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PUBLICATION


This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only of the author, and the European Commission and the National Agency for Erasmus + Programme are not responsible for the information contained therein.


Organizer: Stowarzyszenie - Porozumienie Pokolen

Partner organizations: Ecoworld Rhodopes - Bulgaria

Green evolution - romania


WHAT IS SMOG?

Fact: At ground levels, smog is harmful to breathe and can negatively affect your health

Smog is a type of air pollutant. Human-made smog is derived from coal emissions, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires and photochemical reactions of these emissions. Smog can come from many things but the ones mainly to focus on are coal, transportation emissions, and natural causes. However, contrary to popular opinion that cars are its main cause, we must turn our attention in a different direction. The main source is the so-called low emission. It is mainly taken from fumes that arise in household boilers and furnaces.


WHERE SMOG COMES FROM?

Fact: Smog can travel great distances carried by the wind

Coal Coal fires, that keep let buildings have heat or for even heating power-producing plants, emit a large amount of smoke that then contributes to smog. Air pollution from coal fires has been reported in England since the middle ages. It was also a big problem in London in the middle of the 20th century as coal fires were creating a lot of smog. Air pollution caused by coal is a problem still to this day in areas that make significant spoke for burning this type of fuel, coal. In the autumn and winter times, its still a problem as its a time of the year where burning coal is essential for heat inside homes and other buildings, contributing even more to the extensive amounts of smog. In some populated parts of China, smog can be so bad that school, roads and even airports have had to be closed down due to the inability to breath because of the toxic substances and the thickness of the smog, causing it to be really hard to see because of the dirty smog.


Households Households are responsible for low emissions. They generate most of the suspended dust, which is particularly dangerous for people. The problem is compounded by garbage, which is often burnt in primitive ovens.Â

Fact: Children and the elderly are

Industry Heavy industry is also responsible for pollution. Coal power is of particular importance here. Steel mills and other plants of this type are important for dust emissions. There are more and more alternative energy sources. However, it involves costs and obtaining appropriate permits.Â

the most at risk from this type of pollution


Fact: Smog has been linked to a host of maladies, including premature mortality and heart failure

Transport Transport, of course, cars and public transport are also responsible for air pollution. Considering that the number of combustion vehicles is growing. Crowded and jammed cities with and a bigger problem. Frequent improvement of public transport often comes in handy. In some cities, they are the main producers of smog.

Natural Causes A volcano can cause a lot of smog when it erupts it as it emits large amounts of sulfur dioxide along with a large amount of particulate matter; which are two important elements of creating smog. Smog created by volcanic eruptions is quite often called vog to show that its a natural occurrence. Radiocarbon content is also known to have caused smog in the areas that have the plants, just like the creosote bush in the Los Angeles area, in the USA.


THE CONSEQUENCES OF SMOG

Fact: Smog is a strong respiratory irritant

Dust suspended reaches practically everywhere, therefore introducing unwanted substances into the air, water, soil, and thus are introduced to all organisms that breathe, ingest water and vegetation growing on contaminated soil.

The impact of low emissions on the environment, it can be safely said that it increases the morbidity significantly and worsens the wellbeing of people, strongly affecting the quality of their life.


The most noticeable effects of low emissions are: increased incidence of respiratory diseases

cancers

associated with it higher mortality of residents

Fact: Studies have shown children with asthma are especially vulnerable to smog


Smog - health impact According to specialists in the field of cardiology and internal diseases, the toxic effect of air pollution on the body depends on many factors, such as age, individual immunity, co-occurring diseases, climatic conditions, a concentration of smog components, and the time of pollution.

In healthy people, even short-term exposure may cause:

pathological fatigue

inflammations allergies

Fact: Smog levels in the air typically climb during hot, sunny days


irritations of the conjunctiva, larynx and trachea

mild, transient lung inflammation

a higher level of anxiety, depression

decreased exercise tolerance

Fact: Major sources of smog precursors include emissions from cars, trucks, and natural gas operations

memory and concentration problems


Population studies clearly show that short-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of a heart attack. Dust, mainly PM2,5, contributes significantly to the development of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, exacerbate heart failure and may lead to sudden cardiac death.

The most endangered people with adverse effects of suspended dust are patients already suffering from coronary heart disease, people over 65, women, those suffering from diabetes, obesity and chronic respiratory diseases, and people who smoke tobacco.


Long-term contact with air pollution is one of the causes of instability of the genome, leading to malignant tumors.

According to WHO, air pollution is the cause of cancer in 30% of cases, and genetic factors only 15%.

The latest epidemiological data on the incidence of malignant tumors is now alarming.

Health effects of smog are cancer of the lungs, sinuses, mouth, throat, and larynx, esophagus, kidneys, bladder. Younger people get sick without any risk factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, a genetic burden. Another effect of long-term exposure to smog is the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - the leading cause of death in addition to cancer and cardiovascular disease. The mortality rate has also been documented: 20% in total, 20% in cardiovascular and 22% in respiratory.


THE CITY AS AN ECOSYSTEM

The cities cover near 2% of the Earth surface, but in them lives half of the population of our Planet. In Europe, 75% of the people live in the cities. We expect that till 2020 they will be 80%. The European cities now use 69% of our energy and they produce most of the greenhouse gases.


The impact of the cities on the environment is a result of their dependence from the areas surrounding them for satisfying the need of energy, resources and waste management. In the urban areas, the consequences of the ecological problems are most perceptible. The noise, the poor quality of the air, the heavy traffic and the poor management of the environment lead to health issues and low quality of life. In many regions, people prefer to live in suburban areas, because they realize that urban pollution affects their welfare. The constant growth of the cities generates more traffic, pollution, and problems which are deepening each other.

According to the calculations in a research in London, that city has an environmental impact 300 times bigger than the expectations based on its geographic territory –and almost twice the size of the hole UK.


The pollution in the cities impacts also the rural areas outside of them. The climate changes are a new threat to urban life. Some cities willsuffer more severe as a result. That can deepen the social problems because the poor are at major risk. Those changes will worsen the quality of the air and the drinking water.

The heat produced from the buildings in the big cities enhances the perception of a climate change. According to an American research, the overbuilding and the less and less green areas in the big cities contribute to the greenhouse effect. Asphalt, concrete and dark dashes. Those are some of the reasons behind the socalled “urban islands of the heat�, where the temperatures are several grades higher than the areas around.


Where is the summer and who took it from us? It turns out that we are doing our best to get rid of it. There are many ways to do so, and the urban overbuilding is one of the most efficient. Because the climate has it’s own response to what we give to the environment.

The urban environment offers important opportunities for a sustainable life. The density of the population leads to smaller distances to the workplace and the products and services we use daily, suggests more public transport use, smaller homes, and higher energy efficiency. That allows the people in the cities to use less energy than those living in rural areas.


INITIATIVES AND ACTIONS TAKEN TO PROTECT THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT First of all, it is necessary to limit the energy obtained from the combustion of fossil fuels and consequently, to reduce the emission of CO2 and other substances responsible for the greenhouse effect to the Atmosphere. In Poland, over 95% of electricity is obtained from the combustion of coal (brown and stony). Therefore, it is necessary to invest in alternative ways of obtaining electricity such as hydro, wind, solar and nuclear power plants.

It is also important that we offset already created amounts of carbon dioxide our allies in this task are plants, but to succeed we must stop destroying forests and burning meadows (which is still a popular practice especially in rural areas).


Good measures already taken for the benefit of the environment are the introduction by the European Union of the so-called the "Climate Package" is aimed at stopping unfavorable changes in the Atmosphere. A good example is Denmark, which has pledged to produce 50% of energy from wind turbines by 2012. In Norway today, 99% of energy is generated in hydropower.

Secondly, you need to take care of the plastic waste produced by each of us. The famous 3R rule tells you how to do it Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Reduce the purchase of unnecessary items, re-use of certain products and recovery of unnecessary goods. The problem is to make people aware that such activities are needed, hence so many advertising spots and actions that encourage wise management of waste. The governments of many countries are urging the recycling of their citizens.


REDUCING OF AIR POLLUTION REDUCING THE AIR POLLUTION CAN BE ACHIEVED THROUGH: Application of alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind or water, which would significantly reduce the emission of gases harmful to the atmosphere (carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides); setting up in power plants and combined heat and power plants that use sulphated carbon as the energy source for special flue gas desulphurisation installations, which would reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide;

Insulating buildings and using energy meters to reduce energy losses in residential and industrial buildings; Modernization in industrial plants and the use of less-harmful environmental technologies and modern technologies in them;


Ceasing to use coal as fuel in small boiler rooms and home furnaces;

Construction of bypasses around cities to eliminate heavy transport; Use of public transport, or walking or cycling; Use of special catalytic converters and filters in cars that purify fumes and refuel unleaded petrol; creating pedestrian streets and zones intended only for pedestrians and cyclists in city centers and housing estates in order to limit car traffic there, and thus the amount of produced exhaust gases;


REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CAN BRING:

Rational water management Construction of modern wastewater treatment plants

Modernization of existing sewage treatment plants

Use of closed water circulation technology or watertight technologies

Reduction of pollutants entering waters


REDUCING SOIL POLLUTION CAN BE ACHIEVED THANKS TO:

- undertaking anti-erosion measures; - liming acidified soils; - conducting proper agricultural operations; - rational use of soils; - using the proper crop rotation; - appropriate distribution of forest land and farmland;

- lowering the level of groundwater by limiting the regulation of rivers; - utilization, composting and treatment of municipal waste and sewage; - protection of untreated soils against pollution and renewal of already devastated areas;


Source: https://unearthed.greenpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/europe-50most-polluted-1376x1701.png


FACTS ABOUT AIR POLLUTION

Inhaling air pollution takes away at least 1-2 years of a typical human life.

It has effects as small as burning eyes and itchy throat to as large as breathing problems and death.

Rising levels of air pollution in Beijing has brought a new disease – Beijing cough.

Pollutants that are released into the air, as opposed to land and water pollutants, are the most harmful.


Air pollution is not a recent occurrence. In 1952, the Great Smog of London killed 8000 people.

Deaths caused by air pollution cost the European Union â‚Ź161 billion.

Electric vehicles produce fewer air pollutants. They stir up dirt but without producing gases.

Air pollution caused by waiting in traffic increases the chances of death caused due to the heart attack.

Producing heavy crude oil increases the chances of air pollution by 40% than producing light crude oil.

Toxic air pollution poses a greater threat to children, due to their smaller physical size and lung capacity.


Air pollution and resulting deaths are increasing fastest in Asia.

The most hazardous pollutants are released from the air and less from the water and land together.

The best ways to reduce air pollution are by walking and riding a bicycle.

Air pollution that causes smog affects dolphins and makes them suffer from black lung disease.


A single bus carries passengers which are likely to drive 40 cars.

Research by MIT proves that around 13,000 British citizens die due to air pollution from vehicles an power plants.

During a heavy traffic jam, pollutants outside can seep into your car, making the air inside a car 10 times more polluted than typical city air.

People who live near high traffic roads face a greater risk of cancer, heart disease, asthma and bronchitis as these places contain more concentrated levels of air pollution.


Air pollution caused traffic increase the chances of heart attack.

By 2050, 6 million people will die per year due to air pollution.

Indoor air pollution is 2-5 times worse than the air outdoors.

Switching to more efficient and cleaner fuels from solid fuels(wood, biomass) can help you to reduce indoor air pollution.

80% of lung diseases are caused due to pollution from other cars, buses, trucks and other vehicles. People in many cities wear masks continually to save themselves from air pollution. Heavy crude oil increases air pollution by 40% more than light crude oil.


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Solution to pollution - publication  

This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only o...

Solution to pollution - publication  

This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only o...

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