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兰迪·波许 - 时间管理 于弗吉尼亚大学 2007年11月27日, 星期二. 更多信息, 请访问 www.randypausch.com © Copyright Randy Pausch, 2007 英文文本由Friederike Sophie Brand提供. 其中可能会有错 误. 中文翻译由张晓宇(河流)提 供, 能力问题, 其中必不乏错 译,漏译等. 为了翻译稿的通 顺, 我做了一些细小的文字润 色. 感谢Lichao Chen对我的翻译错误的指正! 如有意见与建议, 请与我联系沟通, 我将及时做出修改. 时间关系,我没有翻译讲座前后的致辞,敬请原谅. Email: ocirlin@gmail.com 标注体系: []用来表示波许教授在讲座中的动作等. {}表示译者的注记. Randy Pausch: 兰迪·波许: Thank you, that's very kind, but never tip the waiter before the meal arrives. 谢谢. 非常感谢. 不过大餐尚未享用, 先别给我这个侍者小费. (讲的好再鼓掌.) Thank you, Gabe and Jim, I couldn't imagine being more grateful for an introduction. These are two people that I've known a long time, I taught here at UVA, I love this school, it's an incredible place filled with tradition and history and respect, the kind of qualities that I really admire, that I want to see preserved in American society. And this is one of the places that I just love for preserving that. I think the honor code alone at the University of Virginia is something that every university administrator should study and look at and say: “Why can't we do that too?“ I think there are a lot of things about this place to love. 谢谢你们, 盖伯, 吉姆. 非常感谢对我的介绍. 我认识了这两个朋友很久了. 我曾经在弗尼吉亚 大学这里讲过课. 我热爱这所学校, 这是一个充满非常深厚的传统, 历史与尊崇的地方. 我确实 很欣赏这样的特点, 我也期望这些特点长存于美国社会中, 而这里也正是一个我所希望能长存 这样的特点的地方. 我认为, 光是弗尼吉亚大学的荣誉规范体系这一件事就值得每个大学管理 者去学习, 他们应该去反思: “为什么我们不能这样做?”我觉得这里的许多东西都让我喜爱. I'm going to talk today on the topic of time management. The circumstances are, as you probably know, a little bit unusual. I think at this point I'm an authority to talk about what to do with limited time. My battle with pancreatic cancer started about a year and a half ago. Fought, did all the right things but as my oncologist said, if you could pick off a list, that's not the one you'd want to pick. On August 15th, these were my CAT scans. You can see that if you scroll through all of them, there are about a dozen tumors in my liver, and the doctors at that time said, - I love the way they say it: “You have three to six months of good 1


health left.“ Optimism and positive phrasing. It's like when you are at Disney: “What time does the park close?“ - “The park is open until eight.“ So I have “three to six months of good health.“ Well, let's do the math: Today is three months and twelve days. So what I had on my day-timer for today was not necessarily being at the UVA. I'm pleased to say that we do treat with palliative chemo, they're going to buy me a little bit of time on the order of a few months if it continues to work. I'm still in perfectly good health. With Gabe in the audience, I'm not going to do push-ups, because I'm not going to be shown up. Gabe is really in good shape! But I continue to be in relatively good health, I had chemotherapy yesterday, you should all try it, it's great. 我今天要讲的话题是时间管理. 你可能已经知道了, 我现在的情况有些不寻常. 我觉得现在, 在 利用有限的时间能做些什么的话题上, 我算是个权威了. 我与胰腺癌的战斗开始于一年半之 前. 我尽我所能和它战斗, 但就像我的肿瘤医师说的那样, 如果有一张写着各种癌症名字的单 子来让我挑, 那也不要选择得上胰腺癌. 在8月15日, 我的CAT扫描结果出来了. 你们翻翻页就 可以看到, 我的肝脏上差不多有一打肿瘤. 那时医生说到--我喜欢他们这样说--你还有三至六 个月的健康生命可活. 这是个乐观而积极的表述. 这就像当你身在迪士尼乐园问道: “公园几 点关门?” “ 公园一直开到八点.” 那么, 我有“三到六个月的健康生命”. 那么来做个计算 吧. 明天就已经三个月零十二天了, 我的日历不知道带到这里没有, 我很高兴与化疗打交道, 要 是它能继续有效的话, 它能帮我换回几个月的时间, 我仍非常健康. 盖伯在听众里面, 我就不做 俯卧撑了,因为我不想炫耀了. 盖伯身体很棒! 我一直处在相对健康的情况下. 我昨天刚做过化 疗, 你们不妨都试一下, 很棒. But it does beg the question, I have finite time - some people said: “So why are you going and giving a talk?“ There are a lot of reasons I'm coming here and giving a talk. One of them is that I said I would. That's a pretty simple reason. And I'm physically able to. Another one is that going to the University of Virginia is not like going to some foreign place. People say: “Aren't you spending all your time with family?“ And by coming back here for a day, I am spending my time with family both metaphorically and literally because it turns out that - many of you have probably seen this picture from the talk that I gave, these are my niece and nephew Chris and Laura. My niece Laura is actually a senior... a fourth- year! here at Mr. Jefferson's university. Laura, could you stand up, so they see you've gotten taller? There you are. I couldn't be happier to have her here at this university. The other person in this picture is Chris, if you could stand up so they see you've gotten much taller? They have grown in so many ways, not just in height. It's been wonderful to see that and be an uncle to them. Is there anybody here on the faculty or Ph.D. students of the history department? Any history people here at all? Anybody here who is from history, find Chris right after the talk. Because he is currently in his sophomore year at William and Mary and he's interested in going into a Ph.D. program in history down the road and there aren't many better Ph.D. programs in history than this one. So I'm pimping for my nephew here! Let's be clear! 但说实在的, 我只有有限的时间了. 有人说, 那你为什么来做讲座呢? 我来这里做讲座有许多 原因. 一个原因就是我曾说过我会来. 这是一个非常简单的理由. 并且我的身体条件也允许我 这样做. 另外, 对我来说弗尼吉亚大学并不是一个陌生的地方. 人们常问: “难道你不打算将所 有的余生都与家人度过吗?”我与我的家人一起来到这里, 不仅是身体一起, 心灵也在一起. 你们中的许多人可能已经在我原先的演讲中看到过这张图片了. 我的侄女劳拉是个大三..大四 的学生. 她在杰弗逊大学.劳拉, 站起来下好吗, 让大家看看你长高了没有. 你在这哦. 她在这 里,我别提多开心了. 另一个照片里的人是克里思, 能不能站起来, 让大家也看看你长高没有? 他们在很多方面都成长了, 而不仅仅是身高. 看到这些, 作为叔叔的我感觉非常棒. 这里有历史 部的老师或是博士生吗? 这里有搞历史的人吗? 要是谁搞历史的话, 讲座结束后不妨找克里思 谈谈. 他现在是威廉玛丽大学的大二的学生, 对继续读历史学的博士生非常感兴趣. 没几个大 学的历史学博士项目比这里更好. 说白了,我在给我的侄子找后门! What are we going to talk about today? We're going to talk about - this is not like the lecture that you may have seen me give before. This is a very pragmatic lecture. One of 2


the reasons that I had agreed to come back and give this is because Gabe and many other faculty members had told me that they had gotten so much tangible value about how to get more done, and I truly do believe that time is the only commodity that matters. So this is a very pragmatic talk. It is inspirational in the sense that it will inspire you by giving you some concrete things you might do to be able to get more things done in your finite time. I'm going to talk specifically about how to set goals, how to avoid wasting time, how to deal with a boss, - originally this talk was how to deal with your advisor, but I tried to broaden it, so it's not quite so academically focused. How to delegate to people, some specific skills and tools that I might recommend to help you get more out of the day. And to deal with the real problems in our lives, which are stress and procrastination. If you can lick that last one, you are probably in good shape. 我们今天都要讲些什么呢? 我们要讲些-- 这和你们以前看到的我的讲座不一样. 这是一个很 实用的讲座. 我愿意回来做这个讲座的一个原因就是盖伯和许多教师都告诉我,他们觉得如何 在有限的时间内做更多事, 有实实在在的价值, 我真的觉得时间是唯一重要的东西. 这是一个 非常实用的讲座. 它告诉你一些非常实际的方法来帮助你在有限的时间内做更多的事情. 从这 个角度而言, 这个讲座是很有启发性的. 我将专门地讨论如何设立目标, 如何避免浪费时间. 如 何与老板打交道.. 本来是要讲如何与你的辅导员打交道的, 但我尝试去扩展这次讲座, 使之不 是仅针对学术. 如何委派他人, 教你们使用一些特定的技巧和工具来使你的一天更有效率. 还 包括如何与身边的问题打交道, 例如面对压力和拖延. 如果你不拖延的话, 你身材可能会很棒. You don't need to take any notes. I presume if I see any laptops open you're actually just doing IM or email or something. If you're listening to music, please at least wear headphones. All of this will be posted on my website and to make it really easy, if you want to know when to look up, any slides that have a red star are the points that I think you should really make sure that you got that one. Conversely, if it doesn't have a red star, well... 你们不用记笔记.要是我看到有笔记本电脑开着的话, 我会假定你实际上是在聊天,发邮件, 或 干其它的事. 要是你在听音乐, 至少把耳机戴上. 这次的讲座的全部内容将会在我的网站上发 布出来. 更方便的是, 如果你想回顾这次讲座, 我把重点的幻灯片用红星标注出来了. 反之, 要 是没有红星, 呃.. The first thing I want to say is that Americans are very, very bad at dealing with time as a commodity. We're really good at dealing with money as a commodity. We are, as a culture, very interested in dealing with money, how much somebody earns is a status thing and so on, but we don't really have time elevated to that. People waste their time and it always fascinates me. One of the things that I've noticed is that very few people equate time and money and they are very, very equatable. The first thing I started doing when I was a teacher was asking my graduate students: “Well, how much is your time worth an hour?“ Or if you work at a company: “How much is your time worth to the company?“ What most people don't realize is that if you have a salary, let's say you make 50,000 $ a year, you probably cost that company twice that in order to have you as an employee because there's heating and lighting and other staff members and so forth, so if you get paid 50,000 a year, you are costing that company - they have to raise 100,000 $ in revenue! And if you divide that by your hourly rate, you begin to get some sense of what you are worth an hour. When you have to make trade-offs of “Should I do something like write software or should I just buy it or should I outsource this?“, having in your head what you cost your organization an hour is really a staggering thing to change your behavior. Because you start realizing that, wow, if I free up three hours of my time and I'm thinking in that in terms of dollars, that's a big savings! So start thinking about your time and your money almost as if they are the same thing. Of course Ben Franklin knew that a long time ago. 3


我想说的第一件事是, 美国人不善于将时间看作商品, 我们很善于将金钱看成商品. 作为一种 文化, 我们对跟金钱打交道非常感兴趣, 一个人的收入多少往往是身份高低的象征, 但我们却 从未将时间提升到这样的高度. 人们浪费他们的时间, 这种现象经常引起我的注意. 我注意到: 极少的人将时间看作与金钱同等重要的东西, 尽管它们事实上非常同质. 在我当老师时, 第一 件事就是问我的研究生, 你的一个小时值多少钱? 或者你工作在公司里, 你的一小时对公司来 说值多少钱? 许多人并不知道, 如果你有一份50000美元年薪的工作, 那么你可能实际上要耗 掉公司两倍于你的薪水的钱来雇用你: 要考率到水电, 其它人力等等的费用. 也就是说, 如果 你每年拿到50000美元, 那么公司的盈利得相应增加100000美元! 用这个数字去除你的工时, 你就能对你自己一个小时的价值有点感觉了. 当你需要做一些交易的时候, 比如说, 我是去自 己写一个程序, 还是去买一个, 或是将这项工作外包出去给别人. 在你的头脑中保持你每个小 时耗掉公司多少钱这样的概念, 对改变你的行为有巨大的帮助. 因为你开始意识到, 哇, 如果我 能节省自己三个小时的时间, 把它换算成金钱, 那真是省了很多钱啊! 所以, 要开始把你的时间 和金钱当成同等的事物来考虑. 当然, 本杰明.富兰克林很久之前就懂这个道理了. So you've got to manage it and you've got to manage it just like you manage your money. Now I realize not all Americans manage their money, that's what makes the credit card industry possible. And apparently, mortgages too. But most people do at least understand they don't look at you funny if you say: “Can I see your monetary budget for your household?“ In fact, when I say “your household budget“, you presume that I'm talking about money when in fact the household budget I really want to talk about is probably your household time budget. 于是你需要开始像打理你的金钱一样来打理你的时间, 我知道现在也不是所有美国人都去打 理自己的金钱, 这造就了信用卡行业. 当然, 还有抵押贷款. 不过许多人最终将会明白. 当你说: “我能否看一下你的家政预算?”的时候, 他们不会以滑稽的眼神看着你了. 事实上, 当我提到 你的家政预算的时候, 你可能会假定我说的是经济上的, 而实际上,我说的是你的家政时间预 算. At the Entertainment Technology Center at Carnegie Mellon, students would come in during the orientation, I would say: “This is a master's program, everybody is paying full tuition.“ It was roughly 30,000 $ a semester, and the first thing I would say is: “If you're going to come into my office and say: “I don't think this is worth 60,000 $ a year“, I will throw you out of the office. I'm not even going to have this discussion.“ Of course they would say: “Oh god, this Pausch guy is a real jerk.“ And then they were right! But what I then followed on with was: “Because the money is not important. You can go and earn more money later. What you'll never do is get the two years of your life back. So if you want to come into my office and talk about the money, I'll throw you out, but if you want to come into my office and say: “I'm not sure this is a good place for me to spend two years“, I will talk to you all day and all night because that means we're talking about the right thing, which is your time, because you can't ever get it back. 在卡耐基-梅隆大学的娱乐技术中心, 参观的学生有时会走进我的办公室. 我会告诉他: “这是 一个硕士项目, 每个人都要付全额的学费.”大约是三万美元一年. 首先我要说, 要是你走进我 的办公室对我说, “我觉得这不值六万美元一年的学费.”那我会把你扔出办公室. 我将不再 和你���论. 当然, 他们会说: “哦,老天, 这个叫波许的家伙真混蛋.”他们说对了! 但我接着要 说: “因为金钱并不重要, 你能把你的钱以后再挣回来. 但你永远不能找回你这两年度过的时 光. 要是你打算走进我的办公室跟我讨论钱的事, 我会把你扔出去;但如果你走进了跟我 说:“我不知道这里是否值得我花费两年时光.”我会跟你没日没夜的谈, 因为这代表着我们在 谈论正确的事情, 那就是你的时间, 你永远也不能找回自己逝去的时光. A lot of the advice I'm going to give you particularly for undergraduates - how many people in this room are undergraduates, by show of hands? Okay, good! Still young! A lot of this put it to Hans and Franz of Saturday Night Life if you're old enough: “Hear me now, but believe me later!“ A lot of this is going to make sense later, and one of the nicest things is that Gabe has volunteered to put this up on the web. I understand that people can actually 4


watch videos on the web now. So a lot of this will make sense later, and when I talk about your boss if you're a student, think about that as your academic advisor, if you're a Ph.D. student, think about it as your Ph.D. advisor, and if you're watching this and you are a young child, think of this as your parent because that is the person who is in some sense your boss. 许多建议是专门为本科生准备的. 这里有多少人是本科生, 手举起来! 好的! 你们还年轻啊! 今 天说的许多好多东西, 如果你看Saturday Night Life的Hans and Franz的话, 都是 “现在先 听着, 晚些才相信”的. 许多东西, 你以后才会意识到. 最好的是, 盖伯愿意将这次讲座整理到 网上. 我知道人们现在可以通过网络观看视频了, 到你再次看这视频时, 可能就能意识到一些 东西了. 如果你是个学生, 当我讨论到关于老板的时候, 你可以想象成是你的辅导员, 如果你是 博士生, 那就换成博士生导师. 要是你还是个年轻的孩子, 那么就想象成你的父母, 他们就类似 你的老板. {注:Saturdy Night Life是一档美国周末晚间的节目, Hanz and Franz是其中的角色. 我没有看过这个节目, 如果 有朋友看过的话不妨告诉我更多背景知识.}

The talk goes very fast and I'm very big on specific techniques. I'm not really big on platitudes. Platitudes are nice, but they don't really help me get something done tomorrow. The other thing is that one good thief is worth ten good scholars. And in fact, you can replace the word “scholars“ in that sentence with almost anything. Almost everything in this talk is to some degree inspired, which is a fancy way of saying lifted, from these two books [Cathy Collins: Time Management for Teachers, 1987; Career Track Seminar: Taking control of Your Work Day, 1990], and I found those books very useful but it's much better to get them into a distilled form. What I've basically done is I've collected the nuggets for your bath. 讲座的速度很快, 我长于专业技巧, 而不善于老生常谈. 它们可能听起来不错, 但不能真正地帮 助我们在未来去把事情搞定. 同时,“一个好的贼顶过十个好的学者.”事实上, 你可以将句子 中“学者”这个词换成几乎任何一个其它的词. 这次讲座中几乎所有的思想都收到这两本书 的启发:[Cathy Collins: Time Management for Teachers, 1987; Career Track Seminar: Taking control of Your Work Day, 1990] 我发现这些书非常有用, 可将它们中的精华提炼出来 会更好. 我基本上已经将书中的精华采集出来, 为你准备好了. I like to talk about “The Time Famine“. I think it's a nice phrase. Does anybody here feel like they have too much time? Okay, nobody, excellent. I like the word “famine“, because it's a little bit like thinking about Africa. You can airlift all the food you want in to solve the crisis this week but the problem is systemic, and you really need systemic solutions. A time management solution that says, “I'm going to fix things for you in the next 24 hours“ is laughable, just like saying: “I'm going to cure hunger in Africa in the next year.“ You need to think long-term and you need to change fundamental underlying processes because the problem is systemic, we just have too many things to do and not enough time to do them. 我喜欢讲“时间饥荒”. 我觉得这个短语很好. 在座的各位, 有人觉得自己的时间很多吗? 很好, 没有. 我喜欢“饥荒”这个词, 是因为这有点让人联想到非洲. 你可以空降一些食物来解决这周 的危机, 可问题是系统性的,因此你也需要系统性的解决方案. “24小时之内我能帮你把事情 做完”, 这样的时间管理方法就很可笑, 这就像是说: “一年之内我能解决非洲的饥饿”一样. 你得从长计议, 你需要通过改变基础的,潜在的过程来解决这个系统性的问题: 我们有太多的 事情要做, 但我们没有足够的时间. The other thing to remember is that it's not just about time management. That sounds like a kind of a lukewarm, a talk about time management, that's kind of milk-toast. But how about if the talk is: How about not having ulcers? That catches my attention! So a lot of this is life advice.This is, how to change the way you're doing a lot of the things and how you allocate your time so that you will lead a happier, more wonderful life, and I loved in the 5


introduction that you talked about fun! Because if I've brought fun to academia, well, it's about damn time! If you're not going to have fun, why do it? That's what I want to know. Life really is too short, if you're not going to enjoy it... People who say: “Well, I've got a job and I don't really like it“, I'm like: “Well, you could change?!“ “But that'll be a lot of work!“ “You're right, you should keep going to work every day doing a job you don't like. Thank you, good night.“ 此外, 这次讲座并不仅仅是关于时间管理. 一个关于时间管理的讲座, 听起来可能就感觉无关 痛痒-无非就那么回事. 但如果这个讲座是: 如果没有得溃疡会怎样? 那就会引起我的注意. 这 次讲座包含了不少对人生的建议. 这包括如何去改变你行事的方式, 如何把你的时间汇聚起 来, 以使你过上更幸福,更精彩的生活. 我挺喜欢刚刚谈到快乐的讲座前的介绍. 因为要说我能 给学术界带来了些欢乐, 那就是在关于时间的问题上. 如果你不打算快乐, 那么为什么还要做 某件事? 我想知道答案. 生命着实太短暂, 难道你不想好好去享受它吗? 有人说, “嗯, 我有一 份工作, 但我不喜欢.”我会说“那么, 你能改变现状吗?”“可那要做很多工作!” “确实如 此, 可你每天做着自己不喜欢的工作, 也要干很多事啊. 谢谢, 晚安..” So the overall goal is fun. My middle child Logan is my favorite example. I don't think he knows how to not have fun. No, grant, the lot of the things he does are not fun for his mother and me. But he's loving every second of it. He doesn't know to do anything that isn't ballistic and full of life. He's going to keep that quality, he's my little Tigger, and I always remember Logan when I think about the goal is to make sure that you lead your life - I want to maximize use of time, but that's the means, not the end. The end is maximizing fun. 所以说人生的总目标就是快乐. 我最喜欢拿我的孩子劳甘举例子. 我不知道他什么时候才不快 乐. 他做的许多事情对我和我的妻子来说, 都不显得那么有趣. 然而, 他却的确非常享受做这些 事的每一秒钟. 他不知道怎样不去专心的做什么事情. 他一直保持着这样的特点, 他就是我的 小跳跳虎. 当我意识到我的目标是让自己能够引领自己的生活时, 我总能想起劳甘. 我希望尽 可能最大化的利用我的时间--但这就意味着, 还没到止境. 止境是获得最大化的快乐. People who do intense studies and log people on videotape and so on say that the typical office worker wastes almost two hours a day. Their desk is messy, they can't find things, they miss appointments, are unprepared for meetings, they can't concentrate. Does anybody in here by show of hands ever have any sense that one of these things is part of their life? Okay, I think we've got everybody! So these are a universal thing and you shouldn't feel guilty if some of these things are plagueing you because they plague all of us, they plague me for sure. 有人做了仔细的研究, 他们通过录影带观察, 发现普通的办公室职员一天差不多能能浪费掉两 个小时. 他们的桌面乱糟糟的, 东西要用的时候就找不着, 他们经常忘记掉约会, 或是对会议毫 无准备, 无法集中注意力. 这里有人也有过同样的感觉吗? 举手. 好的, 差不多所有人都这样! 这是件很普遍的事情, 你也没必要因为这些现象的困扰感到负罪感. 因为这些事也同样困扰着 所有人. 当然, 也包括我. The other thing I want to tell you is that it sounds a little clichéd and tried, but being successful does not make you manage your time well. Managing your time well makes you successful. If I've been successful in my career, I assure you it's not because I'm smarter than all the other faculty. I mean, I'm looking around, and I'm looking at some of my former colleagues, and I see Jim Cohoon up there: I'm not smarter than Jim Cohoon. I constantly look around at the faculty at places like the University of Virginia or Carnegie Mellon, and I go: “Damn, these are smart people!“ And I snuck in! But what I like to think I'm good at is the meta-skills, because if you're going to have to run with people who are faster than you you have to find the right ways to optimize what skills you do have.

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另外我想告诉你们, 可能听起来有点陈腐, 不过成功并不意味着你会管理好你的时间. 而管理 好你的时间却能够使你成功. 要说我的职业生涯还算成功的话, 我向你保证, 这不是因为我比 别人聪明. 我的意思是, 当我放眼四顾, 我能看到一些我曾经的同事, 我看到了吉姆·科洪, 我没 有他聪明. 我一直在观察那些在卡耐基-梅隆或者弗尼吉亚大学这样地方的教师, 我会惊叹, “天啊, 全是聪明人.”而我也在其中暂露头角. 我倾向于认为我擅长(时间管理这个)基本技 能. 因为如果你要和比你跑的快的人赛跑, 你就必须找到能最大程度的发挥你掌握的技能的路 径. Let's talk first about goals, priorities and planning. Anytime anything crosses your life, you've got to ask: “This thing I'm thinking about doing, why am I doing it? Almost no one that I know starts with the core principle of, there's this thing on my To Do list, why is it there? Because if you're start asking like, why am I... my kids are great at this. That is, all I've ever heard at home is: Why? Why? Sooner or later they're going to stop saying “Why“, they're just going to say: “Okay, I'll do it.“ So ask, why am I doing this, what is the goal, why will I succeed at doing it, and here's my favorite: What will happen if I don't do it? The best thing in the world is when I have something on my To Do list and I just go: Hmm, no. No one has ever come and taken me to jail. 让我们先谈谈目标, 优先级和计划. 无论什么时候, 有什么事进入你的生活, 你得要问问自己, 我想做的这件事, 我为什么要做? 然而我认识的人里面, 几乎没有人能够去想这个核心的问题: 如果这件事出现在我的任务列表中, 它为什么会出现在那里? 因为如果你这样问自己, 我为什 么... 我的孩子很擅长这样问. 我在家经常听到, 为什么? 为什么? 过一阵他们就会停下来不再 问为什么, 他们会说, 好吧, 我做. 所以, 要问自己, 为什么我要做这件事? 目标是什么? 为什么 我能做成这件事? 还有我最喜欢问自己的: 如果我不做这件事会怎样? 世界上最好的事情就是 当我的任务列表上面还有东西没有做的时候, 我把它放在一边, 也没有人来把我抓到监狱里. I talked my way out of a speeding ticket last week, that was really cool. It's like the closest I've ever going to be to attractive and blonde. I told the guy why we had just moved and so on and so forth, and he looked at me and said: “Well, for a guy who's only got a couple of months to live, you sure look good!“ I just pulled up my shirt to show the scar and I said, “Yeah, I look good on the outside but the tumors are on the inside.“ He just ran back to his cruiser and... ! So that's one positive law enforcement experience for me. 我上周和警察交谈把我的一张超速罚单免了,这真的很酷,这感觉就像我变成金发美女那样诱 人一样. 我告诉那个警察我们刚刚搬到这里,很多情况不熟悉, 等等等等... 他看着我对我说, “作为一个只有几个月能活的人, 你看起来不错!” 我拉起我的T恤, 把手术疤给他看, 说: “是 的,从外面看我还不错, 不过肿瘤在里面. ”他就跑回到他的巡警车里面..对我来说, 这是和执 法机构打交道的一次愉快经历. The police have never come because I crossed something off my To Do list. That's a very powerful thing because you've got all that time back. The other thing to keep in mind when you're doing goal setting is, a lot of people focus on doing things right. I think it's very dangerous to focus on doing things right. I think it's much more important to do the right things. If you do the right things adequately, that's much more important than doing the wrong things beautifully. Doesn't matter how well you polish the underside of the banister. Keep that in mind. 警察从来没有因为我忽略掉我任务清单上的某事而把我抓走. 这是件很棒的事, 因为你可以把 做这些事的时间省下来. 另外要记住, 当你制定自己的目标的时候, 许多人把精力放在正确的 做事上面. 我觉得把精力集中在正确的做事上不好,做正确的事更重要. 把正确的事做的差不 多, 要比把错误的事做得漂亮重要的多. 就像你把栏杆的下沿擦的再亮也一点也不重要. 牢记 于心. Lou Holtz had a great list: Lou Holtz's 100 things to do in his life. He would once a week look at it and say: If I'm not working on those 100 things, why was I working on the others? 7


I think that's an incredible way to frame things. There's something called the 80/20 rule. Sometimes you'll hear about the 90/10 rule, but the key thing to understand is that a very small number of things in your life or on your ToDo-list are going to contribute the vast majority of the value. If you're a salesperson, 80 percent of the revenue is going to come from 20 percent of your clients. And you better figure out who those 20 percent are and spend all your time sucking up to them. Because that's where the revenue comes. You've got to be willing to say, this stuff is what's going to be the value and this other stuff isn't and you've got to have the courage of your convictions to say, therefore I'm gonna shove the other stuff off the boat. 卢·霍尔兹有一份很棒的列表: 一生中要做的100件事. 他每周看看这个列表, 反思: 要是我没在 做这一百件事, 那么干嘛做其它的事? 我觉得这是一个约束事情的很好的方法. 有个规律叫做 80/20定律, 有时你听到的也可能是90/10定律, 不过关键的是, 你生活中的或是任务列表中的 少数几件事 却有很重要的价值. 要是你是个销售员, 你80%的利润来自于20%的客户. 你应该 判断出谁属于这20%, 从而将大部分时间花在与这些客户打交道身上, 因为他们才是利润的来 源. 这样你将看到, 某些事能带来价值, 而其它的某些事不能带来价值, 从而有勇气把那些不重 要的事情放下. The other thing to remember is that experience comes with time and it's really, really valuable, and there are no shortcuts to getting it. Good judgment comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgment. So if things aren't going well, that probably means you're learning a lot and will go better later. This is, by the way, why we pay so much in American society for people who are typically older but have done lots of things in their past because we're paying for their experience because we know that experience is one of the things you can't fake. 另外要记住, 获得经验需要时间, 这些经验真的非常非常宝贵, 也再没有其它捷径来获得它们. 好的决定源自经验, 而这经验却正源自不好的决定. 因此, 如果事情的进展不顺利, 可能这就意 味着你将从中学到很多, 情况也会渐渐变好. 在美国社会中, 我们付给那些年华已逝但曾做过 很多事的人那么多薪酬, 实际上我们是为他们的经验付薪酬. 因为我们都知道, 经验是一样我 们无法做伪的东西. And do not lose sight of the power of inspiration. Randy's in an hour long talk and we've already hit our first Disney reference. Walt Disney has many great quotes. One that I love is: “If you can dream it, you can do it.“ A lot of my cynical friends say, ya-di-ya-di-ya... to which I say: Shut up. Inspiration is important and I tell you this much, I don't know if Walt was right but I tell you this much: If you refuse to allow yourself to dream it, I know you won't do it. So the power of dreams are that they give us a way to take the first step towards an accomplishment. 也别忘记了灵感的力量. 我上次的讲座中已经谈到迪斯尼了. 沃尔特.迪斯尼讲过许多伟大的 名言. 我喜欢的其中之一是: “有梦想, 就能行动.” 我的许多犬儒主义的朋友说这说那, 对这些 人, 我只会说, 闭嘴. 灵感非常重要, 这点我已经跟你们讲了好多遍了. 我并不知道沃尔特说的 是否正确, 但是我想对你说, 如果你都不让自己去梦想, 那么我知道你肯定不会去做. 梦想的力 量就在于它让我们朝着它迈出通向成就的第一步. Walt was also not just a dreamer. Walt worked really hard. Disneyland - this amazes me because I know a little bit about how hard it is to put theme park attractions together, and they did the whole original Disneyland park in 366 days. That's from the first shovel full of dirt to the first paid admission. Think about how long it takes to do something, say, at a state university. By comparison! It's fascinating. When someone once asked Walt Disney, “How did you get it done in 366 days?“, he just deadpanned: “We used every one of them.“

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So again, there are no shortcuts, there's a lot of hard work in anything you want to accomplish. 沃尔特不只是个梦想家. 他工作也很勤奋. 迪斯尼乐园让我很惊讶, 我大概了解, 要将这些主题 公园的魅力整合在一起有多么困难! 可从第一锹土到第一张门票,第一家迪斯尼乐园只用了 366天就建好了. 随便想想, 比如在某个州立大学里要干点事要花掉多少时间吧. 对比下! 太牛 了! 有人问迪斯尼, “你是怎样在366天内就把它盖好的?” 他只是平淡地回答说, “我们日尽其 用.” 再说一遍, 没有捷径可言, 无论想成就什么事, 都要下很多苦功夫. Planning is very important, one of the time management clichés is: Failing to plan is planning to fail. Planning has to be done at multiple levels. I have a plan every morning when I wake up and I say, what do I need to get done today, what do I need to get done this week, what do I need to get done each semester, that's sort of the time quanta because I'm an academic. That doesn't mean you're locked into it! People say: “Yeah, but things are so fluid! I'm going to have to change the plan!“ And I'm like, “Yes! You are going to have to change the plan. But you can't change it, unless you have it!“ And the excuse of, I'm not going to make a plan because things might change is just this paralysis of: I don't have any marching orders. So have a plan, acknowledge that you're going to change it but have it so you have the basis to start with. 做计划非常重要, 关于时间管理, 非常经典的一句话就是, 不去做计划就是计划去失败 . 计划 有好几个层次. 每天早晨醒来我都会做计划, 今天我打算完成什么, 这一周我打算完成什么, 这 学期我打算完成什么, 我以这样的层次来安排是因为我是个学者. 这因人而异!人们可能会说: “你说的没错, 可事情瞬息万变, 我也要随之改变计划.”我说: “的确, 你是得去改变你的计划, 但你至少得有个计划,才能谈得上去改变.” 因为事情多变而不去做计划, 这样的借口就像 “我没有行动指令”一样. 要去做计划, 尽管你可能要对其做出调整,但至少得有了计划你才 能开始. To Do lists. How many people here, if I said, can you produce it, could show me their To Do list? - Okay, not bad. The key thing with To Do lists is you have to break things down into small steps. I literally once on my To Do list, when I was a junior faculty member at the University of Virginia, I put: “Get tenure.“ That was naive! I looked at that for a while and I said: Oh, that's really hard. I don't think I can do that. My children, Dylan and Logan and Chloe, particularly Dylan, is at the age where he can clean his own room, thank you very much. But he doesn't like to, and Chris is smiling because I used to do this story on him but now I've got my own kids to pick on. Dylan will come to me and say: “I can't pick up my room, it's too much stuff!“ [sighs exaggeratedly] He's not even a teenager and he's already got that move! And I say: “Well, can you make your bed?“ - “Yeah, I can do that.“ “Okay, can you put all the clothes in the hamper?“ - “Yeah, I can do that.“ And you do three or four things, and then it's like: “Well, Dylan, you just cleaned your room!“ - “I cleaned my room!“ He feels good! He is empowered! And everybody is happy. Of course, I've had to spend twice as much time managing him as I could have done it by myself but that's okay, that's what being a boss is about, is you're growing your people no matter how small or large they might be at the time. 任务清单. 这里有多少人能够给我看看你们的任务清单? OK, 还不坏. 关于任务列表, 关键就 是你要大事化小, 按步就班来处理. 当我在弗尼吉亚大学还是一名年轻的教员的时候, 我就犯 了个肤浅的错误. 我在任务列表上写到: “得到终身教职.”. 这太天真了. 我看了一阵, 然后意 识到, 哦, 这太难了. 我觉得我做不到. 我的孩子, Dylan, Logan, Chloe, 特别是Dylan, 已经 到了能自己整理房间的年龄了. 谢谢你们. 但他不愿意整理. Chris在笑, 我原来就拿他开涮, 不 过现在也发生在我自己的孩子的身上. Dylan走过来告诉我, “我整理不了我的房间, 太多东 西了.”他还不到十岁就已经这样了! 我说: “那你能整理你的床铺吗?” “嗯, 我能.” “那 你能把衣服都放在洗衣篮里吗?” “嗯, 可以.” 当你做了三四件事, 就差不多了. “Dylan, 你刚把房间整理过了!” “我都把自己的房间整理过了!”他感觉很棒, 充满力量! 每个人都会 9


很开心. 当然, 我得花两倍于自己去做的时间来让他做, 但这很好. 这就是做老板的样子, 你在 培养你的手下, 不管他们当时多么渺小. The last thing about To Do lists or getting yourself going is, if you've got a bunch of things to do, do the ugliest thing first. There's an old saying: “If you have to eat a frog, don't spend a lot of time looking at it first, and if you have to eat three of them, don't start with the small one.” 关于任务清单和管住自己, 最后我想说, 如果你有一堆事要做, 就最先做最难办的事. 有道是: “要吃个青蛙, 就别先花一大堆时间看着它. 要是吃三个, 别先吃最小的.” This is the most important slide in the entire talk. 这张是整个讲座中最重要的幻灯片. 紧急

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If you want to leave after this slide, I will not be offended, because it's all downhill from here. This is blatantly stolen, this is Steven Covey's great contribution to the world, he talks about it in the Seven Habits book. Imagine your To Do list - most people sort their To Do list either “the order that I've got it“, throw it at the bottom, or they sort it in due-date list, which is more sophisticated and more helpful but still very, very wrong. Looking at the fourquadrant To Do list, if you've got a quadrant where things are “Important and Due Soon“, “Important and Not Due Soon“, “Not Important and Due Soon“ and “Not Important and Not Due Soon“, which of these four quadrants do you think, upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right, which one do you think you should work on immediately? Upper left! You are such a great crowd. Okay. And which one do you think you should probably do last? Lower right. And that's easy. That's obviously number one, that's obviously number four. But this is where everybody in my experience gets it wrong. What we do now is we say: “I do the number ones, and I move on to the stuff that's “Due Soon and Not Important“. When you write it in this quadrant list, it's really stunning, because I've actually seen people do this and they say: “Okay, this is due soon and I know it's not important so I'm going to get right to work on it.“ The most crucial thing I can teach you about time management is, when you're done picking off the “Important and Due Soon“, that's when you go here. 要是你打算看完这张幻灯片就闪人, 我肯定不会生气. 因为后面的内容都是由之引申而来, 我“无耻”地把这些东西偷来, 这是史蒂夫·柯维对世界做出的杰出贡献, 他在《高效能人士 的七个习惯》一书中讲到了这些东西. 想想你的任务清单. 许多人要么就是以任务出现的时间 顺序排序, 要么就是按照截止日期排序: 这可能更聪明, 更有帮助些; 但仍然非常, 非常的不正 确.看下这样的四象限任务清单, 如果有四类事情: 重要且紧急, 重要而不紧急, 不重要但紧急, 不重要也不紧急, 分别处在左上角, 右上角, 左下角, 右下角的四个象限中, 你觉得你应该立即 去做那一类的事情呢? 左上角! 这么多人! OK, 那么最后做那一类呢? 右下角! 很容易. 显然是 1类, 显然是4类. 但以我的经验, 这就是每个人犯错的时候. 我们现在这种思路就意味着: “我 做1类, 然后去做那些'紧急但不重要'的事情. 你要是开始按这四象限分类, 那就很不错了, 但 我也真的见过人这样做但却这样想: “噢这件事很急, 但并不重要. 我得去做它.”关于时间管 理, 我能告诉你们的最关键的是, 你来这听我的讲座, 就是因为你平常做的都是重要且紧急的 事情. You go to “Not Due Soon and Important“, and there will be a moment in your life where you say, “Hey, this thing that's due soon and not important: I won't do it! Because it's not 10


important! It says so right here on the chart!“ And magically, you have time to work on the thing that is not due soon but is important so that next week it never got a chance to get here because you killed it in the crib. My wife won't like that metaphor! But you solve the problem of something that's due next week when you're not under time stress because it's not due tomorrow. And suddenly you become one of these Zen-like people who would just always seem like they have all the time in the world because they figured this out. 要是你去做 “不紧急但重要” 的事情的话, 在你生命中某时, 你就会对自己说: “嘿, 这个事 情快到期了, 但并不重要, 我不会去做它. 表格上就是这样写的!”犹如魔法一般, 你会有时间 去做那些不紧急但重要的事情了, 于是在下周, 这些事情也不会到达第一和第三象限, 因为你 已经把它扼杀在摇篮中了. 我的妻子不大喜欢这个比喻! 但当你解决了下周到期的某事的时 候, 和明天就到期的事物不同,你没有时间上的压力. 突然你就成为了这些达人之一--他们仿佛 拥有世界上所有的时间, 因为他们已经做到了我说的这一点. Paperwork. The first thing that you need to know is that having cluttered paperwork leads to thrashing. You end up with all these things on your desk, and you can't find anything, and the moment you turn to your desk your desk is saying to you: “I own you! I have more things than you can do! And they are many colors and laid out!“ So what I find is that it's really crucial to keep your desk clear, and we'll talk about where all the paper goes in a second, and you have one thing on your desk because then it's like: “Haha! Now it's thunderdome! Me and the ONE piece of paper.“ I usually win that one. One of the mantras of time management is, touch each piece of paper once. You get the piece of paper, you look at it, you work at it, and I think that's extremely true for email. 文书工作. 首先你要知道, 杂乱无序的文书将让你一塌糊涂. 所有东西都堆在桌面上, 你什么 也找不到. 一回到桌子前你就感觉要做的事远远超过自己所能做的. 它们五颜六色东倒西歪. 我发现, 保持自己的桌子整洁非常重要. 我们马上就会讲到那些纸张都去了哪里, 你的桌面只 有一样东西. 就像这样: “哈哈, 整个世界清净多了. 只有我和一张纸.” 我通常能做到这一点. 时间管理的一个曼陀罗{重要理念}就是每张纸仅碰一次. 你拿到这张纸, 你看看它, 进行相关 的工作. 对电子邮件来说, 这是极度正确的. How many people here - I'm going to take it for granted that everybody here has an email inbox. - How many people here have more than 20 items in their email inbox? - Oooh! I'm in the right room. Your inbox is not your To Do list. My wife has learned that I need to get my inbox clear. Sometimes this means just filing things away and putting something on my To Do list. Remember, the To Do list is sorted by importance but does anybody here have an email program where you can press this “Sort By Importance“ button? It's amazing how people who build software that really is a huge part of our life and getting work done haven't a clue. And that's not a slam on any particular company. I think they all have missed the boat. I just find it fascinating. Because most people I know have this inbox - oh, I've got to ask. How many people have more than 100 things in their inbox? - Oh, I'm just not going to keep going, this is too depressing! You really want to get the thing in your inbox, look at it and say: “I'm either going to read it right now or I'm going to file it and put an entry in my To Do list.“ That's a crucial thing because otherwise everytime you go to read your email, you're just swamped and it's just as bad as the cluttered paper. 这里有多少人-- 我假定这里的每个人都有个电子邮箱-- 邮箱里面有多于20条的未读邮件? 哦, 看来我来对地方了. 你的收件箱和你的任务清单不同, 我的妻子跟我学会了要清空收件箱. 有 时, 这意味着要去过滤掉一些信息, 把剩下的记在任务清单上. 记住, 你的任务清单是按重要程 度排序的. 而在座的各位, 你们的邮件程序可曾有 “按重要性排序”这个按钮? 很奇怪, 做已 经成为我们生活和工作的重要部分的那些软件的这些人都没有意识到这一点. 这不是对某家 公司的抨击, 我只是觉得他们全部没发现这点. 而我正觉得这样做很棒. 因为我知道大多数人 都有电子邮箱, 哦, 我还得问下, 有多少人邮箱里攒了100多条信件? 哦, 我都不打算再讲下去 了, 太让人崩溃了. 你要是真想处理你的收件箱的话, 那么看着它对自己说: “我要么就现在读 它, 要么把它归档,然后在任务列表上加上一条.” 这样做很重要, 否则每次你去看电子信箱的 时候, 你都会觉得自己招架不住, 感觉就像凌乱的纸张一样! 11


[He shows a picture of him and his wife on the wedding day.] You're all trying to figure out how that heading goes with that picture. A filing system is absolutely essential. I know this because I'm married to the most wonderful woman in the world but she's not a good filer. But she is now! Because after we got married and we moved in together and we resolved all the other typical couple things, I said: “We have to have a place where our papers go and it's in alphabetical order.“ And she said: “That sounds a little compulsive...“ And I said: “Okay, honey...“ I went out to IKEA and I got this big, nice, way too expensive wooden fake mahogany thing with big drawers so she liked it because it looked kind of nice, and having a place in our house where any piece of paper went and was in alphabetical order did wonderful things for our marriage! Because there was never any of this, “Honey, where did you put blahblahblah?“ And there was never being mad at somebody because they had put something in some unexpected place, there was an expected place for it. When you're looking for important receipts or whatever it is, this is actually important and we have found that this has been a wonderful thing for us. I think file systems among groups of people, whether it's a marriage or an office are crucial, but even if it's just you, having a place where you know you put something really beats all hell out of running around for an hour, going: “Where is it? I know it's blue... and I was eating something when I read it.“ I mean... This is not a filing system! This is madness! [展示他和妻子在婚礼上的照片.] 一个文件系统非常必要. 我懂得这一点, 是因为我娶到了世 界上最好的女人, 但她不擅长整理文件. 不过现在她擅长了! 结婚后, 我们搬到了一起住, 我们 搞定了其它的夫妻一般会用到的东西. 我说: “我们得有个地方来按字母顺序放我们的文书.” 她说到: “听起来似乎有点强迫的样子.” 我说: “好嘛,亲爱的.” 我去宜家买了个又大又漂亮又 便宜, 还带着大抽屉的仿红木柜子. 她觉得看起来挺漂亮, 也挺喜欢. 有一个以字母顺序存放所 有文书的地方对我们的婚姻来说也是一个非常棒的事. 类似“亲爱的, 你把啥啥啥放在哪 了?”这样的情景就永远不会出现. 不会有谁因为找不到东西而发疯, 东西都各居其所. 当要找 一份重要的收据或是其它重要的东西时, 我们就发现这样的文件归档系统真是棒极了. 文件系 统对于一群人, 比如说夫妻, 或是同事来说很重要. 但即便只有你自己, 有这样一个你知道自己 把什么东西放在哪里的地方也能让你不至于动不动就花上一小时找东西. 嘴里还嘀咕着: “哪 去了呢? 我知道是个蓝的... 那时候我还边吃东西边看呢.”我想说, 这不是文件系统, 这能让 人发疯! A lot of people ask me: “So, Randy, what does your desk look like?“ As my wife would say, “This is what Randy's desk looks like when he's photographing it for a talk.“ [see picture below] The important thing is that I'm a computer geek so I have the desk off to the right, and then I have the computer station off to the left. I like to have my desk in front of a window whenever I can do that. This is an old photograph, these have now been replaced by LCD monitors but I left the old picture because the crucial thing is, it doesn't matter if they're fancy high-tech, the key thing is screen space. Lots of people have studied this. How many people here have more than one monitor on their computer desktop? Okay, not bad! So we're getting there, it's starting to happen. What I found is that I could go back from three to two but I just can't go back to one. There's just too many things and as somebody said, it's the difference between working on a desk like at home and trying to get work done on the little tray on an airplane. In principle the little tray on the airplane is big enough for everything you need to do. It's just that in practice it's pretty small. So multiple monitors are very important and I'll show you in a second what I have on each one of those. I believe in this multiple monitor thing, we believed in it for a long time, that's my research group [shows a picture], our laboratory a long time ago in Carnegie Mellon, that's Caitlin Kelleher, who's now Doctor Kelleher, thank you, and she's at Washington University in St. Louis doing wonderful things. But we had everybody with three monitors and the cost on this is absolutely trivial. If you figure the cost of adding a second monitor to an employee's yearly cost to the company, it's not even one percent anymore. So why would 12


you not do it? One of my walkaways for all of you is, you should all go to your boss and say: “I need a second monitor. I just can't work without it, Randy told me to tell you that.“ Because it will increase your productivity and the computers can all drive two monitors, so why not? 许多人问我: “那么, 兰迪, 你的桌子看上去是怎样的呢?” 我的妻子可能会说: “这就是当他 为了演讲而给他的桌子照相时,他的桌子的样子.”[看下面的图片] 重要的是, 我是个电脑狂, 我让桌子贴着右边, 这样工作站就能贴在左边放. 无论何时, 只要可能我都喜欢把桌子放在窗 前. 这是一张老照片, 这些显示器现在都换成液晶的了, 不过我留着这张照片是因为, 东西多么 高科技并不重要, 重要的是屏幕的空间. 许多人都了解这点. 有多少人在电脑桌上有一个以上 的显示器? 好的, 还不赖! 我们现在就来说说. 我发现, 我可以把显示器由三个减为两个, 但是 我不能减少到一个. 有太多事了, 正如有人曾说过的, 这就像是在家里的办公桌上工作和尝试 在飞机上的小桌板上把事搞定的区别. 理论上说, 飞机上的小桌板大的足以能让你做任何事 了, 但是实际上它就是太小了. 有多个显示器非常重要, 我用一秒钟的时间来给你看看它们每 个都显示什么. 我信赖这样的多显示器系统, 我们研究组也信赖之. 这是我的研究小组[展示图 片]., 很久以前我们在卡耐基-梅隆的实验室, 这是凯特琳·基莱赫, 现在是 基莱赫 博士了, 谢谢 你, 她现在在圣路易斯的华盛顿大学做一些很棒的事. 我们每个人都有三个显示器, 而这样做 的成本却的确很小. 要是你将添加一个显示器的钱和雇一个雇员一年要花的钱相比, 那可能连 百分之一都不到. 那为什么不这样做呢? 我给你们的一个建议是: 你们都该去找老板说: “我 需要两台显示器. 只有一个的话我无法工作, 是兰迪让我告诉你的. ”这能提高你的效能, 而且 电脑也能带动两个显示器, 何乐而不为呢? What do I have on my three monitors? On the left is my To Do list, all sorts of stuff in there. We're all idiosyncratic, my system is that I just put a number of 0 through 9 and I use an editor that can quickly sort on that number in the first column, but the key thing is that it's sorted by priority. 我这三台显示器上都放些什么呢? 左边的是我的任务清单, 包括了所有种类的事情. 每个人 都有自己独特的办法, 我将0到9这些数字写在任务旁来表示它们的优先级, 同时用一个能快 速将这些第一栏中的数字进行排序的软件. 最关键的就是要将它们按优先级排起来. In the middle is my mail program. Note the empty inbox! I try very hard, I sleep better if I go to sleep with the inbox empty. When my inbox does creep up, I get really testy, so my wife will actually say to me: “I think you need to clear the inbox.” 中间是我的邮件程序, 注意那空空的收件箱! 我非常努力的去尝试(让他们空下来). 如果收件 箱空空如也, 我就会睡得很香. 当我的收件箱渐渐堆慢, 我也会变得很急躁, 我老婆这时就会对 我说: “我觉得你该去清空你的收件箱了.” On the third one is a calendar. This is from a number of years ago but that's like my days would be, I used to be very heavily booked. I don't care which software you use, I don't care which calendars, I don't care if it's paper or computer, whatever works for you, but you should have some system whereby you know where you're supposed to be next Tuesday at two o'clock. Because even if you can live your life without that, you're using up a lot of your brain to remember all that. I don't know about you, but I don't have enough brain to spare to use it on things I can have paper or computers do for me. 第三个放日程表, 许多年以来我一直在使用它, 它和我的生活状态很相符, 我习惯于时间被严 格的约束起来. 我并不在乎使用哪种软件, 不在乎使用哪种日程表, 也不在乎使用纸质的日程 表还是使用软件, 只要适合自己就好. 但你应该形成一套体系, 这样你就能知道, 比如说你下个 星期二两点钟的时候该干嘛. 因为, 虽然你不使用日程表也能生活, 但你却需要费神去记住所 有这些事情. 我不了解你, 但我知道我自己没有那么多的精力来将精力花在这些纸笔或电脑能 帮我记住的事情上. Back to the overview. On the desk itself, let's zoom in a little bit, look, I have the one and one thing I'm working on at the time, I have a speaker phone - this is crucial. How many people here have a speaker phone on their desks? Okay, not bad, but a lot more people don't. Speaker phones are essentially free, and I spend a lot of time on hold, and that's because I live in the American society where I get to listen to messages of the form: “Your 13


call is extremely important to us. Watch, while my actions are cognitively dissonant from my words.“ It's like the worst abusive relationship in the world. Imagine a guy who picks you up at your first date and he smacks you in the mouth and says: “I love you, honey“. That's pretty much how modern customer service works on the telephone. But the great thing about a speaker phone is, you hit the speaker phone and you dial and then you just do something else, and if it takes seven minutes, it takes seven minutes and hey, I just look at this like somebody's piping music into my office. That's very nice of them. I also found that having a timer on the phone is handy so that when somebody finally picks up in Bangalore, I can say things like: “I'm so glad to be talking with you, by the way, if you keep records on this sort of thing, I've been on hold for seven and a half minutes.” But you don't say it angry, you just say it as “I presume you're logging this kind of stuff“, and you're not angry, so they don't get angry back at you but they feel really guilty. And that's good, you want guilty! A speaker phone is really great. I find that a speaker phone is probably the best material possession you can buy to counter stress. If I were teaching a yoga and meditation class, I'd say, we'll do all the yoga and meditation, I think that's wonderful stuff, but everybody also has to have a speaker phone. 回过头来, 关于桌子本身, 让我们放近一点点看, 我有一台免提电话-这很重要. 这里有多少人 桌子上放个免提电话? OK, 还不坏, 但许多人没有. 免提电话其实是免费的, 我花许多时间在 上面, 因为我活在美国社会里, 这里我得听到许多这样的消息: “你的来电对我们非常重要, 看, 我的行动显然和我的话不一致.” 这似乎是世界上对相互关系的最差的滥用了. 想象一下 一个刚认识你的男人就吻你, 并对你说: “我爱你, 亲爱的.” 这就是现在的顾客服务在电话里 面的态度.但免提的好处在于, 你打电话的同时, 还可以做点其它的事情. 要是打个电话花上七 分钟, 我就把它当成跟某人在办公室放的音乐一样. 非常好. 我还发现, 在打电话的时候用个计 时器很有用. 比如在班加罗尔终于有个人接电话了, 我可以这样说: “很高兴和你讲话, 顺便说 一下, 如果你们对电话做记录的话, 我已经等了七分半钟了.” 但别生气地说, 就像这样去 说 :“我假定你们对电话做记录了.”这样你不生气, 他们也不生气, 但他们真的会产生负罪 感. 这就好, 要的就是这种负罪感. 免提真的很棒. 我发现免提电话可能是缓解压力最好的东西 了. 如果你是教瑜伽或者调节课程的, 那我说, 我们会去做瑜伽和调节, 那些很棒, 但每个人也 得有个免提电话. {译者注: 班加罗尔是印度的一个城市. 由于人工费低廉, 美国许多公司将电话帮助系统设在那里.}

What else do we have besides the speaker phone? Let's talk about telephones for a second. I think that the telephone is a great time-waster, and I think it's very important to keep your business calls short so I recommend standing during the phone calls. Great for exercise, and if you tell yourself: “I'm not gonna sit down until the call is over“, you'll be amazed how much brisker you are. 除了免提电话还有什么呢? 我们再说一下关于电话的事. 我觉得电话太能浪费时间了, 尽可能 的使关于你的事务的电话短暂, 我建议你打电话的时候一直站着. 既能锻炼身体, 你暗示自己, “不打完我就一直站着”, 这样你就能发现自己多么强悍. Start by announcing goals for the call. “Hello Sue, this is Randy, I'm calling you because I have three things that I want to get done.“ Because then you have given her an agenda and when you're done with the three things, you can say, “That's great, those were the three things I had, it was great to talk to you, I'd love to talk to you again, bye.“ Boom you're off the phone. 首先, 打电话的时候要说明目的. “你好, 苏, 我是兰迪, 我打给你有三件事.” 这样, 你就告诉 了对方议事的内容, 当这三件事都说完之后, 你就可以说: “太棒了, 我就这三件事, 非常高兴 和你讲话, 我希望能再跟你聊, 再见.” 哦, 你就挂断电话了. Whatever you do, do not put your feet up. If you put the feet up, it's just all over. And the other handy trick is, have something on your desk that you actually are kind of interested in going to do next, so the phone call instead of being, “Wow, I could get off the phone and do some work... mmm... Or I could keep chit-chatting!“ Usually the person you've called, 14


they'd like to chit-chat too. So this is where the time- waster in the office goes, and if you're a grad student... [pauses] Well, if you're a grad student, you already know about timewasting. Having something you really want to do next is a great way to get you off the phone quicker, so you've got to train yourself. 无论做什么, 不要把脚放在桌子上打电话. 如果你把脚放在桌子上, 那就完了. 另一个小技巧 是, 在桌面上放点那种自己接下来有兴趣去做的事情. 与其打电话, 你会说:“嗯, 我还有活要 忙, 就不聊了.” 一般和你打电话的那个人, 也会喜欢闲聊. 办公室里的时间就经常耗在这里. 如果你是个研究生, 你已经知道时间的浪费了. 找点自己真正愿意做的事是帮助你迅速挂断电 话的一个非常好的方法, 你得锻炼锻炼自己. Getting off the phone is hard for a lot of people. I don't suffer from an abundance of politeness. My sister, who has known me for a long time, is laughing a knowing laugh. When I want to get off the phone, I want to get off the phone. I'm done. And what I say is: “I'd love to keep talking with you, but I have some students waiting.” Now I'm a professor. Somewhere there must be students waiting! It's got to be! 挂断电话对很多人来说很难, 而我却没承受过度礼貌所带来的痛苦. 我的姐姐, 了解我很长时 间了, 在笑呢. 当我想远离电话的时候, 我会想挂掉电话. 我做到了这一点. 我会说,“我也想跟 你接着讲下去, 但旁边还有学生等着呢.”我现在是个教授, 周围肯定会有学生等着! 就是这 样! Sometimes you get in a situation like with a telemarketer. That's awkward because a lot of people are so polite - I have no trouble with telemarketers, I'll just go there with them! If you're a telemarketer and you call my house, you have made a mistake. “Yeah, I can't talk right now, but why don't you give me your home phone number, and I'll call you back on dinner time.“ Seinfeld did a great bit on that. Or if you want to be a little bit more over the line: “I'd love to talk with you about that, but first, I have some things I'd like to sell you!“ The funny part is, they never realize you're yanking with them, that's... But if you have to hang up on a telemarketer, what you do is, you hang up while you're talking. “Well, I think that's really interesting and I would love to keep --“ I mean, talk about self-effacing! Hanging up on yourself! And they'll figure it out and if they'll do and call back, just don't answer! Ten years from now, all everybody will remember from this talk is hanging up on yourself. 有的时候, 可能情况是你在和电话推销员讲话. 这很麻烦, 因为很多人都会非常礼貌-我应付他 们不会遇到什么麻烦. 我就直接去找他们! 如果你是个电话推销员, 你打给我, 那就错了. 我会 说: “嗯, 我现在可以谈, 但你能否留下你家的电话, 我晚饭的时候打过去?” 这是森菲尔德的 经典台词. 或者你可以在电话里做的更过分: “我想跟你聊, 不过首先, 我有些东西想卖给你. ”有趣的是, 他们永远都不会觉得你是在耍他们, 这真是... 但当你得挂掉他们电话的时候, 你 要做的是, 在自己讲话的时候挂掉. “哦, 我觉得这真的很有趣,我也想继续..”-- 我的意思是, 要显得不露锋芒. 自己讲话的时候挂掉电话. 他们会发现电话断了, 要是他们继续打过来的话, 不接就行! 十年之后, 这次讲座的内容中, 每个人都能记住的是: 在自己讲电话的时候挂掉. {Seinfeld:美国著名电视剧演员, 在他演的剧中经常出现上面的对白}

The other thing is, group your phone calls. Call people right before lunch or right before the end of the day. Because then they have something they would rather do than keep chitty- chatting with you. So I find that calling somebody at 11:50 is a great way to have a ten-minute phone call. Because frankly, you may think you're interesting, but you are not more interesting than lunch. I have become very obsessive about using phones and time productively so I think that everybody should have something like this [puts on a headset] I don't care about fashion, so... I don't have Bluetooth and I have this big ugly thing: “Hi, I'm Julie from Time Life!“ But the thing this allows me to do because I'm living the limit 15


case right now of, I've got to get stuff done and I really don't have a lot of time. So I get an hour a day where I exercise on my bike and this is me on my bike and if you look carefully you can see I'm wearing that headset, I've got my cell phone. And for an hour a day I ride my bike around the neighborhood. This is time that I'm spending on the phone getting work done and it's not a moment being taken away from my wife and my children. It turns out that I can talk and ride a bike at the same time. Amazing, the skill sets I have! It works better in warm weather climates but I have just found that having a headset frees me up even if it's just around the house, you wear a headset, you can fold laundry, it's an absolute “twofor“. And I just think telephones should have headsets and someday we will all have the Borg implant and it'll be a non-issue. 另外, 把电话集中放在一块儿打. 在午饭前或是一日之末给人打电话. 在这时,与和你闲聊相 比, 他们一般都会有其它事情要做. 在11:50的时候打给别人就是只打十分钟的电话的一个非 常好的方法. 因为, 尽管你可能会觉得自己很有趣, 但说白了, 你并没有午饭有趣. 我很热衷于 有效率地利用电话与利用时间, 所以我觉得每个人都应该有个这样的东西.[戴上个耳机] - 我 不关于时髦, 所以.. 我没有蓝牙, 我就用这个又大又丑的东西: “Hi, 我是生活时光的朱莉!” 但这样能让我去做很多事情, 因为现在我已经活在极限状态下了. 我要把事情做完而我没有太 多时间. 所以我每天骑自行车锻炼一个小时, 这时我在自行车上, 如果你仔细看, 你会发现我戴 着那个耳机, 我也带着我的手机. 每天一小时, 我在附近骑自行车. 这段时间,我打电话把我的 事做完, 而我与妻子和孩子度过的时间并没有减少. 就是说, 我可以一边骑自行车, 一边打电 话. 惊奇的是, 这种技能改变了我! 在温暖的天气下这样做会更舒服, 而我也发现, 就算是在屋 子里, 这个耳机也解放了我. 戴着耳机, 你可以去洗衣服. 这就是绝对的 “一心两用”.我只是 觉得电话都应该配上耳机, 或许某天耳机就被移植入体内了, 这也不成什么问题了. What else is on my desk? I have one of those address-stampers because I got tired of writing my address, I have a box of Kleenex. In your office at work, if you are a faculty member, you have to have a box of Kleenex. Because if... Jim is laughing! At least if you teach the way I do... There will be crying students in your office! And what I found to defuse a lot of that is that I would have CS 352 or whatever written on the side of the Kleenex box. I would turn it as I handed it to them and they would take the Kleenex and they would be like, “Oh...“ I said, “Yeah... it's for the class. You're not alone!“ So having Kleenex is very important. 我的桌面上还有什么呢? 我有这样的一个地址戳, 因为我实在厌倦了书写我的地址. 我也会放 一盒Kleenex面巾纸. 如果你是个教员, 那么在办公室里, 你一定要得放盒面巾纸. 因为如果.., 吉姆在笑! 如果你像我一样讲课, 你的办公室里肯定会有学生哭泣. 我发现一个能起到很大作 用的方法: 我在Kleenex纸巾的盒侧面上写上CS352 或者是其它的什么东西. 当我把纸递给他 们, 我把写了字的这面转向他们. 他们会接过纸, 类似这样: “哦..”我说: “嗯.. 这是为整个班 级准备的, 你并不孤独! ”所以, 准备一盒Kleenex非常重要. And Thank-You cards. I'll now ask the embarrassment question, and I don't mean to pick on you but it just points things out so well. By show of hands, who here has written a Thank-You note that is not a quid pro quo, I don't mean, “Oh, you gave me a gift, I wrote you a Thank-You note.“ And I mean a physical Thank-You note with a pen and ink and paper. Not email. Because email is better than nothing but [in high-pitched voice] it's that much better than nothing. How many people here have written a Thank-You note in the last week? Not bad, I do better here than at most places because it is UVA. Chivalry is not dead. How many people in the last month? How many people in the last year? The fact that there are a non-trivial number of hands not up for the year means that anybody who is in this audience, his parents are going, “Oooh... that was my kid.“ Thank-You notes are really important. They're a very tangible way to tell someone how much you appreciated things. I have Thank-You notes with me and that's because I'm actually writing some later today to some people who've done some nice things for me recently and you say, “Oh god, you have time for that?“ and I'm like, “Yes, I have time for that, because it's 16


important.“ Even in my current status, I will make time to write Thank-You notes to people. And even if you're a crafty, weasely bastard, you should still write Thank-You notes. Because it makes you so rare that when someone gets a Thank-You note, they will remember you. It seems that the only place that Thank-You notes are really taken seriously anymore is when people are interviewing for jobs. They now write Thank-You notes to the recruiters, which I guess shows a sign of desperation on the part of the recent graduate. But Thank-You notes are a wonderful thing, and I would encourage all of you to go out and buy a stack at your local dime store and have them on your desk so when the moment seizes you it's right there, and I leave my Thank-You notes out on the desk readily accessible. 还有感恩卡. 我现在问问这个令人尴尬的问题, 我不是批评你们, 就是讲讲道理. 举手, 这里谁 写过感恩卡-我是说-不是那种一事对一事的: “噢, 你送我礼物, 我给你写句感恩卡.”我说的 是真正的感恩卡, 用纸和笔写的, 而不是Email. 因为Email比没写好不了多少但[高音说]比什 么都没有也要好很多. 这里有多少人上周写过感恩卡? 还不坏, 这比其它都好, 这毕竟是弗尼 吉亚大学啊. 绅士精神还没有消亡. 有多少人上个月写过? 有多少人去年写过? 事实是去年写 过的人还不算少. 感恩卡真的很重要. 这是一种非常确切的告诉别人你的感激的方式. 我带着 感恩卡, 这是因为我可能今天晚些就会写给那些最近帮上我忙的人们. 你可能会说: “哦, 天 啊, 你有时间?”我会说: “是的, 我有时间来这样做, 因为这很重要.”就算你是个狡猾得像个 黄鼠狼一样的家伙, 你也该写感恩卡. 因为它让你很特别, 当别人收到感恩卡的时候, 他们会记 住你. 现在似乎感恩卡真正被认真对待的唯一场合是人们面试找工作的时候. 人们有时候会给 那些招募者写感恩卡, 我猜, 这是新毕业的学生拼命想找到工作的一个象征. 感恩卡是一种很 棒的东西, 我鼓励你们所有人出去在附近的一元店里买上一叠, 放在办公桌里. 当某一刻你突 然想起来, 它就在那. 我把我的感恩卡就放在桌子上, 很容易拿到. As I've said before, gratitude is something that can go beyond cards. When I got tenure here, I took my whole research team down to Disneyworld on my nickel for a week. I believe in large gestures but it's also been a lot of fun, I wanted to go too! I didn't send them without a proper shepherd running after all. 就像我曾经说过的那样, 感恩的态度远比卡片本身重要. 当我在这里获得任用, 我用一周的工 资请我的研究小组去了迪斯尼乐园. 我也喜欢大动作, 不过这样也带来了很多快乐. 我也想去 那! 我在后面像牧羊人一样赶着他们所有人! What else? I have a paper recycling bin, and this is very good because it helps save the planet but it also helps save my butt. When I have a piece of paper that I would be throwing away I put it in that bin, and that takes a couple of weeks to get filled up and then actually sent somewhere else. What I've really done here is, I've created the Windows/ Macintosh trash can you can pull stuff back out of - it works in the real world too! And about once a month I go ferreting through there to find the receipt that I didn't think I'll ever need again but I suddenly need and it's extremely handy. I suspected that if I were giving this talk in ten years, I would say I just put it in the auto-scanner because I find it almost inconceivable that ten years from now - first off that a lot of the stuff would be paper in my hands anyway. But if it were paper then I would have any notion of doing anything other than putting it on the desk where it goes “zzzk“, and it's already scanned because it touched the desk. This kind of stuff is not really hard to do. So I think that's what's going to happen. 还有呢? 我有一个废纸回收盒. 这很棒, 因为它既帮助我节省了空间, 又帮助我保存着我的文 件. 当我有张纸要扔掉, 我就把它放在这个盒子里. 这个盒子要好几周才能填满, 我才会把它清 空. 实际我做的是, 我创建了windows与mac上的回收站, 你可以把你的东西从中恢复出来. 现实世界里这个也一样奏效! 可能每个月能有一次, 我得去找我曾经觉得我不会再用到, 但现 在又很急用的收据之类. 我想象要是我十年后做这个讲座的话, 我会说我把它放到自动扫描仪 里面了. 我觉得十年后的生活肯定很难想象, 很多我手上的资料可能都不再会用纸制成了. 但 17


是要是真的是纸做的话, 我把它放在桌子上之后就再也不用考虑它去哪了, 因为它一碰桌面就 自动扫描过了. 这样的东西并不难, 所以我觉得很有可能实现. And of course I have a phone book. Note pad... I can't live without Post-it notes. And the view out the window of the dog. Because the dog reminds me that I should be out playing with him. When I got married, I married into a family. I got a wife and two beautiful dogs. There's the other one. Could you help me with a debate I've had with my wife? [He shows a picture of him sitting on the couch, the dog on his lap.] By show of hands, how many people would semantically say: “The dog is on the couch“? Nobody! Thank you! Thank you! Because the dog was not allowed on the couch. And my wife came in one day... Anyway, thank you for agreeing with me, it makes me feel very good. So the dog is wonderful. The dogs have long gone on but they are still in our hearts and our memories, and I think of them every day and they're still a part of my life. 当然, 我也有个电话簿. 笔记本.. 我不能没有 便利贴(post-it). [这是从窗户看狗的景象.这狗提 醒我该跟它玩了]. 我结婚成家, 我有个老婆和两只漂亮的狗. 这是另一只. 你能帮我解决我和 我妻子之间曾经发生的一个争辩吗? [展示了一张图片: 他坐在沙发上, 狗在他的大腿上 ]举手 表决, 多少人能从字面上说: “狗在沙发上”? 没人! 谢谢! 谢谢啦! 因为狗并不被允许呆在沙 发上. 我的妻子一天走进来.. 不管怎样, 谢谢你们支持我, 这让我感觉好多了. 狗很棒. 这些狗 早已不在了, 但它们仍然生活在我们的心里, 我们的记忆中. 我每天都会想它们, 它们仍是我生 命的一部分. {译者注: 这里是兰迪和他的妻子在咬文嚼字: 兰迪在沙发上, 不过狗坐在兰迪的腿上, 因此兰迪说狗没有在沙发 上. 不过他的妻子不这么认为.}

I've presented to you how I do my office, how I do things, it's not the only way. One of the best assistants I've ever met was the one named Tina Cobb, and she has a really different system, she's a spreader. If you think about it, there's a method to her madness: Everything here is exactly one arm's radius from where she sits. It's like a two- armed octopus. She got so much stuff done and I never presume to tell somebody else how to change their system if their system is working. Tina was much more efficient than I was, so I would just say, do what works for you, and everybody has to find a system for themselves but you've really got to think about, “What makes me more efficient?” 我已经给你们展示了我是怎样办公, 怎样做事, 这并不是唯一的方法. 我见过的最好的助手之 一叫蒂娜·考博, 她有一个非常不寻常的系统, 她就是个传递机. 想想看, 有个办法能证明她的 疯狂. 她把所有东西都放在离她坐的地方一个手臂远之内的地方.就像个两爪章鱼. 她做了如 此多的事情, 我从不想在别人的系统奏效的情况下告诉他们如何改变他们的系统. 蒂娜比我高 效的多, 所以我只能说, 做适合自己的就好. 每个人都要找到适合自己的系统, 但你真的得想 想: “什么让我更有效率?” Let's talk about office logistics. In most office settings people come into each other's offices and proceed to suck the life out of each other. If you have a big cushy chair in your office you might as well just slather butter all over yourself and send yourself naked into the woods for the wild animals to attack you. I say, make your office comfortable for you and optionally comfortable for others. So no comfy chairs. I used to have folding chairs in my office, folded up against the wall. So people who want to come in to me and talk with me, they can stand. And I would stand up because then the meeting is going to be really fast because we want to sit down! But then, if it looks like it's something we should have a little bit more time on I very graciously go over and open the folding chair, I'm such a gentleman! Some people do a different tack on this, they have the chair already there but they cut two inches off the front leg so the whole time you're in their office you're scooting yourself up. I'm not advocating that but I thought it was damn clever the first time I saw it. 18


我们来说说办公室里的后勤学. 许多办公室场景中, 人们走到其它人的办公室里, 然后开始消 磨彼此的时光. 如果你办公室里有一个舒服的大椅子, 你可能也会就坐那开始蜕皮, 把你自己 送到从林中去冬眠让野生动物环绕着你. 我是说, 去让你的办公室对你来说很舒适就好, 而对 其他人来说舒适就不是必要的了. 我习惯在我的办公室里放个折叠椅, 折起来靠墙放着. 这样 想来找我跟我谈话的人, 他们可以站着. 我也会站着, 这样的话谈话就会非常快, 因为我们都想 坐下. 要是这件事看起来我们要花多一点时间来处理的话, 我会非常有礼貌的走过去展开折 叠椅, 我就是这样一个绅士! 有些人的方法和我不大一样, 椅子就在那放着但是他们把椅子的 前腿截掉两英寸, 这样你只要在那, 你就会想让你自己赶快站起来. 我倒不是推崇这样的方法, 但是我第一次看到有人这样做的时候, 我觉得这真他妈的聪明. Scheduling yourself. Verbs are important: You do not FIND time for important things, you MAKE it. And you make time by electing not to do something else. There's a term from economics that everybody should hold near and dear to their heart, and that term is “opportunity cost“. The bad thing about doing something that isn't very valuable is not that it's a bad thing to have done it. The problem is that once you spent an hour doing it, that's an hour you can never again spend in any other way. And that's important. How do you keep these unimportant things from sucking into your life? You learn to say “No“. It's great, my youngest child Chloe is at an age where this is her new word, about two weeks ago she learned it. And it's like now everything is “no!“ “No! No! No-no-no-no-no! No!“ She should be giving this talk! I asked her, and she said: “No!” So she's home playing! 规划自己. 这里的动词很重要, 你不是为重要的事情找时间, 而是为重要的事情腾时间. 你通 过选择不去做其它的事而造出做重要事情的时间. 经济学中有个词, 机会成本, 每个人都应该 在心里牢记住它. 做价值不是特别大的事情的害处不在于你做了一件不好的事, 而在于你无法 把这段时间花在做其它事上了. 这点很重要. 你怎样能远离这些不重要的事情, 从而让它们不 再恶化你的生活? 要学会说不. 这很好. 我最小的孩子克罗埃正在学说话, 两周前她刚学会 说“不”, 现在这已经是她的口头禅了. 什么时候都是 “不! 不! 不不不不不! 不!”她才应该 在这做讲座. 我问过她, 她说: “不”! 她现在正在家里玩呢! But we all hate to say “No“ because people ask us for help and we want to be gracious, so let me teach you some gentle “Noʼs“. The first one is: “I'm really strapped, but I want to help you, I don't want you to be in the bind, so if nobody else steps forward, I will do this for you.“ Or: “I'll be your deep fall back but you have to keep searching for somebody else.“ Now you will find out about the person's character at that moment because if they say: “Great! I got my sucker!“, and they stop looking, then they have abused the relationship. But if they say: “That's great, my stress level's down at zero, because now I know it's not going to be a disaster but I'm going to keep looking for somebody for whom it's less of an imposition.“ That's a person that will get lots of this sort of support. 但是我们都不喜欢说“不”, 因为当人们向我们寻求帮助的时候, 我们希望自己显得很慷慨. 那么就让我来教你如何礼貌地说不吧. 第一句是: “尽管我很想帮你, 但我的时间很紧张. 可我 不想让你陷入困境, 要是没其他人能够帮你的话, 我就来帮你.” 或是 “我将是你坚实的后盾, 不过你也要找找别人.”这时你就可以分清对方的类型了. 要是他们说, “好吧,...”但也不去 找其它人, 他们就属于滥用了你们之间的关系的类型. 不过要是他们这样说: “太好了, 我没压 力了, 现在我知道这将不会成为一场灾难了. 我先去试着找找其它不是那么忙的人.” 这样的 人就会得到很多帮助. When I was in graduate school, we did a moving party with four people, a lot of moving parties, carry heavy objects, we had four people, we should have had twelve. It was a long day. And after that, I enacted a new policy, I said, from now on, when somebody says: “Will you help me move?“, I'd say: “How much stuff have you got?“ And they would tell me and I would say: “Hmm, that sounds like about eight people. If you give me the names of seven other people that will be there, I'll be there.“ And I never again was at a moving party that 19


went for 14 hours, in January in Pittsburgh. 我读研究生的时候, 四个人一起去帮忙搬家, 许多东西要搬, 还有重物, 我们只有四个人, 本应 该有十二个人的. 这真是漫长的一天. 从那以后, 我给自己订了个规矩, 我决定从此之后要是有 人问我: “帮我搬家好吗?”我会说: “你有多少东西?”他们会回答我而我会说: “嗯, 听起来 要找八个人. 要是你能告诉我其它七个人的名字我就过去帮你搬.”从此之后我再也没有像在 匹兹堡的一月那样搬14个小时的家. Everybody has good and bad times. The big thing about time management is, find your creative time and defend it ruthlessly. Spend it alone, maybe at home if you have to. But defend it ruthlessly. The other thing is, find your dead time. Schedule meetings, phone calls, exercise, mundane stuff, but do stuff during that where you don't need to be at your best. We all have these times. And the times are not at all intuitive. I discovered that my most productive time was between ten p.m. and midnight which is really weird but for me it's just this burst of energy right before the end. 每个人都有高峰和低谷期. 关于时间管理, 非常重要的一点是 : 找到你充满创造力的时光, 用 尽一切办法留住它. 一个人度过这段时光, 可能呆在家里. 无论怎样, 尽力守住它. 另外, 找到 你的死气沉沉的时间. 在这段时间里, 安排会议, 电话, 锻炼和那些平淡无奇的事情, 在这段时 间里去做那些你不需要以最好的自己去做的事情. 我们都有这样的时间, 这些时间并不是全都 能拿直觉来判断的. 我发现我最有效率的时间段是晚上十点与十二点之间, 尽管十分怪异,但 对我来说这段时间确是充满活力. Let's talk about interruptions. There are people who measure this kind of stuff who have stopwatches and clipboards and what they say is that an interruption takes typically 6-9 minutes, but then there's a 4-5 minute recovery to get your head back into what you're doing. And if you're doing something like software creation, you may never get your head back there, the cost can be infinity. But if you do the math on that, five interruptions blow a whole hour. So you've got to find ways to reduce both the frequency and the length of these interruptions. One of my favorites is, turn phone calls into email. If you phone my office at Carnegie Mellon, it says: “Hi, this is Randy, please, send me email.“ Again, I presume everybody here has email, how many people here, when a new message comes in, does your computer go “ding“ or make some other noise? Do we still have people doing that? - What the heck is wrong with you people? I love the fact that computer scientists just know nothing about anything so for years by default all these packages out of the box would go “ding“ every time you get a new piece of email so we had taken a technology explicitly designed to reduce interruption and we turn them into interruptions. So you just got to turn that off. The point of email is you go to it when you're ready, not you're sitting around like Pawlow's dogs saying, “Oh, maybe I'll get another email!” 来说说中断. 有人用秒表和写字板做过这样的测量, 一般一次中断会占据6-9分钟, 而之后让头 脑回到状态又要花上四五分钟. 如果你在做像写软件这样的工作, 你可能再也不能让头脑回复 到之前的状态, 成本就是无限大. 要是你在做数学题, 5分钟的中断可能会要一个小时来回复. 所以你要去找到同时减少中断的频率和持续时间的方法. 我最喜欢的方法是, 把电话变成邮 件. 如果你打给我在卡耐基-梅隆的办公室, 你会听到: “你好, 这是兰迪·波许, 请给我发邮 件.” 再提一次, 我假设这里每个人都有电子信箱. 当有新消息的时候, 有多少人的电脑, 会叮 叮响或是发出其它的声音? 还有人干这样的事吗? - 这样做有什么错误呢? 我觉得这些搞计算 机的人什么都不懂. 这么多年以来, 一收到新邮件那些软件就会 发出 “叮”的响声. 我们的科 技本是想用来减少中断的, 但实际上却把这零星的中断变成了更多的中断. 所以你得把(这些 声音)关掉. 关于电子邮件, 当你有空再去看它, 否则你就像巴甫洛夫的那条狗一样坐在那等 着, 嘴里还嘀咕着: “噢, 可能还会有新邮件呢!” In the same way you try not to interrupt other people. I save stuff up so I have boxes for Tina or for my research group meeting and I put stuff in those boxes, and then once a 20


week or however often when the box gets full, I walk down the hall and I interrupt that person one time and say, “Here are the eight things I have for you.” 同样的道理, 你也要尽量少去打断别人. 我把东西攒到一起, 我有专门为蒂娜或是我的研究小 组会议而准备的盒子. 我把东西放在这些盒子里, 通常一星期, 或是其它什么时间段, 这个盒 子就会填满. 我就沿着走廊走过去, 打断别人一次, 说: “这里是我找你办的八件事.” How do you cut things short? Because people always want to spend more time than you want to spend. Where you can say, look, somebody interrupts you and says: “Got a few minutes?“ and I say: “Well, I'm in the middle of something right now.“ That tells them: “I'm interrupting it, and I'm going to do it quickly, but I've got to get back to that.“ Or you can say: “I only have five minutes.“ The great thing about that is that later you have the privilege of extending that if you so choose. But when the five minutes are up then you say: “Well, I said at the beginning I'll have five minutes and I really have to go now.“ So it's a very socially played way to bound the amount of time on the interaction. 怎样能将事情变短? 人们总希望占用比你所预期的多的时间. 这时你可以这样做. 比如说, 有 人打断你说, “有几分钟空吗?”我就说, “嗯, 我现在正干某事干到一半了.”这就相当于告 诉他们: “我正在打断他, 我得赶快点. ” 或者你也可以说: “我只有五分钟时间.”这样做的 好处是, 一会之后你就有权来决定是否延长谈话. 当五分钟过了之后, 你就可以说: “噢, 我一 开始就说了我只有五分钟时间, 现在我真的得走了.”这就是社交中一个非常好的限制时间的 方法. If somebody's in your office and they don't get it - now I'm not saying that as a computer scientist I have an inordinate amount of time or opportunity to interact with people with no social skills... But if you have someone in your office who is just not getting it, what you do is, you stand up, you walk to the door, you compliment them, for some reason this is a crucial part of the process, you thank them and you shake their hand. And if they still don't leave which is pretty much a guarantee that you're dealing with someone from my tribe, then you're in the doorway, you just keep going. 要是有人在你的办公室, 他们不吃上面那一招- 我现在不是在说, 作为一个计算机科学家我有 无穷的时间与机会, 来和那些没有社交技巧的人来打交道... 如果真的有人在你的办公室, 不 吃上面那招, 你应该做的是, 站起身来走向门, 赞扬他们, 因为某种原因这步很重要, 感谢他们 并与他们握手. 要是他们还不走的话, 那就是证明了你在和搞我这一行的人打交道了. 现在你 在门口呢, 你走就行了. What I have found is that people don't like it when you look at your watch while you're talking with them, so what I do is, I put a clock on the wall right behind them so it's just off access from their eyes, and I can just glance over a little bit when I need to see what time it is. It's a very nice way to get me information without being rude to them. 我发现, 人们不喜欢你在和他们谈话的时候去看表. 所以我这样做: 我在他们背后的墙上挂了 一个表, 他们正好看不见. 而我想看时间的时候, 眼睛一瞥就可以了. 这个方法非常好, 能让我 获得我想知道的信息而不显得对人不礼貌. Time journals. Time is the commodity, you better find out where your time is going. Monitor yourself and update it throughout the day. You can't wait till the end of the day and say: “What was I doing at 10:30?“, because our memories aren't that good. So what you do and I really hope that technology within another five years or so will be so good that the time journals can be created automatically or at least some facsimile of it, but until then what we do is, we monitor it ourselves.

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时间记录. 时间就是金钱, 你最好能发现你的时间都去了哪里. 一天中持续记录下你自己的行 为. 否则, 在一天之后, 你肯定想不起来:“我10:30的时候干了些什么?” 因为我们的记忆没有 那么好, 所以我们才会去做记录. 我的确很希望五年之内科技发展到能够自动创建时间记录的 地步, 或者至少是我们行为的一份摹写. 但现在我们还得自己来. This is what an empty time journal would look like. The details aren't important but the key thing is that, when you fill it in, you've got a bunch of categories and what I was doing, and you can do this very informally but you'll get a lot of real data about where your time went. And it's always very different. Anybody who has done monetary budgeting, you look at it and you go, “Wow, I didn't know I was spending that much on dry cleaning.“ Or restaurants or whatever. It's always a fascinating surprise. And you always spend more than you think. But with time budgets, you find out that the time is going wildly differently than you would have imagined. The best example of this I know is Turing Award winner Fred Brooks's time clocks. He's a brilliant computer scientist but he also has this great array of clocks in his office, and when you go in and talk to him, he says: “Is this meeting about research or teaching?“ or whatever, and then he flips the appropriate switch and at the end of the week he knows exactly where his time went. The man is a genius! 这就是一份空的时间记录的样子. 细节并不重要, 重要的是你向里面填东西的时候, 你要把你 正在做的事情分成几个类别. 你可以非常随意的做, 但你仍会得到关于你的时间都跑到哪里去 了的真实数据. 这确是非常不同的. 记过帐的人就知道, 你看看账单就会想: “噢, 我都不知道 我在干洗上花了这么多钱. ”或者是去餐馆等等. 总会很惊奇. 你花的一般会比你想象的要多. 但有了时间预算, 你会发现, 与你想象的不同, 时间随意的花在了各种地方. 我知道的最好的例 子就是图灵奖得主弗雷德·布鲁克的表. 他是个杰出���计算机科学家, 不过他也有这么棒的一 堆表发在办公室里. 你走进去跟他说话, 他会问你: “是关于研究还是教学的事呢?”或是其它 什么. 然后他就调开相应的表, 这样一周之后他就知道自己的时间都花在什么上了. 真是个天 才! When I meet with students, and this is I think just as appropriate for people in a workplace, I say: “What's your schedule?“ You have a set of fixed meetings every week and what you have to do is, you have to look at those and identify the open blocks where you're going to waste time, and I can tell you you're going to waste time just by looking at it. [He shows a picture of a schedule.] So in this case you've got a class where... you've got a class at a certain point, and then you've got a gap until the next class so I've identified those here. And the gaps between classes that in this case last an hour or an hour and a half, this is just prime time to be wasted! So what I always told my students was, make up a fake class. The fake class is, go to one specific place in the library during that hour and when you're sitting there with just you in the library and your books, there's a pretty good chance you might actually study. Don't go and hang out with friends for an hour, just make that a fake class, make your own little study hall. It's a simple trick, but it's amazing how effective it is when somebody just explicitly does it. 我会见学生的时候-我觉得对工作的人也适用-我问: “你的计划是什么?” 每周你都会有一些 固定的事件, 而你要做的是, 观察这些, 从中找出你可能浪费掉的大块空白时间. 我能告诉你, 你看一眼可能就把时间浪费掉了. [展示一张计划表的图片.] 在这个例子里面, 你有一节课,..某 个时间有节课, 之后直到下节课之前有一段间隙, 你可以在这发现它. 这里这段两堂课之间的 间隙有一个或者一个半小时, 这就是被浪费掉的精华时间. 我经常跟我的学生讲, 假装有节课. 假装有节课, 就是说, 这一个多小时去图书馆某个地方, 当你坐在图书馆里唯影与书相伴时, 这 是非常好的学习机会. 不要出去找朋友聚个一个小时, 就假装有节课的, 找到自己的小教室. 这是一个简单的小技巧, 但要是谁简单的依此而行, 就会发现它惊人的有效.

When you've got your time journal data, what do you figure out from that? What am I doing that doesn't need to be done? What can someone else do? I love every day saying, what 22


am I doing that I could delegate to somebody else? My sister is again laughing because she knows who that person was in our youth. What can I do more efficiently? And: How am I wasting other people's time? When you get good at time management you realize that it's a collaborative thing. I want to make everybody more efficient, it's not a selfish thing, it's not me against you, it's: How do we all collectively get more done? As you push on the time journal stuff you start to find that you don't make yourself more efficient at work so you become some sort of über-worker person, you become more efficient at work so you can leave at five and go home and be with the people that you love. People call this work-life balance. For the junior faculty, you may have heard of it in some sort of mythical sense but it is possible. I found that I worked less - I worked fewer hours after I got married and I got more done. And I was always fascinated in graduate school that the people who graduated fastest with their Ph.D.s were the people who had a spouse and kids. I said, how can that be? That's like a built-in boat anchor. You've got all these other demands on your time and I'm a single guy and I've got all the time in the world and that's the problem. I approach it like I've got all the time in the world so my time isn't precious. When you've got a spouse and little kids, your spouse is likely to say things to you like: “You better not be into that grad school more than 40 hours a week!“, so when you come in, you're not sitting around playing computer games. Not that I ever did that! But when you come in, you're coming in and you're doing work and I found like most people that once I got married and had kids my whole view of time management really got - I mean, we were playing for real stakes now! Because now there are people whose lives are impacted if I'm spending too much time at work. 当你整理你的时间记录数据的时候, 你能从中发现什么? 我做的哪些事没必要做? 哪些事别 人可以做? 我喜欢每天想, 我正做的哪些事可以指派给别人去做? 我的姐姐又在嘲笑我, 她知 道 我们嘴里说的那个人是谁. 哪些我能做的更有效率? 还有, 我在怎样的浪费别人的时间? 当 你慢慢精于时间管理, 你可以认识到这是一件双赢的事. 我希望让每个人都更有效率, 这并不 是件自私的事, 不是你输我赢的事. 这是, 我们所有人如何共同做更多的事? 当你开始做时间 记录, 你就开始去发现你在工作的时候效率并不高. 于是你变成 “超我”. 你在工作的时候效 率更高, 于是你能够5点钟就回家, 和爱的人在一起. 人们把这称作 “工作-生活”平衡. 对于 哪些年轻的教员, 你可能听过这样的事情, 感觉这是神话般的, 但这却是可能的. 我发现我工作 的少了, 结婚后我工作的时间少了几个小时,而做了更多的事. 我很感兴趣的发现:在研究生院 里面那些最快毕业拿到博士学位的人都是那些有配偶和孩子的人. 我曾想, 为什么会这样呢? 这就像是船里的锚一样. 你的时间另有所需. 要是单身的话, 所有时间就都归我自己. 这就是问 题所在. 我慢慢去读, 所有的时间都是我的, 于是它就不珍贵. 当你有了配偶和孩子, 你的配偶 很可能会说: “你一周最好别呆在研究生院里面超过40小时!”当你有配偶的时候, 你就不能 坐在那玩电脑游戏了! 我从没玩过! 有配偶的时候, 你就会好好工作, 并且就像大多数人一样, 我发现, 我一旦结婚生子, 我的整个时间管理的观念完全变了! 我的意思是: 我们现在是玩真的 了! 因为现在要是我花太多时间在工作上的话, 就会有人的生活受到影响了. The other thing about time management that makes you really start to look through a crystalline lens and figure out what's important and what's not - I love this picture. [He shows a picture from a newspaper article.] I blanked out her name, but this says: Blahblahblah, this is a pregnant woman, and it says: “She is worrying about the effect on her unborn child from the sound of jackhammers.“ So they're doing construction and the people here are laughing because they can see that this woman who is so concerned about the jackhammers affecting her unborn child is holding a lit cigarette. You've got to get really good at saying, “I've got to focus my time and energy on the things that matter and not worry about the things that don't.“ Now I'm not a medical doctor and I don't play one on TV but I'm willing to bet that if I were the fetus I'd be saying, “Put the cigarette out, mom!! I can deal with the noise!!“ 另外, 时间管理能够使你开始透过一片清晰的透镜来看清, 哪些事情是重要的, 哪些不是.我喜 欢这幅图片. [展示了一张报纸上的图片.] 我把她的名字抹白了, 这上面说了些.. 这是个怀孕的 23


女人, 这里写着: “ 她在担心伐木工人的声音给她的没出生的孩子会带来的影响. ”这些人在 做建筑, 这的人都笑了是因为他们可以看到这个如此关心伐木工人给她的小孩带来的影响的 女人正在抽烟. 你需要擅长说: “我得把时间和精力放在那些重要的事情上, 而不去关心那些 不重要的事.”现在, 我不是个医生我也不在电视上露面, 但我仍然愿意打赌: 要是我是那个婴 儿, 我会说: “把烟掐了吧, 老妈!! 我能应付那些噪音!” I want to tell you a little story about effective versus efficient. I actually was going to give this talk a couple of weeks ago, and I talked with Gabe about it, and we were going to come up here because as a surprise for my wife, her favorite musical group in the whole world is The Police and has been for a long, long time, a wonderful group, and so we said, hey, we're going to drive up to Charlottesville and see them and we actually got some tickets and I said, “Well honey, as long as we're up there, I promised Gabe a long time ago that I wanted to give my time management talk“, and she said, okay, because it's about an three hour drive so it's very efficient to couple these two trips together. And about two days later she said: “You know, honey, I know how you are with talks. And before you give one for a couple of days, you start to obsess.“ As we talked through it, she said: “So we're going to go up in this couple's time away, we've gotten our sitter to watch the kids, and this couple's time away is going to be eaten up by you obsessing over preparing this talk.“ I thought about it, I said, “Okay, so obviously the right solution is, we should keep our couple's time our couple's time and we'll go up and see the concert we'll have our time together and I'll just schedule a different day and I'll go up on a one day trip and I'll do the talk!“ And she said: “Wow, that was easy!“ And that's right! Once you've framed it in the right way, you say: “Yeah, the cost here is that I have to do the drive a second time.“ But it turns out I'm doing the drive with my nephew Christopher and we talk and my mom turned up, so the time wasn't even dead time so there is no loss at all. But the key thing was we said, it's not about efficiency, it's about effectiveness and best overall outcome. And of course one of the nice things was that we did get to the Police concert, and I really want to thank Gabe and Jim Aylor because we really went to the concert! And my wife was very happy. I'm the guy in the back, saying: “She's not paying any attention to me today!“ But it was wonderful, and he is a charming gentleman in person, he is absolutely charming. 我想给你们讲一个关于有效性和效率的小故事. 实际我上本想在几周之前来做这次讲座, 我与 盖伯讲过好几次了. 我们本计划来这,给我的妻子一个惊喜, 世界上她最喜欢的乐团是The Police, 很长以来这都是一个很棒的乐团. 于是我们计划, 开车去查洛特威尔去看他们的演出, 事实上, 我们都弄到几张票了. 我对她说: “亲爱的, 我们到那之后, 我想去做我的时间管理讲 座, 我答应盖伯很长时间了.” 她说好, 因为去做讲座与音乐会的地方只需要三个小时的车程, 把这样两次旅行整在一起很有效率. 但两天后她说:“你知道的, 亲爱的, 我了解你对待讲座的 态度. 在做讲座前几天, 你肯定会入迷.”我们继续谈下去, 她说: “我们的计划还得接着进行 下去, 我们都已经找到人来看孩子了, 但是这几天肯定又会被你对讲座的着迷给占据掉.” 我 想了想说: “是啊, 那显然, 正确的方案就是我们把这两件事分开做. 我们继续去看演出, 这样 我们就可以一起度过这段时光, 我另外计划一天, 去做演讲.”她说: “Wow, 那很容易.”而这 也做对了. 一旦你意识到, 你会说: “噢, 这样做的成本就是我多开车跑一次.”但结果是, 我跟 我的侄子克里斯多夫开车去, 我们聊了一路, 我的妈妈也来了, 于是这段时间并不死气沉沉, 我 也根本没什么损失. 关键的是并不仅仅是效率, 而是有效性与最好的总产出. 当然, 最好的是我 们去听了The Police的演出, 我非常感谢盖伯和吉姆·艾勒, 因为我们真的很想听这次演出. 我 的妻子非常开心, 我是幕后主导, 我说: “她今天注意力一点都没放在我身上!” 但感觉的确很 棒, 他很有人格魅力, 真的很吸引人. Let's talk about procrastination. There's an old saying: “Procrastination is the thief of time.“ Procrastination is hard and I have a little bit of an insight here for you: We don't usually procrastinate because we're lazy. Sometimes people rationalize their procrastination. They say: “Well, gee, if I wait long enough, maybe I won't have to do it.“ That's true. Sometimes you get lucky. Other people say: “Gee, if I start on it now, I'm just going to spend all the time on it. If I only give myself the last two days, I'll do it in two days because that's, the 24


work expands to fill the time available, Parkinson's law.“ That's marginally true, but I think the key balance here is to understand that doing things at the last minute is really expensive. It's just much more expensive than doing it just before the last minute. So if you're doing something and you can still mail it through the U.S. mail, you've suddenly avoided the “oh my god, I've got to do the whole FedEx thing“. Now I love FedEx. FedEx supports our whole universal habit of procrastination. But it also allows us to get stuff there when it really has to be there in a hurry, so that's a wonderful thing. But I think you have to realize that if you push things right up to the deadline, that's where all the stress comes from. Because now you can't reach people, if somebody is out of the office for just one day, your whole plan is upset, so you really have to work hard on this kind of stuff. 我们讲讲拖延. 古谚有云, 拖延是偷走时间的窃贼. 拖延很难改, 我深深的了解它, 这有几句话 送给你: 我们拖延一般并不是因为我们懒. 有的时候人们将他们的拖延理性化的解释. 他们辩 解说: “嗯, 或许再等一阵, 我就不用去做这事了”. 这是真的, 有的时候你可能就这么幸运. 有人还会说, 嗯, 要是我现在开始做, 我就得把所有的时间放在这件事上面. 要是我只留给自己 最好两天时间, 那么我就可以在两天内把它搞定了. 这是因为帕金森定律的缘故: 事情总是尽 可能的占据所有可用的时间. 这有那么一点点道理. 但是我觉得最关键的是你要知道总是在最 后一分钟才把事搞定的代价很高昂. 比在最后一分钟稍前一会做完都要高很多. 举个例子, 如 果你能把某事做完然后用美国邮政把它寄出去, 你就避免了像这样的现象: “哦, 我得去用联 邦快递了”. 现在我挺喜欢联邦快递, 它支持了我们都有的拖延的习惯, 不过它在我们真的需 要加急邮寄东西的时候也很管用. 我觉得, 你要认识到, 如果你把所有事都拖到最后一刻, 那会 给你带来很大的压力. 你赶不上别人的进度, 如果某人离开办公室仅仅一天, 你整个的计划可 能就要落空, 你得在这样的事上费很大力气. The other thing is that deadlines are really important. We're all essentially deadline-driven so if you have something that isn't due for a long time, make up a fake deadline and act like it's real. And that's wonderful because those are the deadlines, when push comes to shove, you can slip on by a couple of days and it's all right so they are less stressful. 另外, 截止日期也非常重要. 我们实际上都被截止日期赶着走. 所以如果你有什么事情还有很 长时间才到期, 那么不妨去自己编造一个假的截止日期, 把它当作真的一样看待. 这样做感觉 非常棒, 因为这些截止日期推着你向前走, 你中间还可以稍稍放松几天, 这样做压力会小很多. If you are procrastinating, you've got to find some way to get back into your comfort zone. Identify why you are not enthusiastic. Whenever I procrastinate on something, there's always a deep psychological reason. Usually it's, I'm afraid of being embarrassed because I don't think I'll do it well, or I'm afraid I'm going to fail at it. 如果你在拖延, 你需要找到某种能够让你重回正轨的方法. 去想想为什么你不能充满热情的去 做事. 不管什么时候我拖延做某事, 我都能找到某种深层的心理上的原因. 通常���我害怕做不 好事情会让我很难堪, 或是害怕失败. Sometimes it involves asking somebody for something. One of the most magical things I've learned in my life is that sometimes you just have to ask and wonderful things happen. But you just have to step out and do that. - I won the parent lottery, I have just wonderful parents. My dad unfortunately passed away not too long ago. [He shows a picture of him and his dad and his son riding a monorail.] But this is one of my favorite photographs because my dad was such a smart guy, I could almost never surprise him or impress him because he was that good! But we were down at the family vacation at Disneyworld, and the monorails were going by and we're going to board the monorail and we noticed that in the front, up here in the cabin, I don't know if you can see it in this picture, but there's an engineer who drives the monorail and there are actually guests up there with him which is kind of unusual. My dad and I were talking about that and I knew, because I've done some consulting for Disney. My dad's saying: “Oh, they probably have to be 25


special VIPs or something.“ I said: “Oh, there is a trick. There is a special way you get into that cabin.“ And he said: “Really? What is it?“ I said: “I'll show you. Dylan, come with me.“ And Dylan, who's - the back of his head you can see there, we walk up and I whisper to Dylan: “Ask the man if we can ride in the front!“ And we go to the attendant and the attendant says: “Yes, you can.“ And he opens the gate and my dad is just like... [stares with eyes and mouth open]! I said: “I told you there was a trick, I didn't say it was hard!“ Sometimes all you have to do is ask. And it's that easy. 有的时候做事需要请教别人. 我生命中学到的最神奇的事之一就是, 你尽管去问好了, 好事自 会发生. 但当你迈出这一步去问之前 - 我有很棒的父母, 这就像赢得乐透彩一样幸运-我父亲 不幸不久之前过世了. [展示了一张他,他的父亲和儿子坐轻轨的照片.] 但这是我最喜欢的照 片, 我的父亲是非常聪明的一个人, 我从不能让他惊奇或是给他留下什么深刻印象, 因为他那 样棒! [我们家在迪斯尼乐园度假, 轻轨驶过, 我们准备上去, 我们注意到了在车厢里前面, 我不 知道你们在图片里能不能看到, 那里有个驾驶轻轨的司机, 在他身旁有些不寻常的人.] 我的爸 爸和我在谈论那件事, 我知道, 因为我对迪斯尼做了一些调查. 我爸爸说: “哦, 他们可能是 VIP.”我说: “哦, 有个小伎俩, 这是我们进入车厢的一个特殊方法.”他说: “哦, 怎么能看出 来?”我说: “我来带你看. 跟我来,迪兰.”迪兰, 你们能看到他的后脑勺 . 我悄悄跟他说: “问 问那个人我们能不能坐在前面.”我们走到侍者面前, 侍者说: “是的, 可以做在前面.” 他打 开门, 我的父亲就像这样..[瞠目结舌.] 我说: “我告诉你了这是个小伎俩, 我说不难吧.”有的 时候你要做的就是去问, 这很简单. Let's talk about delegation. Nobody operates individually anymore and you can accomplish a lot more when you have help. However, most people delegate very poorly. They treat delegation as dumping. “I don't have time to do this, you take care of it.“ And then they micro-manage and it's just a disaster. The first thing if you're going to delegate something to a subordinate is, you grant them authority with responsibility. You don't tell somebody: “Go take care of this, but if you need to spend any money, you've got to come back to me for approval.“ That's not empowering them, that's telling them you don't trust them. If I trust you enough to do the work, I trust you enough to give you the resources and the budget and the time and whatever else you need to get it done. You give them the whole package. 让我们说说委派. 现在没有人能独自做事, 通过一些帮助, 你可以做的多很多. 然而, 许多人很 不擅长委派别人. 他们把委派看的像倒垃圾一样. “我没时间做这件事, 你来办吧.” 这样他们 就形成了微型的管理, 这就是场灾难. 首先, 当你要指派下属做某件事的时候, 你给他们授以 权利和责任. 你不能这样跟别人说: “你来弄这件事, 但是要花钱的话, 你得回来让我允许.” 这不是赋予他们以权限, 这是告诉他们你不信任他们. 如果我足够信赖你去做这件事, 我足够 的信赖你, 会给予你所需的资源,预算, 时间,以及其它所有你做事所需要的东西. 你给他们整 个一个包. The other thing is, delegate but always do the ugliest job yourself. So when we need to vacuum the lab before a demo, I bring in the vacuum cleaner and I vacuum it. Do the dirtiest job yourself so it's very clear that you're willing to still get the dirt on your hands. Treat your people well. People are the greatest resource, and if you are fortunate enough to have people who report to you, treat them with dignity and respect and to sound a little bit corny, the kind of love that they should have from someone who cares about them and their professional development. And for crying out loud, staff and secretaries are your life line! If you don't think you should treat them well because it's the decent thing to do, at least treat them well because if you don't, they will get you. And they will get you good and you will deserve it and I will applaud them. 另外, 把事委派给别人的时候, 把最恶心的事留给自己做. 有一次我们要在展示前清扫实验 室, 我弄了个吸尘器亲自清扫. 自己做最脏的事情, 这样就表明你愿意亲自来沾这些事情. 待自 己的人好些. 人是最有用的资源, 如果你够幸运能够有人在你手下, 要给他们以尊敬, 关心. 从 那些关注他们以及他们的职业发展的人那里, 他们就会有这种感觉. 当你大喊救命的时候, 职 26


员和秘书能帮你大忙. 如果你不觉得为了那些寻常事该好好待他们, 也要为了他们会帮助你这 点好好待他们. 他们将帮助你, 你会需要这点的, 我会赞赏他们. My giving a talk with Alf Weaver in the audience - where is Alf? There he is. - that's like talking about surviving the Johnstown flood if Noah was in the audience. One of the things that Alf Weaver taught me is, whether it's to a colleague or to a subordinate, if you want to get something done, you cannot be vague, and he said: “You give somebody a specific thing to do, a specific date and time - “Thursday“ is not a specific time. “Thursday at 3:22“ gets somebody's attention. And you give them a specificpenalty or reward that will happen if that deadline for that thing is not met“, and then he paused, and he said: “And remember, the penalty or the reward has to be for them, not you!“ - “I will be screwed over if you don't meet that deadline!“ [ironically:] “Oh, bummer.“ This is an important point to not get wrong. 我在做讲座, 而阿尔夫·威尔在听众之中. 阿尔夫在哪呢? 在那里. 这就像是诺亚还在场, 而你 在讲大洪水一样. 阿尔夫·威尔教给我的一件事是, 无论是对同事还是对下属, 如果你想办什么 事的话, 你不能含混不清. 他说到: “你交给某人一件明确的事情做的时候, 也要告诉他明确的 日期和时刻.- 像'星期四', 就不是一个明确的时刻. '星期四3:22'才会引起他的注意. 你也要给 他们明确的惩罚, 要是事情在截止日期之前办好的话, 也要给明确的奖赏.”这时他停了一下, 接着说到: “记住, 奖罚是为他们设立的, 而不是你!”- “要是截止期到了你还没办好事的话, 我就惨了. ”[讽刺性地:] “哦, 懒鬼.”想不做错事, 这是很重要的一点. Challenge people. I've been told that one of the tricks is, you delegate until they complain. I don't know about until they complain, but what I've found is that underdelegation is a problem. People are usually yearning for the opportunity to do more, they want to be challenged, they want to prove to you and themselves they can be more capable so let them. 给别人以挑战. 别人告诉我的一个技巧是, 委派别人直到他们抱怨为止. 直到他们抱怨为止我 都不了解, 但现在我发现, 委派的不够是个问题. 人们通常都渴望得到做的更多的机会, 他们 希望得到挑战, 他们想向你和他们自己证明他们可以做的更多, 所以要给他们机会. Communication has to be clear. So many times people get upset with their bosses because there's a misunderstanding. And particularly in a time of email, it's so easy to communicate via email. Even if you've had a face-to-face conversation, send a two-line email just to be specific afterwards. And it's not we're trying to be all lawyer-like, it's just that as judge Wapner said: “Get it in writing!“, if you remember the People's Court, and judge Wapner said: “If there isn't a problem, it's not a problem, it didn't take you much time, but if there ever is a problem, well - wait a second, there won't be a problem, because there is a written record.“ And that's the magic. There won't be a confusion because you can't disagree about the written word. 交流要清晰. 很多时候人们对老板感到很沮丧是因为存在误解. 特别是在Email中, 通过Email 来沟通很容易. 就算是刚面对面交谈过, 之后也再发一封邮件来讲清楚. 这并不是要我们变得 像律师一样, 只是就像瓦普纳法官说过: “把事情写下来.”如果你记不得 “人民法庭”节目 了, 瓦普纳法官还说过: “要是没问题的话, 那就没什么麻烦, 不会花你多少时间. 但要是有问 题的话, 好吧, 等一下, 不会有麻烦了. 因为有书面的记录.” 这就像魔法一样. 不会存在混淆 不清的情况了, 因为黑纸白字摆在那. Don't give people how you want them do it, tell them what you want them to do. Give them objectives, not procedures. Let them surprise you with a way of solving a problem you would never have imagined. Sometimes those solutions are mind-blowing. Good or bad. But they're really much more fun than just having them do it the way you would have done it. And you know what, if you're at an university, your job should be to have people smarter 27


than you, i.e. your students, and they will come up with stuff you would never have thought of. 不要告诉别人你想让他们怎么做, 而告诉他们你想让他们做什么就行. 给他们目标, 而不是过 程.他们可能会以你从未想过的做事的方法来给你惊喜. 有的时候, 无论是好是坏, 那些解决方 案可能会让你感觉非常刺激. 但肯定会比让他们按照你告诉他们的方式做事有意思的多. 你知 道, 在大学里, 你的工作决定了你身边肯定有比你聪明的人, 比如说你的学生们, 他们常常带来 你从未想过的东西. The other thing is, tell people the relative importance of each task. Some people say: “My boss is an ogre, they gave me five things to do!“ I'm like: “Oh, did they tell you which one was the most important?“ - “Oh, yeah. I guess I could ask that.“ Knowing that, if you have five things, which are the ones to get done is really important because if you're flying blind, you've got a 20 percent chance of getting them done in the right order. 另外, 把每个任务相对的重要性告诉别人. 有人说: “我的老板是个恶魔, 给了我五件事做.” 我会说: “哦, 难道他们没告诉你哪一件是最重要的?” - “哦, 是的, 我想我得问一问.” 要是你 有五件事去做, 知道先做那件事非常重要. 要是你一无所知, 那么你只有20%的几率会以正确 的顺序来做这些事. Delegation can never be done too young. Does everyone see the difference in the two pictures? [He shows two pictures of him and his daughter sitting in a chair, in one he is holding her milk bottle, in the other one she is holding the bottle herself.] This is my daughter Chloe, I love her to death, but I want her to grow up to be a wonderful person, and I know, the sooner she holds her own bottle, the better. 再年轻也能去委派. 你们大家能看出这两张图片的差异吗? 这是我的女儿克罗埃, 我爱她到 死, 不过我更希望她成长为一个很好的人. 我知道, 她越早能够自己拿瓶子越好. Sociology. Beware upward delegation. Sometimes you try to delegate and people try to hand it back to you. One of the best things I ever saw was someone who had a secretary trying to say, “I can't do this, you'll have to take it back“, and he just put his hands behind his back and took a step backwards. Then he waited. And then eventually the secretary said: “Or maybe I could find this other solution.“ And he said: “That's wonderful! I'm so proud you thought of that.“ It was just an elegant gesture. 社会学问题. 委派的时候要小心. 有的时候你尝试去把交给别人做, 而别人又把事给你还回 来. 我看过最棒的事是, 有个人有个秘书, 秘书对他说: “我做不了, 你得自己来.”他就把手 背在身后, 开始踱步, 等待. 最后秘书说: “可能我能找到其它的解决方案.”然后他说: “太棒 了, 你能这样想我真骄傲.”这就是个很优雅的姿态. Reinforce behavior you want be repeated. One of my favorite stories in the One Minute Manager is, he talks about, did you ever wonder about how they got the killer whales to jump through the hoop? If they did it like modern American office managers, they would yell at the killer whale: “Jump through the hoop!“ And every time the killer whale didn't jump through the hoop they'd hit it with a stick. This is how we train people in the office place. Read the book if you want to see how they actually do it because I'm curious. I know now. But it's really cool how they get them to do it. 强化那些你希望重复的行为. 一分钟经理人中, 我最喜欢的故事之一是, 他说道: 你曾想过 他 们怎样让那虎鲸鲸跳过那圈呢? 如果他们就像现代的美国办公室经理一样, 他们会对着虎鲸 大喊: “跳过那圈!”每次那虎鲸都不会跳的, 于是他们用棍子打它. 这就是我们在办公室训练 别人的方法. 如果你真的想去了解他们实际怎么做的话, 那么去读这本书吧, 我很好奇. 但他们 的方法真的很酷. 28


Reinforce behavior you want repeated. When people do things that you like, praise them and thank them. That's worth more than any amount of monetary reward or a little plaque. People really like to just be told straight up: “Thank you, I really appreciate that you did a good job.“ The other thing is that if you don't want things delegated back up to you, don't learn how to do them! I take great pride, I don't know how to run photocopiers and fax machines, and I am not going to learn it. That's certainly not how I'm going to spend my remaining time. 强化那些你希望重复的行为. 当人们做了你欣赏的事, 表扬并感谢他们. 这比多少金钱或物质 的奖赏都更有价值. 人们的确很想有人告诉他: “谢谢你, 我真的非常感谢你, 你干的很 棒.”另外, 如果你不想委派出去的事情又最后回到你手上的话, 那就不要去学习如何做这些 事! 我很自豪, 我不知道如何去使用复印机和传真机, 我也不打算去学. 我肯定不该把我剩下的 那点时光花在这样的事上面. Meetings. The average executive spends more than 40 percent of his or her time in a meeting. My advice is, when you have a meeting, lock the door, unplug the phone and take everybody's BlackBerrys. Because if it's worth our time, it's worth our time. If it's not worth our time, it's not worth our time but I don't have any interest in being in a room with six people who are all half there. Because that's very inefficient. 会议. 一名经理平均每周40%的时间会花在开会上. 我的建议是, 开会的时候把门锁上, 把电话 线拔掉, 并把每个人的黑莓手机收上来. 因为这事要是值得的话, 就值得占用我们的时间. 要是 不值得���话, 也不值得占用我们的时间. 但我不希望开会的时候, 六个人都心不在焉. 那将非常 没有效率. I don't think meetings should ever last more than an hour with very rare exception. And I think there should be an agenda. I got into a great habit a couple of years ago when I just started saying: “If there's no agenda, I won't attend.“ The great thing about that is, whoever called the meeting had to actually think before they showed up about why we were supposed to be there because otherwise it's like: “Why are we here?“ - “Because we're having a meeting. It's on all of our calendars.“ It's just a classic Dilbert moment. 我觉得除了极少数的例外, 会议不应该超过一个小时. 我还觉得要有议事日程. 几年前我养成 了一个非常好的习惯, 我说: “没议事日程的话, 我就不会去参加会议.” 这样做的好处是, 找 我开会的人在找我之前得实际地想一想我们去干什么去. 否则, 就像这样: “你在这干嘛?” “我有会要开, 日程表上这样写的.”这就像漫画中里面的场景一样, 大家一起效率低下. Most important thing about meetings, and again, this comes from the One Minute Manager, one- minute-minutes. At the end of the meeting somebody has to have been assigned to inscribe, and they write down in one minute or less what decisions got made and who is responsible for what by when and to email it out to everybody because if you don't do that, you have your next weekly meeting next week, and you're all sitting around going like, “Who was going to do this?“ It's very inefficient. And it's so fast, you just do these one-minute-minutes. 关于会议的最重要的事, 也是从一分钟经理人而来, 是这价值很多分钟的一分钟. 在会议的最 后, 要指定某些人签字. 他们在一分钟或更短的时间内写下, 做出了什么决定, 谁要对什么事情 负责, 截止日期是什么. 要把它发邮件给每个人, 否则的话, 下周的会议, 你们就会都坐在那想 着: “谁来做这件事?”那样非常没有效率. 这样做很快, 你只需要做这一分钟, 但却关乎很多 分钟. Let's talk about technology. I'm a computer scientist, so they say: “Which gadget will make me more time-efficient?“ And I don't have any answer for that, it's all idiosyncratic, but I will tell you that my favorite comment about technology comes from a janitor at the University 29


of Central Florida who said: “Computers are faster, they just take longer.“ That's Zen right there. That's another way of saying, only use technology that's worth it and worth it is, in the end, did it make me more efficient? That depends on how you work and we're all different. Remember that technology is getting insane, I walked into McDonald's and I ordered Happy Meal number two and they said: “Would you like a cell phone with that?“ I went to the grocery store to buy 16 slices of American cheese and you get Encyclopedia so with 16 slices of cheese you get all of men's knowledge for free! That's just spooky scary! 谈谈科技. 我是个电脑科学家, 所以他们问我: “什么小玩意儿能让我更有效率?” 我没有答案, 这因人而异. 但我想说, 我最喜欢的关于科技的评论, 来自于中佛罗里达州大学的一名清洁工, 是: “电脑更快, 但是更费时间”.. 这真是一种禅. 这也是从另一个角度说, 仅仅去使用那些值 得的科技, 而这些值得的科技, 真的让我们更有效率吗? 这看你怎样工作了, 我们都不一样. 记 住, 科技正在变得更加智能. 我走进麦当劳, 要了份快乐套餐2号, 他们问我: “你想要一个手 机吗?”我去零售店要了16片美国起司, 就得到了葛洛里百科全书. 16片起司你就免费得到人 类所有的知识! 真吓人! Remember that technology really has to be something that makes your life better, you guys may have seen this, I just find it very humorous. [He shows a video clip of a guy angrily smashing his PC keyboard against the monitor.] Only use technology that helps you! 记住, 科技的确带来了一些让生活更美好的东西, 你们可能已经看过这个, 我只是觉得它非常 搞笑. [他放了一段视频, 一个人愤怒地拿键盘砸向显示器.] 仅仅利用科技来帮助你! I find that technology is good if it allows you to do things in a new way. Just doing the same things a little bit faster with technology is nice but when technology changes the workflow... So I was carving pumpkins a few years ago and [shows some pictures of him and his friends carving pumpkins] this is F.M., a good friend of mine, and if you can see it, down by her right knee is a pattern and you lay this pattern over the pumpkin, and you get this little special carving knife, and you can instead of these amateurish pumpkins like I made, you get this “howling at the moon“, and her husband Jeff and I thought this was really cool but in sign of a reactionary burning man kind of a moment we grabbed our power drills and we carved our pumpkins that way! Use technology if it changes the way you do things because - believe me, the results of a power drill, you get these little - oh, it's just gorgeous. 我觉得科技的好处就在于它能让你以新的方式来做事. 用科技将事情做的更快一些, 那很棒, 但当科技改变了工作流程的时候.. 早些年前我在雕南瓜, [展示了一张他和朋友们雕南瓜的照 片.] 这是FM, 我的一个好朋友. 你们能看到, 在她的右膝那有个图案, 你把这张图案盖在南瓜 上, 用这把小的特殊雕刻刀, 不像我做的这么菜的南瓜, 你可以做出这样的 “月上之嚎”, 这 是她的丈夫杰弗. 我觉得这很酷, 但是作为一个不循规蹈矩的人, 过了一会我们拿起了电钻. 我 们这样来雕刻南瓜! 要是科技能够改变你做事情的方式的话, 就去用吧. 相信我, 看这电钻的能 力! 噢, 真是太棒了! Let's talk briefly about email because email is such a large part of all our lives. First off, don't ever delete any of it. Save all of it. I started doing this ten years ago. An interesting thing is that all the historians talk about, “Oh, it's such a shame we don't have people keeping diaries, we don't know what their days are like“, and I'm like: “You fools!“ We have just entered a society circa about ten years ago and I'm a living example of it. Every piece of my correspondence is not only saved, it's searchable. If I were a person of merit, a historian - which is a big stretch, a historian could actually look at my patterns of communication much better than the most compulsive diary writer. Now we could talk

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about whether or not I am being introspective, that's about content, but in terms of quantity it's great, and of course you can save your email and you can search it, and that's just wonderful because you can pull back stuff from five years ago. So never delete your email. 让我们来简单谈谈Email, 因为Email在我们的生活中占了很大一部分比例. 首先, 永远不要删 除任何信件. 把它们都存起来. 我十年前开始这样做. 有趣的是, 所有的历史学家都在说: “哦, 人们都不记日记是多么的遗憾啊, 我们都不知道他们的时代是什么样子.” 我会说: “你们这 群傻瓜!”我们大约十年前进入了这个时代 , 我就是个活生生的例子. 我的所有通信都不仅仅 被存起来, 还能被搜索到. 要是我是个值得怀念的任务, 历史学家实际上就能看看我的沟通模 式, 这比那些写日记强迫症的人好多了. 现在从内容上我们可以谈谈我到底是不是个内省的 人. 但在数量上很多, 当然你可以把你的邮件保存起来, 你也能搜索它们, 这很棒, 因为你可以 找回五年前的东西. 永远别删掉邮件. Here's a big email trick. If you want to get something done, do not send the email to five people. “Hey, could somebody take care of this?“ Everyone of these five recipients is thinking one and only one thing: “I deleted it first!“ - “The other four people will take care of this, I don't have to.“ So you send it to one and only one person. But if you really want it to be done, send it to somebody who can do it, tell them, watch again, Alf Weaver: specific things, specific time, and the penalty can be more subtle like you just CC their boss. 这是个发邮件的大技巧. 如果你想办什么事, 别把信一次发给五个人. “嘿, 有人愿意帮我做这 个吗?”这五个收到信的人都会想且仅想着一件事: “删掉.”- “其它四个人会做的, 没必要 我来.” 你一次就发且仅发给一个人. 但要是你真的想办这件事, 你就给能做的人都发信,告诉 他们-再看一遍, 阿尔夫·威尔说过的, 确切的事, 确切的时间, 惩罚也要更确切, 就伪装你会把 副本发给他们老板一样. And the other thing - I had this conversation with every student in my entire career because they send email and then they just wait for the person to respond. And I say: “If the person has not responded within 48 hours, it's okay to nag them, and the reason it's okay to nag them: Because if they have not responded within 48 hours, the chance that they are ever going to respond is zero.“ Maybe not zero. Maybe that small. But in my experience, if people don't respond to you within 48 hours, you'll probably never hear from them so you just start nagging them. 另外, 我跟我职业生涯里的每个学生都谈过, 因为他们发完邮件然后就干等着别人回复. 我说: “要是那个人48小时都没回复你, 那么可以去继续叨扰他们, 你可以去叨扰他们的原因是: 要 是他们48小时内都没回复你的话,那么他们会回复你的几率是零. ” 可能不是零, 可能很小. 但是以我的经验, 要是别人48小时都没回复你, 你可能再也收不到他们的回复了, 所以你可以 开始叨扰他们了.” Let's talk about the care and feeding of bosses. There's a phrase: Managing from beneath. Because we all know that all bosses are idiots. That's certainly the expression, the sense I've gotten from everybody who has a boss. When you have a boss, write things down, do that clear communication thing. Ask them: “When is our next meeting? What do you want me to have done by then?“ So you've got sort of a contract. “Who can I turn to for help besides you because I don't want to bother you?“ And remember, your boss wants a result, not an excuse. 我们说说如何和老板打交道. 这就叫做, 以下管上. 我们都知道所有的老板都是白痴. 每个有 老板的人都会觉得, 这真是说的太对了. 你有老板的话, 把东西写下来, 交流要清晰. 询问他们: “我们下次会议什么时候开? 那之前你希望我完成些什么?” 这样就形成了一种契约. “除了 你之外, 我还能去向谁寻求帮助呢? 因为我真的不希望打扰你.” 记住, 你的老板想要的是结 果, 而不是理由. 31


General advice on vacations. Phone callers should get two options: The first one is - the first option is: “Contact John Smith, not me, I'm out of the office, this person can help you now if it's urgent.“ Or: “Call back when I'm back.“ Why? Because you don't want to come back to a long sequence of phone messages saying: “Randy, can you help me get care of this?“, and you call them back, and you've been on vacation for a week, they already solved it. 关于度假的建议. 打我电话的人可能会得到两种答复: 第一种是, “你该打给约翰·史密斯, 而 不是我. 我不在办公室, 要是你着急的话他能够帮上你的忙.”或者是: “等我回来再打给 我.”为什么这样呢? 因为你也不希望回来的时候听到许多这样的电话留言: “兰迪, 你能帮我 弄下这个吗?”当你打回去时, 你刚度完一个星期的假, 而他们都把事情搞定了. The other thing is that it's not a vacation if you're reading email. Trust me on that. It's not a vacation if you're reading email. I can stay in my house all weekend and not read email, and it's a vacation. But if I go to Hawaii and I've got a blackberry, I'm not on vacation. And I know this, when I got married, my wife and I got married, and we left our reception in a hot air balloon, which did not have wireless on it, and dean Jim Morris at the time - we took a month long honeymoon which was great but not really long enough - and I said: “I'm not going to be reachable for a month.“ And Jim said: “That's not acceptable.“ I said: “What do you mean, it's not acceptable?“ He said: “Well, I pay you. So, that's the “not acceptable“ part.“ And I said: “Okay. So there has to be a way to reach me?“ He said yes. And I said okay. So if you called my office there would be a phone answering machine message that said: “Hi, this is Randy, I'm on vacation. I really took 39 to get married. And so we're going for a month. And I hope you don't have a problem with that. But apparently, my boss does so he says, I have to be reachable. So here's how you can reach me. My wife's parents live in blahblahblah town. Here is their names, if you call directory assistance, you can get their number. And if you can convince my new in- laws that your emergency merits interrupting their only daughter's honeymoon, they have our number.” 另外我想说, 当你看邮件的时候就不是假期了. 相信我说的这一点, 看邮件的时候就不是假期. 我能整个周末都在屋里呆着不看邮件, 这就是个假期. 但要是我带着黑莓手机去夏威夷, 那就 不是度假了. 我深知这一点, 当我和我妻子结婚时, 我们离开我们的宴会, 坐上热气球, 上面没 有无线. - 我们度了一个月的蜜月, 尽管很棒, 但我仍觉得还不够长. 我说: “一个月的时间你 们联系不到我.”我的系主任吉姆·莫里斯对我说: “那不行.”我说: “你说不行, 是指什 么?”他说: “嗯. 我们付给你薪酬. 这就是'不行'的地方.”我说: “好吧, 必须得有方式能联系 上我咯?”他说是的. 我说好吧. 所以, 你要是打我办公室的话, 电话答录机会说: “你好, 这是 兰迪, 我在度假中. 我过了39年才结上婚, 现在我们出去一个月. 我希望你对这没什么意见. 但 是显然, 我的老板说我得能被联系到, 你可以这样联系到我. 我的岳父岳母住在某某某镇. 这是 他们的名字, 你要是打查号台的话可以查到他们的电话. 要是你能说服我的岳父岳母, 你的紧 急事务值得打扰他们唯一的女儿的蜜月的话, 他们就会把我们的号码告诉你.” Here's some more of my most important advice, we close with some of the best stuff: Kill your television. People who study this say the average American watches 28 hours of television a week. That's almost three quarters of a full time job. So if you really want to have time back in your life, you don't have to kill your television, but just unplug it and put it in the closet and put a blanket over it. See how long it takes you to get the shakes. 这是我最重要的一些建议. 我们达成共识: 远离电视机. 研究表明美国人平均每周看28个小时 的电视. 这几乎是干一份全职工作时间的1/3了. 所以要是你真的希望有时间来重返自己的生 活, 那你不一定非得砸了电视机, 把电源拔下来, 把电视放在柜橱里盖起来. 看看你多长时间 会撑不住. Turn money into time, especially junior faculty members or other people who have young children. This is the time to throw money at the problem. Hire somebody else to mow your 32


lawn, do whatever you need to do but exchange money for time at every opportunity when you have very young children because you just don't have enough time, it's just too hard. 拿金钱换时间, 特别是对于那些年轻的教员, 或是其它有小孩的人. 这是该花钱解决事情的地 方. 雇个人来修草坪, 做任何你希望他做的事情. 要是你有很小的小孩的话, 就用金钱去交换 时间, 因为你的时间肯定不够, 带小孩真的很麻烦. The other thing is, eat and sleep and exercise above all else! You always have time to sleep. Because if you get sleep deprived, everything falls apart. 另外, 吃饭,睡觉与锻炼高于一切. 你得保证睡眠的时间. 你要是不睡觉, 其他事也干不成. Other general advice: Never break a promise, but renegotiate them if need be. If you've said: “I have this done by Tuesday at noon“, you can call the person on Friday and say, “I'm still go to my word but I'm really jacked up and I'm going to have to stay and work over the weekend to meet that Tuesday deadline. Is there any way there's any slack on that?“ And a lot of times I say: “Thursday's fine.“ Because I really needed it Thursday, but I told you Tuesday.“ Or they'll say: “It's no problem, I can have Jim do that instead of you. He has some free time.“ Now if they say: “No, there's no wiggle room here“, you say: “That's okay, no problem, I'm still go to my word.” 另一个建议: 不要去违背承诺, 要是需要的话, 去协商下. 要是你讲过: “我星期二下午就能把 这个办完.”你可以在星期五给人打电话, 告诉他: “我还在遵守我的承诺, 但是我遇到了点麻 烦, 我得花整个周末的时间才能保证周二把事情搞定. 这件事情时间上有什么余地吗?”一般 情况下我都会说: “星期四也可以”因为我实际上星期四要, 但是跟你说的是星期二. 或者他 们会说: “没问题, 我让吉姆替你去做. 他有空.”要是他们说: “不行, 没有什么余地了.” 你 就可以说: “好吧, 没问题, 我会遵守承诺的.”

If you haven't got time to do it right, you don't have time to do it wrong, that's self-evident. Recognize that most things are pass/fail. People spend way too much time - there's a reason we have the expression “good enough“. It's because the thing is “good enough!” 如果你没有时间来做对事情, 那么你也没有时间来做错事情, 这不证自明. 要认识到许多事情 就仅仅是pass/fail的. 人们往往花掉了太多的时间. 我们说 “够好了”这个短语有个理由, 是 因为事情 “够好了”! The last thing is, get feedback loops. Ask people in confidence because if someone will tell you what you're doing right or doing wrong and they'll tell you the truth, that's worth more than anything else in the whole world. 最后, 形成反馈环. 自信的去问问别人, 因为可能会有人告诉你你哪做对了, 哪做错了, 他们会 跟你说真话. 这比世界上其它任何事都有价值.

I recommend these two books. [Kenneth Blanchard/Spencer Johnson: The One Minute Manager; Stephen R. Covey: The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People] Time management is not a late- breaking field, both these books are old books but I recommend them highly. 我推荐这两本书:[Kenneth Blanchard/Spencer Johnson: 一分钟经理人; Stephen R. Covey: 高效能人士的七个习惯] 时间管理并不是一个没有进展的领域, 这两本书 都有一定年头了, 但我仍然高度推荐它们.

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It's traditional to close a talk with this like, “Here's the things I told you about.“ I'm not going to tell you the things I told you about, I want to tell you the things that you can operationally go out and do today. First thing: If you don't have a day-timer or a Personal Digital Assistant, a Palm Pilot or whatever, go get one! 以这样的话结束讲座很常见: “这些就是我所告诉你们的.” 我不想这样说, 我想把事情都告 诉你们, 你们可以选择性的现在就去做. 首先: 要是你还没有个日历或是个PDA-一个Palm或 是其它的什么的话, 去弄一个! Put your To Do list in priority order, you can use the four quadrants or do what I do, just put a number from zero to nine, but sort it by priority. 以优先级排列你的任务列表, 你可以用四象限法, 或是就向我学, 在任务前放上0-9这些数字然 后排序. And do a time journal, and if that's really too much effort, just count the number of hours you watch of television in the next week. That's my gift to you. 做一个时间记录, 如果这真耗费很多精力的话, 去数数你一周看电视的小时数吧. 这就算是我 给你们的礼物了. The last thing is, once you've got your day-timer, make a note for 30 days from today - it's okay if that one goes “ding“ to remind you! - and revisit this talk in 30 days. It will be up on the web, courtesy of Gabe, and ask: “What have I changed?“ If I haven't changed anything, then we still had a pleasant hour together. If you have changed things, then you'll probably have a lot more time to spend with the ones you love. And that's important. Time is all we have. And you may find one day you have less than you think. Thank you. 最后, 当你拿到日历, 开始记30天, 要是天数到了它能 “叮”的提醒你那就更好了. 30天之后 来回顾这次讲座. 承蒙盖伯的好意,这次讲座的内容将被放在网上, 问问自己: “我改变了什 么? ”要是你什么都没改变, 那么至少我们还在一起愉快的呆了一个小时. 要是有改变的话, 那可能你就会有更多的时间与自己所爱之人相处. 这很重要. 我们所有的只是时间. 你可能会 发现, 一天比你所想象的要短暂. 谢谢.

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time