There are four basic parts to the Comma system 1. The Full Comma program which allows building of an archive limited only by the computer it is installed on. It allows the manufacture and distribution of the archive on for instance DVD. It can be edit protected by using an optional USB key. 2. The Comma Taster / Comma Harvester. This allows the building of an archive but not its distribution unless upgraded to the full version. The two versions are identical except that the Taster can have multiple donors and the Harvester only one. 3. The Comma Harvest module. This allows an archiving group with a full Comma to collect materials on many computers and to then import them to the master 4. The Comma website. For a subscription, owners of the Full Comma version can send a disc of their archive to be uploaded to the Comma website. The Comma website is at www.Commanet.org Email: Storyville.email@example.com This manual is for the full version of Comma. All aspects of it are relevant to the free versions accept that there is no possibility of making distributable CDs or mounting on the internet without moving to the full version available from Storyville.
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Existing users please note that the new Harvest module is available that allows you to use free â€œHarvesterâ€? versions of Comma on several machines to gather information that is then later added to the master full Comma, allowing people for instance to work from home on aspects of the archive. Some screens may be different in your version
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What is Comma? Comma is a very simple to use tool for producing a computer based community resource, though it can be used for other purposes like sports clubs, societies, and families. It is not a web based system like Flickr or PhotoBucket. Why use a computer based system rather than an on-line system? The main reasons seem to be to the way that the high quality media and its organisation and classification is actually physically in a long-term securable form which can be copied to share with members of the community, with friends, with schools, and with the world. It allows recording and presentation of materials where there is no access to fast networks, and the underlying copyright is protected from copying if that is important to you. In other words, it is entirely under your control!
Introduction Capture it before it disappears There are countless stories to be told. Rooted in time and place, these recollections offer glimpses into what we have in common and what makes us unique. Unfortunately, many of these stories are never told, and as a result the artefacts that bear witness to them lose much of their historical significance. The Comma program enables local communities to create online stories. The result is a growing series of online local history archives, each drawing from the possessions, records, and oral reminiscences of community members. By creating local archives, communities can rediscover the people and events that shaped their past and present, bringing otherwise dispersed records into a coherent narrative that can be shared with friends and family around the world. Young and old can build and share history together, bridging gaps between generations, different members of a community, and communities themselves. Producing archives can stimulate discussion over the precise details of particular incidents being recorded. Archives can be viewed in a public place, encouraging people to react and donate to the content. Comparing archives from different places further enhances the understanding of similarities and differences between times and communities. Finally, simply entering oneâ€™s personal story is interesting and potentially therapeutic, just as reading personal stories provides insight into other ways of life. The Comma software is designed to be used by the actual holders or collectors of the memories. It allows photographs and documents to be copied into a computer, so there is no danger of losing people's materials. It also permits the
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simple entry of details about photographs, such as when and where they were taken, who is in them, as well as the stories behind unique photographed moments. Videos, sounds, and texts can also be added. Another unique feature of the software is the “hot spot.” Where an individual appears in more than one photograph, a hot spot or link can be created to all photographs featuring that person. This allows one to follow that individual backward and forward in time throughout the archive. At any point, one might come across another person of interest in a photograph, and begin to follow their life story instead. Besides being associated with people, hot spots can be added to any item featured in a photograph. Comma software is available in a number of languages; however, texts within the archives remain in the language in which they were originally written. Once completed, archives can be made available in a CD-ROM format. All Comma archives can be connected through the www.commanet.org site. By searching this collection for a name, a date, or any other term, or by clicking on a hot spot, records can be instantly retrieved, viewed, read or listened to, providing users internationally with new insights into the values, experiences, and myths that shape our identity. Note: The Comma software is not a Web-authoring tool. It allows you to create and present local history archives on a computer, but not produce a Web site. Comma
What are community archives? Community archives are collections of still and video images, text and oral narratives that have been captured using specially developed Comma software and basic IT equipment. They are fully searchable databases that serve as a record of communities' cultural heritage and are published as local CD-ROMs and on the Internet. The three distinctive characteristics of community archives are: • The community creates its own archive • The community has editorial control over its archive • The community owns the copyright in its archive A wide range of groups are involved in community archives, they are based in community centres, schools, libraries and museums. Although creating a community archive requires the use of new technology, it is not the dominant focus and the Comma software is very easy to use. Community archives promote understanding, tolerance and respect between generations and between diverse social, ethnic and cultural communities. By enabling communities to record and share their heritage, they foster active citizenship within a multicultural democracy. There are many reasons for and ways to create archives. Having a clear idea and plan may make the process easier and more fruitful. Comma - page 4
For example a key photograph, perhaps of the group entering records, could be the key â€œdirectoryâ€? from which threads lead to stories told by all those featured. This is particularly true if your archive is based around something like a school, family or club where a group photograph is the key or an area, when a map or plan may be best. Think about what is a central motif of your area. A village may have a village green which features in or is related to most records, it could even have a may-pole about which everything in a way rotates, if that is not too fanciful.
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Creating an Archive We strongly suggest that you take a little time to plan your archive before starting, it will make the enterprise more rewarding if the first parts that you enter, which are often the first items a viewer sees, are not a jumble of unconnected material Note: The Comma software is not a Web-authoring tool. It allows you to create and present local history archives on a computer, but not produce a Web site. To publish your archive on the web you must contact Storyville at www.commanet.org by emailing Storyville.firstname.lastname@example.org Storyville 29 Wortley Road Leeds LS12 3HT 0113 2890087 (within UK) +44 113 2890087 (outside UK) Like many large and daunting undertakings starting an archive needs planning. As you progress it is inevitable that you will regret the way that some material has been entered or described, though you can always edit records. One major thing that will likely seem obvious but only after a while and that is that it is the FINDING of material and its interpretation that is important. A huge archive of poorly described material, particularly if dates, captions, and hotspots are not well used, is little better than a shoe-box, in fact it could be worse than that if annotations on the originals are not copied over. We strongly suggest that you look at the website as the principals of searching there are very similar to those that you can use in the Comma software.
A very important note: It is very important that you do not use Full Comma on more than one computer to create a single archive. Since archive records are identified using your unique serial number, records added to different computers will acquire the same ID numbers if the same serial number is used in several places. Bringing these records together in one computer raises serious production issues, including the danger of overwriting records with identical numbers. One of the archives will be useless! You can though use the free Harvester version of Comma for gathering information. In this case every computer that uses the Harvester will be able to import its records to a full version of Comma as if it were a different donor.
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The add-in module that allows this way of working is available from Storyville.
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Viewing and Searching for Records Slide Show Your archive's records can be viewed from the main menu in a random slide show. In this case, the records do not appear in any particular order. To view your archive as a slide show: 1. From the main menu, click on "Slide Show" in the upper left portion of the screen, just above the archive menu image. 2. To stop the slide show at any time, click on "Finished" at the top of the screen. Note: When an image is showing it can be saved by holding down the “Ctrl” key and pressing the “s” key.
View the Whole Archive 1. From the main menu, choose “Search for records”. 2. Click on "View the whole archive" underneath the search results box on the left. 3. Select the order in which to view the archive: 4. "View the archive sorted by donor – starting at first record" presents all archive records from donor 1, then all records from donor 2, and so on, beginning with the first record of the archive. 5. "View the archive sorted by donor – starting at current record" presents all archive records in order by donor, beginning with the most recently viewed archive record. If you want to view just one donor’s record then click on “ID” in the search window and enter the donor’s number view the results and then click “view the whole archive”. 6. "View the archive sorted by date – starting at first record" presents all archive records in order by date, beginning with the record with the earliest date. 7. "View the archive sorted by date – starting at current record" presents all archive records in order by date, beginning with the most recently viewed archive record. If you want to view records from a particular date then click on “date” in the search window and enter the required date, view the results and then click “view the whole archive”.
Searching by Category 1. From the main menu, choose “Search for records”. 2. Click on any category available on the screen to search the archive on that category.
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Searching for Records
3. If you clicked on a category for which text has been entered (e.g. caption), you can do any of the following: 4. Type the word or phrase you are searching for into the box at the bottom left of the screen, and then click “Finished” at the top of the screen. 5. Click “Any” to search for any of the records available under the category that you chose. 6. Click “None” to clear previous searches and start a new search. 7. If you clicked on a category that was completed using controlled vocabulary when the record was first entered, you will see a list of the terms in that category (e.g. the people category contains the terms couple, crowd, family, group, single, children). You can then do any of the following: 8. Click on the term to search for records described by that term. 9. Click “Any” to search for any records available under the category that you chose. 10. Click “None” to clear previous searches. 11. Click “finished” if necessary 12. Once you have a search result, you have two choices. You can: 13. Click on “View Results” to see the results you have. 14. Start a new search by clicking on “New Search”.
Searching by Text 1. From the main menu, choose "Search for records”. 2.
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Click on the text icon, shown left. The following screen will appear.
Searching by Text
3. In the "Author" box is a list of all text entries by author. If you click on an author name, the "Found" box in the upper right corner of the screen will list the number of records with texts entered by that author. Click "Finished" at the top of the screen. On the next screen that appears, click on "View results" to see the results you have, or start a new search by clicking on "New Search”. 4. To search for a particular string of text, type this text into the box at the bottom. Click "Finished" to search for records containing this text. On the next screen that appears, click on "View results" to see the results you have, or start a new search by clicking on "New Search”. 5. To search for all records containing a text entry without specifying a word to find, click on "Any”. On the next screen that appears, click on "View results" to see the results you have, or start a new search by clicking on "New Search”. 6. Note: To clear your previous searches, click on "None" at the top of the screen.
Searching by Date 1. From the main menu, choose “Search for records”. 2. Click on “Date”.
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Searching by Date
3. Enter the date you wish to search for by using the appropriate boxes for day, month, and year. 4. Click “Finished” when you have entered a date, or click "None" to clear previous searches. 5. When searching for dates, you can choose to search on a number of years on either side of the year you are looking for (up to a maximum of ±99 years). For example, if you want all the records from the 1950s: 6. Enter 1955 in the year box. 7. When you are asked, “Is the date accurate?” click the “?”. 8. Set the number of years on each side to “5”. 9. Click “Finished” and you will have searched for all records between 1950 (1955 - 5 years) and 1960 (1955 + 5 years). 10. This type of search will also find records from just outside this date range if, when those records' dates were entered, they were marked as inaccurately dated.
Searching for Hot Spots 1. A hot spot is a label identifying a person, place, or object in an image. 2. To search for text associated with a hot spot: 3. Click “Hot Spots” on the search page.
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Searching for Hot Spots
4. Click in the box and enter the text you wish to search for. If hot spots have been added to the archive, the names of these hot spots will appear in a list on the right. Clicking on any of the names in the list will automatically fill in the hot spot search box below with the same text. In the "Found" box in the bottom left corner of the screen will be the number of records with hot spots matching your search. 5. Note that searches are literal, so CLOUGH, Michael and CLOUGH Michael (no comma) are different as far as the computer is concerned. 6. Click “Finished” at the top of the page to see any results. 7. 8.
When browsing through an archive, you can make hot spots visible by clicking on the icon shown left. A hot spot that has been searched for is blue.
Searching for Records with Sounds 1. From the main menu, choose “Search for records”. 2. Click on “Sound” just above the box on the screen. In the box below you will be told how many search results had sounds. 3. You then have 3 choices. You can: 4. Click on the categories on the right of the screen to narrow your search. 5. Click on “View Results” to see the results you have. 6. Start a new search by clicking on “New Search”. 7. Records that only feature audio always show a photograph of a radio. 8. If the record you are viewing has a sound attached to it, you will see the sound control icons:
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. The left button is “Play”. The centre button is “Pause”. The right button is “Stop”. Note that whenever you are viewing a picture in large view, either in the main archive or after clicking when viewing the random slideshow you can press the Ctrl (control) key on the keyboard and press the “s” key at the same time to save that image to file for use elsewhere.
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Adding a Record While each record is added only once, it can afterwards be edited as many times as you like. Editing allows you to change the information you added to the record when you first created it, as well as add additional information, a sound, or text. For more information see Viewing and Editing Records.
To add a record: 1. If you will enter material from a scanner you need to be sure that the scanner’s TWAIN software has been installed and selected and the scanner is plugged in and unlocked. 2. Click on the Comma icon on the desktop or select it from the Windows start menu. 3. Note: if you see a copyright warning as Comma opens then it is in “Demo” mode and cannot be edited. This is almost certainly because your system is equipped with a dongle but it is not inserted into a suitable powered USB port. 4. From the main menu, click “Edit.” 5. Enter your password, by default this is the word “user”. The supervisor should change this as soon as possible if no dongle is used. 6. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen. 7. Click “Add A New Record”. 8. “Has the donor entered a record before?” Answer by clicking on “Yes” or “No.” 9. If you clicked “Yes”, enter the donor's number, click “Finished” at the top of the screen. (If you have entered a picture from the donor before, but have forgotten the donor number, leave the editing section of the software, search for one of the other records from the donor, and note the donor number. Alternatively, you can look in your copyright book; see the section Using a Copyright Book. If you do not properly enter the donor number, then your archive will become fragmented and difficult to view and you will be unable to check who claims copyright on the original material, which could have serious repercussions. 10. If you clicked “No”, where the donor has not entered a record before, a new donor number will automatically be assigned. After scanning the image, recording the sound, or selecting the file, you will be reminded to register this donor and number in the copyright book (see the section Using a Copyright Book). 11. “What is this record’s format?” Select the format for this record, e.g. image, sound, or text.
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“What is this record's format?"
12. Choose an input source for the item you wish add to the record. Follow the directions for the record format you selected:
Photograph. Click on “Scanner” to scan the image using the Comma software, and go to the section Scanning with Comma. For tips on scanning or advice on using other scanning software, see section Using a Scanner. Click on “Choose a file” to use a previously scanned or saved image file (in a supported format), and see section Choosing a File.
Document Click on “Scanner” to scan the document or a photograph of the document using the Comma software, and go to section Scanning with Comma. For tips on scanning or advice on using other scanning software, see the section Using a Scanner. Click on “Choose a file” to use a previously scanned or saved image file (in a supported format), and see the section Choosing a File.
Object Click on “Scanner” to scan the object or a photograph of the object using the Comma software, and go to section Scanning with Comma. For tips on scanning or advice on using other scanning software, see the section Using a Scanner. Click on “Choose a file” to use a previously scanned or saved image file (in a supported format), and see the section Choosing a File.
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Video Click on “Choose a file”, for information on the size and type of file that Comma can use see the Video section.
Sound Click on “Create a new clip,” and go to section Adding and Editing a Sound. Note: If you wish to use a previously recorded or saved sound file, you will have the option to do so after clicking "Create a new clip." See section Adding and Editing a Sound.
Text Click on “Choose a file,” and see section Choosing a File.
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Scanning with Comma After completing the steps above, and selecting “Scanner,” you will be presented with the preview scan screen. Comprehensive instructions are shown during scanning. Note: For tips on scanning or advice on using other scanning software, see the section Using a Scanner.
1. Lift up the scanner lid. 2. Place the picture or item to be scanned face down on the scanner. Make sure that it is at least 1cm from and square with the edges of the scanner glass. This distance may not be necessary on all scanners but some scanners will not capture hard to the edge, a particular problem with very small records like passport photographs or postage stamps. 3. Close the lid slowly so as not to disturb the position of the picture or item you are scanning. 4. Click “OK” to start scanning the preview. You will be asked to wait while the scanner previews the image. Go to Selecting and Scanning an Area below. 5. If the preview fails, then your scanner is not correctly set up to scan inside the Comma software. If this is the case: a) Exit the Comma software. If your computer has completely failed, then press the ‘Ctrl,’ ‘Alt,’ and ‘Delete’ keys at the same time. This will get you out of any program on a computer running the
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Windows operating system. Ensure that the scanner works properly outside Comma before proceeding. b) You might have chosen the incorrect scanner when initially prompted. To reset this, CLICK ON “Setup” from the editing menu and select your scanner again. c) The scanner could be locked. Many scanners have a way of locking moving parts before transport, usually a sliding switch under the unit. Note: If the picture is sideways or upside-down, this can be changed later. Extra options: 6. “Cancel” - Cancels the scanning operation. 7. This operation allows you to select and scan a particular area from a larger photograph or scan-able item. It can also be used to remove any wasteful borders around a picture. In general, it is best to capture the whole item. This operation can take a little practice. Remember that the original photographer, the person who put it in an album and the donor all chose the photograph and it may be insulting to crop to your own sensibilities.
Selecting an Area
8. After clicking “OK” (to remove the panel of instructions), do the following: 9. Move the mouse pointer to the top left corner of the area you wish to scan and keep. 10. Press the left (or primary) mouse button and keep it pressed down. 11. Move the mouse pointer to the bottom right corner of the area you wish to scan and keep. 12. Release the mouse button. 13. If you made an error, click “Re-select Area.” If you are satisfied with the area you selected, click “Finished” to start scanning.
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Extra options: 14. “Preview” – Caution: Restarts the scanning process with a preview scan. 15. - “Abandon Scan” - Cancels all scanning operations. 16. If the image does not need to be rotated, click “Finished” and go to section Adding Information to the Record.
Rotating the Image
If the image needs to be rotated, do the following: 17. Click - “Rotate Image” until the image is in the proper position. Note that clicking the "Rotate Image" icon rotates the scanned image counter-clockwise in 90 degree increments. If your image is still improperly aligned after rotating, or if rotating the image did not fix its alignment, you will have to scan the image again, making sure to align it properly on the scanner glass. You can also edit the image using other software, and then import the corrected image back into Comma. 18. Click “Finished”. Extra options: 19. “Preview” - Caution: Restarts the scanning process with a preview scan. 20. - “Abandon Scan” - Cancels all scanning operations.
Choosing a File After following the steps above, and selecting “Choose a file,” you are prompted to select the file you want to add to the record.
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Choosing a File
1. Browse to the folder containing the file (image, video, sound, text) you wish to use. 2. Click on the file name. 3. Click on “Open.” 4. You will be asked to confirm your choice. 5. If you selected the correct file, click “Yes”. Note: If you are adding a text file to a text record, make sure to type the author’s name and/or description in the box above the text before you click “Yes.” 6. If the file you selected is not the correct one, click “No,” and try again. If you cannot find the file, click “Cancel,” leave the Comma software and try to find it by browsing or searching your computer’s hard drive.
Adding Information to the Record Whenever you are setting descriptions and categorising material always try to imagine someone searching for that record. This means that a humorous caption for instance may actually mean that the record cannot be found Once you have scanned an image or selected a file, you will be led through a series of screens allowing you to add further details to the record. When adding information, you may wish to consult other sections for advice on entering record details using the Comma controlled vocabulary. You may wish to have the text in your records translated into another language. To help simplify this process, as you create captions, hot spots and texts, copy their text into a word processor document, making sure to identify each one according to its record ID number. This way, the translator can simply work
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through the word processor document, and then the translated items can be moved into their appropriate records. Every time you add a record (or a new item to a record), you are given the opportunity to add the following information to the record, in the following order: Note: For any category of information where you do not have something to enter, or where the category is not relevant, click “None” at the top of the screen, and you will be taken to the next category.
Date This field is required. Enter the exact date, if you know it, by using the appropriate boxes for day, month and year. If the date you wish to enter is today’s date, click “Now.” Try to be as accurate as possible. If the date you have entered is exact, click on the “9”. If the date is not exact or not known, enter a year that you feel is as close as possible to the actual date, and indicate that this is not an accurate date by clicking on the “?”. For example, if you suspect that a photograph is from the late 1960's, then enter 1967 in the “Year” box and click the “?”. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen.
Caption This field is required, and must be completed for every record. Click in the box and start typing to enter your caption. Remember that your caption cannot be longer than 255 characters (each letter, punctuation mark, and space is a character). Hidden contents of the box can be viewed by clicking the up and down arrows in the scroll-bar on the right-hand side of the box. When you are done, click “Finished” at the top of the screen. Advanced user note: sometimes you will want to bulk-enter material and running through the categorisation wizard is slowing you down. To jump over the rest of the wizard you can enter the date and caption, which are obligatory, and INSTEAD of clicking finished on the caption screen press the ESC (escape) key on the keyboard Details of all of the categories and what they mean can be found in the Vocabulary in Comma section
People From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Couple • Crowd
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• • • •
Family Group Single Children
Gender From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Female • Male • Mixed
Landscape From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Cultivated Rural • Domestic • Industrial • Marine • Natural • Urban • National/Provincial Parks • Private Gardens • Other Parks • Mountains • Prairies
Buildings From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Agricultural • Commercial • Domestic • Industrial • Military • Public • Religious • School • Other • Cultural • Monument • Bridge
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Transport From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Air • Water • Bus/Coach • Rail • Streetcar/Tram • Bicycle • Car • Lorry / Truck • Motorcycle • Various • Other • Animal • Recreational
Events From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Educational • Family • Historic • Leisure • Social/Entertainment • Sporting • Wedding • Birthday • Funeral • Religious • Other
Work From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Agricultural • Construction • Domestic • Education • Food • Heavy Industry • Light Industry • Mining • Shops • Textiles
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• • • • • • • • • • •
Transport Military Health Office Public Service Horticultural Other Fishing Hunting Forestry Various
Sport From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Air • Animal • Track & Field • Ball • Combat • Cycling • Fishing • Gymnastics • Hunting • Ice/Snow • Games • Motor • Outdoor Life • Racquet • Shooting • Water • Other
Location Add location information whenever possible. Remember that these archives will be available on the Internet through www.commanet.org and will be reaching an international audience. Be as precise as possible in recording locations. Do not use abbreviations. Include information from the specific to the more general, for example, “Main Street, Batley, West Yorkshire.” You can be even more specific if you know the postcode or in the UK the 8 character grid reference (like SE265338 ) which you can get from www.multimap.com, On the right side of the screen will be a list of previously entered locations. If the location you wish to assign to the record is the same as one in the list on the right, click on that location in the list, and it will appear in the location box below. If there are any records with the same location as that which you have entered or
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selected, the “Found” box at the bottom of the screen will show how many of them there are. If possible tag material to a pre-used location that that will probably make a more findable record.
To enter location details: Click in the location box and start typing, or select a previously entered location from the list on the right. Use a text to add extra location details. When you are done, click “Finished” at the top of the screen.
Object From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Containers • Clothing/Costume • Furnishings • Recreational • Musical • Tools/Equipment • Weapons/Ammunition • Stamps • Currency • Visual Art • Other
Document From the list presented on the screen, choose the term that best describes the material in the record you are entering. • Certificate • Deed • Diary • Educational • Ephemera • Genealogy • Greeting Card • Journal • Ledger • Letter • Map • Chart • Newspaper
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Extra From the list presented on the screen, choose the term(s) that best describes the material in the record you are entering. Note: This is the only category where more than one term can be chosen. While you are able to tick all of the terms in this category, only the first four terms selected will be associated with your record. • Animals • Architecture • Entertainment • Fashion • Formal Portrait • Military • Social History • The Depression • World War I • World War II • Other Wars • Pre 1900 • The 1900s • The 1910s • The 1920s • The 1930s • The 1940s • The 1950s • The 1960s • The 1970s • The 1980s • The 1990s • The 2000s • Music • Theatre • Visual Arts
Hot Spot Once you have added an image to a record, and entered its information, you can add hot spots. To do this: Click on “Add Hot Spot.” Click on the picture where you would like to add the hot spot. Avoid placing hot spots near people’s faces or on the most important part of an object as this obscures the very thing that you are identifying. A shoulder is generally the best place. Add text related to the hot spot in the box. Try to adhere to the Guidelines for Recording Names. A list of previously added hot spot text will appear on the right
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of your screen. Whenever possible, try to always use previously added hot spot text as this will make searching for hotspots easier. Add more lengthy details in a full text entry. Hotspots are very flexible in their use and can be used to effectively add categories to those pre-defined, for instance “Wortley Road First Eleven” could be placed in the corner of all of the team’s pictures. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen.
Sound You can add a sound only to a record whose main format is an image, video or a text. You cannot add a second sound to a record whose main format is a sound. To add or edit a sound, see the appropriate section.
Text You can add a text to a record whose main format is an image, video or sound. You can also attach additional texts to a record whose main format is a text. To add or edit a text, see the appropriate section.
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Editing Hot Spots 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Choose the archive that you wish to edit. Choose “Edit the details of a record”. Find the record you wish to edit. Move the mouse pointer over the hot spot to view its associated text. Click on the hot spot text below the picture and the hot spot text editor will appear.
Hot Spot Editing Screen
6. Edit the text. 7. Choose whether to change just the hot spot that you have selected or to change all of the other hot spots for this person or object in other image records. Decide which to use by considering the following: 8. If you find that a hot spot has been entered incorrectly, perhaps confusing two people with the same name, then choosing to change just that hot spot will separate it from the previously identical hot spots in other image records. 9. On the other hand, you might find that the hot spots have been entered onto the correct person, but that the name is spelled incorrectly. In this case, choose to update all of the hot spots. 10. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen.
Moving a Hot Spot 1. Click on a hot spot and hold the left (or primary) mouse button down.
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2. Drag the hot spot to the new position. 3. Release the mouse button.
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Viewing and Editing Records As new information, sounds or texts become available, you can add them and edit records already in the archive. As long as you have the dongle (if used) and correct password, you will be able to edit records. For this reason, it is important to keep passwords secret, and to change them if you suspect that unauthorised people know them. The records in your archive can be viewed in a number of different ways. The entire archive's records can be viewed as a random slide show, they can be clicked through in order from beginning to end, or they can be searched. Becoming familiar with these different ways of viewing your records will make it easy to retrieve and edit. You can make changes to your archive at any time. Remember, however, that once your archive has been sent to the Commanet, any changes you make to your own copy will not automatically be reflected in the Commanet website, you will need to send an updated CD/DVD. See Distributing Archives, for more information.
Editing the Details of a Record From the main menu: 1. Choose “Edit.” 2. Enter your password. 3. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen. 4. Choose “Edit the details of a record.” 5. Find the record you wish to edit by searching or browsing through the archive. 6. Once you find the record you wish to edit, click on the actual word that describes the category you wish to edit, for example, “Work.” 7. Choose the term within the category that is better suited to the record. If you are editing a field where text has been entered (e.g. caption), click in the text box and edit the text. Click the sound icon to add or edit a sound. Click the pen and paper icon to add or edit a text. 8. When you are done, click “Finished” at the top of the page. Click on the main menu icon. 9. 10. Click on “Finish editing.”
Adding and Editing a Text Reminiscence A record can have more than one text reminiscence attached, allowing for reminiscences from several authors to be included in a single record. Each author can add one reminiscence to the record. Each author’s name will appear in the
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author box at the top once their reminiscence is added. Clicking on a specific author’s name will display that author’s reminiscence. Note: If the record's main format is a reminiscence, the first author listed in the author box is the author of that main reminiscence. Any authors listed below this first one are the authors of additional reminiscences attached to this record.
Adding a Reminiscence While editing a record: 1. Click on the reminiscence icon 2. Click “Add” at the top of the screen.
Reminiscence Editing Screen
1. You must enter an author’s name and/or title in the author box above the text box. Use the standards for entering names as outlined in the section Standards in Comma. 2. You can enter reminiscence in one of two ways: 3. Click in the large text box at the bottom of the screen and start typing. 4. Enter text in a word processor. Copy and paste the text into the text box at the bottom of the screen. See Formatting a Text below. 5. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen. 6. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen again. 7. If more than one author wishes to add a reminiscence, simply repeat the steps above for each author.
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Editing a Reminiscence While editing a record: 1. Click on the reminiscence icon 2. Click “Edit” at the top of the screen. 3. If there is more than one author listed in the author box, click on the name of the author of the reminiscence you would like to edit. 4. Edit the reminiscence and/or author. 5. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen. 6. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen again.
Formatting a Reminiscence You can format text with various styles. To do this: 1. Move the mouse pointer to the beginning of the section of text that you want to format. 2. Press and hold down the left (or primary) mouse button. 3. Move the mouse pointer to the end of the section of text that you want to format. 4. Release the mouse button. Note: The process you just completed is called "highlighting" text. 5. Click on a text style: 6. “Bold” - To change the text back to normal, click again on "Bold." 7. "Italic" - To change the text back to normal, click again on "Italic." 8. "Heading" - this will make the highlighted text larger and bold, perfect for a heading or title. To change the text back to normal, click on "Normal." 9. "Normal" - this changes text in the "Heading" style back to normal. You can also use: "Ctrl+X" to cut highlighted text. "Ctrl+C" to copy highlighted text. "Ctrl+V" to paste cut/copied text. "Tab" to place tabs. "Ctrl+Z", the most useful short-cut in Windows, it un-does the last action. “ key. This always forces the Windows “task bar” to the The “Windows front, allowing access to all commands and programs.
Copying Text between Comma and Word Processors or Other Applications When entering reminiscences, you have two choices: 1. You may wish to work in a word processor and then copy the reminiscence into the Comma software.
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2. You may choose to create a reminiscence in the Comma software and cut and paste the reminiscence into another application. For example, if you paste the reminiscence into a word processor, you can check the spelling in that reminiscence using the word processor, and then cut and paste it back into Comma. You will find the typical Windows option to “copy” and “paste” in the Comma software using the right mouse button. These operations can also be performed using shortcut keys. To copy text using shortcut keys: Highlight the text you wish to copy from Comma as outlined above in Formatting a Text. Press the “Ctrl” key, and while holding the “Ctrl” key down, press the “C” key.
Press the Windows key on your keyboard, and from the "Programs" menu, choose the application (e.g. word processor) that you wish to open. In order to paste the text into the application (e.g. word processor) you opened, press the “Ctrl” key, and while holding it down, press the “V” key. To return to the Comma software, minimise the open application by clicking on the “Minimise” button at the top right of the document’s window.
Switching Between Comma and Word Processors or Other Applications Note: In order to have access to another application while working in Comma, make sure that you start your other application before starting the Comma software. If you would like to switch between the Comma software and another application: From within Comma, press and hold down the “Alt” key. While holding down the “Alt” key, press the “Tab” key once and release it, all the while keeping the “Alt” key pressed down. A window will appear in the centre of your screen. Simply keep pressing the “Tab” key until the box is around the icon of the application you wish to access, and then release both keys. To return to the Comma software, minimise the open application by clicking on the Minimise button (shown left) at the top right of the window.
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Adding and Editing a Sound Note: Make sure that your system is properly set up to play and record audio. See the section Audio Setup. If you are editing a record and wish to add or change a sound, click on the icon at the top of that record's page. This can be quite slow to load. This will open the "simple" audio editing screen allowing you to record, play, or load a sound.
Simple Audio Editing Screen
On the Comma simple audio editing screen, you will see the following controls for recording, playing and stopping an audio file.
Recording a New Sound 1. 2. 3. 4.
From the Comma audio editing screen, click on “New Sound”. Click the “Record” button and begin speaking into the microphone. Click the “Stop” button as soon as you are done recording. Listen to the sound you just recorded by using the play and stop buttons:
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5. If you are satisfied with the recording, click “Finished” at the top of the screen. You will be asked to confirm your decision by clicking on either "Yes" or "No." 6. If you are not happy with the recording, and wish to try again, click “New Sound”, and go back to 2.
Loading a Pre-Recorded or Saved Sound File 1. From the Comma audio editing screen, select “Open audio file” to load a previously recorded or saved sound file. 2. In the window that just appeared, browse to the folder containing the “wav” or "mp3" sound file (e.g. "soundname.wav"; "soundname.mp3") you wish to use. 3. Click on the file name. 4. Click on “Open”. Large files may be quite slow to load. 5. Listen to the sound you just selected by using the play and stop buttons on the Comma sound editing screen. 6. If you selected the correct file, click “Save Sound”, and then click “Finished” at the top of the page. 7. If the file you selected in not the correct one, click “Open audio file”, and try again. If you cannot find the file, click “None" at the top of the screen, exit the Comma software, and try to find it by browsing or searching your computer’s hard drive.
Advanced Audio Editing If you are familiar with sound editing, and would like to further edit the recordings or sound files you have, you can use the advanced audio editing screen, which includes functions for fading audio in and out, normalizing and cutting sounds. 1. To access the advanced audio editing screen, click on "Advanced" at the top of the simple audio editing screen.
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2. The screen-grab above shows the advanced audio editing screen with a sound file loaded. The visual display of the "wav" sound file is a waveform. If no sound has been recorded or loaded, the waveform window will be blank. 3. To edit the sound, first select the part of the waveform you wish to edit: 4. The editor works in a similar way to a word processor, only parts that are selected will be changed. Move the mouse pointer to the beginning of the section you want edit. Click and hold down the left (primary) mouse button, and then move the mouse pointer to the end of the section you want to edit, and release the mouse button.
5. You can then select the tools from the row underneath. 6. The button on the very right, "Normalizeâ€?, will set the selected portion to highest un-distorted volume. If you wish to normalize the entire sound, select the entire waveform before normalizing. 7. The "Cut" function near the left is very useful for removing comments by the interviewer or other unwanted noise or exchanges. 8. "Fading in" at the beginning of the sound, and "fading out" at the end can make a noisy recording sound less jarring. 9. Click "Finished" when you are done editing the sound.
Other Commands At various points in the sound editing process, you will also have access to the following buttons and functions: 1. Cancel Cancels the latest recording session and attempts to recover the last deleted sound recording. 2. Delete Sound Deletes the current sound and then sets the recorder ready for a new sound recording. Note: You will be asked to confirm your decision by clicking "OK" or "Cancel.â€? If you click "Cancelâ€?, the sound will not be deleted. 3. Finished Click this when you have finished recording. You will be prompted to save the recording if you have not already done so.
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4. New Sound Sets the recorder ready for a new sound recording. 5. None If you have just added a sound to a record, but have changed your mind and wish to remove the sound before saving, click on "None”. 6. Open audio file Allows you to load a previously recorded or saved “wav” file. Note: Doing this will overwrite any other sound already saved in that record. 7. Simple Closes the advanced audio editing screen, and returns to the simple audio editing screen. 10. Alternatively use an external sound editor to record and edit the audio. You can download Audacity, a very useful free one at http://audacity.sourceforge.net , WavePad at www.nch.com.au , or buy something like Adobe SoundBooth at http://www.adobe.com/uk/products/soundbooth/ where you may qualify for a worthwhile discount.
Sound Format The sounds recorded directly into Comma are stored as 16 bit, 22 kHz “wav” samples, more than good enough for speech or sound. If you want to use a different “wav” file format, then record it as a file and import it, instead of creating a new file inside Comma. If the sound will play in Windows Sound Recorder, then it will play in Comma. The software also allows the importing of previously saved sounds in the "mp3" format. Directly imported CD audio will stay at its full quality and in stereo. Be very aware of copyright implications. For instance home recording of you singing a copyright protected piece of music will still be copyright protected.
Equipment The best machine to use is a digital recorder with: 1. Microphone inputs or built in microphone(s) 2. Manual record level 3. Do not use a battery-powered portable cassette machine with built-in microphone, any Dolby, or automatic recording level. This type of machine will always give uneven, noisy, and distorted sound, and, if the batteries are flat, pitch variations will occur. 4. A tie-clip is the best type of microphone to use. This is a small microphone that clips to the speaker. Its disadvantage is that the interviewer will be recorded quietly but in general Comma records have only one speaker with prompting removed.
The Microphone and Where to put it 1. Use a tie-clip microphone, if possible. 2. Make sure all batteries are fresh or that you are plugged into the mains.
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3. Affix the microphone to the clothing about 15cm below the chin. 4. Clip the wire further down the clothes to reduce movement noise. 5. If you cannot use a tie clip microphone, then use a good quality directional, dynamic microphone set on a stand or laid on a pillow next to the script, level with, and 30cm from the speaker's mouth. Never hold the microphone in your hand.
Getting the Best Possible Recording 1. Have a prepared script of questions to ask, or bring along photographs to encourage conversation. 2. Set aside a good length of time in a well-organised, quiet, and relaxing environment. 3. Prevent equipment problems from interrupting the flow of the recording session by ensuring that the equipment works properly before you begin. 4. Make sure that the people speaking always identify themselves, and that they mention why they are speaking on a particular topic (e.g. "My name is Mary Smith. I was the nurse to the right in this photograph."). 5. Make sure that the speaker does not wear noisy clothing like a windcheaters or leather jackets, or sit on a squeaky chair. 6. Listen for noise in the room and turn off unnecessary equipment like fans, air conditioners, refrigerators. Remember to turn them back on later! 7. Avoid echoes in the recording space. A living room with carpet, curtains, and sofa is good. A classroom or kitchen is not. Comfortable surroundings can also make the speaker more relaxed. 8. You may find it best to record in a person’s home and then transfer the sound to Comma later. This places less pressure on the person speaking. If you go this route, we suggest that you create a 16 bit, mono “wav” file at 22 kHz sampling frequency for speech. 9. However, the use of a separate recorder and clip on microphone can sometimes be intimidating. Asking a contributor to speak directly into a computer’s built in microphone while using Comma’s record facility, can produce a much more spontaneous and natural sounding reminiscence. 10. It is of course essential to encourage a speaker but it is very easy to ruin a recording by doing this with sound rather than silent gesture. 11. Remember that sound can be edited within Comma. 12. A good free sound editing program can be downloaded from http://audacity.sourceforge.net and may also be on the Comma distribution CD in the “tools” folder.
Audio Setup Verifying Your Recording Setup Be sure that your computer is properly set to record sound and that the speakers work correctly. If you have a recording session and find later that there are technical faults it will very likely be difficult to capture those sounds again.
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To do this: 1. From within Comma you can open the sound editor and click “setup” at the top of the screen. Outside of the Comma software, go to and double-click the volume control icon, probably next to the clock in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen. Otherwise, you can also find it in the Windows Start menu under: 2. Programs/Accessories/Entertainment/Volume Control
Windows Volume Control
3. In the Volume Control window, make sure that the "Line In" level is not set to "Mute”. 4. Go to the "Options" menu, and choose "Properties”. Select "Recording”, and make sure that both "Microphone" and "Line In" are selected. Then click "OK”. The Volume Control Properties window will become the Recording Control window.
Volume Control Properties Window
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5. In the Recording Control window, make sure that neither the "Microphone" nor the "Line In" levels are turned all the way down. If you are not sure where to set the levels, put them to half way. You can always adjust these later if the recording is too quiet or too loud. 6. Load Sound Recorder from the Windows Start menu under: Programs/Accessories/Entertainment/Sound Recorder
Windows Sound Recorder
7. Using Sound Recorder is quite straightforward. Use the “Help” menu if necessary. Get a good recording in Sound Recorder before starting to record in Comma, as they use the same volume and input settings. 8. For help with using a microphone, and advice on how to get the best possible recording, see the section Recording Sound.
Comma Audio Setup 1. After making sure that your PC is properly set-up to record audio, verify that recording audio will also work from within the Comma software. 2. From the Comma audio editing screen, click on “Setup”.
Audio Setup Screen
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3. To check the audio input levels for recording (the volume at which sound will be recorded), click on "Open sound input control panelâ€?. In the window that opens, adjust the slider under "Line In" to a little over half. If, after recording a sound, the volume of your recording is too low or too high, return to this screen and adjust the "Line In" volume accordingly. Slight under-recording will give better sound quality than any overload, and the level can always be increased later. 4. To check the audio output levels for playback (the volume at which sound will be played), first test the playback volume by clicking on "Play looped." If the volume is too low or too high, click on "Open sound output control panelâ€?. In the window that opens, adjust the "Master Out" and/or "Wave" volume sliders to an appropriate level. 5. To perform a quick test of the recording function, click "Quick record test button" and speak for a few moments into the microphone. If you are able to record a short sound, then your recording setup is correct.
Video Comma can only import video from files. There are several things to consider about entering video 1. What quality is acceptable bearing in mind the audience for this version of the video 2. Will it play on most computers that Comma will be displayed on 3. Will it be too large to fit onto the distribution media, CD, DVD, or other, like memory stick? If you are entering material that is part of a long video then perhaps you will want to split this into short sections about particular subjects, or have just highlights, referring viewers to the location of the full original. You may want to show the video at a lower quality than the original. Very often the material that you choose is basically interesting because of its content rather than the finer points of its technical quality, and reducing the size and/or quality will have no affect, except that it will play more readily on other computers. The main concern is the actual file-size which will limit what can be distributed by physical media. Some video recordings can be gigantic in size, for instance an uncompressed DV quality AVI file taken from a mini-dv camcorder will produce a file of perhaps 214 Kb per minute, saving in uncompressed form would give a file of a staggering 1201 Kb per minute, but this could be saved in WMV format with comparable quality at 27 Kb. In other words, save at a quality that is appropriate, and use a compressed format like AVI or WMV. As a guide this means that a full data CD-R will hold approximately 3 minutes of DV-AVI, Â˝ minute of uncompressed, but 25 minutes of WMV.
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Also remember that if you were to save at ½ linear size (360 * 288 as opposed to the original 720 * 576) then the file would be ¼ the size, and in most cases this will be a fine size for viewing. There will be an additional cost to web hosting if files are of a huge size. You should always archive the original tapes/files in case you want to return to the material at a later date.
Note: You cannot use .mov (QuickTime) files.
Storylines Storylines are ordered commentaries told using the records and information already in your archive. Within any archive are various threads of stories. Perhaps one particular record within an archive plays a role in telling many small stories related to the overall archive. Storylines illustrate a story by presenting selected images, sounds, and videos in a certain order, interspersed with text, something like a slide-show. It is through storylines that you really get to tell your stories and lead viewers along a certain path through your archive records. One of the great benefits of the Comma software is that you can use the same object or image in many storylines.
Viewing a Storyline 1. From the main menu, choose “View Storyline”. 2. Choose the storyline you wish to view by clicking on it. 3. Choose the way you want to view the storyline. From the bottom left-hand corner of the screen, make a selection by clicking in the small circle: 4. “View Storyline – Click through.” This is useful if you are presenting the archive and want to explain the archive or functions of the software to others. Audio and video will play when requested. 5. “View Storyline – Slide show – once through." This is useful if you wish to present the archive once to a group or an individual, and then have it finish. Audio and video will play once when appropriate. 6. “View Storyline – Slide show – continuous.” This is useful if you choose to leave your computer in a public space to run a slide show. Audio and video will play once when appropriate. 7. To start the storyline click on the text next to the selection that you have made. 8. Note: If you selected to view the storyline as a slide show, you can also specify the number of seconds each slide stays on the screen before the
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next slide appears. Enter your preferred number of seconds between slides in the small box in the very bottom-left corner of the screen.
Albums 1. Building a storyline involves first starting or selecting an "album”. An album is a selection of materials from the entire archive. It is from this preselection that a storyline is created. It is unordered and is invisible to anyone without editing privileges. 2. You fill an album by selecting records whose images, sounds or videos you would like to use in a storyline. Simply clicking on “Add to Album” in a record’s edit window will add it to the currently active album. If you add to the incorrect album then delete it from that album and then from the main menu page choose “Choose album / storyline”. 3. Note: Text records cannot be added to albums directly, but you can repeat text from a text record in a storyline text card by copying the text from the record and pasting it into the storyline text card. Adding to an Album
Creating and Adding to an Album 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8.
From the main menu, choose “Edit.” Enter your password and click on “Finished” at the top of the screen. Click “Album”. To add a new storyline click on “Add Album/Storyline” at the bottom of the screen. Note: Remember that every storyline is an ordered version of an album, so creating a new storyline automatically creates an associated album. If you want to edit an existing storyline you can choose it from the list. If you do not choose the correct storyline, your material may be added to the wrong storyline. Enter the name of your storyline in the text box. Click “Finished” at the top of the screen. From the editing menu, choose “Edit Album/Storyline”. Click on the binoculars at the top of the screen to search for the material you wish to add to your album. See section xxxx9.1, Viewing and Searching for Records, for help.
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9. Add an item to the album by clickin g on “Add to Album ” at the bottom of the screen. If you cannot see the record details, click on the magnifying glass (Zoom-Out button) at the top of the screen. 10.
When you have finished adding items to your album, click on the main menu icon in the top left corner of the screen. You can always add more items to the album later.
11. Choose “Edit Album/Storyline”, and see section Working with Storylines, to begin editing your storyline.
Working with Storylines The storyline screen is divided into two parts.
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1. The bottom part of the screen shows the material in your album. Every time you add an item to the album, it will appear in the album to the left. You can move horizontally through the album by clicking on the left and right arrows at the bottom. 2. The top part shows the elements of your storyline in order from left to right. You can move horizontally through your storyline by clicking on the left and right arrows at either side. 3. To move an item from the album to your storyline, use the arrows and move the storyline elements so that the "Insert" arrow is where you would like to place the item. Then highlight the appropriate item in the album below and click “Insert”. 4. When an item in the storyline is selected, clicking on the below it removes that item from the storyline, but leaves it in the album. When an item in the album (at the bottom of the screen) is selected, clicking on the at the bottom right of the screen deletes that item from the album. 5. Every time you create a new storyline/album, two new "text cards" are automatically added to the storyline. The first one indicates the beginning of the storyline, and reads, “Start <name of storyline>;” the other marks the end of the storyline and reads, “End <name of storyline>”. You should edit these cards by double-clicking on them in the album portion of the screen. Use these text cards to add an introduction and conclusion to your storyline, should you wish. 6. To add additional text cards, click “Add” at the bottom right of the screen. 7. By default, each item in the storyline takes up the full screen. If you want to place a text card with an image, video, or sound on the same screen, then put the text card to the right of the other record and click “Join.” When the storyline is viewed, the joined elements will appear together on the same screen. To separate joined storyline elements, click “Split.” 8. Adding text cards to your storyline is strongly encouraged. Text cards provide you with an opportunity to add context and information not available in the archive records themselves. With text cards you can also add extra texts or make other historical or important connections between records. 9. The use of sounds is also very strongly encouraged. Using a sound record or another record with a sound attached makes for a much richer viewing experience. For example, if an image record with a sound attached is used in a storyline, and the storyline is viewed by click through one record at a time, the sound can be heard by clicking on the sound play button . If the storyline is viewed as a slide show, the sound attached to the image record will be played automatically when the image record is displayed. 10. To preview a storyline at any time click on “Storyline contents” above the first storyline entry.
Editing a Storyline 1. From the main menu, choose “Edit.” 2. Enter your password and click on “Finished” at the top of the screen. 3. Choose “Edit Album/Storyline”, and see above.
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Appendix one: Making a distributable CD, and backing up A backup and a redistributable disc are identical.
Order of actions 1. Do NOT have a CD/DVD in any drive 2. Open Comma 3. Go to edit 4. Click setup 5. Click “Backup or make distributable” 6. Leave all settings as they are 7. Click “make distributable”. 8. Wait 9. Click finished 10. Exit comma completely 11. Double click “my computer” 12. Open “C” drive 13. You will see
14. Highlight ALL the files IN THE RIGHT HAND WINDOW 15. Click on then “file” menu at the top of the window 16. Go to “Send to” 17. Choose CD-R / DVD-R drive 18. This may be slightly different on some machines but is covered in windows help (above the “start” button) 19. A box will pop up. Ignore it. 20. Insert a recordable CD-R / DVD-R 21. Take the default action when a window pops up 22. Click “write these files to CD” 23. Follow the wizard
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24. Alternatively copy the CONTENTS of the folder as shown above to a USB stick or external drive and then install and view from there That’s it 99% of failures are due to not following instruction What you should see on a Commanet distributable cd (DVD/USB stick, or external hard drive)
Note that the disc has been given the name of today’s date by the Windows CD writing wizard, which is useful for archival management
Backing Up This is extremely important and you should not undertake much archiving until you have mastered this. Note: Save often! In order to avoid losing hours of work in the case of a power failure or other problem, be sure to continually save your archive as you work. Whenever you finish working, you should back up and safely store any changes you have made. You can do this by copying your work onto a memory stick, external drive, CD/DVD (see section Making a distributable CD, and backing up above), or you can save the archive to another directory on the hard drive of your computer. To save the archive to another directory on your hard drive: Enter edit mode Go to setup Click “backup or make redistributable” Choose the drive to copy to. This will always be at the root of a drive. Click Backup All necessary files are copied to a directory at the root of the selected drive called Comma_Redistributable_directory This folder’s contents can be copied to CD-R DVD-R or other long term storage medium Be sure to label with the current date all backup media
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This makes a backup, which is in fact the identical method to make a Redistributable CD Test it ON A DIFFERENT COMPUTER! Note: Use your virus checking software at least every week. Avoid using the floppy or CD drives for loading any unknown software or games. Allowing unprotected access to unknown discs or to the internet will eventually cause catastrophic loss of data. One day your computer will break or be stolen and you backup will be your only copy of what may be possibly years of work
We strongly suggest that you do NOT use rewritable media and that you label these with the date and store somewhere safe, preferably in a separate building.
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Appendix two: Publishing your archive on the Internet You can only publish your archive by using the services of Commanet. Contact them for details. Depending on the version you are using there may be charge for having your archive web enabled. Follow the procedure for backing up in section Making a distributable CD, and backing up above. Use a blank CD/DVD-R/USB key/external drive and label your archive media with the following information: Your name, The name of your archive, The number of images in your archive, The number of storylines in your archive, An email address to which feedback from the Comma section of the Commanet can be directed, you could get a free email account from Hotmail of Google especially for the archive. Your unique Comma serial number (found on your copy of the software CD, e.g. <xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx>), and The date on which the archive CD was created. Send to: Storyville 29 Wortley Road Leeds LS12 3HT Note: We recommend that you mail the media to COMMANET in a stiff case in bubble wrap or a thick, cardboard envelope (found at any post office). Dust filled jiffy-bags are not suitable.
Editing and Re-sending Archive to www.commanet.org Over time, you will learn more about the subject of an archive and may want to include this new information in the version that is www.commanet.org. Commanet includes a mechanism for people around the world to comment on your exhibits, and you may find that, based on this feedback, additions become necessary. Updating and enhancing archives is always encouraged.
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Comma on the Internet When an archive is included in the Commanet website, people around the world will have access to it. For this reason, it is essential that you think about your archive as others might see it. Be aware that others will not have the same background in the community that you do, so you will want to be specific in the archive details that you offer. The section Standards in Comma, will help you think about the names of people and places that you will use in your archive. You will also need to be very aware of the copyright clearances required when exhibiting photos anywhere, and particularly on the Internet. Please see section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for more details. The Comma website includes a function where anyone from around the world can comment on the content of your archive. These comments will be re-directed to you (after we have filtered out any spam), and you will be able to decide whether you should add or edit your archive information based on these comments. For this reason, it is essential that you keep Storyville.email@example.com informed of any changes to your email address. You can find Comma at www.commanet.org.
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Appendix three: detailed information about media and categorisation: Record Formats Every record has one of the following formats: • • • • • • •
Image Other Document Object Video Sound Text
Note: Document, object and image records all feature an image as their main item, whether that image is of a document, an object, or another image, such as a photograph. They are entered via a scanner or pre-digitised image files. Some records will have more than just an image or a sound. Some records can have a sound, texts, or both, added later. For example, a document record can have a sound and texts added to it. In this case, the record’s main format is document, and it has a sound and texts attached. Image You can add a photograph or any other image to an archive record by scanning it directly into the Comma software, or by using a previously scanned image file. Images from a digital camera or from outside the Comma software will normally be “jpg” files (see Using a Scanner, for more on image and file formats). If you would like to feature a previously saved image in a record, make sure that it is or has been converted to a “bmp” or “jpg” file. The Comma software does not have the capacity to convert images from all image formats. Most image editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop or Jasc Paint Shop Pro, will allow you to convert to these formats. You can import directly from Photo CD. Note: images must be scanned and saved at 24 bit colour resolution, no higher. Records featuring an image can have a sound and texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see the section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details.
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Other You will not likely need to use this format for a record, but if for some reason none of the other record formats is suitable or applies, create a record using this format. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see section 5.7, Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details. Document As outlined in Vocabulary in Comma, documents include: • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Certificate Deed Diary Educational Ephemera Genealogy Greeting Card Journal Ledger Letter Map Chart Newspaper
You can add a document to an archive record by scanning it directly into Comma, or by loading a previously scanned image file. You can also take pictures of documents with any regular or digital camera. If your document is too large to scan using the scanner, you can take a picture of it. The developed prints can then be scanned directly into Comma, or scanned by other software and saved as a file to be used later. Digital photographs of documents can also be saved as files to be used later. For advice on using a camera, see section Film and Digital Photography. If you have a large number of documents to add to your archive, you may find it easiest to prepare all of the images at one time using the scanning software that came with your scanner, and your camera if required. If you save the image files you create in one directory, then you can add these images to your archive without having to use the scanner every time you create a new record. Images from a digital camera or from outside the Comma software should be “bmp” or “jpg” files (see section Using a Scanner, for more on image and file formats). If you would like to feature a previously saved image in a record, make sure that it is or has been converted to a “bmp” of “jpg” file. The Comma software does not have the capacity to convert images from all formats. Most image editing software will allow you to convert to these formats.
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Document records can have a sound and texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see the section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details. Object As outlined in the section Vocabulary in Comma, an object is defined as any material thing, including: • • • • • • • • • • •
Containers Clothing/Costume Furnishings Recreational Musical Tools/Equipment Weapons/Ammunition Stamps Currency Visual Art Other
Objects can be featured in records by taking pictures of them with any regular or digital camera. The developed prints can then be scanned directly into Comma, or scanned by other software and saved as a file to be used later. Digital photographs of objects can also be saved as files to be used later. Some objects may even be able to be scanned directly, depending on their shape, size, fragility, and sensitivity to light. For advice on using a camera, see section Film and Digital Photography. If you have a large number of objects to add to your archive, you may find it easiest to prepare all of the images at one time using the scanning software that came with your scanner, and your camera if required. If you save the image files you create in one directory, then you can add these images to your archive without having to use the scanner every time you create a new record. Object records can have a sound and texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see the section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details. Video You can use previously recorded video footage or create a new video that relates to or enhances the story you are telling, and feature it in a record. The Comma software does not have the capacity to convert video from various formats, or to capture video directly.
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Videos must be “avi” files to work with the Comma software. If you would like to add a previously saved video to your archive, make sure that it is or has been converted to an "avi" or WMV file. You may need a multimedia tool or video editing software to do this conversion, possibly Windows Movie Maker Any video you use must not have dimensions so great that the computer or one used for showing a copy of it. Experiment with your particular hardware/software combination to see what is the optimum compromise between quality and file size. Be aware that video files can be extremely large and may not play well from older computers. They may also make it impossible to store many on a CD or DVD, the most likely backup and distribution media. Video records can have a sound and texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see the section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details. Sound You can add a sound to an archive record by using a previously recorded sound or by recording a new one using the Comma software and a microphone. Sounds of people speaking about the images in the archive make it much more interesting to the general public. This is especially true when the person has an accent, which in fact is virtually always the case. The sounds recorded directly into Comma are stored as 16 bit, 22 kHz “wav” samples, more than good enough for speech. If you want to use a different “wav” file format, then record it as a file using other software and import it, instead of creating a new sound using Comma. If you would like to add a previously recorded sound to your archive, make sure that it is or has been converted to a “wav” or "mp3" file. The Comma software does not have the capacity to convert sounds from all formats. If you have the proper set up for recording sounds, you can use Windows’ Sound Recorder to record short “wav” file, and then import it to Comma. If the sound plays in Windows’ Sound Recorder, then it will play in Comma. For directions on recording sounds with Comma see Adding and Editing a Sound. A sound can be the record’s main feature, but it can also be attached to a record featuring an image, video or text. If a sound is entered as the main feature, then a generic picture will represent it in the thumbnail image view. If a sound is associated with another featured item, like a photograph, then it is displayed with it. In both cases the sound can be played, paused, and stopped by control buttons. For more information on associating a sound with an image or a text, see section Adding and Editing a Sound. Please note that all sounds can also be transcribed into texts to accommodate those who will be viewing your archive and may have special need. It also means
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that the text can be searched to recover the recording; a mention of “mining” in a recording will then be findable. Sound records can have texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see section 5.7, Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property for further details. Text Including the written stories behind the objects, documents or images in your archive is not mandatory, but greatly enhances your archive. You can really involve members of your community by asking them to provide texts commenting on specific items in your archive. Ask a person in a photo to comment on a picture. Ask an expert or those who own the objects to discuss the importance of such items. Text reminiscences can be entered directly into the Comma software or created in “txt” file format. This file format saves raw text only, and uses no special text styles or formatting. A basic text editor, such as Windows’ Notepad, will create a “txt” file. Most word processors will also allow you to save a text document in the “txt” format through their “Save as…” function.
A text can be the record’s main feature, but it can also be attached to a record featuring an image, video or sound. If a text is associated with another record, then it is available by way of an icon, shown above. If a text is entered as the record's main format, then a generic picture will represent it in the thumbnail image view. In both cases the text is accessible for viewing. For more information on associating a text with an image, video or sound, see the section Adding and Editing a Text. Note: Be consistent in how you deal with spelling in texts and throughout your archive. You may decide to edit all text and correct spelling and grammar, but this could be insulting to the person that entered the original text. Variations in day-today grammar do exist (e.g. “The fire wants lit,” instead of, “The fire needs to be lit”) and are often tied to a community. For this reason, not correcting or altering text can give archive viewers a feel for local dialects. On the other hand, conditions could require the use of standardized spelling in order to avoid a negative public impression. Keeping the original text can also create a problem when viewers are searching for records later. For example, if the word “weather” has been entered as “whether,” it will be difficult to find the correct text. ] Note that it is appropriate to transcribe the audio in the vernacular, exactly as it was recorded. In order to help those who will be searching for these records in the future, it is also useful to add correctly spelled keywords at the end of the transcription (mining, accident, 1948, rescue)
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Records featuring a text can have a sound or additional texts attached. It is important that you respect copyright. Please see the section Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property, for further details.
Types of Information Once you have entered an image, video, sound or text into a record, you have the opportunity to further define the information about it, and to attach additional items. Records and the items within them, whether they are images, video, sounds or texts, can be edited repeatedly. The vocabulary and text you use to describe your records can be changed later on. You can also add or remove any sounds or texts during any editing session. For more information, see section Viewing and Editing Records. Note: Each record you enter automatically receives an ID number, e.g. "2.4," which is made up of two other numbers. The first number is the donor number, and it indicates which donor contributed the material to the record. The second number refers to the recordâ€™s place in the order for that donor. Therefore, record 2.4 is the fourth record entered using material from donor 2. These numbers are not editable or re-set-able for the simple reason that this could make a backup and the current archive have identical numbers, causing confusion. Date All records must have a date. Caption All records must have a caption, which is a short description of the image, video, sound, or text. Location Add location information whenever possible. Remember that these archives may be available to an international audience when displayed on the Commanet website. For this reason, you should be as precise as possible in recording locations, and include information from the specific to the more general. For example, â€œMain Street, Batley, West Yorkshire.â€? Vocabulary To make it easier to enter and search for records, a standardized vocabulary has been chosen to describe the items featured in your records. This vocabulary helps to ensure consistent usage when more than one person is entering archive records. The capacity of viewers to later search for records in your archive also depends on the use of this controlled vocabulary.
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Whenever you add a new record to a Comma archive you will be asked to choose terms that describe the item you are adding. For each record that you create, whether it features an image, video, sound or text, you have the option of further defining that featured item using the following categories: • • • • • • • • • • •
People Events Gender Sports Landscape Extra Buildings Transport Work Object Document
The above categories have more specific terms you can use to describe the items featured in your records. For a full description of the controlled vocabulary used with Comma, or for assistance when choosing terms, see section Vocabulary in Comma. Hot Spot A hot spot is a visual label attached to an image and used to identify a particular person, place or object in that image. An individual, place or object in a photograph can be identified by adding a hot spot to that person, place or object. When the person or object is featured in another photograph, the software automatically creates links that allow a viewer to follow the person or object throughout the archive. At any point, someone viewing your archive might find a person in another photograph that interests them and begin to follow that story instead. If a record has at least one hot spot, but it is not visible on the image, you can click on this icon. This will turn the hot spots in the image yellow. If you move your mouse pointer over the hot spot, information about it will be displayed under the image. A blue hot spot identifies a hot spot for which the viewer has searched. If you move the mouse pointer over a yellow and blue hot spot, you will be told how many hot spots are connected to this one. If you choose to follow this hot spot, you can click on it, and all the connected hot spots will be accessible to you by clicking on the arrows at the top of the screen. These will be ordered by date (earliest to latest).
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For more on adding hot spots, see section Adding Information to the Record. See also the section Editing Hot Spots. Sound Image, video and text records can have a sound recording attached. This step involves editing the record, and comes after the record has first been created. Text Image, video and sound records can have texts attached. Records whose main format is a text as well as images and video can also have additional texts attached. This step involves editing the record, and comes after the record has first been created.
Standards in Comma Using a standard set of categories to describe records, and a standard way of entering names, makes it easier to enter and later find records. Standard words have been chosen in Comma to define the material in your records. Definitions of these categories and words appear in section Vocabulary in Comma. Following standards, as shown below, ensures consistent usage when more than one person is entering records. It also ensures that records are easy to find when others view your archive. Within the software, you will be able to select from general categories to describe each item that you add to your archive. For example, if you were adding a 1930 photograph of a wedding party taken on the steps of a church, you might select categories and terms such as: Buildings: Religious Events: Wedding Gender: Mixed People: Group Format: Image If you were adding an image of a minerâ€™s helmet, you might select categories and terms such as: Format: Object Object: Clothing/Costume Work: Mining To enter details about a record, use the caption section. Adding a text to each record also gives you a place to capture details.
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Guidelines for Entering Names After you have selected the general categories provided by the Comma software, you can add a hot spot and a text to describe your record item. Your hot spot or text may include specific names of objects, people, places or events. These descriptions will be searchable, so try to select terms that you think people will use when they are looking for something in your archive.
There are two basic rules for recording names: Be consistent. Always describe the same person, place, organisation or object in the same way. Use the names by which people, places, organizations, or objects are most commonly known. Names of People Use the name by which the person is commonly known. This may be a real name, a nickname, a pseudonym, their initials, or a title. Enter the surname first, followed by the given name(s), e.g. SMITH, Mary. Using capital letters for the family name is a recognised way of defining the parts of a name If a name has a hyphen, enter it under the first part, e.g. DAY-LEWIS, Cecil. If a name has a prefix, enter it under the prefix, e.g. DE LA MARE, Walter. Real names PRESLEY, Elvis SMITH, Henry CLARK, Joseph Nicknames WHITE, Chalky HARRIS, Robert (Whispering Bob) BIRD, Richard (Dickie) Pseudonyms BLAIR, Eric Arthur (ORWELL, George) ZIMMERMAN, Robert Allen (DYLAN, Bob) Initials JAMES, P.D. GRACE, W.G.
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Titles WINDSOR, Elizabeth (Queen Elizabeth II) CHRÉTIEN, Joseph Jacques Jean (Prime Minister) ALLENDALE (Lord) ALEXANDER (Captain) Though the last two could be more fully named Distinguishing between people with the same name You can distinguish between people with the exact same name in two ways: By using the full form of a person’s name (or name and initial): Examples: BROWN, Mary BROWN, Mary Ann BROWN, Mary J. We suggest that a better method is by adding the person’s date of birth: Examples: PRESLEY, Elvis - January 8th, 1935 – August 16th, 1977 SMITH, John, 1924 (For a living person) SMITH, John, 1837 – 1896 (For a person who has died) SMITH, John, 1900, January 10th (For people with the same name and same year of birth) Names of Organizations and Public Bodies Use the name by which the organisation or body is usually known. Do not use the definite and indefinite articles: “a”, “an” or “the”; in other words do NOT use “The Batley Opera Company” Examples: Batley Opera Company Willows Elementary School Marks and Spencer Canadian Tire CBC
Names of Locations Use the name by which the location is usually known. Remember that people from around the world may be searching Comma archives, so enter the name of the town, province and country for each item, if possible. Examples:
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Market Place, Batley, West Yorkshire Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia Town Hall, Leeds, West Yorkshire Names of Objects Use the name by which the object is usually known. Examples: Massey-Ferguson combine harvester Rocking chair Sindy doll Guy Fawkes mask Watercolour painting
Vocabulary in Comma Use the following definitions of categories and terms when describing the items in your records. For help entering names, see above.
People Couple Crowd Family Group Single Children Couple All records with two people, not necessarily people with any relationship to eachother, just two in number. Crowd All records with 50 or more people. Family All records where the majority of people have family connections. Group All records with between 3 and 49 people. Single All records with one person, not un-married people. Children All records where the majority of people are children.
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Gender Female Male Mixed Female All records that features people, mainly women. Male All records that feature people, mainly men. Mixed All records that feature people, where no gender predominates, or if the gender is not relevant.
Landscape Cultivated Rural Domestic Industrial Marine Natural Urban National/Provincial Parks Private Gardens Other Parks Mountains Prairies Cultivated Rural All non-urban or marine landscapes that are under cultivation, including: Farms Forests Domestic All streetscapes of individual dwellings, including: Houses Apartments Derelict Holiday homes Trailers / caravans Excluding: Interior scenes (Use â€œBuildings - Domesticâ€?) Industrial All streetscapes of industrial buildings, including:
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Factories Processing Plants Derelict Excluding: Interior scenes (Use “Buildings - Industrial”) Marine Coastline Lakes Ponds Natural All natural, uncultivated landscapes, including: Woodland/forest Moors Tundra Badlands Excluding: Mountains (Use “Mountains”) Prairies (Use “Prairies”) Urban All urban scenes that are not specifically "Domestic" or "Industrial." National / provincial Parks All national park land, including: Lake District Peak District Excluding: City parks (Use “Other Parks”) Private Gardens All private gardens, including: Window boxes Other Parks All public gardens, including: City parks Botanical gardens Excluding: National/provincial parks (Use “National/Provincial Parks”) Zoos (Use “Buildings - Cultural”) Mountains All mountain landscapes, including: Snowdonia Himalayas
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Buildings Agricultural Commercial Domestic Industrial Military Public Religious School Other Cultural Monument Bridge Agricultural All buildings used for agriculture, including: Barns Grain elevators Derelict Excluding: Agricultural buildings converted to dwellings (Use "Domestic") Commercial All buildings used for business, including: Offices Shops Banks Domestic All interior and exterior views of dwelling places, including: Housing on farms Vicarages/manses/rectories Tents Caravans / Trailers Industrial All interior and exterior views of buildings used for industry, including: Factories Processing plants Dams Warehouses Storage Derelict Excluding: -Industrial buildings converted to dwellings (Use "Domesticâ€?) Military All structures used for military purposes, including:
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Armed forces bases Air-raid shelters Derelict Public All buildings with public access, including: Town halls Airports Train stations Government buildings Police stations Libraries Community centres Religious All buildings with religious uses, including: Churches Mosques Synagogues Temples Derelict Excluding: Religious buildings converted to dwellings (Use "Domestic") School All buildings used for education, including: Schools Universities Colleges Cultural All cultural facilities, including: Museums/art galleries Archives Zoos Aquaria Cultural centres Monument All memorial stones or buildings erected in remembrance of a person or event, including: War memorials Bridge All bridges. Other Use if the building does not fit another category.
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Transport Air Water Bus/Coach Rail Streetcar/Tram Bicycle Car Truck Motorcycle Various Other Animal Recreational Air All air transport, including: Air planes Balloons Water All water transport, including: Canoes Military ships Fishing boats Jet skis Bus/Coach All commercial road vehicles that carry passengers, including: School buses Taxis Rickshaws Rail All transport that runs on rails and has a track separated from other transport. Streetcar/Tram All transport that runs on rails and shares the road with other vehicles. Bicycle All pedal-operated transport, including: Bicycles Tricycles Unicycles Excluding: Rickshaw (Use â€œBus/Coachâ€?)
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Car Cars Minivans Quad-bikes Truck All large commercial vehicles. Motorcycle Motorcycles and sidecars Various Use if the record contains more than one method of transport. Other Use if the method of transport does not fit any other category. Animal All animal powered transport, including: Wagons Sleighs Dogsleds Excluding: Cattle cars (Use “Commercial”) Vehicles used for transporting livestock (Use “Commercial”) Recreational All private transport used specifically for recreation, including: Recreational vehicles (RV’s) Snowmobiles Excluding: Cars (Use “Cars”) Jet skis (Use “Water”)
Events Educational Family Historic Leisure Social/Entertainment Sporting Wedding Birthday Funeral Religious Other Educational
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Classes Prize giving School photographs Family All records with family importance, including: Christmas parties Anniversaries Excluding: Birthdays (Use “Birthday”) Weddings (Use “Wedding”) Historic All events of local/national/international importance, including: Victory parades Train crashes Flu epidemics Declaration of war Elections First man on the moon Leisure All records where leisure is featured, including: Holidays Hobbies Excluding: Records better described by "Social/Entertainment" Social / Entertainment Theatres Pub life Street singers Sporting All records featuring sporting events. Wedding All records featuring weddings and their celebration. Birthday All records featuring birthdays and their celebration. Funeral All records featuring funerals. Religious All records featuring religious occasions including: Bar/Bat Mitzvahs
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First communions Excluding: Weddings (Use “Wedding”) Funerals (Use “Funeral”) Other Use if the event does not fit another category.
Work Agriculture Construction Domestic Education Food Heavy Industry Light Industry Mining Commerce Textiles Transport Military Health Office Public Service Horticultural Other Fishing Hunting Forestry Various Agriculture All work in food growing and harvesting, including: Work on farms Vegetable gardening Excluding: Domestic gardening (Use “Horticulture”) Allotments (Use “Horticulture”) Fishing (Use “Fishing”) Forestry (Use “Forestry”) Construction All building work, including: Framing Decorating Public maintenance workers Domestic
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All paid and unpaid work in the house, including: Housework Food preparation Excluding: Vegetable gardening (Use “Agriculture”) Decorative gardening (Use “Horticulture”) Education All work where learning is being received or given. Food All work where food is being commercially processed and/or prepared, including that which takes place in: Restaurants Snack bars Canneries Food processing plants Excluding: Growing food (Use “Agriculture” or “Horticulture”) Heavy Industry Heavy industry refers to industries that use machinery to make objects, or that manufacture products too large to be moved by people, including: Ship building Steel manufacturing Chemical manufacturing Excluding: Weaving (Use “Textiles”) Mining (Use “Mining”) Construction (Use “Construction”) Light Industry Light industry refers to industries that use machinery to make objects, or that manufacture products easily moved by people, including: Furniture making Computer manufacturing Mining All extraction of raw minerals, including: Oil wells Open cast workings Commerce All work connected to buying and selling, including that which takes place in: Petrol stations Supermarkets Markets Stock markets
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Auctions Textiles All textile related work, including: Weaving Tailoring Knitting Carpet making Rope making Transport All work related to transport, including: Bus, train, taxi and streetcar/tram work Merchant sailing Military All uniformed and non uniformed military work, including: Civil defence Health All health related work, including that performed by: Nurses Doctors Residential homes Ambulance drivers Home care workers Excluding: Construction of hospitals (Use “Construction”) Office All desk-based work, including: Computer work Legal work Secretarial Public Service All non-military public servants, including: Politicians Police Fire fighters Traffic wardens Excluding: Health workers (Use “Health”) Transport workers (Use “Transport”) Public gardeners (Use “Horticulture”) Public maintenance workers (Use “Construction”)
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Horticulture All small scale non food work with plants, including: Domestic gardening Allotment gardening Maintenance of public gardens Decorative gardening Other Use if the work does not fit another category. Fishing All work where fish are being caught as work. Excluding: Sport fishing (Use “Sport Fishing”) Hunting All work where animals are being hunted or trapped, including: Fur trade Whaling Excluding: Hunting as sport (Use “Sport - Hunting”) Forestry All work in forestry. Various Use if the record contains more than one type of work.
Sports Air Animal Track & Field Ball Combat Cycling Fishing Gymnastics Hunting Ice/Snow Games Motor Outdoor Life Racquet Shooting Water Other
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Air All air sports, including: Parachuting Sky diving Hang gliding Animal All sports featuring animals, including: Equestrian riding Polo Excluding: Hunting (Use “Hunting”) Fishing (Use “Fishing”) Track and Field All track and field sports, including: High jump Pole vault Running Ball All ball sports, including: Baseball Football Soccer Rugby Basketball Golf Lacrosse Excluding: Tennis (Use “Racquet”) Combat All combat sports, including: Boxing Wrestling Martial arts Cycling Fishing Include sport fishing only. Excluding: Fishing as work (Use “Work - Fishing”) Gymnastics All gymnastic sports and games.
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Hunting Hunting with guns Hunting with dogs Bow hunting Ice/Snow All sports taking place on ice or snow, including: Hockey Skating Skiing Curling Bobsled Games All games, including: Bowling Egg and spoon race Sack race Monopoly Cards Hopscotch Motor All sports involving motorized vehicles, including: Go-karts Motorcycles Motor boats Racing cars Outdoor Life Hiking Trekking Mountain climbing Racquet All sports that require the use of a racquet, including: Tennis Table Tennis Badminton Shooting Excluding: Shooting of animals (Use â€œHuntingâ€?) Water All sports taking place on or in water, including: Swimming Sailing
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Excluding: Racing motor boats (Use â€œMotorâ€?) Other Use if the record includes reference to sports not found in any other category.
Object Containers Clothing/Costume Furnishings Recreational Musical Tools/Equipment Weapons/Ammunition Stamps Currency Visual Art Other Containers All objects created for packing, shipping, or holding goods and commodities, including: Crates Bottles Clothing/Costume All objects created for the dressing and personal care of an individual, including: Jewellery Coats Hats Brushes Combs Razors Halloween costumes Furnishings All objects created for use in and the setting up of dwellings, including: Bedding Floor coverings Furniture Household items Lighting devices Plumbing fixtures Recreational All objects created to be used as toys, or to carry on the activities of sports, games, gambling, or public entertainment, including:
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Theatrical props Sports equipment Toys Musical All objects created to produce musical sounds, including devices actively employed in musical performance. Excluding: Equipment that simply transmits sound (e.g. stereo speakers) (Use "Tools/Equipment") Acoustical tools (Use "Tools/Equipment") Equipment for studying sound (Use "Tools/Equipment") Tools/Equipment All tools, equipment and supplies used to transform or modify materials or to observe natural phenomena, including tools, equipment, and supplies for: Acoustics Astronomy Timekeeping Construction Mechanics Medicine Meteorology Surveying Navigation Telecommunication Printing Photography Data processing Weapons/Ammunition All objects created to be used for hunting, target shooting, self-protection, or warfare, including: Firearms Artillery Bladed weapons Striking weapons Stamps All objects created to represent postal fees including: Postage stamps Currency All objects created to be used as media of exchange, including: Coins Treasury notes Banknotes Shell money
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Visual Art Paintings Lithographs Sculptures Etchings Sketches Other Use if the object does not fit another category.
Document Certificate Deed Diary Educational Ephemera Genealogy Greeting Card Journal Ledger Letter Map Chart Newspaper Certificate Birth certificates Death certificates Stock certificates Deed All documents containing some legal transfer, bargain, or contract, including: Land deeds Title deeds Diary All daily and regular records of events, transactions, or observations, including: Personal diaries Educational All educational documents, including: Report cards Diplomas Ephemera All collectibles originally intended to have no lasting value, including:
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Posters Concert tickets Genealogy All records related to the study of family pedigrees, including: Family trees Greeting Card All documents originally created to be used as greeting cards. Journal All journals. Ledger All books containing accounts to which debits and credits are posted. Letter All letters. Map All maps. Chart All outline maps exhibiting something (e.g. climatic or magnetic variation) in its geographical aspects. Newspaper All newspapers.
Extra Note: This is the only category where more than one term, can be chosen. While you are able to check all of the terms in this category, only the first four terms selected will be associated with your record. Animals Architecture Entertainment Fashion Formal Portrait Military Social History The Depression World War 1 World War 2 Pre 1900 The 1910s The 1920s
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The 1930s The 1940s The 1950s The 1960s The 1970s The 1980s The 1990s The 2000s Music Theatre Visual Arts Other Arts Animals All records with a special animal interest. Architecture All records with a special architectural interest. Entertainment All records with a special interest in the world of entertainment. Fashion All records with a special fashion interest. Formal Portrait All formal portraits. Military All records with a special military interest. Social History All records that reflect social history. The Depression All records with content related to the depression between WWI and WWII. World War I All records with content related to WWI, not just from the WWI period. World War II All records with content related to WWII, not just from the WWII period. The 1960â€™s to the 2000s All records with content related to the period, not just from the period. Things that are typical of the period. Music
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All records with content related to music. Theatre All records with content related to theatre. Visual Arts All records with content related to the visual arts. Other Wars All records with content related to war, including: Korean War Vietnam War Excluding: World War I (Use “World War I”) World War II (Use “World War II”)
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Appendix four: Using a Copyright Book For copyright purposes, you need to keep track of which donor contributed which item to your archive. To manage all of this information, create a “copyright book,” a paper document where you keep track of information on those who have donated to your archive. Every time you add material to your archive from a new donor, it is very important that you register that donor’s name and contribution in the copyright book, and that you assign them a unique donor number. The Comma helps you in this process by identifying every record with a donor-specific ID number. The record ID number, e.g. 2.4, is made up of two other numbers. The first number is the donor number, and it indicates which donor contributed the material to the record. The second number refers to the record’s place in the order for that donor. Therefore, record 2.4 is the fourth record entered using material from donor 2. In your copyright book you should include at least the following information for each donor: Name: Contact information: Archive contributed to: [name of archive if more than one] Donor number: Materials contributed: [short descriptions] Copyright status: [Has a copyright release form been signed?] For more information on copyright and related issues, see section Copyright, Privacy, and Intellectual Property.
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Copyright, Privacy and Intellectual Property The following is provided for informational purposes only. It should not be taken as legal advice. Given that these issues are fairly complex, we suggest your institution or community group seek legal assistance to ensure that you have complied with the law. Most importantly do NOT enter any material that you suspect is subject to copyright. This is particularly true if you want your archive to be available on the internet as a release stating that you have the right to publish the archive will be needed before we can upload. What is copyright? Copyright is a form of property, which is the product of human skill and that entitles the owner to control use of his ‘work’. Different types of work are explained later. It applies to particular kinds of work for a limited period and exists as soon as the work is created for the first time. Copyright does not protect an idea but rather the way the idea is expressed. Copyright can be bought and sold, assigned, bequeathed or given away and will expire at a date determined according to the provisions of current legislation. It is important to note that ownership of a document does not necessarily include ownership of copyright and more than one copyright may exist in a single work, for example a pamphlet which includes a variety of articles. Who owns copyright? Ownership of copyright depends upon the type of work and the date on which it was created. Generally, the first owner will be the author. Author; the person who created the work. The author of a photograph created between 1 July 1912 and 31 August 1989 is the person who owned the material on which it was taken; before 1912 and after 1989 the author is the person who created the photograph (normally the photographer). The author of a film made between 1 June 1957 and 30 June 1994 is the producer; after 1994 the author is the producer and principal director jointly. The author of a sound recording before 1 August 1989 is the person who owned the record at the time of recording; after it is the producer. Employer; normally the first owner of copyright in any work which was created whilst the author worked for them. Commissioner; in limited cases the first owner of copyright is a person who commissioned a piece of work. This applies up to 31 July 1989. What does copyright protect? Copyright protects a range of different types of ‘work’ and the most relevant to archives are: Literary Works, e.g. books, pamphlets, leaflets, programmes, newspaper articles and calendars and means something that maybe written, spoken or sung.
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Artistic Works, e.g. drawings, paintings, engravings, photographs and maps Sound Recordings, e.g. oral reminiscences Films, e.g. video tapes Dramatic Works, e.g. plays or a work that can be performed before an audience. Musical Works, e.g. operas but this does not include any words or actions performed with the music. What does copyright not protect? title and names [but they can be protected using a trademark] ideas inventions designs lists showing no originality, e.g. transcripts which are an exact copy of the original factual information How long does copyright last? Literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works Life of the author and 70 complete years after their death. Sound Recording 50 complete years after the year it was made, or if released during this time, 50 years after the year it was released. Film From 1 June 1957 to 30 June 1994 life of the producer and 70 complete years after their death; after 30 June 1994 life of the producer and principal director and 70 complete years after the last death. Exceptions to copyright There are a number of exceptions that allow limited use of copyright works without the permission of the copyright owners. Some of the exceptions are, however, limited by the expression â€˜fair dealingâ€™. This has been interpreted by the courts by looking at the financial impact on the copyright owner of the use. Where it is insignificant, the use is acceptable. Examples of limited use of works may be possible for: Research and private study Criticism or review Reporting current events Teaching in schools and other educational establishments Other examples include judicial proceedings and not for profit playing of sound recordings. If the use of copyright work does not involve using a substantial part, then you will not be infringing copyright. It is important to remember, however, that even a small section of a copyright work may count as a substantial part, particularly if it takes the essence of the whole work. Sources must always be acknowledged.
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No permission is required from the copyright owner to publish or broadcast literary, dramatic or musical works so long as: the work is open to public inspection in an archive or similar institution and the work was created more than 100 years ago and the author has been dead for at least 50 years and the identity of the copyright owner is unknown. We are grateful to Doncaster Archives for permission to use this guidance. The British Library have a copyright section at http://www.gre.ac.uk/offices/ils/ls/guides/copyright For further study search at Google for the exact phrase: â€œcopyright explainedâ€? UK
Moral Rights and Privacy Issues Moral rights are linked to copyright and are held by the artist, author or photographer of the content that is being contributed to the Comma archive. Moral rights mirror copyright in their duration and cannot be assigned. They can, however, be waived by the creator. If, in the course of digitization or contribution, images are somehow modified either cropped or discoloured in a way that allows the audience to be misled, the moral rights of the person that took the photograph or created the art work may be affected. Moral rights also apply to written content. If written content is edited without the authorâ€™s prior consent, his moral rights may be affected. Using someone's image or personal papers may provide your community group with a first-hand account of a story. However, in certain circumstances, doing so without the prior consent of the person whose image or documents you are using may violate his privacy rights. Moreover, providing personal information about community members, especially minors, in an Internet-based archive, without their consent or the consent or their parent or legal guardian, may violate their rights under Data Protection legislation.
Essentials: Your institution or community group should obtain a waiver of moral rights from the artist, author or photographer if you intend to manipulate an image or edit written text in a way that might misrepresent the artist, author or photographer in any material way.
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Where personal papers or images of celebrated members of your community will be contributed, your institution or community group may have to seek prior consent. Where you may want to disclose personal information about a community member, such as their birth date or address, your institution or community group must seek prior consent. We recommend that no Comma archive disclose any personal information about minors.
Donors: Most archives do not directly identify their donors. If you choose to identify donors then we suggest that you enter a picture of the donor as their first entry, and add a text reminiscence to the image that gives some background information about them
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Sample Copyright Release Form Donor record number
Copyright Release Form [Name of archive] …………………………………………… Archive 1. I confirm that any photographs, documents or recordings submitted to the ________________________ Archive belong to me. 2. I confirm that, to the best of my knowledge, I own the copyright to the photographs, documents or recordings submitted. 3. I give permission for my photographs, documents and recordings to be copied into the _______________________________ archive and agree to their use in perpetuity for not-for-profit purposes, including: i Public reference in Libraries and Museums ii Educational use iii As a source that may be published (including CD- ROM and the Internet) iv In public performance I agree to the inclusion of my name and address in any register required by the Data Protection Act 1998 Name
Signed Date Address
……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ………………………………………………
Tick this box if you do not want your name and address given to any third party without your permission
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Appendix five: Creating the Archive’s Menu Image and Text Every time you create a new archive, a generic Comma image will be used as the archive's main menu image. This image forms the first record of your archive, and acts as the archive title image. This record is given an ID number of "0.1." See the section Using a Copyright Book, for a description of the ID number. Note: You cannot enter a new menu image by scanning it directly; you must use a previously scanned or saved image file in the "jpg" format. Also be aware that the image you use may be distorted when viewed as the archive menu image. To avoid this, you may need to manipulate the image using image manipulation software, or select an image that does not become as distorted when used as the menu image. To replace the archive's menu image and text with an image from another archive record: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
From the main menu, click on "Edit." Enter your password and click "Finished" at the top of the screen. Click on "Setup." Click on the box labelled “Edit Menu Picture.” Click on "Load picture for menu."
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Edit Menu Image Screen
6. Choose the image file you would like to use. You can select an image from another archive record, or a previously saved image. 7. To use an image from another record: 8. In the small window that just appeared, browse to the directory in which you installed the Comma software. Double-click on its folder icon. Now find the directory with the same name as your archive, and double-click on its folder icon. Find the image file you would like to use for the main menu image, click on it once, and then click on "Open." The image you selected should immediately replace the generic Comma image. 9. Note: Every image scanned into your archive is given a name made up of the archive name and a number indicating its place in the order of scanned images, e.g. "<uniqueidentifier>0001.jpg." If you do not know the name of the image file you would like to use, exit the Comma software and find the folder containing your archive image files which is usually at “c:/program files/comma/[last 8 characters of your serial number]”. View the images in this folder and make note of the one you would like to use. Return to Comma and repeat the steps above. 10. To use a previously saved image from outside Comma: 11. In the small window that just appeared, browse to the directory containing the image file you would like to use. Double-click on its folder icon. Now find the appropriate image file, click on it once, and then click on "Open." The image you selected should immediately replace the generic Comma image. 12. Click on "Save picture for menu." 13. Click on "Close this screen." 14. Click on “Finished” at the top of the screen. The image on the left of the main menu screen should now be the same image that you selected above. 15. By completing these steps, you have edited your archive's first record, i.e. record 0.1. You must now edit the record and add a text that will act as the foreword to your archive. Advanced option: If you are advanced user then note that the menu image will be stretched to fit the allotted position and that making the menu image to be imported at the size 310 pixels wide and 463 pixels high will mean that stretching does not happen.
Customisable Options From the Comma software main menu, click on "Setup" to access the setup screen (see Fig. 31).
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Background Sounds To hear sounds associated with various actions (e.g. starting the software), click on "Enable sounds" in the box labelled "Background sounds." This will place a check next to "Enable sounds," and turn the sounds on. To turn the sounds off, click on "Enable sounds" again to remove the check.
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Appendix six: Security Always store your passwords in a safe and secure location. If any unauthorised person has learned any of your passwords, change them immediately. If your editing and/or supervisor passwords have been compromised, please change them immediately. Your Comma can be protected by a software key (USB dongle), available from Storyville. This key restricts editing, but not viewing, of the archive even if the password is known. This can be very useful in public places like libraries where it is easy for the security of the password to be compromised. If you do not have a dongle then your password is your only security from unauthorised editing; one archive was left open and a child moved all of the hotspots on a photograph “for fun”.
Passwords When the dongle is removed it allows browsing of the archive but prevents changes. Passwords can be very insecure as the machine can easily be left “logged in”, or people can share passwords. When you first install the Comma software, the default editing password is set to "user," and the default supervisor password is set to "super." It is important that you keep the supervisor password safe from people not authorized to use the software, since this password allows one to change passwords (including the supervisor password). Note: Be sure to change both the editing and supervisor passwords from their defaults and store them in a safe and secure location. If any unauthorised person has learned any of your passwords, change them immediately. If your editing and/or supervisor passwords have been misplaced, please contact Storyville. Default passwords are: user for normal users super for the supervisor Remember that if you do not either change these, or purchase and use a hardware key (dongle), which is available from Storyville then anyone who has access to a manual will know the passwords!
Changing Passwords To change passwords, choose “Edit” from the main menu.
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Note: When running the software for the first time, the “View Storyline” option shown in the figure will not be available. The “Choose an archive” option will appear only if you more than one archive; “View Storyline” once you have begun creating a storyline. After choosing “Edit,” you will be prompted to enter your password.
Enter Password Screen
Enter the editing password. If this is the first time you are using the software, or if you have not yet set any new editing passwords, the default editing password is "user." After entering the password, you will be presented with a screen showing the different editing functions.
Editing Menu Screen
Click on “Passwords,” and then enter your supervisor password on the next screen. If this is the first time you are using the software, of if you have not yet set a new supervisor password, the default supervisor password is "super."
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After successfully entering your password, you will be presented with the following screen allowing you to add, delete and update user passwords.
Passwords Editing Screen
To add a new user to the password list, simply click on “Add Password,” type in the name and password you wish to add, and click “Finished.” Note: Although there is a "Name" field on this screen, it is used solely to distinguish between passwords. You do not need to enter a name when accessing either the “Edit” or “Passwords” screens.
Adding a New Password
Deleting Passwords In order to delete a password, simply use the navigation arrows at the top of the page (as you would to navigate through an archive) to find the “Name” and “Password” that you wish to delete. And click on “Delete Password.”
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Appendix six: general help for Windows: Icons in Comma An icon is a small picture or visual object that represents a file, program, or command. The icon picture usually relates to the item it represents. For example, the following icon, , is a picture of a printer, and in Comma it is used to represent the â€œPrintâ€? function.
Help You will find this icon on each screen of the Comma software. You can click on it at any time to get help with the section you are in. You can also press the F1 key for help.
Main menu Click on this icon to take you back to a list of things you can do in the software. This list is called a menu. When you are working within the software you will always see this icon in the upper left corner of your screen.
Move to another Record Click on these arrows to move between records. If a search has returned only one record, the arrows will not be visible.
Search Click on this icon to take you to the screen from which you can conduct searches. See section 9.1, Viewing and Searching for Records, for more information.
View thumbnails Click on this icon to view all of the search results on one screen.
Click on this icon to expand the image to fill the screen. Click on this icon again to return to a thumbnail view of the image, alongside its record information.
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View texts Click on this icon to see texts attached to a record.
Sound If you see this icon, there is a sound recording associated with the record. Click on this icon, and the following image will appear:
The left button is “Play;” the centre button is “Pause;” and the right button is "Stop.” Click on "Play" to play the sound. Click on "Pause" to pause a sound you are playing. Clicking on it again will continue the sound from the point at which it was paused. Click on "Stop" to stop playing the sound.
Print Click on this icon to print the current record. See section 9.6, Printing Records.
Print text Click on this icon to print the author name and text of a particular text record. This icon appears when viewing a text. See section 9.6, Printing Records. Note: Remember that when you are working with the software, you will be able to know where you are by looking at the top right panel. There you will find text indicating where you are in the software, i.e. “Searching for records,” “Help,” or “Editing.”
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Shortcut Keys Shortcut keys are key strokes that imitate commands made on screen by using a mouse pointer. In some cases, you may find these easier to use than the mouse. Note: Most shortcut keys require that a combination of keys be pressed down at the same time. In the shortcut keys listed below, the plus (+) sign indicates that the keys should be pressed down at the same time, or the first key held down while the second is depressed.
Comma Shortcut Keys F1 Open the Help screen for Comma. Ctrl + C Copy the selected text. Ctrl + X Remove (cut) the selected text. Ctrl + V Paste the cut/copied text
Basic Windows Shortcut Keys Alt + F Open the File menu in the current program. Alt + E Open the Edit menu in the current program. F1 Help in most Windows programs, including Comma. Ctrl + X Remove (cut) the selected item. Ctrl + C Copy the selected item. Ctrl + V Paste the cut/copied item. Alt + Tab
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Switch between open applications. Alt + Shift + Tab Switch backwards between open applications. Ctrl + Esc Bring up the Start button. F4 Open the drive selection menu when browsing. Alt + F4 Close the currently active open program. F8 while the computer is starting and before the Windows logo shows. Boot to Safe Mode or bypass loading the system files. This can be very useful if for instance the computer has been set to a resolution that the current monitor does not support, perhaps after a public demonstration on a different screen. Holding Shift (When inserting a CD) Prevent the CD player from playing automatically upon insertion of a CD.
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Appendix seven: Basic Computer Knowledge This information is not essential to know, but it may make the computer less daunting if you have at least a cursory knowledge of these terms.
CPU The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is the main processor in your system that performs all program instructions and calculations. The CPU does all the "thinking" in your computer. Typical names associated with CPUs are Pentium, dual-core, quad-core which refer to the basic type of processor and 3.2 GHz (gigahertz) which refers to the number of operations undertaken per second, in this case 3,200,000.
Memory Memory can be a confusing concept, since there are several types of memory, all of which can be called memory. RAM, or Random-Access Memory is in your computer and used by the operating system as a temporary holding place for instructions and data retrieved from the slower hard drive where the data is more permanently stored. During normal operation, your computer's RAM contains the main parts of the operating system and some or all of the programs and associated information that are being used. Most desktop and notebook computers are sold with a certain amount of RAM pre-installed, but this can be increased by adding more RAM. The more RAM you have, the less frequently the computer has to access instructions and data from the more slowly accessed hard drive. Take advice though as some operating systems will never use extensive amounts of memory. ROM stands for Read-Only Memory, and is a permanent form of memory that cannot be temporarily written to like RAM. It is used to store special programs and data that need to be in your computer at all times. A hard or floppy disk, as well as a CD-ROM, may be referred to as memory, but it is distinguished from RAM and ROM by its main use as long term storage. The most common form of memory at present is the USB memory stick for moving material between computers and SD memory cards for recording photographs, audio and video.
Bits, Bytes, KB, MB and GB A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data. A bit has a value of either zero or one. A group of eight bits is called a byte; in other words, a byte is a unit of data eight bits long. A byte is capable of representing, among other things, a single character, such as a letter, number, punctuation mark, or blank space. As data files get larger and larger, we talk of kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and terabytes.
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Name Byte Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte
Symbol n/a KB MB GB TB
Value 8 bits 1024 bytes (210 bytes) 1,048,576 bytes (220 bytes) 1,073,741,824 bytes (230 bytes) 1,099,511,627,776 ( 240 bytes)
Disk and Drive A disk is a medium for storing computer data. A disk drive is a device that writes to and reads from a disk. In older computers a floppy disk drive is usually located at the front of a desktop computer, or on the side of a laptop computer, and accepts small, 3.5" floppy disks (or diskettes) which hold only a tiny amount of data. Most of the information your computer uses is stored on this type of internal hard disk. The main hard disk drive on most computers will be labelled "C:\". In common usage, the terms "hard drive" and "hard disk" are used interchangeably. External hard discs are also common and are a very convenient and quick way of making backup copies of your work.
CD-ROM, CD-R, DVD, CD-RW, and BD ROM CD-ROM stands for Compact Disc Read Only Memory. An audio or music CD is a form of CD-ROM, but generally CD-ROM refers to a data CD instead of a music CD. A typical data CD can store up to 512 times the information of a 3.5" floppy disk. A CD-R, or CD-Recordable, is a blank CD that will accept music or data. To perform this operation, a CD-R drive is required. Once written, the music or data cannot be erased or changed. A feature of many CD-R drives, called multisession recording, enables you to keep adding data to a CD over time. This is extremely important if you want to use the CD-R drive to create a back-up CDROM. To create a CD-ROM or audio CD, you need not only a CD-R drive, but also a CD-R software package. CD-R drives can also read CD-ROMs and play audio CDs. CD-RW, short for CD-Rewritable, is a type of CD that can be treated just like a floppy or hard disk: any data recorded to it can be erased or written over. To write to a CD-RW, you need a CD-RW drive. DVD-R is physically similar to a CD-R but holds 4.71 GB of data A Blu-Ray (BD-ROM) disc holds 25GB if single layer, 50 GB if dual layer.
Directory/Folder A directory is like a folder on your hard drive where you store your files and programs. An analogy can be made with a filing cabinet, in which one stores
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papers and documents (files) inside of folders (directories). A well-organised directory or folder structure makes it easier to find your files later. A really bad name for a directory is “the latest pictures” as in the future it will likely not be so. A better name is “Images – June 17th 2010”
File and File Extension A file is a named piece or package of data stored digitally on your computer. Each file's name is composed of two parts separated by a period, the filename and the extension, e.g. filename.ext. The computer uses the file extension (usually three letters) to identify the file type and determine the application required to use the file. Some examples of file extensions are: .bmp An image file in the Windows bitmap format. .jpg A JPEG image file. .doc A Microsoft Word document file. .rtf A very useful generic cross-platform and cross program word processing document format. .txt A simple text file. .exe An executable file. This is the main file used to run a program. .ini A system or application initialisation file. Do not alter these files. .sys A system file. Do not alter these files.
Application Program An application program (often just called application or program) performs a specific function for the user or, in some cases, for another application program. Examples include word processors, Web browsers, and the Comma software.
Operating System The operating system (or "OS") is a program loaded into the computer during start up which manages all the other programs in a computer. Most PC's use a version of Microsoft Windows as their operating systems. For Apple computers, the operating system is MacOS. UNIX and Linux are another forms of OS. Comma will only work on Microsoft Windows. Some Mac computers can run PC software using for instance “Boot Camp” to emulate a PC.
Ports, Firewire (IEEE 1394), eSATA and USB A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. PC's have various types of ports. Internally, there are ports for connecting things like disk drives. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting things like modems, printers, mice, and scanners. A number of different types of port exist, though today the USB port is being used more and more to connect external devices. A single USB, or Universal Serial Bus, port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices through a
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series of additional connectors. USB also allows you to plug-in or unplug a device without having to shut down the computer. This is known as hot swapping or hot plugging. The 2 flavours of USB, 1 and 2 reflect their speeds Firewire is very similar in use, but has different cables. The 2 flavours of Firewire, 400 and 800 reflect their speeds eSATA is a connection that allows for the direct connection to external SATA hard discs.
Modem Modem stands for modulator-demodulator. Simply put, a modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines or other forms of network cable. For example, a "cable modem" uses cable television lines to connect to the Internet. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analogue waves. A modem modulates the digital data into analogue data when sending, and demodulates analogue to digital data when receiving. ADSL, cable modems, and USB mobile networking keys have superseded most other technologies
Mouse A mouse is a small device that you move around on a flat surface using your hand. A pointer on the screen follows your hand movement and acts as a way to provide instructions to the computer. A mouse typically has two buttons to provide extra functionality, a primary and a secondary button. Some mice have what is known as a â€œscroll wheelâ€? to aid in scrolling within a screen window. Mice are usually placed on the right side of the keyboard, as most people are right-handed. In this case, the left button is the primary mouse button, and the right button is the secondary mouse button. Of course, a mouse can be placed on the left side of the keyboard for left-handed users. In this case, the right button is the primary button, and the left button the secondary button. Using a Mouse The following directions assume the mouse is on the right side of the keyboard. Hold the mouse by resting it in the palm of your hand, with your thumb on one side, and your ring finger and pinkie on the other. Place your index finger on the left button and your middle finger on the right button. Gently and slowly move your wrist from side to side and watch the computer screen (monitor). You will see the mouse pointer (which probably looks like an arrow) moving around the screen. Try moving the mouse pointer all over the screen and get a feel for how it moves.
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Clicking Clicking is pressing down on the mouse button and releasing. To select an object, move the mouse pointer over it and click once on the left (or primary) mouse button. Click and Drag (Drag and Drop) This technique is extremely important when you want to move text, files, objects, or delete files, etc. It is also very important in certain programs where you may wish to reposition objects like graphics or text. To click and drag (drag and drop): Put your mouse pointer over the icon or item you wish to move and press down on the left (or primary) mouse button, but do not release it. Hold the left (or primary) mouse button down, and move the mouse pointer to wherever you want the icon to be. Lift your finger off the left (or primary) mouse button. Right Clicking Using the right (or secondary) mouse button opens up a whole world of shortcuts to the Windows user. The secondary button is used to display a menu associated with the object that youâ€™ve clicked on, or to unveil a shortcut menu in specific applications, such as Corel WordPerfect or Microsoft Word. Double Clicking This is probably one of the most used techniques in the Windows environment. It takes a little getting used to in order adjust to the click speed of your individual mouse. Double-clicking is an easy way to open a file or application. To doubleclick, place the mouse pointer over the item you wish to open, and click the left (or primary) mouse button twice quickly. It is important not to move your mouse while you are double clicking.
Scrolling On the right-hand side of almost every application window, you will find a grey bar with arrows at the top and bottom, and a small scroll button inside it. This bar is called a "scroll bar." It allows you to move up and down within a window to see additional items that are hidden because of the window's size.
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To move up or down one line at a time, click on the arrow at the top, bottom, left or right of the scroll bar. To move up or down one screen at a time, click on the space within the scroll bar above or below the darker scroll button. To move anywhere within the document, place the mouse pointer over the scroll button. Press and hold the left (or primary) mouse button and move the scroll button up or down the bar. Release the mouse button when you have reached the desired window location.
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