JOBS AND PEOPLE I.
a) Labor Market Vocabulary. Russian equivalents:
Study the following vocabulary items and find WORK: job, work, post, position, occupation, profession, career; white-collar/blue-collar/pinkcollar job; personnel; work force, labor market; unemployment rate, employment rules; staff, employer-employee, co-worker, colleague;
NB: Your job is the work that you do regularly in order to earn money, especially when you work for a company or public organization • My last job was with a computer firm. • He finally got a job in a supermarket. Work is used in a more general way to talk about activities that you do to earn money, either working for a company or for yourself • Will you go back to work when you've had the baby? • I started work when I was 18. !! Do not say 'what is your job?' or 'what is your work?'. Say what do you do? or what do you do for a living? Post and position are more formal words for a job in a company or organization. They are used especially in job advertisements and when you are talking about someone moving to a different job • This post would suit a recent graduate. • He left last summer for a teaching position in Singapore. Use occupation to talk about the kind of work that someone usually does, for example if they are a teacher, lawyer, driving instructor etc. Occupation is used mainly on official forms • State your name, age, and occupation in the box below. !! Do not use occupation to talk about your own job• I am an accountant. (NOT My occupation is an accountant). A profession is a kind of work for which you need special training and a good education, for example teaching, law, or medicine • the legal profession Your career is the type of work that you do or hope to do for most of your life • I'm interested in a career in television. • His career is more important to him than his family. (From Longman English Dictionary Online)
TYPES: full-timer, part-timer, free lancer, telecommuter, self-employed, temporary worker, per-diem worker, moonlighter, to moonlight; at the bottom/top of the skills ladder, unskilled/well-trained, to retrain, on-the-job training EMPLOYING AND APPOINTING PEOPLE: to employ, to hire, to take on, to appoint, headhunter, networking, outsourcing, vacancy, opening
DISMISSING AND LEAVING: to dismiss from, to sack, to fire, to lay off, to quit a job, to give up a job, to resign, to retire; wrongful termination/unjust dismissal; redundant PROMOTING, DEMOTING, AND TRANSFERRING: to promote, promotion, to transfer, transfer, to demote EARNING AND BENEFITS: wages, a living/minimum wage, salary, fee, bonus, premium, income, pension, pension plan, pay check; payroll, to be on/off payroll, to meet the payroll, to shrink the payroll; to work by the day/by the week; rise (BrE)/raise (AE); to be on welfare; fringe benefits, perks; health insurance, paid vacation TIME AND SCHEDULE: to work nights/Saturdays/long hours/short hours, a shift, family/medical/maternity leave, to take a leave, to be on a leave, a day off, to have a day/a week/two weeks off, flextime ATTITUDE: the sense of significance, to fulfill oneself, fulfillment, job security, a loyal employee, long-term commitment, motivation, creativity; entrepreneurial spirit, competitive, competitiveness, corporate behavior/environment/culture, to climb the corporate ladder; sexual/racial harassment
b) Fill in the blanks with words and collocations from the box:
on-the-job training loyal
reimbursement lay off
climbing the corporate ladder entrepreneurial redundant
1. In 1983, our first restaurant opened in St. George's and we were fortunate to be able to
expand and open others. We would not have achieved success without the hard work of our (1)____________ employees, who really became part of our family.
2. Women still are pigeonholed in " (2)____________ " jobs that tend to depress their wages. 3. Perhaps what is not surprising, sectors where people need to be physically present at their
workplace to do their jobs — like mining and building houses — are less likely to accommodate (3)____________ hours. But many of the (4)____________ -friendly whitecollar industries — like financial activities — have better records in allowing flex work. 4. Staff development using a mixture of (5)____________, plus internal and external training courses can help retain the best people, as well as provide a good source for planning for your business too. 5. Indiana teachers are (6)____________ as tennis coaches, tutors and camp counselors at an
increasing rate as districts freeze salaries and take other steps to cut costs. 6. Every company has a (7)____________ culture -- a unique blend of workplace values and unwritten rules that affect how individuals interact and how projects move through the organization. If you have trouble meshing with the atmosphere, your morale and work performance could suffer. 7. The Great Recession has accelerated a structural shift in the economy that had been slowly
building for years. Companies have used the downturn to aggressively trim payrolls, making cuts they’ve been reluctant to make before. (8)____________ abroad has increased dramatically. Companies have discovered that new software and computer technologies have made many workers in Asia and Latin America almost as productive as Americans, and that the Internet allows far more work to be (9)____________ moved to another country without loss of control. 8. Scandinavian airline SAS warned it would temporarily (10)____________ up to 2,500
employees in Norway starting Monday if flights halted due to a giant cloud of volcanic ash remained on the ground. 9. The (11)____________ offer consists of one week's pay for each year of service -- up to 26
weeks -- with a four-week bonus pay for taking the offer and three months of health insurance. If none of the employees accept the buyouts within the next 45 days, the city will lay off 20 more people. They would get the (12)____________ pay, but not the bonus or the health insurance. 10. Two-fifths of British workers would consider setting up their own business if they were made (13)____________, according to research by Home Learning College. The research also suggests that Britain’s (14)____________ gender gap may be closing, as the study shows that women are now almost as likely as men to say they would go it alone if they lost their job – 37% compared to 43%, while in 2008 the Annual Small Business Survey showed that only 14% of British businesses were owned by women. 11. The Langford administration sent a budget plan to the state’s Civil Service Commission that
details layoffs of 20 police officers and, if approved, would also (15)____________ 15 highranking police personnel. 12. For past generations, sacrificing one's family life was an expected consequence of (16)____________. 13. Employee benefits (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, perqs or perks) are various non-
wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. Some of these benefits are: housing (employer-provided or employer-paid), group insurance (health, dental, life etc.), retirement benefits, daycare, tuition (17)____________, sick leave, vacation (paid and non-paid), and other specialized benefits. The term ‘perks’ is often used
colloquially to refer to those benefits of a more discretionary nature. Often, perks are given to employees who are doing notably well and/or have seniority. Common perks are take-home vehicles, hotel stays, free refreshments, leisure activities on work time (golf, etc.), stationary, allowances for lunch, and—when multiple choices exist—first choice of such things as job assignments and vacation scheduling. They may also be given first chance at job promotions when (18)____________ exist. 14. Belle Fourche Mayor Dave Schneider and the city of Belle Fourche are being sued by three former employees who are citing civil rights violations, age discrimination, (19)____________ and more.
c) Make up 5 questions with the words and collocations from Topic Vocabulary and the exercise above. II.
a) You are about to participate in an auction. You will each have $300 to spend purchasing jobs that you are interested in. Below is the list that contains only job descriptions, and you will have 10 minutes to read over and decide which jobs you are interested in buying and how high you would be willing to bid on jobs you want. Bids can begin at $10 and go up from there until someone outbids all of the others and wins the job. The amount you are willing to bid should reflect how important getting that job is to you. You may bid on as many jobs as you can afford or you can put all your money into just one job. Remember that you will be competing against each other for these jobs:
1. BE YOUR OWN BOSS! An exciting opportunity for anyone who is willing to put in long hours, work hard, and create your own earning potential. Perfect if you like excitement, working with people and watching your money grow! 2. Very busy shop is looking for YOU! Our company is growing and looking for a bright, energetic person who likes working with people and state-of-the-art equipment in a fun environment. Good pay for the right person. 3. Have fun! Set your own hours! Work with people like yourself! Get great company perks! A fast-paced company that is as diverse as the customers it serves wants you to join its team. Training provided, full and part time available, with many positions to choose from. High school education preferred but not essential. Hiring now! 4. SERIOUS INQUIRIES ONLY…We are looking for dynamic and self-motivated individuals who are willing to learn the business, can handle a variety of tasks and who want to build a solid future and enjoy an aggressive pay plan. Call today. 5. If you are motivated by MONEY & CHALLENGE, WE WANT YOU! Our national office is seeking proven leaders who are energetic and success oriented to join our top team. If you are interested in a potential monthly commission with no cap and you have experience in sales, do not hesitate to contact us NOW! 6. Do you like to make a difference in others’ lives? Are you interested in working in an environment that promotes bringing others together? The right candidate will be able to work in a variety of settings, helping others to complete their lives. Previous experience working in a busy office, ability to work with people and alone, with a minimum of a college diploma. CONTACT OUR OFFICE FOR AN APPOINTMENT.
7. Frustrated with long hours and lack of opportunity? Progressive company seeks people oriented individuals with service industry background for career opportunity local and overseas. No experience necessary. We will train the right individuals. Travel available. CALL NOW! 8. Low pay with a real opportunity to make a difference! Work with others who are interested in saving the planet. Be part of a team who is changing the way others see and work in the world. Hiring team captains to lead our agency into the new millennium. Your chance to make a real difference! b) At the end of the auction we will go through the sheet of job descriptions and you will be told what job you have bought. These are the questions to consider: • What was it about the description of the job that made you want to buy it? • Did the job end up being what you thought it would be? III.
These are some jobs of the future. Try to guess what people in these jobs will do: a) Avatar manager/devotees/virtual teachers b) Time broker/Time bank trader c) Alternative vehicle developers
j) Body part maker k) Social 'networking' worker l) Virtual lawyer m) Virtual clutter organizer
d) Space pilots, tour guides and architects
n) Personal branders
e) Pharmer of genetically engineered crops and livestock
o) ‘New science’ ethicist
f) Weather modification police
g) Old age wellness manager/consultant
r) Vertical farmers
h) Memory augmentation surgeon
t) Quarantine enforcer
s) Waste data handler
i) Climate change reversal specialist
a) Read the job descriptions below. Match each job with its description. b) Answer the following questions: •
Have you guessed right? Are there any jobs that you failed to describe?
What job would you like to do? Why? What job wouldn’t you like to do? Why?
Future jobs: what might you be doing? http://sciencesowhat.direct.gov.uk/future-jobs/future-jobs-what-might-you-be-doing
With the help of the team at Fast Future Research, we have looked at potential developments in science and technology over the next 20 years and identified 20 jobs we could be doing as a result of these advances.
1. Advances in science will make it possible to create living body parts, so we could need living body part makers, body part stores and body part repair shops. 2. Advances in nanotechnology for creating molecular-scale devices and treatments could transform personal healthcare so we would need a new breed of nano medicine specialists to administer these treatments. 3. New-age farmers will grow crops and keep animals that have been genetically engineered to increase the amount of food they produce and to include proteins that are good for our health. Scientists are already working on a vaccine-carrying tomato and therapeutic milk from cows, sheep and goats. 4. We will need specialists to help manage the health and personal needs of an aging population. They will be able to use a range of new emerging medical, drug, prosthetic, mental health, natural and fitness treatments. 5. Surgeons could add extra memory to people who want to increase their memory and to help those who have been over-exposed to information and need more memory to store it. 6. As scientific advances speed up in areas like cloning, we may need a new breed of ethicist who understands the science and helps society make choices about what developments to allow. It wonâ€™t be a question of can we, but should we? 7. With companies already promising space tourism, we may need space pilots and tour guides, as well as architects to design where they will live and work. Current projects at SICSA (University of Houston) include a greenhouse on Mars, lunar outposts and space exploration vehicles. 8. Vertical farms growing in skyscrapers in the middle of our cities could dramatically increase food supply by 2020. Vertical farmers will need skills in a range of scientific disciplines, engineering and commerce. 9. As the impact of climate change increases, we will need a new breed of engineer-scientists to help reduce or reverse the effects. The range of science and technologies they use could include filling the oceans with iron filings and putting up giant umbrellas to deflect the sun's rays. 10. If a deadly virus starts spreading rapidly, few countries, and few people, will be prepared. Nurses will be in short supply. And as death rates rise, and neighborhoods are shut down, someone will have to guard the gates. 11. The act of stealing clouds to create rain is already happening in some parts of the world and is altering weather patterns thousands of miles away. Weather modification police would need to control and monitor who is allowed to shoot rockets containing silver iodine into the air - a way to provoke rainfall from passing clouds. 12. As more and more of our daily life goes online, we will need specialist lawyers to resolve legal disputes which could involve people living in countries and regions with different laws. 13. Intelligent avatars or computer characters could be used to support or even replace teachers in the classroom. The devotee is the human that makes sure the avatar and the student are properly matched. 14. We need the designers and builders of the next generations of vehicle transport using alternative materials and fuels. Could the dream of zero-emission cars or even underwater and flying cars become a reality within the next two decades? 15. As content on the television, radio and the internet becomes increasingly personalised, there will be jobs for specialists working with producers and advertisers to create news, entertainment and information tailored to our personal interests. While some personalisation will be done by computers, customised narrowcasting to individuals could be performed by humans. 16. As data and information about us increases on computers everywhere, we may need waste data handlers to securely get rid of our data so we canâ€™t be tracked or have our identity stolen. 17. Clutter managers will help us organise our electronic lives. They would look after our email, make sure our data is stored properly and manage our electronic passwords and profiles.
18. Time has always been precious and time banking already exists. In the future there may be other alternative currencies that will have their own markets where they can be traded. 19. We may need social workers for people who may be traumatised or marginalised by social networking. 20. This job would be an extension of the role played by celebrity stylists and publicists. Personal branders will work for anyone to create a personal "brand" using social networking sites and other media. The sort of issues they would be dealing with will be what personality are you projecting via your Blog, Twitter, etc? What personal values do you want to build into your image? And is your image consistent with your real life personality and your goals? c) Invent a job of the future that is not mentioned in the text. Think of the name for it and describe what a person in this job might be doing. V.
Every person has different reasons for working. The reasons for working are as individual as the person. But, we all work because we obtain something that we need from work. Make a list of 5 reasons why people work. Rank them from the most important to the least important. Explain why, in your opinion, some reasons are more important than others?
Read the article and do the following assignments: a) Some sentences are missing. Find where they belong by matching numbers with letters.
My Retail Job, Crazy as It Is, Keeps Me Sane By CAITLIN KELLY Published: February 14, 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/15/jobs/15pre.html?ref=jobs
SOMETHING had to change. Working alone at home as a freelance writer, which many people dream of, wasn’t working for me. [A] I needed a steady, secure, part-time job, something I could leave behind at day’s end, with lots of people contact. I craved a new challenge, a chance to learn and perfect some fresh, useful skills. I applied for a job as a part-time retail sales associate selling a popular and well-known clothing brand in an affluent New York suburb. I would earn less than $12 an hour, no commission. [B] Eighteen months later, I’m still there, working six to eight hours a week. When friends, family members and colleagues learned of my new job, some were puzzled, some supportive. Many wondered: Wouldn’t I be bored? Could I handle it?
My last full-time job was as a reporter for a major daily newspaper, but I’d given up sending out résumés. Two of my bosses had since been laid off, and in the last year, thousands of journalism professionals have lost their jobs — hundreds of them in New York, where I live. Today, with any reliable job a precious commodity, I still show up every Tuesday at the store, even as I continue to freelance most of the time. [C] I am 20 to 30 years older than most of my colleagues, twice the age of my assistant manager and more than a decade older than my manager. [D] In one world, I interview C.E.O.’s, write articles for national publications and promote my nonfiction book. In the other, I clock in, sweep floors, endlessly fold sweaters and sort rows of jackets into size order. Toggling between the working class and the chattering class has taught me a lot about both: what we expect of ourselves, how others perceive us, ideas about our next professional step and how we’ll make it. The contrasts between my former full-time job and my current part-time one have been striking. I slip from a life of shared intellectual references and friends with Ivy graduate degrees into a land of workers who are often invisible and deemed low-status. In journalism, my workplaces often felt like rooms filled with balloons, enormous and fragile egos rubbing and squeaking up against one another until, inevitably, several burst with a bang. [E] In journalism, I’ve had managers who routinely shrieked abuse. In retail, I’m managed by a man who served in the United States Air Force in Mogadishu and who wears his authority comfortably and rarely raises his voice. Even the most senior regional and national managers in my company who visit a few times a year know my name, say hello and listen to sales associates with respect. [F] In journalism, all too often perception helps people get ahead. One editor’s star performer is another’s nightmare. In retail, numbers win. I’ve become one of my store’s top salespeople, and, for the first time in 30 years of professional life, I know my clear value to my employer. Our individual sales are posted on a wall for everyone to see. [G] Social capital means nothing here. Our retail sales floor is the levelest playing field I’ve yet seen. [H] I enjoy this job, grateful to the company that took a chance on me. But I can’t afford to do it full time. Only using my other skills the rest of the week allows me to meet my financial commitments and keep saving for retirement. [I] It’s not scraping gum and food off the floor or standing for five straight hours. It’s not refolding clothing so many times the skin on my hands cracks from dehydration. It’s some customers’ stunning sense of entitlement, even contempt, for those — i.e., us — they feel certain are their inferiors. Expecting good service is fair. Treating hourly wage workers like personal servants is not. When you wear a plastic name badge, few bother to read it. We, too, are intelligent and proud of our skills; many of us are college educated. Some of us travel often and widely, speaking foreign languages fluently. Our employees include nationally ranked athletes, a former professional ballet dancer and a former officer in the French Foreign Legion.
Fortunately, just enough of our customers are pleasant and easily accommodated. They include jet pilots and surgeons, high school students and sanitation workers, and I enjoy their stories, whether of open-heart surgery or their Costa Rican honeymoon. I love sharing my expertise and experiences. When customers tell me they’re going to Fiji, Kenya, the Grand Canyon or Cuzco, Peru, I can offer first-hand advice from my own trips there. I know what they need to stay warm, dry and comfortable on the ski slope, boat deck, hiking or bike trail. [J] Some are college students, some already work at two other jobs, and for top managers, it’s a well-paid full-time career. It offers flexible scheduling, can be a lot of fun and — in an economy forcing millions to redefine themselves professionally — its expectations are manageable and clear. With so many media companies struggling, hundreds of my peers are losing their handsome titles and well-paid jobs. Some of them, too, may have to redefine themselves, temporarily and part time, or permanently. Right now, at our store and for this company, I play on a winning team. It feels good. “Are you still there?” my friends ask me, month after month. Luckily, I am. 1. Sometimes I feel like Alice slipping through the looking glass, toggling between worlds. 2. My retail co-workers have chosen this job for many reasons. 3. In retail, divas are fired or soon quit. 4. To my surprise, I was hired, even though I had zero retail experience. 5. The relentless isolation of connecting primarily with others online and by telephone was killing me. 6. I like that clarity. 7. The hardest part? 8. I am now a battered veteran of two holiday seasons. 9. I never expected that. 10. It comes at a price.
b) Answer the following questions: •
Why did Caitlin decide to find a part-time job?
Why were some of her friends and relatives not quite sure that her part-time job was good for her?
What does she do as a free lancer?
What does she do as a part-timer?
What are the differences between her current part-time and her former full-time jobs?
What, in her opinion, is the most humiliating about her part-time job?
What does she like about her part-time job? c) You are offered several jobs: full-time, telecommuting, part-time, free lancing. Talk about advantages and disadvantages of each job and tell which you would choose and why.
Read the following article and do the following assignments:
a) Find the words that mean the same1: 1. constantly, without stopping (paragraph 2) 2. fail (paragraph 3) 3. widespread (paragraph 4) 4. exciting and attractive (paragraph 6) 5. have a very strong desire to do something (paragraph 7) 6. not interesting or exciting anymore (paragraph 7) 7. a strong desire for more money, power, possessions etc than you need (paragraph 8) 8. think wrongly that a thing is something else (paragraph 8) 9. the feeling that you deserve to be liked or respected (paragraph 8) 10. the way you think about something (paragraph 8) 11. good enough (paragraph 10) 12. give a good enough explanation for something (paragraph 10) 13. make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before (paragraph 10) 14. think about something (paragraph 11) 15. succeed (paragraph 12) 16. understand and agree (paragraph 12)
Why Do The Rich Keep Working? http://www.forbes.com/2006/05/20/working-rich-pyschology_cx_bn_06work_0523rich.html
By Brett Nelson Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote: "Don't waste life in doubts and fears; spend yourself on the work before you, well assured that the right performance of this hour's duties will be the best preparation for the hours and ages that will follow it." 1. Peter followed that advice for much of his career, but today he might beg to differ with Emerson. ("Peter" is a pseudonym, but his story--and that of other wealthy workaholics--is very real.) The son of a modest Texas farmer, Peter wanted a bigger, grander life than his father led, and he worked hard to get it. By age 30, he was running a regional bank and had a wife and two kids. 2. Over the next two decades, he moved his family 12 times--twice overseas. At 50, he was president of a large financial services firm in New York City. He owned a restored Georgian in a leafy suburb, a ski chalet in Telluride and a small compound in the Caribbean. He traveled for work incessantly; his board connections led to bids at the most exclusive golf clubs. Peter had become a bona-fide world beater. 1
NOTE: In the exercise all the verbs are in the Infinitive while in the article they are not.
3. Then, one day, his wife of 30 years declared: "I don't love you anymore. I need a new life." His kids piled on, saying he'd never "been there" for them. After logging three-quarters of each year on the road, Peter realized he had no real friends to confide in. He got divorced, drank heavily and eventually left his job. Peter's net worth had crossed the eight-figure mark years before his life unraveled. He could have hopped off the hamster wheel with plenty of time and riches to spare. And yet he kept running. 4. "[That behavior] is rampant," says psychologist Robert Mintz, founder of New Executive Strategies, a management consultancy in Short Hills, N.J. "It's the kind of thing people don't talk about--especially men." 5. Mintz has gotten a rare glimpse at the underbelly of tireless ambition. In 2000, after 20 years working with hundreds of multimillionaires as a human resources manager for Revlon, Pepsico, Time Warner and Electronic Data Systems, he left corporate life to finish his Ph.D. in psychology. 6. His dissertation dealt with the messy motivations of workaholic executives. As part of his research, Mintz conducted four-hour interviews with 25 execs, each worth between $5 million and $500 million. Some admitted that they had grown accustomed to the glittery perks of success: toys, praise, glory. But there were darker themes, too. 7. Some of the men craved the chance to keep proving themselves, perhaps to a doubting authority figure from their past. Others saw work as a getaway from a stale marriage. Still others said they wouldn't know what to do with themselves if they weren't working. More time with friends? Many of them had no close friends. Hobbies? You can only play so many rounds of golf. Travel? "They probably want to burn their passports," says Mintz. 8. What about raw greed? "In our culture, the accumulation of money is equated with--or more precisely, confused with--personal security and one's self-esteem," says Robert Katz, associate professor at New York University's postdoctoral program in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. "My Wall Street patients seem to be driven by an unquestioned belief in the value of making money regardless of personal cost. Although this looks like greed, it is actually an attempt to feel secure." Translation: The need to feel safe and secure swamps any perception of the financial security rich people already have. 9. The irony here is that, for many wealthy workaholics, hard work feels less stressful than sitting at home. "The thought of having to sit still [and deal with] their inner demons is terrifying," says Mintz. "Quiet is untenable." 10. Women workaholics seem able to walk away more easily than men--and not just because they want to spend more time with their kids, notes psychologist Wanda Wallace, president of Leadership Forum, another management consultancy. In 2004, Wallace surveyed 64 female senior executives at firms like Deutsche Bank and PriceWaterhouseCoopers to explore how these women mustered the courage to leave corporate life. A big reason: "For women, it is socially acceptable to do something else," says Wallace. "It's hard for a guy to justify that he's going to run the nonprofit." Women also tend to maintain a broader base of contacts outside of work than men do, thus easing the transition. 11. To be sure, some wealthy workaholics really do enjoy their work. Yet "there is a difference between 'I love what I do' and 'I can't conceive of doing something else,' " says Peter White, vice chairman of U.S. Trust and former managing director at Citigroup's private bank. "One is a volunteer; the other is a prisoner." 12. As an adviser on personal issues of wealth, White has seen his share of prisoners--people who have accomplished everything but nevertheless are working very hard and wondering
why. The disturbing answer: Work becomes a substitute for greater meaning in their lives. "I had a guy come to me and say, 'I've got $40 million. Do you think it's enough?' " White recalls. "He meant, Was it enough to be happy and safe? The correct answer is no. You won't find [those things] with $4 billion. You're looking for 'enough' in the wrong place." Even old Emerson would buy that.
b) Answer the following questions: •
What, in your opinion, do Ralph Waldo Emerson’s words mean?
What happened to Peter?
What animal is he compared with? Why?
Why are motivations of workaholic executives called messy?
What could be the examples of ‘toys’ mentioned in the article?
What are the reasons why workaholic executives keep working?
What does the phrase ‘They probably want to burn their passports’ mean?
According to the article, is it true that the more money you have the happier you are? Why or why not?
Why does it seem easier for female executives to leave their jobs?
According to the article, what is the difference between ‘volunteer’ and ‘prisoner’?
According to the article, how much money is enough to feel happy and safe?
c) Ask three people you know about the reasons why they work. Report what you have found to the class.
This is Unit 6 of textbook on reading and speaking for English majors that I am currently working at.