signifiers to construct meanings in packaging design. Start your packaging design journey now! ~ Phoebe Birmingham City University

The book provides you basic but important knowledge in packaging design and the packaging trends. Because of the changing role of packaging, designers have to consider other aspects, especially environment issues in recent years. Other trends such as healthy lifestyle or sustainable attitudes affect consumers purchasing behaviour deeply. These factors drive packaging design processes and have impacts on designers’ insights. The books uses real example, which

Introduction

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Packaging Design Mind Map This mind map simply illustrates paradigms in terms of packaging design, which are functions, surface, structure, materials, eco-factors, audience and budget.

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Introduction

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Quick view - What is Packaging Design ? - What is the functions of Packaging Design?

Image source: The Dieline

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The Functions of Packaging Design

What is Packaging Design ? Packaging design plays an important role in the marketplace. Packaging design is not just about the decoration. It is one kind of marketing tools to promote the product and to convey the brand message by surface graphic communications, and to deliver the product’s value to the consumer through specific packaging design. Marianne & Sandra, 2006 pointed out that the ultimate goals of packaging design are to stand out among competitors, to avoid consumer confusion and to influence the consumer in a purchasing decision. Therefore, packaging has a great effect on the consumer’s purchase decision and also creates the retail experience. Nearly 75 percent of all purchasing decisions that are made at the shelf, and consumers spent less than three seconds to make the

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Quick view - What is Packaging Design

In the beginning, the main reason for packaging was to wrap the goods for trade because of the long distance shipping demand and to protect the goods against damage, such as being crushed, dropped, broken, or contamination by other environmental factors.

decision, in other words, packaging has become the key element of a marketing strategy for a product as it provides visual excitement and give the first impression of the product to consumer.

However, packaging has continually changed its role over time even though protection is still one of the important functions of packaging. Coca cola bottles Packaged can be a container or wrapping goods, if there is no design on the bottle, it just becomes the normal container.

Packaging design is one of the key elements of a marketing strategy for a product as it is the visual face that will be promoted, recognised and sought out by the consumer. – Gavin Ambrose, Pual Harris < Packaging the Brand >

Recently, packaging has become a marketing tool to deliver the brand message to consumers directly. By effectively conveying the product message to the consumer to affect their purchasing decision. From initially attracting to sniff examining, then ultimately purchasing. Packaging acts as a role of the salesman to communicate the product message, brand value and

to connect with the target audience effectively by conveying specific meaning. A successful packaging sells well and stands out from competition, which enhances brand recognition, and also builds a powerful brand experience, that increase consumer’s loyalty. In short, there are three main roles in terms of packaging.

Sell and Promote

Packaging’s main function is threefold: - To protect the product - To facilitate the use of the product - To sell and promote the product

- slient salesman marketing tool

Facilitate the use of the product

Basic function - protection

- provides product information and instructional details - prevent damage during transportation, distribution and easy to storage

Quick view - The Functions of Packaging Design

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Protection

Facilitate the Use

Sell and Promotion

To protect the product

To facilitate the use of the product To sell and promote the product

Packaging is used to protect the product from damage during transportation, distribution and for easy storage. Packaging fulfills a functional role to contain and protect the product from the shelf to consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home. For example, the egg is a delicate and fragile item, which means the most important function of the egg packaging is protection. Joseph Curtis, a manager of Egg Crates, pointed out that eggs are very fragile due to the shell construction, the protection from the shell is not enough to prevent damage and breakages to the eggs. This is the reason why proper egg packaging is important

Packaging provides product information to consumer, instructing them how to use it correctly, such as the nutritional details of food, dosage information on medicines, and instructional content. Packaging makes consumer facilitate the use of the product, it provides product information and brings convenience for consumer, such as easier carrying, disposal, open-close structure special function, etc.. When packaging plays a good role on the use of product, it helps identify and market the product and create more perceived value to consumer.

Packaging is like a silent salesman, it influences consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; purchasing behavior. Packaging helps the customers to identify the brand, it displays the product information and combines with the structure, colour, imagery, typography and even the materials. All of these are included in packaging design and need to be taken into consideration when facing different target audiences, brand tone and voice, personality, brand value.

Protection

Tesco eggs packaging As can be seen, egg packaging especially requires full protection, the shockproof inner for the egg is important, the structure should be the first defense to prevent eggs from being damaged.

Facilitate the Use

Spruce painting products

Sell and Promotion

Different contact lotion brands on shelf

Packaging not only provides product information but also guides consumer how to use the product. Spruce makes refinishing furniture more easily by steps.

Packaging creates the first image for consumer, and most purchasing decision are made by the packaging display. Packaging provides information to consumer and being the key deciding point in the few minutes.

Wrapping newspaper

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The newspaper is for wrapping, which can easily package goods and has the protection function.

Quick view - The Functions of Packaging Design

Quick view - The Functions of Packaging Design

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Case Study - Apple

Apple is unlike other electronic companies, because Apple spent a lot of time thinking about how to package their products, and what the benefits could be provided to consumers. Apple attached importance on user experiences from products to packaging. They think about how to package the products not just only by ugly cardboard box but to convey Apple products high quality to consumers.

The box itself is plain white cardboard with smooth texture. The box has a solid and substantial feeling. The inside of the box is lined with soft material to protect the product. When removed the lid, a small plastic tab helps consumers 10

Case Study-Apple

to take out the product from the box. After that comes out the plastic tray, which is used to contain the other devices. Because Apple had made efforts on their packaging, they create positive experiences to consumers, and also Apple improves packaging by changing shape and materials. Apple reduces materials and transportation space to decrease environment impacts.

Apple iPad packaging

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface graphics - Materials - Structure

Image source: The Dieline

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Packaging Holy Trinity These three paradigms are the important components to packaging design, each of them can not exist alone. Good packaging design suggests the well-performance of these three paradigms.

Surface Graphics

- Typography - Photography - Illustration - Colour, imagery, typeface

- Glass - Plastic - Paper/ board - Metal 12

Packaging Holy Trinity

Materials

Structure

Surface design in packaging is like the product’s clothing, it gives the first visual impression

to customer directly. Through text, graphics and colour consistency, to convey the product message to consumer. The main three components of imagery surface design are typography, photography and illustration. Each of these elements has its function and advantages. Typography

Different typefaces can hold and represent brand tone and voice, such as script fonts, ornate fonts and serif types more tend to be used in terms of luxury packaging.

Typography is essentially descriptive, it conveys information and ideas directly, which means that it can explain what the product is and it also can communicate ideas as well as brand core values to the consumer. Different typefaces have distinctive personalities, each of them create a different look, feel and emotion to the consumer.

Packaging Design Materials

Surface Graphics

Structure - Shape - Ergonomic function

Some types feel serious and conservative, whilst others are more leisurely and even jovial. Designers can select appropriate typefaces to make the packaging more consistent with brand personality.

Different typefaces communicate different emotion, and applied at vary of purposes.

Packaging the Brand

Evelyn’s chocolate sauce to a position of being a personal, almost everyday luxury. The packaging select script typeface as the brand’s typeface to communicate luxury.

TheDieline - JansenHarris

Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

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Typography can create hierarchy for readers by different scales, typefaces.

The Packaging Essentials noted the following considerations for deciding on typography for a packaging.

Designers make good use of typefaces and employ the beauty of typography, in ornate serif typefaces or minimalist sans-serif typefaces, which can convey the identity of the brand and communicate the product information effectively. Typography can also make outstanding packaging surface design and makes products stand out on the shelf, even though there is no fancy illustration graphics or photography applied in surface design.

. Elaborate scrip fonts can be challenging to read. Relatively simple scrip designs in a larger size are more legible. 100% Chocolate Cafeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s uses boldly numbered and brightly coloured on surface design, making it easy for the consumer to quickly identify each flavors by the large and clear typography displays.

. Type treatment should be kept to a single typeface. The italic and bold versions of a font add variety.

Japanese agency Groovisions

. Avoid using text over illustrations or colour areas that do not have enough contrast to make the type readable.

. Avoid using large amounts of light type on a dark background. If reversed-out type must be used, increase its size and select fonts with wide strokes.

. Avoid long stretches of small type. The optimal line length for easy readability is about thirty-nine characters. Use columns to break up long lines. A variety of serif typefaces in different scales give Grown Botanical Alchemyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s packaging a simple and sophisticated feel.

Weburbanist

. Avoid end-of-line hyphenation. . Bullets or numbers improve readability and retention. . Uppercase does not necessarily make a message easier to read.

Choose the right font that will best represent the product. Be sure it is readable and legible. - Ebrian Acebedo < naldzgraphics >

. Text and illustrations that cross over package joints or seams may be difficult to register.

Packaging Essentials-100 Design principles for creating packages

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

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Photography

Photography provides a chance to give the consumer an visual imagination of the taste of the food. Sarah & Candace pointed out that photography can convey a real image and help consumer anticipate the taste or the texture of the product.

Gavin and Paul (the authors of Packaging the Brand) mentioned that photography is often used in an aspirational way, to convey a sense of ambition, or to show the detail and quality of a product. Photography is commonly applied in food packaging, which can provoke desired emotions and create appetite appeal. From the right side example can be seen, the packaging of Frozen Shrimp Stir Fry, has a strong appetite appeal used in its imagery, that is, the use of photography in food packaging can stimulate the consumers taste buds and increase purchase motivation.

As can be seen above, illustration image could not effectively display the taste of popsicle. But if designers choose appropriate photography it can be used to stimulate the taste buds, it would be more credible.

Lebanese ice-cream brand Cornelli / Duroyal Super cruch (Taiwan)

Illustrations is the main image for the woo city packaging to display ice cream tasty, but this can not create appetite to consumer. Breyers ice cream use photography to display the product , which would be more appealing for consumer.

Sandra Smith Design - Frozen Shrimp Stir Fry

Woo City ice cream / James A Wilhelm

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

Breyers Ice Cream / Sterling Brands.

Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

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Illustration In comparison with photography, illustration is less realistic but it displays more creativity and variety, illustration also provokes more emotion between product and the consumer. Illustration is more flexible in communicating the product messages.

kind of illustration type to enhance product personality. Character can support brand communication and makes consumers have a strong connection between product and character, it makes the product more easy to recognized by consumers.

Different types of illustration can be applied in different product characteristics. For example, natural products would tend to be designed as organic and natural styles, and packaged in handmade boxes coupled with organic drawings which convey the idea of natural to consumers. Illustration creates various feelings through different illustration effects, such as woodcuts and engraving. Besides, creating characters is one

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

Character makes the atmosphere be more lively also increase brand identity.

Zucoa / Andrea Farina

Certainly, images are effective design tools to communicate with the audience about the product message. Imagery is a way of the brand forming a relationship with the customers.

The Pringles Crisp is well known and recognized by a character with mustache and bow tie. The brand confidence and loyalty can be tied into the image of a character.

Applying imagery effectively in packaging design makes a strong visual impression. ( Marianne & Sandra , 2006)

Pringles / Louis R Dixon

Packaging Holy Trinity - Surface Graphics

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Colour People often convey their emotional state with the metaphorical use of colour. The use of different colours can evoke different emotional responds. Red is enthusiastic, full energy, dynamic and exciting colour, or conversely red represents fear and danger. Blue symbolizes power, loyalty, peaceful and calming, but less use in food packaging, because it suppresses appetites. Colour is one of the reasons to influence consumer purchase, choosing right colour helps packaging communicate with consumer the right product message.

Green communicate environmental friendly, the eco packaging would tend to use green or earth brown colour to represent natural and eco friendly. eBay launched a new set of eco-friendly reusable boxes.

eBay Boxes

Blue suggest lose weight and light, packaging use blue to convey the product is more about low fat or free sodium.

Weight Watchers / Blue Marlin

The cream and lotions are packaged into airless pumps (made from reyclable PP) The overcaps are made from 100% post consumer recycled cardboard.

Pure & Green 20

Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

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Materials

Structure

Surface Graphics

A basic knowledge of different types of materials is essential in terms of packaging design; hence, it is important to make good and efficient use of materials, based on its specific functions and advantages. The main purpose of packaging is to keep the product safe during transportation and shipping. Appropriate materials can be used to protect the product well and enhance brand characteristic. Packaging comes in a wide assortment of materials, there are four main types of materials: plastic, metal, paper/ cardboard and glass. Designers should consider materials’ strengths, weaknesses and costs to decide an appropriate material to apply in packaging and make consumers be satisfied about the product.

Glass Glass is a flexible material in its shape, size and colour or with other embellishments to enhance the quality of packaging. Glass is often used for containers of liquids, beverages, cosmetics, perfumes, pharmaceutical and other luxury items. Glass is good at protecting products against environmental change, such as moisture and temperature; However, the weight of glass and the danger of it being fragile and easily broken can affect the cost of manufacturing and shipping. Glass communicates a high value and delicate transparent quality giving its distinctive shapes unique personality.

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

Glass is often used to as the perfume packaging material, glass conveys high quality and keep the liquid quality. Glass also has high ductility feature which can easily create distinctive shapes.

Plastic Plastic is often used as a packaging material due to its light weight and durability. Plastic also can be classified into six types, PET(PETE), HDPE, PVC, LDPE, PP, PS, and each has different characteristic which can be applied into various packaging design requirement. There is no doubt that plastic comes to some environmental issues, even though plastic has certain advantages as packaging materials. Most plastics can not be biodegraded, but recyclable. Plastic is commonly used as the container, to prevent against moisture and spoilage. The bright side of plastic is its characteristics- flexibility, strength and sealing abilities.

polyethylene terephthalate (PET orPETE)

soft drink bottles• carpets• fiberfill• rope• scouringpads•fabrics• Mylar tape (cassette)

high density polyethylene (HDPE)

milk jug• detergent bottles• bags• plastic lumber• garden furniture• flower pots• signs• trash cans

Polyvinyl chloride or vinyl (PVC or V)

cooking oil bottles• drainage and sewer pipes• tile• bird feeders• credit cards• institutional furniture

low density polyethylene (LDPE)

bags• wrapping films• container lids• glue bottles

polypropylene (PP)

yogurt containers• automobile batteries• bottles• carpets• rope• wrapping films• lab equipmen

polystyrene (PS)

disposable cups and utensils• toys• lighting and signs• foam containers and insulation

all other polymers

catsup, snack and other food containers• hand cream, toothpaste and cosmetic containers

stylechild

Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

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Paper / Cardboard

Metal

Cardboard is a cheap material which is made from recycled materials, it is versatile because it can be made to be very strong and remains very light.

Metal, whether manufactured from aluminum or steel, is a popular packaging material due to its low cost. Metal provides good protection in food against environmental contaminants and prolonging the life of certain products. From environmental perspective, it is full recyclable and renewable. Metal raw is cheap, it is commonly used in cans packaging, because metal cans are hermetically sealed, the contents can be kept for long periods and still retain quality.

Different types of cardboard depending on different packaging purposes, such as corrugated cardboard is commonly used for protection, to avoid damage during transportation and shipping, it also divides items. Another type is carton board, also called solid cardboard, which is often used in food products, cosmetics, or other dry goods. Carton board has a smooth coating, which is waterproof and also has a coated printable surface.

Milk are packaged in cardboard containers that are specially coated to be leak resistant.

Silk soymilk

Metal cans offer 100 percent protection against contaminants, moisture and oxygen.

Waitrose Canned Vegetables / Turner Duckworth 24

Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

Packaging Holy Trinity - Materials

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Sturcture

Surface Graphics

Materials

The special structure can attract consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attention, but also create unique aspect for the product. Marianne & Sandra pointed out that the foundation for the packaging design is determined by structure design factors. The purpose of structure is not only for protection, but also make the product be more convenience for the consumers use. For example, ergonomic packaging is used to solve the inconvenience of the product when the consumer is using it. Ergonomic combines the science of the human body and creates unique user experience from appearance, shape, to usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; physical and emotional needs. That is, ergonomic packaging makes the product fit with human body, and maximise user efficiency.

This ergonomic handle not only makes it easy for the consumer to control the pouring action, but also avoids the juice running down the bottle after pouring.

Heinz Australia

Packaging Holy Trinity - Structure

HOYU3210 / ADK

Ergonomics - Hand grips with grooves for the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s finger - Smooth shape makes hold comfortably and easily - Point-like surface to avoiding slipping Golden Circle Chilled Juice applied ergonomic in packaging design, it has a front-facing handle, making it easier to pour and to get in and out of the fridge.

Heinz Australia

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The ideal ergonomic shape of the bottles makes it stand out among all its competitors.

Structure and material decisions can be the most critical issues since they lead to the effective protection and transportation of the product, and ultimately consumer satisfaction. ( Marianne & Sandra , 2006) Packaging Holy Trinity - Structure

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The structure is to packaging like as architectural structures to a building. Touch sense is powerful which also creates emotion to consumer, from sight to feeling. The sense of touch also communicates the brand value, enhancing product quality through the unique texture. For example, Coke bottle is well-known by its glass bottle design. The CocaCola contour bottle is the most central part of the Coca-Cola brand identity even can be considered as iconic, it communicates a sensual look and feel to consumers. The Irish Times, Business 2000 was pointed out the consumers’ attitudes to the Coca-Cola contour shape. Consumers described the contour bottle has a variety of positive meanings.

It was seen as: ■ a symbol of the ultimate enjoyment and refreshment from Coca-Cola ■ possessing a sensual look and feel a symbol of good times ■ ■ universally known and universally accepted ■ a symbol which unites consumers around the world ■ an aesthetically beautiful symbol. - The Irish Times, Business 2000

Use traditional materials to create ergonomic packaging that not only stands out on the shelf, but also solves a problem faced by consumers. ( Andrew Streeter, director of the independent packaging analyst)

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Packaging Holy Trinity - Structure

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What Drives the Design Process? - Packaging Trends - The Drivers

Trget Audience, Cost, Culture, Client, Environmental issues

Image source: The Dieline

What Drives the Design Process

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What Drives the Design Process? In recent years, packaging has evolved from a single functionality- protection, to a flexible tool in the marketing place. It has now become an intricate part of the consumer decision and purchase behaviour, as an information tool to communicate with consumer directly. Packaging trends The changing role in packaging makes the relationship between packaging and marketing become closer. The rise of green awareness shows influences from manufacture to consumer, which involves factors like whether materials are recyclable or not, and disposal waste problems. Sustainability and renewability have become more important since the consumers pay more attention on environment issues. In addition, consumer health concerns are increasing, for example, the demand of packaged fresh food products. Busy lifestyles

bring some changes in packaging, portable and pocketable packaging would be more suitable with on the go lifestyles. All these trends influence visual design, structure and material choice in terms of packaging design.

The Drivers

As a packaging designer, it is important to consider different aspect when designing, because it would directly influence design process. The following are five main variables which have the decisive to affect design process Trget Audience, Cost, Culture, Client, Environmental issues.

- Target Audience At first, as a packaging designer needs to know target audience well, because different shoppers have various purchase behaviors and also respond to distinguish lifestyle, habit, and visual language. Simply, they will be divided by age, gender, income, education level, culture, occupation, etc.. After clearly defining the target audience, it is necessary to collect the audience landscape, such as knowing what colour or imagery will be associated with these target audience. For teenagers and young adult colour choice will be bright, and more sophisticated and complex colours. The brandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s target market spans teenagers to recent college graduates.

Many younger teenager girls love varying shades of purple and pink. Hemeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s target ages is from 13-25, female.

Hemeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s / Up Create

Melon Kernels Designed by Prompt Design, Thailand.

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What Drives the Design Process

What Drives the Design Process

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- Cost

The budget plays a key factor during design process, the amount of money that the client provide will affect the materials choice, structure design, manufacture types, and other production consideration. - Client A client provides a brief to the designer, also plays the key role in the packaging design process. The brief is a standard rule for a designer for reference purposes and as a starting point, which include some elements, the information of brand and the product, target audience, packaging design objectives, tone of voice and economic aspect etc.. After packaging design is complete designers have to communicate with their client the design ideas and convince them. When there are some distinguished suggestions, it

is important to strike the balance between client demand and the designers’ view. - Culture Normally, packaging standardisation can be an efficient way to manufacture huge amount of product especially the international product. However, a packaging designer should recognise that the importance of localization. Be wise enough to design packaging based on local culture. Colour, shapes and names mean different from country to country, that is, the same visual idiom will transmit different meanings.

Some specific symbols represent to religious or cultural meanings, for example, the pattern Suzi Wan use on its packaging was recognised as the swastika symbol, which would bring negative associations for the product, even affect consumer purchase decision.

Suzi Wan

- Environmental issues An important trend in packaging is sustainability and the use of sustainable materials, more and more companies are seeking a greener packaging alternative and increasing the demand of reducing their carbon footprint. As a result, the client, major retailers or brand owners, have started to put pressure on suppliers in recent years. What the green trend would bring to the consumers a sustainable and simple, less complicated lifestyle, which changes consumers purchase behaviour. More and more consumers would choose sustainable packaging even though they need to pay more.

McDonald’s sustainable packaging approach is to consider a product’s entire life cycle. And three process to reduce the resource wastage and decrease impact on environment.

McDonald’s 32

What Drives the Design Process

AVOIDANCE

RECYCLING

PROPER DISPOSAL

FIRST PRIORITY Reduce materials and resources being used through efficient packaging design.

SECOND PRIORITY If we can not reduce materials usage, then focus on recycling opportunities where the infrastructure exists.

THIRD PRIORITY If we can not recycle it, explore innovative opportunities to dispose of it.

The saving of natural resources in manufacturing by using recycled materials and developing new low-impact or environmentally sensitive materials is a means of source reduction. ( Marianne & Sandra , 2006) What Drives the Design Process

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Case Study - Starbucks Starbucks has worked hard on minimizing the environmental impact by using sustainable materials to advance progress of green packaging.

Starbucks is a pioneer in the “cupto-cup” concept. According to Starbucks Global Responsibility Report (2010), Starbucks uses postconsumer recycled fiber (PCF) in cups and packaging, which has a remarkable result in reducing raw of materials - to conserve about 75,000 tons of virgin wood fiber, the equivalent of more than 518,000 trees. In 2006, Starbucks began to use post-consumer recycled fiber (PCF) as their cups’ material, which can help us extend natural resource. Although the containers are only made from 10% PCF, it had a considerable result, saving nearly 200 million pounds of paper from the landfill. 34

Case study - Starbucks

PCF (post-consumer fiber) INNER LINING Low-density polyethylene

OUTTER SHELL Paper fiber (10% post-consumer recycled content)

The Post-Consumer Fiber Paper Cup is made by recycled paper, which has been thrown away and recycled after someone has used it. The higher the percentage of post-consumer fiber content, the more natural resources can be reserved. According to UCLA Sustainability, every 40 cases of 100% post consumer fiber paper saves the equivalent of the following: • 24 trees 40 feet in height • 7,000 gallons of water • 4,100 kilowatt hours of electricity • 60 pounds of air pollution

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Transposition Method and Packaging Design Process

Image source: The Dieline

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Transposition Method and Design Process Research >>> Analysis >>> Concept Development >>> Evaluation >>> Production

Transposition As a Methodology to constructing meaning in Packaging Design What is Transposition method in packaging design? First of all, transposition method means taking some meaningful elements from other examples to construct a meaning that can be used in packaging design. The following are design processes and show how to design a luxury packaging by the transposition method.

Research The first step of packaging design process is research. At this stage, it is an essential step for a designer to understand the brief so as to define product position and identify the role of packaging in this product. The research includes consumer insight, collecting visual references, purchasing behaviour and brand relative information.

From gathering knowledge to figure out the useful information helps designers to understand brief and objectives accurately.

Mood board and Visual analysis Mood boards are often used to enable a person to illustrate visually the direction of style which they are pursuing, for example, designers could make a mood board to describe the target audience landscape or the style of the packaging.

Packaging Design Process Research

Analysis

Concept Development

- Consumer insignt - Product . Brand background - Collecting visual reference - Brief objectives

- Mood boards - visual reference analysis - signifiers

- Creative thinking - Brainstorming - Ideation

Evaluation

Production

- Criteria - Concept selection

- Presentation boards - Colour correction - Printing details - Cost consideration Luxury mood board

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Transposition Method and Design Process

Transposition Method and Design Process

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Research >>> Analysis >>> Concept Development >>> Evaluation >>> Production

Development >>> Evaluation >>> Production

Concept development

After researching, designers need to figure out valuable information which can be referenced. Through analysing visual references they can summarise the key signifiers which can be applied in packaging design.

Designers should develop a range of visual concepts which are based on the visual audits they did before. In this stage, start to use creative thinking and brainstorming to create ideas.

Structure

Peas luxury packaging concept development, the ideas are based on luxury visual references analysis and take the signifiers to design. The methodology called transposition, which is taking signifiers to construct meaning in packaging design.

Luxury packaging structure is delicate, sophisticated.

Imagery Curve and streamline patterns can communicate sophisticated and luxurious.

Research >>> Analysis >>> Concept

Waitroseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s British Garden Peas / Own work

Colour For luxury, It is important to choose appropriate colour which can convey high class and value messages. These colour, black, golden, silver, white, can symbolise classic and high quality.

Luxury visual references analysis / Own work 38

Transposition Method and Design Process

Transposition Method and Design Process

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Research >>> Analysis >>> Concept Development >>>

Evaluation >>> Production

Presentation and Production

Evaluation

Before sending to manufactures, designers have to communicate with client and present the design ideas through professional presentation boards.

At this stage, setting criteria for concept selection purpose, this is like a review for those concepts. Selecting a good one to further development or taking different advantages from each concept then construct a new one.

Criteria

■ Clearly convey LUXURY to consumers. ■ Use appropriate signifiers to construct meaning ■ Function: Fully protect product ■ Environmental : Eco- friendly materials ■ The shape/ strucutre is easy to stack

Research >>> Analysis >>> Concept Development >>> Evaluation >>> Production

Streamline or curve is one way to show luxury, therefore, using the streamline pattern with transparent window and selecting colour, black and golden, to make the peas packaging be more luxury.

The final step is sending out the work to manufacturers. Before producing, designers have to make sure of the colour correction, and check printing details. At the same time, cost is one of the reasons that affects the production consideration.

Waitrose’s British Garden Peas / Own work

Waitrose’s British Garden Peas - presentation board

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Transposition DesignGraphics Process Packaging HolyMethod Trinityand - Surface

Transposition Method and Design Process

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Breyers, (2012), Breyers Ice Cream [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.breyers.com/ [Accessed 09 August 12]. Christna, (2010), Perfumes [ONLINE]. Available at: http:// beonewiththe.blogspot.co.uk/2010/03/my-perfumewishlist.html [Accessed 03 July 12]. DERRICK LIN , (2012), Golden Circle Chilled Juice Bottle [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.thecreativebridges. com/2012/01/golden-circle-chilled-juice-bottle.html [Accessed 07 August 12]. DERRICK LIN , (2012), HOYU3210 [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.thecreativebridges.com/2012/01/hoyu3210. html [Accessed 07 August 12]. Derrick Lin, (2011), Melon Kernal [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.packagingoftheworld.com/2011/07/melonkernal.html [Accessed 08 July 12].

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BiliographyHoly Trinity - Surface Graphics Packaging

Liz Gyekye, (2012), Weight Watchers packs get ‘appetising’ new look [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www. packagingnews.co.uk/design/new-packs/weight-watcherspacks-get-appetising-new-look/ [Accessed 10 August 12]. Office, (2010), eBay Box [ONLINE]. Available at: http:// lovelypackage.com/ebay-box/ [Accessed 07 August 12]. Outerspace Design, (2011), Golden Circle Chilled Juice Bottle [ONLINE]. Available at: http://brw.com.au/p/ sections/features/item_rQGd8CctnoRl77VkV26M8O [Accessed 07 August 12].

Silk soymilk, (2012), Silk soymilk [ONLINE]. Available at: http://silksoymilk.com/traceit/trace.php [Accessed 07 August 12]. Table-lighters, (2012), 1957 and 1961 the Coca-Cola bottle [ONLINE]. Available at: http://table-lighters.blogspot. co.uk/2012/04/coca-cola-advertising-cigarette-lighter.html [Accessed 31 July 12]. Thedieline, (2012), Evelyn’s chocolate sauce [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.thedieline.com/blog/2011/8/17/ evelyns-chocolaty-sauce.html [Accessed 07 August 12].

Vitaly Friedman, (2008), 100% Chocolate Cafe [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.smashingmagazine. com/2008/06/02/beautiful-and-expressive-packagingdesign/ [Accessed 30 June 12].

Website Adam Wooten. 2011. Cultural tastes affect international food packaging. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. deseretnews.com/article/705374644/Cultural-tastes-affectinternational-food-packaging.html?pg=all. [Accessed 09 July 12]. Alex Burke. 2012. How to Define Your Target Audience. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/ how_5084025_define-target-audience.html. [Accessed 04 July 12]. Bordbia. 2010. Packaging Design Process . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bordbiavantage.ie/ marketingbusiness/product/packaging/pages/ packagingdesignprocess.aspx. [Accessed 02 August 12]. Ecoproducts. 2011. Post-Consumer Recycled Fiber. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ecoproducts.com/postconsumer_recycled_fiber.html. [Accessed 02 August 12].

Turner Duckworth , (2009), Waitrose Canned Vegetables [ONLINE]. Available at: http://lovelypackage.com/waitrosecanned-vegetables/ [Accessed 02 August 12].

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Inc.com. 2012. 7 Retail Trends That Can Boost Your Business. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.inc.com/kcifeanyi/7-retail-trends-that-can-boost-your-business.html. [Accessed 30 July 12]. Jim DeBetta. 2012. Top Retail Trends for 2012. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.startupnation.com/businessarticles/9753/1/retail-trends-2012.htm. [Accessed 04 July 12]. Packaging Europe. 2011. The latest ergonomic designs in packaging. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. packagingeurope.com/Packaging-Europe-News/41240/Thelatest-ergonomic-designs-in-packaging.html. [Accessed 04 July 12]. Silgan Containers. 2012. Components of Packaging Development Process. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www. silgancontainers.com/development-process.php. [Accessed 02 August 12]. Sophie. 2009. Packaging and Culture. [ONLINE] Available at: http://blabber-etcetera.blogspot.co.uk/2009/07/ packaging-and-culture.html. [Accessed 09 July 12]. The Irish Times Business 2000. 2010. The Coca-Cola bottleThe shape of the century . [ONLINE] Available at: http:// www.business2000.ie/pdf/pdf_2/cocacola_2nd_ed.pdf. [Accessed 12 July 12].

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Biliography

McDonaldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. 2012. Sustainable Packaging Design. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/ sustainability/library/policies_programs/environmental_ responsibility/sustainable_packaging_design.html. [Accessed 01 August 12]. Naomi Bolton. 2012. The Advantages of Metal Packaging. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/ list_7459062_advantages-metal-packaging.html. [Accessed 30 June 12].

Book Capsule (2008). Packaging 01 an essential primer for todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitive market. USA: Rockport Publishing Group. Gavin Ambrose, Paul Harris (2011). Packaging the Brand. Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA. Sarah, Candance (2012). Packaging Essentials. USA: Rockport Publishing Group. Steven Dupuis and John Silva, 2011. Package Design Workbook. USA: Rockport. Marianne Rosner Klimchuk and Sandra A. Krasovec (2006). Packaging Design:Successful Product Branding from Concept to Shlef. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.Inc.

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Profile for Phoebe Chen

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