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Unit 3. Children Turning into Adults I. These sentences are missing from the articles. Read the articles and find where they fit in by matching sentences with blanks they fit in: A) Researchers looked at more than 4,200 children between the ages of 10 and 11, who were in Grade 5 in Nova Scotia. B) And who are startled to find that the rest of the world isn't as enthusiastic about who they are as their parents once were. C) Parents also completed a survey that included questions on parental education and household income. D) The study focused only on those children with poor body satisfaction. E) Naturally, nurturing our children with life's necessities is a good and necessary pursuit. F) It's the ability to accept yourself based on knowledge of your strengths and weaknesses. G) A poll of 3,000 British parents showed the aspirations of their children are radically different from what they dreamed about when considering who they wanted to be when they grew up. H) Researchers said this suggests that even young children are aware of cultural ideals for males to be both muscular and lean, while females are often shown in media as being more beautiful if they are thin. I) The survey for British TV channel Watch found a sharp divide between the genders of today's youngsters when compared with their parents' dreams 25 years or more ago. J) You don't have to do anything to be great. K) Paul Veugelers, one of the researchers with the University of Alberta, said he was surprised to see prepubescent kids dealing with what is essentially an adult problem. L) It's a reminder to all of us that happiness can be reached through ordinary lives. "Junk praise" creating a generation of self-absorbed children (by Kim G Ray, Calgary Herald) Self-esteem isn't something that can be doled out. It's not a right. Or a gift. It has to be earned. Here's a concept. The majority of today's parents see their children as flowers. You know, you plant a flower, you give it lots of water and fertilizer and you expect it to blossom beautifully. (1)_______ Only we have a well-intentioned tendency to drown our children in what is often unwarranted praise with the aim of building self-esteem.


If what American psychologist and author Polly Young-Eisendrath is observing in her practice is any indication, our intentions in this regard (combined with our aim to be perfect parents with perfect children) are backfiring. Young-Eisendrath insists that "junk praise" is creating a generation of self-absorbed children, teenagers and adults who think they're "special." (2)_______ Most disturbingly, many of these people are not coping because they have unrealistic, perfectionist expectations of themselves, expectations that make them feel dissatisfied with even the most desirable of lives. To back up a little, my generation of parents, I'm told, is the byproduct of the "I'm OK-- You're OK" generation. (Young-Eisendrath is referring to the 1969 self-help book penned by Thomas Harris, which sold 15 million copies worldwide.) "This book and the idea behind it created a form of relating that, in its time, became a hallmark for how couples relate and how groups relate. It even played an important role in the civil rights movement," explains Young-Eisendrath. "But then it somehow translated into parenting where adults said to their kids 'You are fine the way you are. (3) _______ You're great already. Just being born as my children, you are great.' " This phenomenon, she continues, was the seed of what would be referred to as the self-esteem movement, which influenced parenting and educational philosophies with the belief that children merely had to be told they are great in order for them to develop a strong sense of self-worth. "I've suffered myself as a parent who made these mistakes. All of my kids have grown up being perfectionists and they've beaten themselves up for not being better than best," says YoungEisendrath. "My kids are all first-rate citizens, but they've all been more unhappy than they've been happy. This is the product of my kind of parenting and the way that I promoted their self-esteem." If she could parent over again, Young-Eisendrath says she would promote reverence for life, family structure, chores and the responsibilities of being a member of a community. "Those are the kinds of things that weren't on my radar," she says. Essentially, she insists that her book The Self-Esteem Trap is a Buddhist book about parenting. (4) _______ That maybe-- contrary to what we've been led to believe--telling our kids that they're ordinary, that they are "normal" (because isn't that what most of them are?) is the path to healthy self-esteem. What is healthy self-esteem? If you ask Young-Eisendrath, she says: "(5) _______ You know what you do well. You know what you do poorly. You can accept both of those and work with them in relation to other people." Which brings me to a comment on my recent blog post on the topic.


A reader named Cliff commented: "The late Dr. Leo Buscaglia said it best when it comes to selfesteem. 'You have to do something (first) to feel esteemed about.' " So self-esteem isn't something that can be doled out. It's not a right. Or a gift. It has to be earned. Now there's a concept worth considering. Forget doctors and teachers; kids want to be pro-athletes and rock stars Forget about persuading your children to consider life as a doctor, vet or teacher and start training them for the talent shows. (6) _______ Although astronaut still remains fairly high on the list of careers kids dream about these days, others like doctor and teacher have been supplanted by the desire to win fame and fortune as a sporting hero, pop star or actor. The parents of children aged 5 to 11 said the one near-constant was lawyer, which slipped only one place on a top 10 list to sixth, while teacher had slipped to ninth from top in the last 25 or more years. (7) _______ Playing professional football, being an astronaut and joining the firefighting service topped the boys' career choices, while girls are more likely to be dreaming of taking to the stage as a pop star or actress or joining the medical profession. When asked what they would like their children to do for a living, today's parents still favor the academic professions, with law and medicine scoring highly, while being self-employed as an entrepreneur came third. Parents also praised job satisfaction and happiness (53 percent) above wealth (21 percent) when it comes to their hopes for their children. Nearly 70 percent of the parents surveyed admitted that they failed to follow their dreams when it came to their career, with 37 percent putting this down to a lack of ambition and not having the necessary qualifications. Top 10 ambitions of pre teens: Today: 1) Sportsman 12% 2) Pop star 11% 3) Actor 11% 4) Astronaut 9% 5) Lawyer 9% 6) Emergency services 7% 7) Medicine 6% 8) Chef 5% 9) Teacher 4% 10) Vet 3% 25+ years ago: 1) Teacher 15% 2) Banking/financing 9% 3) Medicine 7% 4) Scientist 6% 5) Vet 6% 6) Lawyer 6% 7) Sportsman 5% 8) Astronaut 4% 9) Beautician/hairdresser 4% 10) Archaeologist 3% Young children feel pressure to have perfect body (by Tiffany Crawford) Some children as young as 10 years old are unhappy with their bodies, largely because of their experiences at home and at school, but also because of a heightened awareness of body image


through the media, suggests a new Canadian study published Wednesday in the journal BMC Public Health. According to the findings by Harvard University and University of Alberta researchers, prepubescent boys are just as likely to be dissatisfied with their weight as girls — and both feel pressure to have a perfect body. (8)_______ They measured the height and weight of the children and asked them to indicate how much they agreed with the statement, "I like the way I look." Possible responses included "never or almost never," "sometimes" and "often or almost always." The scientists interpreted students responding with "never or almost never" as having poor body satisfaction and students with other responses as not having poor body satisfaction. (9) _______ Researchers found that 7.3 per cent of girls and 7.8 per cent of boys were unhappy with what they saw in the mirror each morning. Lead researcher Dr. Bryn Austin said she's concerned that any children at that age are reporting bad body images. "The main concern with body dissatisfaction is it increases children's ability to develop an eating disorder and can be linked with poor nutrition and an increase in unhealthy weight gain later in adult life," said Austin. She noted a well-established relationship between poor body satisfaction and an increase in disorders such as vomiting, fasting and the use of laxatives and diet pills for weight control. (10)_______ "We're talking about children, so these things are not so much triggered by hormones. So what is it that is triggering it? Blame does go to media and fashion, where the slimmer you are the better looking you are," he said. "Television, video games are more important to kids now and the images on the Internet," he said. "It's not the black-and-white dull TV programs anymore or the black-and-white novels, kids now are just being exposed to so many images." Parents, researchers say, should add body image to the list of things they talk to their children about and not wait until they are teenagers to do so. The report found girls were happiest when thinnest, while the boys were unhappy when they were too skinny or too fat. (11) _______ "We don't know all the reasons why children feel bad about their bodies, but we do know being bullied or teased makes them feel worse," said Austin. "That may happen at home or at school and children are exposed to media images and talk among peers — so that can be very critical and there is a great deal of stigma."


The problem with this, say researchers, is children, even indirectly, are putting too much emphasis on weight instead of focusing on healthy behaviour, which includes eating right and getting exercise. (12) _______ Girls from parents with little education in rural areas were more likely to report poor body satisfaction, the study found. One reason is girls in urban environments may benefit from more health programs. The research team wanted to study children's body image, particularly given the rapid rise in childhood obesity over the past two decades, which scientists estimate to be as high as 26 per cent in children six to 11 years old in Canada and 33 per cent in children of the same ages in the United States. II. Match the numbered words in the text with their meanings: a) a situation in which further action is blocked; a deadlock b) to put (money) in a bank or financial account c) something you buy cheaply or for less than its usual price d) having taken more money than is available e) to finally stop opposing something, especially because someone has persuaded or threatened you f) much g) feeling satisfied upon finishing or achieving something good h) to remove (money) from an account i) causing harm or damage j) your general attitude to life and the world The Three Most Influential Lessons My Parents Taught Me One thing that separates me from a lot of personal finance bloggers is that I have never been in massive debt. I never went through that “wake up� period where I looked at my bank account and noticed it was $1,500 (1)overdrawn. And then only to realize my credit cards were maxed out. Sure, I have had my fair share of sticky situations where I had to step back, assess my situation, nervously laugh to myself, and then work on getting back to my yellow brick road. But never massive debt. So what could I possibly share that is worth reading? My parents, and particularly my father (a daddy’s boy, you could say), taught me some very important financial lessons, if not life lessons. I have combined those lessons with my


experiences that I have gathered from high school, college, and the past few years in the workforce since I graduated from college. Lesson #1: Want is not need. I was not a particularly needy child. My Christmas list usually only consisted of one or two things. My mother tells me stories from when I was younger. She used to love buying me gifts. And I loved tearing through them. But once I opened them all up I would take the two things I wanted and go to my room… leaving the rest of the gifts to sit under the tree lonely. I guess I was just quirky like that. But boys will be boys and every now and then I would see something in a store that caught my eye. I would demand it. I NEEDED it. I would go over every reason in the book as to why I needed it and how (2)detrimental it would be if I did not get it. My parents could have easily purchased me these gifts. After all, I did not ask for much, right? However, I am glad they did not enable my behavior no matter how infrequent it was. My parents always talked to me in a logical manner explaining to me why it was not something that was needed. They did this from a young age and continued it until I was an adult. A typical conversation between a 14 year old me and my pop would go: Dad: So you need this baseball that clocks your speed for $40? Me: Yes! How else will I know if I am ready to pitch when I get to high school?! Dad: Do you and your coach feel comfortable with how you are developing? Me: Yes. Dad: Do you think you are a league above your peers when you pitch? Me: Yes. Dad: Then what does your speed matter? I’ll take you by a batting cage once a year and clock your speed for $1. Me: Ugh, fine. My dad never once said “No!” That would ensue in a fight. Teenagers, and even younger kids, are more logical than we sometimes give them credit for. My dad must have had the patience of a saint because he was always willing to discuss these little issues with me. But in the end, what did I gain? Now when I look at purchasing an item that I think I need, or maybe just really want, I really break the item down into a bunch of questions I know my dad would ask. Are there any cheaper alternates, like the batting cage once a year instead of a baseball that clocks your speed and will probably break after 20 throws? To you this is a simple discussion. To a kid who is starting to develop his (3)outlook on the world this is a very influential lesson. Lesson #2: TINSTAFL, There Is No Such Thing As a Free Lunch.


Every now and then the aforementioned lesson would not work on me. But still, my dad never gave me an outright “No!” Every now and then he and I would discuss the merits of a particular purchase and wind up in a (4)stalemate. And that is where we would stay. He never acted as if he had a mystical overpowering veto that would end all discussion. But at the same time he didn’t agree with what I was doing so I knew I needed to work for it. If I trace my interest in business and entrepreneurship back I think it would all start at age 8. I wanted a new bike because my dad purchased me a Huffy and other people in my neighborhood had Specialized and Diamondback bikes. For those of you who do not know, a Specialized or Diamondback bike is usually leagues above a Huffy. Looking back I can’t blame him. I was an 8 year old who was taking my bike into the woods and building jumps that probably made my spokes shake in their sockets. But I was determined to get a new bike. As I am sure you are used to hearing from your child, I needed it. I started informing all of the neighbors that I would do any work for them. I would shovel snow, cut grass, rake leaves, pull weeds, take out trash, or help with any other job they wanted assistance on. I once had a neighbor who paid me to lay new bricks along their front garden. It actually wound up being considerably hard work and I am pretty sure they got a (5)bargain. I was getting money steadily. I decided to expand my business and started doing fresh squeezed lemonade and apple stands. I stole the apples from my neighbor’s tree and my dad made the lemonade for me. It was probably a losing proposition but I guess he just liked seeing me put so much effort into a goal. Sales were not good, my street had no road traffic. I went door-to-door selling this lemonade. (Note: This was a neighborhood where everyone knew everyone and my dad stayed outside as I did it.) After a few months I think I lost sight of my end goal. But I kept doing these jobs in order to get money because I liked having my little piggy bank full of money. Between all of the jobs I was doing around the neighborhood and all of the money I collected from the dryer I had enough money for a new bike within about 6 months. My dad reminded me at this point and we went to the bike store in town. I looked around and found the bike I wanted. I was sure it would be better than all of my friend’s bikes. Let me guess what you are thinking… my dad either bought it for me or I wasted all of my money on it? Nope. I got gun shy and realized I was about to spend 6 months of hard work on a single possession that I would use to skid around (kill the tires), go off jumps (kill the shocks and spokes), crash into curbs (warp the wheels and bend the spokes), and otherwise just ruin it. I decided I wanted to save the money for something more deserving of my money. I kept my Huffy.


My dad did not make me work, he gave me the opportunity to work for something I wanted. By working I realized the value of a dollar and looked at purchases in a different way… even at a young age. Lesson #3: The best time to plant a tree was 30 years ago, the second best time is now. What did my dad and I do a few days after I rejected the idea of buying a new bicycle? We went to our local bank, Bank of America. My dad opened me up a joint savings and checking account that only I would (6)deposit and (7)withdraw from. My dad may have planted the idea in my head but I remember it as being my idea. I saw my dad go to the bank all of the time to get money and he had explained the concept to me plenty of times. I liked the idea of having my money locked up for safekeeping while still letting me access it when I needed it. The piggy bank was getting full, anyways. I opened up my bank account and over the next 8 years I would give my dad money and a deposit slip anytime I earned some. He would take it to the bank when he was going for his own reasons. And that is where my life into personal finance really started… at the ripe age of 8. My dad always made it clear that I wanted to have a safety cushion in that bank account. He would say things like “What happens when you are 16 and need a car?” Because of the TINSTAFL lesson the idea never crossed my mind that I was guaranteed a free car just for being born to the man. Now, he was not as rough as he may seem and he did wind up helping me out with a car. It was a used Dodge Neon. It also happened to be a hand me down from my sister. I got a great deal as I only had to pay for gas and insurance since the car was already paid off. Now that I look back at it, though, I am pretty sure my dad completely subsidized my insurance payments. But the idea remained constant, he wanted to make sure I understood that nothing was free. By the time I was 16 I had a few thousand dollars saved up. This was all earned through hard work and some holiday presents. I was continuously educated by my dad that I was ahead of the game and that everything I did now was worth tenfold down the road. How well did these lessons carry on? Once I got my car at 16 I went on to work part-time all throughout high school. I worked at a restaurant as a dish guy, bus boy, and waiter and Best Buy as a salesman after that. I started earning (8)actual money rather than side money for little yard projects. I, just like any kid, made mistakes with my money. I don’t think I really needed that $800 sound system in my Neon (Best Buy employee prices, have you!). But I continued to work and continued to save.


I wound up choosing a state school, the University of Maryland. Why? It was ranked in the top 20 for my intended major and I wanted to pay my way through school. I found (9) accomplishment in not having to ask my parents for money. I worked throughout college. The main job that paid for my school was running an exterior painting company. I made enough money in two summers to pay for 3 years of school plus a two month trip across Europe. I also wound up working for some other companies, one of them being UPS. UPS was HARD work but it looked great on my resume. And what am I driving? A 2004 Hyundai Accent with 86,000 miles on it. Even after being in my career for a few years I have not (10)caved in to the pressures of my neighbors with Specialized bikes co-workers with brand new Mustangs. I would say these lessons were pretty influential, what do you think? Did your parents teach you anything that you would add to the list? III.Cloze test. Read the text and fill in the gaps with only one word. Then think of three examples from your personal experience that prove or disprove the Erik Erikson's theory: The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson (by Arlene F. Harder, MA, MFT) "It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him." — Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994) Our personality traits come in opposites. We think of ourselves as optimistic or pessimistic, independent or dependent, emotional or unemotional, adventurous or cautious, leader or follower, aggressive or passive. Many of these are inborn temperament traits, but other characteristics, such as feeling either competent or inferior, appear to be learned, based on the challenges and support we receive in growing up. The man who did a great deal to explore this concept is Erik Erikson. Although he was influenced by Freud, he believed that the ego exists from birth and that behavior is not totally defensive. Based in part on his study of Sioux Indians on a reservation, Erikson became aware of the massive influence of culture on behavior and placed more emphasis on the external world, such as depression and wars. He felt the course of development is determined by the interaction of the body (genetic biological programming), mind (psychological), and cultural (ethos) influences. He organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death (many developmental theories only cover childhood). Since adulthood covers a span of many years, Erikson divided the stages


of adulthood into the experiences of young adults, middle aged adults and older adults. While the actual ages may vary considerably from one stage to another, the ages seem to be appropriate for the majority of people. Erikson's basic philosophy might be said to rest on two major themes: (1) the world gets bigger as we go along and (2) failure is cumulative. While the first point is fairly obvious, we might take exception to the last. True, in many cases an individual who has to deal with horrendous circumstances as a child may be unable to negotiate later stages as easily as someone who didn't have as many challenges early on. For example, we know that orphans who weren't held or stroked as infants have an extremely hard time connecting with others when they become adults and have even died from lack of human contact. As you read through the following eight stages with their sets of opposites, notice which strengths you identify with most and those you need to work on some more. 1. Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust Basic strength: Drive and Hope Erikson also referred (1)__________ infancy as the Oral Sensory Stage (as anyone might who watches a baby put everything in her (2)__________) where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. If we pass successfully (3)__________ this period of life, we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we (4)__________ to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may (5)__________ up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general. Incidentally, many studies of suicides and suicide attempts point to the importance of the early years in developing the basic belief that the world is trustworthy and that every individual has a right to be here. Not surprisingly, the most significant relationship is with the maternal (6)__________, or whoever is our most significant and constant caregiver. 2. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will During this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Not (7)__________ do we learn to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we are learning finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here we have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as we gain more control over our bodies and acquire new skills, learning right (8)__________


wrong. And one of our skills during the "Terrible Two's" is our ability to use the powerful (9)__________ "NO!" It may be pain for parents, but it develops important skills of the will. It is also during this stage, however, (10)__________ we can be very vulnerable. If we're shamed in the process of toilet training or in learning other important skills, we may feel great shame and doubt of our capabilities and suffer (11)__________ self-esteem as a result. The most significant relationships are with parents. 3. Play Age: 3 to 5 Years Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt Basic Strength: Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make (12)__________ stories with Barbie's and Ken's, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out (13)__________ in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for (14)__________ we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—"WHY?" While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic "Oedipal struggle" and resolve this struggle through "social role identification." If we're frustrated (15)__________ natural desires and goals, we (16)__________ easily experience guilt. The most significant relationship is with the basic family. 4. School Age: 6 to 12 Years Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority Basic Strengths: Method and Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and selfesteem. As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they (17)__________ although they are still important. 5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity

were,


Up to this stage, according to Erikson, development mostly depends (18)__________ what is done to us. From here on out, development depends primarily (19)__________ what we do. And while adolescence is a stage at which we are (20)__________ a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting (21)__________ complex as we attempt to find our own identity, struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues. Our task is to discover who we are as individuals separate from our family of origin and as members of a wider society. Unfortunately for those around us, in this process many of us go into a period of withdrawing from responsibilities, (22)__________

Erikson called a

"moratorium." And if we are unsuccessful in navigating this stage, we will experience role confusion and upheaval. A significant task for us is to establish a philosophy of life and in this process we tend to think in terms of ideals, which are conflict free, (23)__________ than reality, which is not. The problem is that we don't have much experience and find it easy to substitute ideals for experience. However, we can also develop strong devotion to friends and causes. It is no surprise that our most significant relationships are with peer groups. 6. Young adulthood: 18 to 35 Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love In the initial stage of being an adult we seek one or more companions and love. As we try to find mutually satisfying relationships, primarily (24)__________ marriage and friends, we generally also begin to (25)__________ a family, though this age has been pushed back for many couples who today don't start their families until their late thirties. If negotiating this stage is successful, we can experience intimacy on a deep level. If we're not successful, isolation and distance from others may occur. And when we don't (26)__________ it easy to create satisfying relationships, our world can begin to shrink as, in defense, we can feel superior to others. Our significant relationships are with marital partners and friends. 7. Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65 Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation Basic Strengths: Production and Care Now work is most crucial. Erikson observed that middle-age is (27)__________ we tend to be occupied with creative and meaningful work and with issues surrounding our family. Also, middle adulthood is when we can expect to "be in charge," the role we've longer envied. The significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of the culture through the family (taming the kids) and working to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of


others and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society, which Erikson calls generativity, so when we're in this stage we often fear inactivity and meaninglessness. As our children (28)__________ home, or our relationships or goals change, we may be faced with major life changes—the mid-life crisis—and struggle with finding new meanings and purposes. If we don't get through this stage successfully, we can become self-absorbed and stagnate. Significant relationships are within the workplace, the community and the family. 8. Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to Death Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair Basic Strengths: Wisdom Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it. Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look (29)__________ on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we've made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity. Our strength comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life. On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering "Was the trip worth (30)__________?" Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct. The significant relationship is with all of mankind—"my-kind." Video assignment # 1. Watch the lecture by Ken Robinson “Do schools kill creativity” and decide if the following statements are true or false. If the statement is false, say what is true: 1. Literacy in education is more important than creativity. 2. According to Ken Robinson, it’s absolutely normal to make mistakes. 3. Education systems around the world vary significantly, especially in what subjects are considered more important, and which are less. 4. Public education was invented to meet the needs of industrialism. 5. Today degrees are valued even more than before. 6. Intelligence comes in many different forms. 7. Human brain is divided into parts, with every part responsible for only one function and performing this function without interacting with other parts of the brain. 8. Men and women are equally good at multitasking.


9. Intelligence is distinct. Video assignment # 2. Rebecca Saxe: “How we read each other's minds” I. Pre-view questions. How easy is it for you to read others' minds? Give examples of when it was easy / difficult for you to understand what another person is thinking. Do you think this ability is inborn? Give your reasons. II. Watch the video and answer the following questions: 1. What problems concerning others' minds exist today? What problem is Rebecca interested in as a spouse/a scientist?

2. At the beginning of her talk she quotes Alan Greenspan who said, "I know you think you understand what you thought I said, but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant." How would you interpret these words?

3. She gives an outline of what she’ll be talking about. What are three things that she mentions? 4. What is her field of research? What research is Rebecca carrying out? What discovery did she make? Tell about RTPJ (Right Temporo-Parietal Junction) and its function.

5. Describe the experiment Rebecca conducted with children. What is the story children are supposed to react to? What age groups are chosen? Why? What are the differences in how children react? What idea does this experiment support? Are there other data to support the same idea?

6. What is the story in false-believe task that is given to adults? How much blame does Grace deserve in each case? Are adults equally good at reading other people’s minds? What is the relationship between brain activity and people’s beliefs?

7. Explain what TMS (Trans-Cranial Magnetic Stimulation) is and why Rebecca uses it in her project. How does TMS change people’s moral judgments?

8. What conclusion does Rebecca make in the end of her lecture? 9. What part of Rebecca's lecture seems alarming to one of the attendees? Why? How does Rebecca manage to reassure him?

10. What is new about the research program Rebecca participates in? How is it different from what neuroscience studied before?


Children Turning into Adults