BAYAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIOECONOMIC INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENT VISION To be an organization committed to individual and collective welfare, excellence, innovation, transparency, with a solid ethical, moral and spiritual foundation, consistent in its actions and characterized by an attitude and the application of learning. MISSION Contribute to developing the capacities of individuals, communities and institutions, promoting values and principles for social transformation, focusing our efforts and work towards the most disadvantaged populations, in order to contribute to a more just and prosperous world. PRINCIPLES AND VALUES We firmly believe in the potential of individuals and communities to manage their own development which involves genuine participation, sustainability and living in harmony with nature. We strive for excellence, having unity in diversity as our standard, and recognizing integrity and purity of motive as essential. We believe in the spirit of service to humanity without distinction and in the nobility of human beings. SATâ€™S CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The SAT (translated in English: Tutorial Learning System) was designed by FUNDAEC and enriched with the participation of regional institutions that have incorporated it into their development schemes. SAT is an educational model committed to the pursuit of knowledge relevant to the lives of the rural population. It draws on various community processes and methodologies aimed at developing studentsâ€™ capacities. WHAT IS SAT? It is a formal education approach, targeting rural youth and adults enabling them to continue their secondary education without abandoning their productive activities and their communities. Based on the philosophical principle that views the whole human being, the SAT model focuses on the various dimensions of being human: material, intellectual and spiritual. The idea of developing the "capacities" of students was the main focus and organizing principle of the curriculum, defining a capacity as the ability to think and act in a welldefined sphere of activity and with a clear purpose. Although SAT was designed and developed as a result of a thorough analysis of the educational problems of Latin America, at present its benefits are widely recognized in different parts of the world as a response that contributes to improving the current status of education in our countries. It has been adopted by government institutions and NGOs in
different regions of other countries in Latin America and Africa who have decided to advance their plans to improve the living conditions of rural people through education. The Tutorial Learning System was introduced to Honduras initially by CADERH in 1987. Despite the short duration of the experience undertaken by CADERH in the Guinope area, Francisco MorazĂĄn, it generated a lot of attention, learning and expectations among host communities and especially within the Honduran educational community that had the opportunity to learn about the experience. SAT arrived in the Northeast of Honduras in 1996 through the initiative of the Association of Indigenous Socioeconomic Development BAYAN, which, recognizing the potential of the program, shown in the experience in Guinope, undertook the challenge of continuing the validation process and the subsequent adoption of SAT in Honduras, thereby contributing to expanding the coverage and quality of education nationwide. Aiming to create a human resource base that can meet the challenges of development of their communities, SAT fills this gap, especially in increasingly impoverished rural communities. The purpose of this document is to provide relevant information on the program to prospective students, parents, community leaders, central, regional and district level educators and their trade organizations, agencies, funders, NGOs and interested parties in the hope that it serves as a concise explanation of the rationale, organization, and operating methodology of SAT and the steps to establish it in a rural town or area.
PRINCIPLES OF RURAL EDUCATION The principles of rural education provided below are the result of a series of consultations within the organization that created SAT and other participating institutions on three basic concepts: The nature of man, education and development. ď‚ˇ
A global vision of development cannot ignore the value of formal education. The challenge is to ensure that formal education is meaningful and relevant to the needs and development plans of the rural population and the creation of opportunities.
The search for a valid rural education implies changes in the normal relations between many of the educational system elements: time, students, educators and community.
The relationship between students and educators is one of co-workers embarked on an enterprise of great importance, the search for development of a people.
The methods used are intended to stimulate questions and try to find answers to them in an environment of consultation between tutors and students.
The principle of participation regulates the educational activities. The tutor's role is to guide students in the exploration of knowledge.
Integration is understood as a process that fuses elements of relevant knowledge with support for social purpose sought by the program.
The units of study present a pattern of ideas, attitudes and behaviors that must accompany the research-action-learning within a service road.
Spirituality should be integrated into every educational activity: every action should be a context in which spiritual principles are clarified.
OBJECTIVES Form from within the rural populations themselves human resources able to independently assume the challenges of development.
Provide the opportunity to have qualified human resources with a comprehensive view of reality to organizations that foster local and regional development in rural areas,
Form leaders that act effectively in the context of rapid processes of change, through the exercise of sound moral principles with a vocation of service to their fellowmen.
Permit groups of youth that have traditionally been marginalized from educational services, access to them without leaving their communities. Give special attention to peasants and indigenous groups that live in more isolated areas where state presence is weak.
Promote the integration of education with work and educational processes with community processes.
PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES Since its inception, the program’s generating principles were based on the participation and self sufficiency of rural people in their own social and economic development, principles which, in turn, imply the existence in the population of structures and institutions that raise the level of participation from simply methods, at times manipulative, to a significant social process. In this context the SAT program developed the following as components of its strategic focus: Participation. It is a component to be achieved as students develop their abilities, without reducing it to empty procedures in the name of democracy. The aim is to increase participation without
denying the special position of the tutor who has access to much more knowledge than the students in a specific field. The tutor's role is to guide students in the exploration of knowledge. The first step in achieving participation is to convince students that the burden of learning rests on their shoulders; it is they, not the tutor, who must be the active agents. Although not an easy task, the whole context of SAT has shown its effectiveness in helping to achieve this basic understanding, which, once achieved, allows students to move quickly on to taking an active interest in planning and implementing projects. The student is not considered an empty vessel to be filled drop by drop, but rather a mine of talent and potential that needs to be discovered, refined and directed towards serving others. Integration. The organization of the areas of study is for each to develop a number of related capacities, to present the corresponding concepts, provide necessary information and suggest activities to develop or hone skills. Altogether the units present a pattern of ideas, attitudes and behaviors that must accompany the research-action-learning activities within a path of service. As these elements of integration have transcended the typical dichotomy between theoretical and practical knowledge, it has been possible through a single set of educational activities to successfully develop in students both specific skills and the ability to handle abstract concepts. The integration of the spiritual and the material in the curriculum also requires understanding the delicate balance that must exist between the many forces at work in the human heart and mind. Among the elements to balance are: personal freedom and social obligation, mastering nature and living in harmony with it, humanism and science, and the rational and the emotional. To achieve this balance it is necessary to go beyond the attributes of the mind and help develop the qualities of the human soul, such as justice, love, generosity, compassion, humility and truthfulness. The loving, intellectual, cooperative and committed relationships that are generated in the SAT group convey a sense of shared ideals and goals that become the starting point of a learning process about socialization. SOME MAJOR FEATURES The educational contents of the program are not alien to rural life. Hence, in a single curriculum one finds the emphasis on productive and organizational processes and community service. By connection the student, from the very beginning, with his or her own reality, SAT develops in the student the capacities, skills and attitudes needed to improve his surroundings and develop within them. But this does not imply non-interest in what is occurring beyond his immediate surroundings,
on the contrary, the system fosters a constant connection between students and key issues discussed at the global level. SAT awakens in students a deep interest in research, which leads them to in-depth investigation of the problems of their community and to turn to science for finding solutions accompanied by high motivation and commitment. SATâ€™s well consolidated concept of integration helps achieve this objective. By having a defined and explicit social purpose, SATâ€™s pedagogical relations are non-traditional, those of a group of people working together towards a common goal. Students and tutors together confront concrete problems in a way that opens a path of selflearning. It is a process which has the scientific method as its standard: the group explores, identifies problems, formulates questions and hypotheses, obtains information, experiments, discovers, creates models, applies, explains and raises new questions. Thus, those involved in SAT cease to be passive, circumstantial observers and become active participants in the exploration of paths of personal and community improvement. Within the SAT group, which is simultaneously a group of neighbors who share opportunities and problems, learning to dialogue is both an educational objective and an educational means. The interaction between students and between them and the community unleashes a world of emotional, intellectual, cooperative and committed relationships. For many, this sense of belonging to a group with common ideals and goals, restores self-confidence and demonstrates future possibilities. It is an open and flexible system that responds to the particularities of rural youth such as the need to remain linked to production in their fields or small family unit. In critical periods in which participation of the whole family is crucial, students may pause in their studies to work and then rejoin their group, or a new one as appropriate. The fact of studying in their own or a nearby community also resolves the problems of displacement of adolescents and youth to the towns where secondary schools are normally found. In the case of women, the flexibility of the system takes on added significance because they does not have to sacrifice their traditional family roles, or their usual activities. The tutorial aspect of SAT permits students to advance at the pace that their own capacity and previous educational experience permit, so that failing a class or failing a year becomes an anachronism. Having a secondary in the village, ceases to be a utopian dream for these remote, geographically isolated communities with little or no state presence. No requisites beyond the will of a grassroots group that decides upon the implementation of the program and is subsequently plugged into the departmental educational system. However, SAT does not deny the cultural and regional differences in the country and makes no attempt at homogenization. The emphasis in the curriculum on concepts greatly facilitates their
application to different situations given that the texts have been designed so that the content is relevant in every area. CURRICULAR CONTENT ORGANIZATION Capacity Building Program Areas Innovation in SAT finds its highest expression in the design and structure of the curriculum. The SAT curriculum was not organized, as is commonly the case, around specific subjects and topics of traditional disciplines that should be included in each educational level. The structure arose from an analysis of information, skills and concepts that were necessary to impart to students, and the attitudes and skills that would be need to be developed to address the problem of rural development and well-being at different levels. Within this framework, information is considered the least important category of the curriculum, although necessary as a point of reference. It consists of data generally available in books and almanacs, for example, formulas for calculating areas and volumes, specific weight of some substance, structure and functioning of the human body, the nutrient content of different foods, etc. In SAT, the memorization of vast amounts of information is not stressed, but rather students are guided in learning how to find and use it when needed. Skills are generally regarded as abilities that can be developed in the short term and are associated with simple actions that do not require much mental analysis for carrying them out. Actions such as counting, applying an insecticide, preparing a small shed for chickens, managing a microscope, writing with good spelling, estimating the size of an object are basic skills needed to carry out more complex actions. Unlike many traditional educational programs that remain at the level of information and skills, SAT seeks deep understanding of concepts and the development capacities. SAT understand that conceptual understanding develops gradually, but its basis must be laid from the beginning. Concepts such as: systems, processes, technology, variables, models, operations, etc. are examples of those that are developed from the first year of study. "Attitudes" refers to the way people behave when confronting different situations, other people and objects. Attitudes depend on both individual and social factors that can be modified and are manifested in behavior, especially in non-verbal behavior. There is a very close relationship between attitudes and spiritual qualities given that attitudes reflect the individualâ€™s values. In some areas, the strengthening of certain attitudes permeates the entire content; there is, for example, a clear intention in Science to develop a scientific attitude and an interest in harnessing science in the service of human welfare. In Agricultural and Livestock Technology, the attitude of continually analyzing peasant agriculture to try to improve it is highlighted, and a very explicitly, the attitude of valuing the knowledge of farmers and respecting their logic. In the area of Community Service opportunities are offered throughout the program to develop the general attitude of service, which requires specific attitudes of empathy and participation, and qualities such as responsibility and honesty, among the most important. The category of capacities are the most complex within the curriculum. These are characteristics of human beings that are the result of an integration of concepts, skills and adequate information, with
appropriate attitudes. Examples of capacities are the ability to be good observers of nature, to form and to test hypotheses, to draw conclusions, to make decisions, to apply learning, to evaluate one’s own work and that of others, to acknowledge mistakes and to work together. The SAT curriculum is divided into five capacity areas: CAPACITIES Each capacity is gradually developed through the study of a series of modules, each of which Mathematics Scientific has its own texts, and other complementary educational resources that facilitate achieving the main objective: that Service students achieve the understanding of the subject. Thus, a unit of a given area does not necessarily correspond to Language and Technological the traditional content Communications thereof. For example, the content of a math. unit can be taxonomy if what is sought to develop is the ability to classify which certainly falls into the category of mathematical abilities, or health conditions of a village for which the emphasis will be on the application of fractions and percentages and indices and health rate. In general, the study units are integrated with elements of knowledge from different fields and disciplines, always with the aim of developing specific skills. All of these capabilities are integrated around a common axis, the capacity of community service. OFFICIAL RECOGNITION
SAT is an educational model that is developed through two modalities – Impulsor in Rural Welfare and Bachelor in Rural Welfare, both approved by the Secretary of Education under Agreement No. 1151 - SE-02 on 19 March 2002 and Agreement No. 4596 - SE - 02 of 10 December 2002. SAT is the only educational model whose high school graduates are recognized by the Council of Higher Education which by the Agreement 1117 - 159 – 2003, ratified by Office Circular No. 332 - 2007 - D. E. S. August 15, addressed to Chancellors and officials of all public and private universities in the country authorized SAT graduates entry into any university or other institution of higher education.
To assure better management of processes and the behavior of the actors involved in SAT, the Secretary of Education approved the Rules of SAT by Agreement No. 2769-SE-05, date October 5, 2005. This Agreement directs that for the functioning of SAT in any department in the country, the Departmental Director of Education shall enter into an agreement with BAYAN, to ensure compliance with the terms of the framework convention and the sustainability of the model. On 30 November 2005, the Secretary of Education, considering the SAT educational model as the most suitable to significantly improving the level of education and training of the rural population and hence to the reduction of poverty, signed a Cooperation Framework Agreement with the Association of Indigenous Socio-Economic Development (BAYAN), to gradually extend the experience to rural communities in the departments with the highest poverty rate. All agreements signed so far, clearly defined the responsibilities of the parties. BAYAN is responsible for pedagogical training and human resources, giving support to and monitoring curriculum development, for quality assurance and for maintaining unimpaired SAT fundamentals such as philosophy, participatory approach, conceptual framework and the central theme of the model. The Secretary of Education is responsible for hiring the necessary trained human resources, managing salaries, effectively meeting the demands of the two modalities adopted, and ensuring that all instances comply with the agreement. REFERENCE CENTER AS THE SYSTEM OPERATOR ORGAN Pursuant to Article 8 of the Rules of SAT, SAT Centers are attached to a Reference Education Centers (â€œColegiosâ€?). Among the responsibilities of the Reference Education Centers is to receive, process and preserve all information and documentation and manage administrative processes such as SAT tuition, educational statistics, Report Cards, Exams, Certificates, transfers, titles, graduations and personnel actions as required by law. Each of the two SAT cycles (Impulsor and Bachelor) are of three years duration and are attached to a Reference Education Center which is no less than seven miles distant from the SAT Center. A SAT Field Advisor is used to effectively administer these modalities in the beneficiary communities. The Field Advisor accompanies SAT tutors and groups in the field, guiding them in pedagogical and administrative aspects of the model. Each Advisor is usually is in charge of 6 to 12 tutors and serves are their immediate supervisor. ORGANIGRAM OF A REFERENCE INSTITUTE:
IICIBR ASESOR DE CAMPO
ICIBR IIICIBR CENTRO SAT
IIIBPB R IBPBR IIBPBR
This chart shows the hierarchical location of the Field Advisor and Tutor who act as direct agents of learning in each of the modules with students. They are the key players in implementing the model. But ... WHO IS THE TUTOR? WHAT IS HIS OR HER PROFILE? Tutors are educators that directly accompany the SAT group in its learning process. â€œThrough an educational action, where each group member at the time which shares his experience, his knowledge and ideas with others, is an educator and where each member of educational community, in specific occasions, can become an education agent in their village." Among all SAT educators, the Tutor has a special responsibility. He orients the participants and can empower the educational efforts of other actors in the model. He is trained to help SAT groups in the study of the materials and implementation of community practices. The tutor is not only an educator, but is an active participant of a social movement. He or she is a person who lives a unique educational process with his group and its community. His work must be viewed from the perspective of a particular community. The tutor is the bridge between the community and the team of field advisors, Reference Institute and Coordinators. He embodies the SAT model in the community and from him is required a high quality educational service. The community sees him as a model and demands from him a quality educational service, motivating his trust, commitment and responsibility to apply the model integrally and with high spirit of Service. All these aspects determine a set of qualities for the tutor, which define his profile within the framework of Art. 26 of the SAT Regulation: Attitudes and values: Profound respect for the campesino, genuine concern for the dignity of rural life and sincere love for the countryside; a leadership style focused on service to others; a moral
leader responsible, creative, capable of empathy (i. e. effective participation in the reality of others) capable of sacrificing for the group, with a positive attitude toward the program, recognition that their actions are a greater testament that their stronger than the word. Knowledge: To be tutor one must know the program, but even more buy into it; this is accomplished through adequate and appropriate training for both Impulsor and Bachelor levels, the latter, however, also requires experience at the tutor level. Capacities: Have ability to lead groups and to interact with the community. Able to develop and implement work plans, analyzing and systematizing information, manage projects and resources. It is essential that the tutor is accepted by the community and live in the same place as his group of students. He should also ensure that he has sufficient time to meet with and accompany the group, not only in the review meeting, but in other required practices and activities. TUTOR REPONSABLIDADES The functions and duties of the tutor, based on the commitments that he or she must assume with the various members of the educational community are detailed in Art. 37 of the SAT Regulation as follows: COMMITMENT TO THE COMMUNITY: Actively participate in development processes of the same.
COMMITMENT TO THE GROUP SAT Punctually attend the tutorials according to the agreed upon schedule. Agree upon schedules and meeting sites with students. Responsibly plan and conduct both academic and community work. Objectively participate in the student performance assessment processes. Establish cordial and harmonious relations with students and the community Guide and supervise the development of practical field and classroom exercises. Respect and support the learning pace of each group of students. COMMITMENT TO THE INSTITUTION Participate in meetings or events related to SAT training processes Assume the administrative commitments required by the implementation of the model in the town on behalf of the institution. Support the SAT group in the management of fund-generating activities and cash management and likewise organize the establishment of the SAT group and Reference Center Parents Associations and ensure its sustainable operation. Interact with community members and organizations in the area for their participation in the social transformation pursued by SAT. Socialize the SAT model with local education authorities and establish cordial relations with them. Ensure proper development of the SAT model and implementation of the commitments made by the institution in the community. Establish cordial and respectful relationships with the trainers, coordinators, evaluators and other involved agents. Maintain continuous statistical records of each group and keep copies on file for future reference. Seek out their respective advisors for technical, educational and administrative problem solving.
Provide timely information to parents regarding the development and progress of their children and visit them as necessary.
COMMITMENT TO THE EDUCATIONAL MODEL Demonstrate openness to knowledge and lifelong study of the program. Learn about the materials that are produced and participate in its implementation process Participate in the process of contextualization of SAT texts to the conditions of the region in which they work. Evidence the characteristics of the teacher who acts as a moral leader. Participate fully, promptly and attentively in each and every one of the training events convoked by program managers. Keep a mind open to anything that can enrich the life and learning, both of their group and of themselves. TRAINING, MONITORING AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION Training and education of educators is an ongoing and integral process by which, besides improving the quality of the system, the personal growth of its officers is made possible. The exchange of experience is achieved through permanent reflection, review and feedback leading to redesigning both personal and team work in each institution. The tasks of training, monitoring and qualification seminars are specified as 80 hours each quarter and include reflection on and the study of the philosophy, methodology and academic components of the SAT system and its curriculum,. These are led by professional trainers who, through their experience and track record in the process, have become experts in the capabilities, projects or issues that guide SAT. The tutors, advisers and field coordinators receive training from each of the institutions, according to the level being studied. In general, the training program includes nine (9) seminars for the first, Impulsor level and nine for the bachelor stage. However, there may be variations in emphasis and innovation performance, depending on the new proposals presented by the model.