different practices can be in different contexts. This prepares the ground for further useful work on how to facilitate them. (iii) The Effectiveness and Feasibility Analysis of Low Impact Development Stormwater Management on Xiamen Island Baoli Liu5 PhD student Department of Geography, University of Hull HU6 7RX, UK Baoli.firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction This paper is based on research carried out at Xiamen University, China, as part of a Master’s degree. It focuses on stormwater management on Xiamen Island. One of the results of modern social development is intensive urbanisation: as more and more people live in cities, more buildings are constructed and impervious surface area becomes greater. This results in increasing surface runoff, decreasing groundwater recharge and base flow, and other environmental impacts (Dietz, 20076; Tang et al., 20057). Water resource protection at the local level is becoming more complicated, largely due to the recognition of non-point source pollution, or polluted runoff, as a major problem. This diffuse form of pollution is derived from contaminants washed off the surface of the land by stormwater runoff, and carried either directly or indirectly into waterways or groundwater. Stormwater runoff brings more problems associated with the increase of impervious surface area. In order to control stormwater runoff, many techniques have been applied - Low Impact Development (LID) is one of them. The definition from the Unified Facilities Criteria, America (UFC, 2004)8 states: Low Impact Development is a stormwater management strategy concerned with maintaining or restoring the natural hydrologic functions of a site to achieve natural resource protection objectives and fulfil environmental regulatory requirements.
The author acknowledges the input to the original research in Xiamen of her colleague, Longyan Cai, PhD student, Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049!China. email@example.com 6 Dietz, M.E. (2007) ‘Low impact development practices: a review of current researches and recommendations for future direction’, Water air soil pollution, vol 186, pp351-363. 7 Tang, Z., Engel, B.A., Pijanowski, B.C., Lim, K.J. (2005) ‘Forecasting land use change and its environmental impact at a watershed scale’, Journal of environmental management, vol 76, no 1, pp35-45. 8 Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC). 25/10/2004 Design: low impact development manual http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/lid%20articles/ufc_3_210_10.pdf viewed 14/03/2011 viewed 13/03/2008.