MAJORING IN MINORITIES APRIL 2010
INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE ABOUT THE EUROPEAN YOUTH MEDIA CONVENTION PUBLISHED BY JUGENDPRESSE DEUTSCHLAND
TREATING THE MINORITY PROBLEM – BUT HOW?…S.04
THE WHOLE CONGRESS WAS AIMED AT A GREAT FINAL PRODUCTION CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF RADIO, PRINT, VIDEO, PHOTO AND THEATRE.
OSTALGIC IS MORE THAN NOSTALGIC…S.05
20 YEARS AFTER THE REUNION OF THE TWO DIVIDED PARTS OF GERMANY, THERE ARE STILL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EAST AND WEST – AND SOME PEOPLE WANT THE GDR BACK.
SCIENTIFIC LOOK ON MINORITIES IN EUROPE…S.07
DR. SABINE RIEDEL OF THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS FOUNDATION IN BERLIN IS AN EXPERT IN INTEGRATION ISSUES. MATTEO DE SIMONE ASKED HER HOW TO INTEGRATE MINORITIES BEST IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD.
REASONS FOR BEING A MINORITY...S.08 - 09
EACH PARTICIPANT OF THE EUROPEAN YOUTH MEDIA CONVENTION HAS ITS VERY OWN DEFINITION WHY SHE AND HE IS PART OF A MINORITY IN EUROPE.
AN INTEGRATION ISSUE: MOLDAVIAN MINORITIES...S.10
MOLDAVIAN PEOPLE IN ITALY FIRST HAVE TO STRUGGLE WITH THE BUREAUCRACY. THEN ARISES THE REAL PROBLEM: FINDING A PLACE IN THE ITALIAN SOCIETY.
ROMANIANS: A MINORITY IN ITALY...S.11
IT IS SAID THAT IN LIFE ONE MAKES HIS OWN LUCK. ANYHOW, THE GEO-POLITICAL ISSUES PREDETERMINED ONES DESTINY TO A CERTAIN EXTENT.
ESCAPING THE POVERTY…S.12
NO EDUCATION, NO JOB, NO INTEGRATION – MOST ROMA PEOPLE LIVE A HARD LIFE. HANNA VASILEVICH GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THEIR SITUATION AND PRESENTS POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO SOLVING THE PROBLEM.
WHITE CHRISTMAS IN ITALY – NOT A DREAM AT ALL...S.13
WHILE A NEW RACIST WAVE IS SPREADING OUT OVER ITALY AND OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, MANY PEOPLE REMAIN CALM. TOO CALM.
GAYS IN BERLIN: EVERYTHING BUT MINOR...S.15
BERLIN, THE GERMAN CAPITAL, IS KNOWN AS A VERY COSMOPOLITAN CITY. THIS COUNTS EVEN FOR HOMOSEXUAL PEOPLE, AT LEAST PARTLY.
E D IT O R I A L Durch die Unterstützung der FriedrichEbert-Stiftung konnten mehr als 40 Jugendliche aus den verschiedensten Ländern Europas der Einladung nach Berlin folgen und an drei spannenden Seminartagen eine 16 Seiten starke Zeitung, eine interessante Radiosendung, verschiedenste Fotokreationen und sogar einen kurzen TV-Spot gemeinsam zum Thema „Minderheiten in Europa“ produzieren. In einer mehr und mehr vernetzten und globalisierten Welt verschwimmen die Grenzen. Eine unüberschaubare Anzahl von Zielorten kann mittlerweile in wenigen Stunden erreicht werden; Soziale Netzwerke helfen uns, miteinander vernetzt zu bleiben und Freunde überall auf der Welt jederzeit zu erreichen. Jemanden kennenlernen und in Kontakt bleiben ist heutzutage fast lächerlich einfach.
TREATING THE MINORITY PROBLEM – BUT HOW?
THE WHOLE CONGRESS WAS AIMED AT A GREAT FINAL PRODUCTION CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF RADIO, PRINT, VIDEO, PHOTO AND THEATRE. WRITTEN BY IRINA LAEVSKAYA All 34 participants had to choose one workshop for the three days of the congress. The participants were all quite familiar with media and agenda setting, as they were members of the different organizations of the European Youth Press, among those APJ (Spain), Jet d‘Encre/ animafaq (France), POLIS (Poland), and DUE (Hungary). The crucial point of the congress was to set the topic “Minorities in Europe” on each and every participating journalist’s agenda for that he or she carried the experience and the new knowledge of it to his or her home country and put it on the respective daily news agenda.
Nichtsdestotrotz: Eines der Probleme, das immer schwieriger zu lösen sein scheint, ist das Problem der Minderheiten in Europa. Nicht zuletzt aufgrund Europas facettenreicher Geschichte muss das Problem der Minderheiten heutzutage mehr denn je ernst genommen werden. Die Probleme der sexuellen, politischen, nationalen und religiösen Minderheiten sind überall und können nicht durch Wegschauen gelöst werden. Während die Welt immer näher zusammenrückt und so immer kleiner wird, können wir nicht länger behaupten, dass etwas, was irgendwo auf der Welt passiert oder existiert – wie das Problem der Minderheiten – uns nicht direkt oder indirekt betrifft. Die sechste, durch die Friedrich-EbertStiftung organisierte, „European Youth Media Convention“ in Berlin versuchte somit, einer schwierigen Aufgabe Rechnung zu tragen: Über das Problem der „Minderheiten in Europa“ nicht nur nachzudenken, sondern sie zum Mittelpunkt der medialen Berichterstattung zu machen. Zumindest für ein Wochenende. Neben einem Interview mit Sabine Riedel von der Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik zur Einordnung in den Europäischen Kontext haben wir in diesem Heft die Lage der Minderheiten in Italien aber auch in Berlin unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten beleuchtet. Da die Redaktion sich aus den unterschiedlichsten Ländern zusammensetzte, haben wir uns für eine englischsprachige Ausgabe von politikorange entschieden.
The material to discuss and to discourse was heavily presented by the participants and promoters of the conference. The presentations tackled topics like religious minorities in North Ireland, Serbs in Post Kosovo and Denmark, Roma minorities in Romania and Bulgaria and minorities in Italy. To complete the program, a panel discussion about minorities in media took place. During this discussion, the participants asked lots of provocative questions concerning the coverage of minorities, their problems and the prejudices against them in European media. All this is the soil for further research and engagement for minorities.
Photo: Danilo Bretschneider
PANEL DISCUSSION ABOUT MINORITIES REPORTING IN MEDIA
Diese politikorange ist für all jene gedacht, die einen Eindruck darüber gewinnen wollen, was während der Veranstaltungstage in Berlin diskutiert worden ist. Alle Artikel, Bilder und das Layout wurden von jungen Nachwuchsjournalistinnen und Nachwuchsjournalisten, Fotograﬁnnen und Fotografen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern Europas geschrieben, geschossen, entworfen und konzipiert. Viel Spaß beim Durchblättern, Lesen und Nachdenken. Irina Laevskaya
Photo: Julia Kneuse
OSTALGIC IS MORE THAN NOSTALGIC
DANIEL HELBIG SHOWS THE INTERIOR DECORATION OF BERLIN‘S OSTEL. Photo: Alessandro Di Maio
20 YEARS AFTER THE REUNION OF THE TWO DIVIDED PARTS OF GERMANY, THERE ARE STILL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EAST AND WEST – AND SOME PEOPLE WANT THE GDR BACK. WRITTEN BY IRINA LAEVSKAYA Ostalgic people (ost=east (German)) are considered to be a minority that liked the life it was living in the GDR. Ostalgic people miss the life they lead when Germany was divided. They wear shirts with wellknown symbols of the GDR, listen to Ostrock or deny to go to the Western parts of Germany. Is this group of people a minority whose thoughts and wishes should be taken seriously? Or is it just a caprice of elderly people who have ‘forgotten’ all the bad things that happened under the regime of the SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands)
“I grew up in the GDR, but am now married to a man from Western Germany. I sometimes come here to contemplate things I know from my childhood. But without being ostalgic”, said one of the customers. “There remain some barriers between the people from the Eastern and Western parts of Germany, but they are melting. Still, there are old people from West Berlin that come to my restaurant at the Alexanderplatz and tell me it was the ﬁrst time in their life they came to East Berlin.” “THERE REMAIN SOME BARRIERS BETWEEN THE PEOPLE FROM THE EASTERN AND WESTERN PARTS OF GERMANY“
No matter which position one takes, one thing remains clear and should be thought about: Everywhere in the german capital one can ﬁnd support for ostalgic people. SEVERAL PLACES FOR OSTALGIC PEOPLE IN BERLIN HELP THEM TO KEEP A BLESSED MEMORY OF THE PAST
Not taking into account such touristic places as the ruins of the Berlin wall at the Eastside Gallery, there are several places for ostalgic people in Berlin that help them to keep a blessed memory of the past. One example is the Ostpaket store. Ostpaket can be translated as ‘the package from the East’, reminding of the packages that people in the GDR got from their Western German relatives. At the Ostpaket, history is being reversed. Here one can buy things which were typical for the GDR shops: sweets, household items, cosmetics, toys, all with strange colors and a design which seems to be out of this world. The store opened right after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The goods are produced in the Eastern part of Germany, in Czech Republic and Poland and are totally aimed at the desires of the Germans who lived in the GDR. The customers that come here are rarely tourists, but ‘Ostalgics’ who want to be reminded of past times.
If one does not only want to buy things associated with the GDR but wants to live in an apartment similar to the ones in the GDR, one has to visit the Hostel Ostel at Berlin Ostbahnhof. The Ostel is situated at an old building like they were typical for communistic countries, the so-called Plattenbauten. The originally grey building is now painted with strong colors in orange and green. Renting a room at the Ostel, one discovers lots of portraits of famous GDR leaders, furniture and wallpainting from the time. In the hall, a TV shows the political chronicle of that time. The co-owner of the hostel, Daniel, considers the opening of the Ostel more a commercial issue than an ostalgic-nostalgic concern of himself: The price of a double room is 59 euros per night. There are a lot of visitors: about 83 % of 40 rooms that are available are occupied every night. But what is it that keeps the GDR alive – at least in some minds? Ostalgie is often the outcome of problems that arose with the reunion, especially unemployment in the former GDR. The memory of the past is too often too idealistic, people get a feeling that ‘great ideals and beliefs’ are gone for something bad. But like everywhere else, time is running, and the wall in the minds of the people is vanishing. Ostalgic people will probably disappear, too. It‘s only a question of time.
Irina Laevskaya Russia, 20 years old Originally from Moscow region, currently making an Erasmus in Netherlands.
SABINE RIEDEL TALKING ABOUT MINORITIES IN EUROPE. Photo: Danilo Bretschneider
„PEOPLE HAVE TO INTERACT, NOT ONLY LIVE SIDE BY SIDE.“
SCIENTIFIC LOOK ON MINORITIES IN EUROPE
DR. SABINE RIEDEL OF THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS FOUNDATION IN BERLIN IS AN EXPERT IN INTEGRATION ISSUES. MATTEO DE SIMONE ASKED HER, HOW TO INTEGRATE MINORITIES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD. DR. RIEDEL, HOW IMPORTANT IS IT TO SPEAK ABOUT MINORITIES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD, WHERE THE MEANING OF BORDERS IS INCREASINGLY QUESTIONED?
There are still different issues on the problem of minorities. There is a real deﬁcit of integration policies, of course, but there is also a deﬁcit of democratic rules, a weakness in democracies. I believe that the introduction of new integration instruments could give a new direction to integration policies. But those have to be discussed in detail, since some approaches, such as the one of the collective rights, could potentially make conﬂicts even more serious. YOUR THESIS IS THAT RELIGIOUS IDENTITY, WHEN IT BECOMES A POLITICAL FACTOR, IS A POSSIBLE REASON FOR DISCRIMINATION AND CONFLICTS. WHAT ABOUT THE DEBATE REGARDING THE CHRISTIAN ORIGINS OF EUROPE?
In my eyes this is a very dangerous discussion, because European countries are not based only on Christianity. We have other historical factors, other religious communities who have inﬂuenced the European civilizations. This debate is counterproductive for the European integration. WESTFALIA 1648, KOSOVO 2008: IS THE CONCEPT OF THE NATION STATE AS AN ETHNICALLY HOMOGENEOUS TERRITORY STILL UNCHANGED?
The political concept of the nation state is connected with equal rights, so it does not carry along any elements that would exclude somebody. On the other hand, the model of the “ethnic nation” is recovering, turning things such as language or religion into an exclusive factor. This concept of nation is not suitable anymore: Neutrality of state and administration is a very important step towards
the modern state and democracy. In Germany, as in France, this separation was the result of a long debate in the 19th century. We have to discuss whether we want to drive our communities forward or back. Otherwise we will have permanent conﬂicts between different groups, each trying to predominate. YOU DEFEND THE INTEGRATIVE APPROACH CONCERNING SOCIAL INTERACTION. WHY?
This integrative approach is an instrument to make all individuals fully integrated members of a society, with rights and active political participation. The integrative approach is necessary nowadays, but I see deﬁcits in its implementation. We really have to develop the instruments. On the other hand side, if we prefer the communal approach, we risk to develop a society divided into several communities which do not communicate with each other.
IS THERE A LIMIT TO WHAT THE STATE CAN PRETEND IN ORDER TO GRANT CERTAIN RIGHTS IN EXCHANGE?
The state, as representative of the community, has to urge the population to participate, but it cannot force them. It has to develop good arguments. But there are also inﬂuences from outside. For instance, the Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan, in a visit to Germany, urged the Turkish-speaking minority not to forget their Turkish identity. This is not a problem if this minority is willing to accept also the German laws and living conditions. The problems arise when some immigrants say “it is enough to be Turkish, there is no need to learn German”. WHAT ABOUT FRANCE BANNING VEILS?
There is no law against the veil, but against every religious symbol, so it is not a discrimination against Muslim women. The French approach is a possible way to have neutral institutions.
ARE THERE ANY POSITIVE EXPERIENCES WITH THE INTEGRATIVE APPROACH?
Every state has a different approach. We have to focus on problems, and they will tell us in which direction we have to work. The United States, in their constitution, are a political nation, but in the last three decades they chose a policy of afﬁrmative action, that means they decided to introduce collective rights and privileges for the minorities. Canada is the only country in the world with a communal approach intended as multiculturalism which is enshrined in the constitution. And they are very proud of this model. However, it would not work in Europe. Having communities living side by side, as here in Berlin with German and Turkish people, is not sufﬁcient. They have to interact.
Matteo De Simone Italy, 23 years old Studies in Italy and is engaged with the situation of immigrants in Italy.
REASONS FOR BEING A MINORITY EACH PARTICIPANT OF THE EUROPEAN YOUTH MEDIA CONVENTION HAS ITS VERY OWN DEFINITION WHY SHE AND HE IS PART OF A MINORITY IN EUROPE. COLLECTED BY MARTINA CASTIGLANI AND MATTEO DE SIMONE, PHOTOS BY JULIA KNEUSE
Esteban Rafael Villarejo Ceballos (30)
„I like common things – nowadays I’m a minority.“
Paddy Duffy (24)
„I can remember thousands of stupid facts: I’m a minority.“
Hanna Vasilevich (26)
„I’m addicted to travelling around the world: I’m a minority.“
Roman Stanek (28)
„I’m quite normal. So I belong to an endangered minority.“
Ioana Elena Slobodnicu (23)
„I’m a Romanian in Luxembourg: I’m a minority.“
Alberto Scaravaggi (26)
„I think that I’m really intelligent: I’m a minority.“
Dobriyana Tropankeva (24)
„I’m a musician. All musicians are crazy. What can I do?“
Gerben Solleveld (23)
„My humor is chummy, but too sarcastic sometimes: I’m a minority.“
Triin Rebane (22)
„I’m more up in the air than on the ground. I’m a minority.“
Julia Fiedler (20)
„I’m addicted to chocolate cakes. Is that still a minority?“
Albana Ulaj (28)
„I’m an idealist. That‘s why I’m a minority.“
Irina Laevskaya (20)
„I believe in miracles. That makes me a minority.“
Anna France Didonna (25)
„My height is exactly 1.30 meter. I‘m a minority.“
Mareike Zoege (19 )
„I’m vegetarian. This is why I’m a minority.“
Biljana Prijic (27)
„I really prefer subtitles. I’m a minority in Italy.“
Alessandro Di Maio (25)
„I like women and pasta with sardines. That makes me a minority.“
Diana-Adela Ionita (22)
„I‘m a naturally blond girl living in Portugal. I‘m a minority.“
Bojana Perisic (26)
„I can sing with a very deep voice for a girl.“
Tako Kobakhidze (22)
„I have a tattoo on my ear. That makes me a minority.“
Kim Van de Perre (21)
„I’m a minority because I wear my watch on my right pulse.“
„I really believe in faries. Is there anyone else?“
Klara Kühn (18)
„In fact I really don’t think I‘m a minority.“
Anett Soti (23)
„I really can’t cook. That makes me a minority.“
Cristina Nichifor (26)
„I like dancing to any kind of music. Even jazz.“
Miriam Staber (21)
„I can’t blink with one eye. I‘m a minority.“
Vera Ragone (25)
„I like dressing up without combining colors.“
Matteo De Simone (23)
I am minority because my picture has a red background.
Selim Pekin Güngör (28)
„I can write with both hands: I’m a minority.“
Mila Mulas (23)
„I‘m blond but smart. That is quite rare, isn’t it?“
Pauline Tillmann (26)
„I like waking up early – very rare at my age!“
Klaudia Prazhmovska (26)
„I don’t eat salt and I do Capoeira: I’m a minority.“
Martina Castiglani (22)
„I’m always late – so late, that even in Italy I’m a minority!“
AN INTEGRATION ISSUE: MOLDAVIAN MINORITIES
MOLDAVIAN PEOPLE IN ITALY FIRST HAVE TO STRUGGLE WITH THE BUREAUCRACY. THEN ARISES THE REAL PROBLEM: FINDING A PLACE IN THE ITALIAN SOCIETY.
WRITTEN BY CRISTINA NICHIFOR
INTEGRATION IS A COMPLEX PROCESS.
Like many other former Soviet Union countries in Eastern Europe, the Republic of Moldavia has been buffeted by waves of migration for many years. The destination country most preferred by Moldavians is Italy followed by Spain, Portugal, and Greece. THE MOLDAVIAN COMMUNITY IS BASICALLY FORMED BY WOMEN
Cristina Nichifor Moldavia, 26 years old Likes dancing and writing.
The beginning of Moldavian migration in Italy is brought back to the end of the year 1990, when the economic crisis and the high level of unemployment on one side and the deep political transformation process on the other, made of migration a very crucial social phenomenon for Moldova. By the end of 2008, there were almost 90.000 Moldavian citizens registered at the vital statistics list of the Italians municipalities.
As a result of the wide spreet domestic work in Italy, the Moldavian community, currently living on the Italian territory, is basically formed by women. Their job usually consist in taking care of old people or cleaning houses. They sent home the money they earn in order to maintain their families. Unfortunately, Moldavian people have to deal with many bureaucratic problems in Italy. The process of getting the residence permit is long, complicated and costly. That means that until they do not get this really important paper they cannot go home, because this would imply losing the possibility to return to Italy. Consequently, many Moldavian women in Italy do not see their families for three and more years. Once they get the residence permit, though, they are allowed to bring their whole family to Italy. The majority of the people that immigrated to Italy has a high level of education,
most of them are doctors, teachers, book keepers and so on, but unfortunately they have to do poor quality jobs in Italy. THE PERSONS THAT HAVE A CHANCE OF BEING INTEGRATED ARE THE YOUNG ONES
The Moldavians that have a chance of being integrated are young ones that frequent Italian schools and universities, these being the main places that helps the integration and intercultural process. Obviously, it has been demonstrated that Moldavian young people are trying to become similar to Italians by sharing the same attitudes. An important base for being integrated is also an attitude that contains being open-minded and interested in interacting with Italians in the working, studying and religious ďŹ elds. The young generation will probably have the opportunity to get better jobs in Italy.
ROMANIANS: A MINORITY IN ITALY
IT IS SAID THAT IN LIFE ONE MAKES HIS OWN LUCK. ANYHOW, THE GEO-POLITICAL ISSUES PREDETERMINED ONES DESTINY TO A CERTAIN EXTENT. THINKS DIANA-ADELA IONITA Under the communist regime, many Eastern countries could not provide their inhabitants with real chances to pursuit happiness and economic success in life. After 20 years of efforts, trying to increase the life standard and reach the Western countries level, Romania still faces many ﬁnancial and social problems. Mostly after Romania joined the European Union in January 2007, many Romanians went abroad to work and search for a better life. The necessity to survive obliged them to leave home, lower the claims, forget about their statute and accept low-paid-jobs.
children in care were therefore obliged to notify the local authorities of their situation so the National Authority for Child Protection could monitor it. Hopefully, Romanians and the other nationalities from the Eastern countries will be fully treated as Europeans. And that they will get a real chance to have high quality jobs and a higher life standard, which all of them have been looking for for such a long time.
IN ITALY THERE ARE MORE THAN ONE MILLION ROMANIAN IMMIGRANTS
In the absence of ofﬁcial statistics, the actual estimates of the number of Romanians that left the country to work abroad are based on surveys conducted in Romania and the main destination countries and on some ofﬁcial data from the major institutions or organizations from the destination countries of migration. A comparative estimate shows that the number of Romanians working abroad in 2009 was around three million. In Italy, according to the most recent Caritas report called ‘Romania. Immigrazione e Lavoro in Italia’, in 2008 there were more than one million Romanian migrants, of which 749,000 were single workers and 23.5% were families.
Diana-Adela Ionita Romania, 22 years old Tried to emphasize the role of the EU during the EYMC congress in Berlin.
JOBS IN SOCIAL SERVICES ARE OFTEN NOT WELL-PAID.
THE MIGRANTS USUALLY GET HARD PHYSICAL WORK WITH POOR SOCIAL PROTECTION
Even if they have higher education degrees, work experience and they speak at least two foreign languages, the Romanian migrants in Italy usually get hard physical work with poor job quality and even low social and health protection. Constructions and agriculture for men and babysitting or old persons care for women are the most usual jobs for them. The salary is low for an country of the European Union considering that the workers have to pay for their rent, but still higher than they money they would earn in Romania. In the year 2009, Romanians working abroad sent around 2, 8 billion euros to their home country – using ofﬁcial or informal ways. HOPEFULLY, ROMANIANS WILL BE FULLY TREATED AS EUROPEANS IN THE FUTURE
The most Romanian immigrants in Italy are from the North-Eastern part of the country, where now many villages from Suceava or Vaslui are almost empty. This led to a very unpleasant situation, as the children left home alone usually give up school and have severe emotional problems which many times end up with suicides. The authorities had to modify the law regarding the protection of Romanian citizens working abroad. People with
Photo: Carolin Weinkopf/photocase.com
ESCAPING THE POVERTY
NO EDUCATION, NO JOB, NO INTEGRATION – MOST ROMA PEOPLE LIVE A HARD LIFE. HANNA VASILEVICH GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF THEIR SITUATION AND PRESENTS POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO SOLVING THE PROBLEM. BY HANNA VASILEVICH
The problem of Roma is visible even in the middle of Berlin: Right next to the Berlin Dom, there are Roma begging for money. However, the situation of Roma in their home countries is even worse. Being one of the most discriminated minorities group in Europe, the Roma people are concentrated mainly in Central and Eastern Europe. Yet, the issue of Roma minority became very acute with the European Union enlargements, especially with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria. The better treatment of Roma people, which represent around two to four percent of the population in those countries, became one of the preconditions for being a member of the EU.
the rest of the population. This way, integration even took a step backwards. The programs established by the governments of Bulgaria and Romania did not serve the Roma like they were supposed to do. Eventually, the Roma have stayed as poor and chanceless as they were without any social policies. Another important approach to the integration of the Roma is to understand their culture. The Roma society is a cast society. Thus, in order to approach them, it is necessary to do it via their leaders. This seems to be a very antique strategy, but may be very effective. EVENTUALLY, IT IS NOT ENOUGH JUST TO OFFER SPECIAL SOCIAL BENEFITS TO ROMA PEOPLE
However, after the accession, the situation of the Roma in those countries did not change at all. The life of Roma is often best described by the terms poverty, social backdrop and integration failure. Roma people are still being mistreated in different ways in their daily life. Till today, up to 92 percent of Roma did not report the abuse, considering it as being normal and as something that happens all the time. On the other hand, almost 100 percent of Roma lost their trust in law enforcement and justice structures. Unemployment among Roma is 44 percent, due to lack of education, even illiteracy, which prevents them from getting paid a higher remuneration and socially more secured job. According to UNICEF, among Roma people in Bulgaria the percentage of literate people is from 71 up to 87. What the majority does not have is an other choice than to rely on delinquency, prostitution and drugs. They mostly live in ghettos, where there is no water supply or electricity only for six hours a day. Anyhow, there have been some efforts to integrate the Roma people and to change their living standard. There were special scholarships and social programs for Roma which had the main effect of raising the envy of
Others claim that the main problem was the lacking cooperation between authorities and the Roma, and thus the missing trust in law and the total concept of society. To restore the trust education is needed, otherwise Roma will not be able to gather information about their rights, to understand or even implement them. As many Roma are not interested in or cannot afford education, they really have to be convinced of the necessity of it. The leader’s approval and cooperation could also be a solution here. Eventually, it is not enough just to offer special social beneﬁts to Roma people. It is important and necessary to understand their culture and traditions, and also respect their social structure so that the beneﬁts can reach them. As for the future and better integration, education is needed quickly. But it is not enough just to offer education, but also explain the need of it through communication with the leaders. Only after inclusion and respect of Roma’s traditions and social structure, the trust can be established and cooperation could ﬁnally bring some fruits.
Hanna Vasilevich Belarus, 27 years old Likes writing and also discussing about it.
WHITE CHRISTMAS IN ITALY: NOT A DREAM AT ALL
WHILE A NEW RACIST WAVE IS SPREADING OUT OVER ITALY AND OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, MANY PEOPLE REMAIN CALM. TOO CALM. THINKS MARTINA CASTIGLIANI “This is a dangerous situation, but actually I am not really alarmed.“ These were the ﬁrst words of the political expert Sabine Riedel, speaking about the new wave of racism and xenophobic phenomena in Europe at the EYMCcongress. While lots of people seem to be concerned about the current development, Riedel remains calm: “Nationalism persuaded people at the beginning of the twentieth century when the institutions were not really developed, but right now the situation is different“, stated Riedel. “Our democracy is like a house with strong walls. It would be hard to destroy it.” But this wall was based on the institutions of each European country and the European Union itself, emphasized Riedel. These institutions have to work properly and identify the problem correctly. “Racism is now a different phenomenon that we should not compare with the older wave of racism. Institutions of all kinds have to recognize this and react adequately.” THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO PUSH OUT ALL THE IRREGULAR
And the situation is getting worse: In the case of the Lega Nord, they want to create special seats on buses reserved only for Italian people. These episodes remind us of a bad time in the last century’s history that was supposed not to happen ever again. Now Italy is following the bad path and nobody says a word. Sabine Riedel gives a strong answer to the worries of many Italian people. ”I don’t think that right now we should be worried of populism. Every party and every politician is trying to be a populist.” But exactly this might become a problem if there is too few discussion about xenophobic groups. In Italy again, the information about racism is too few, the communication channels seem to be blocked. A critical analysis is totally missing. When the economic crisis is the main fear, problems like racism are pushed to the background and a non-information strategy helps racists raise their power.
PEOPLE – NOBODY HINDERED THE PARTY FROM DOING THAT
What happens, if institutions fail to do this, can be perfectly seen in Italy. The Lega Nord party in Coccaglio, a village in the North of Italy, dreamed of “White Christmas” last December. ‘White’ did not mean tons of snow but rather a village without people of darker skin. The party members went to the houses of more than 400 immigrants to scrutinize their residence paper. The objective was to push out all the irregular people – and nobody hindered them from doing that. If the law itself does permit this aggresive form of racism, what can we, the people, do against that? The problem involves all the memberstates in the European Union. If a state inside the federation acts against human rights, shouldn’t institutions European Union intervene? As in a circle, this involves the problem of sovereignty: If the European Union cannot say anything, and it does not even want to do it, isn’t that hurting the human rights and the role of the institutions as a defender of democracy inside the Union? The inhabitant of the Union is just abandoned to racist waves like the one of the Lega Nord.
To react to the lack of information, especially journalists have to work on it and study from where xenophobic groups come and which are the economic forces that ﬁnance them. “Young journalists should examen critically which politicians want to solve problems and which want to create problems”, said Riedel. In this context of racism against minorities the role of young journalists becomes crucial. If we want to trust our democratic institutions, we should continue to supporte and protect them.
Martina Castigliani Italy, 22 years old Is from the north of Italy, an originally leftist area.
PULP DO YOU THINK MINORITIES
ARE APPROPRIATELY REPRESENTED IN THE MEDIA?
Photos: Julia Kneuse
“TO BE IMPROVED“
IOANA ELENA SLOBODNICU
ESTEBAN RAFAEL VILLAREJO CEBALLOS
“UNFORTUNATELY, THERE IS NO HUNGARIAN
“MASS MEDIA OFTEN PRESENT MINORITIES AS
“REGARDING MINORITIES THE IRISH
BROADCASTING MAGAZINE FOR MINORITIES. WE HAVE
CRIMINALS. THEREFORE, THE IMAGE OF THE
MEDIA IS REASONABLY WELL BALANCED.
LOTS OF PRIVATE MEDIA IN HUNGARY WHICH TRY TO
MINORITIES IS OFTEN DISTORTED. BUT YOU CANNOT
THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE A STORY
TREAT TOPICS CONSIDERING MINORITIES.
FORCE MEDIA BY LAW TO DELIVER AN UNBIASED
SHOWING MINORITIES IN A GOOD LIGHT
BUT THIS IS STILL TO BE IMPROVED.“
IMAGE OF THE MINORITIES.“
THAN IN A BAD ONE.“
FRIS C H , F R U C H T I G , S E L B S T G E P R E S S T
Diese Ausgabe von politikorange entstand auf der 6. European Youth Media Convention der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung vom 14. bis 17. April 2010 in Berlin
Als Veranstaltungszeitung, Magazin, Onlinedienst und Radioprogramm erreicht das Mediennetzwerk politikorange seine jungen Hörer und Leser. Krieg, Fortschritt, Kongresse, Parteiund Jugendmedientage – politikorange berichtet jung und frech zu Schwerpunkten und Veranstaltungen. Junge Autoren zeigen die große und die kleine Politik aus einer frischen, fruchtigen, anderen Perspektive. POLITIKORANGE – DAS MULTIMEDIUM
politikorange wurde 2002 als Veranstaltungsmagazin ins Leben gerufen. Seit den Politiktagen gehören Kongresse, Festivals und Jugendmedienevents zum Print- und Online-Programm. 2004 erschienen die ersten Themenmagazine: staefﬁ* und ortschritt*. Während der Jugendmedientage 2005 in Hamburg wurden erstmals Infos rund um die Veranstaltung live im Radio ausgestrahlt und eine 60-minütige Sendung produziert.
Photo: Julia Kneuse
WIE KOMM’ ICH DA RAN?
WER MACHT POLITIKORANGE?
Gedruckte Ausgaben werden direkt auf Veranstaltungen, über die Landesverbände der Jugendpresse Deutschland und als Beilagen in Tageszeitungen verteilt. Radiosendungen strahlen wir mit wechselnden Sendepartnern aus. Auf www.politikorange. de berichten wir live von Kongressen und Großveranstaltungen. Dort stehen bereits über 50 politikorange-Ausgaben und unsere Radiosendungen im Archiv zum Download bereit. WARUM EIGENTLICH POLITIKORANGE?
Junge Journalisten – sie recherchieren, berichten und kommentieren. Wer neugierig und engagiert in Richtung Journalismus gehen will, dem stehen hier alle Türen offen. Genauso willkommen sind begeisterte Knipser und kreative Köpfe fürs Layout. Den Rahmen für Organisation und Vertrieb stellt die Jugendpresse Deutschland. Ständig wechselnde Redaktionsteams sorgen dafür, dass politikorange immer frisch und fruchtig bleibt. Viele erfahrene Jungjournalisten der Jugendpresse stehen mit Rat und Tat zur Seite.
In einer Gesellschaft, in der oft über das fehlende Engagement von Jugendlichen diskutiert wird, begeistern wir für eigenständiges Denken und Handeln. politik-orange informiert über das Engagement anderer und motiviert zur Eigeninitiative. Und politikorange selbst ist Engagement – denn politikorange ist frisch, fruchtig und selbstgepresst.
Wer heiß aufs Schreiben, Fotograﬁeren oder Mitschneiden ist, ﬁndet Informationen zum Mitmachen und zu aktuellen Veranstaltungen im Internet unter der Adresse www.politikorange.de oder schreibt an mitmachen@ politikorange.de. Die frischesten Mitmachmöglichkeiten landen dann direkt in Deinem Postfach.
Herausgeber und Redaktion: politikorange – Netzwerk Demokratieoffensive, c/o Jugendpresse Deutschland e.V., Wöhlertstraße 18, 10115 Berlin, Tel. (030) 450 865 50, Fax (030) 450 865 59, www.jugendpresse.de, firstname.lastname@example.org Chefredaktion (V.i.S.d.P.): Irina Laevskaya, email@example.com Redaktion: Matteo de Simone, Martina Castillagni, Cristina Nichifor, Diana-Adela Ionita, Hanna Vasilevich, Alberto Scaravaggi Bildredaktion: Julia Kneuse (julia@kneusede), Danilo Bretschneider (d.bretschneider@ jugendfotos.de) Layout: Sebastian Wenzel ( informationen@ sebastianwenzel.de) Projektleitung: Barbara Engels (b.engels@ jugendpresse.de), Sebastian Seraﬁn, (s.seraﬁn @jugendpresse.de) Druck: BVZ Berliner Zeitungsdruck GmbH, Am Wasserwerk 11, 10365 Berlin, 2.000 Exemplare Der Medienworkshop „politikorange“ auf der European-Youth-Media-Convention wurde ermöglicht durch die Förderung der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung und die Unterstüzung durch Yvonne Lehmann (Forum Politik und Gesellschaft).
SYMBOL FOR THE RISING OF THE GAY COMMUNITY Photo: Biljana Prijic
GAYS IN BERLIN: EVERYTHING BUT MINOR
BERLIN, THE GERMAN CAPITAL, IS KNOWN AS A VERY COSMOPOLITAN CITY. THIS COUNTS EVEN FOR HOMOSEXUAL PEOPLE, AT LEAST PARTLY. ALBERTO SCARAVAGGI FIGURED IT OUT In Berlin there are several districts where homosexual people do not represent the minority but are present everywhere. Around the Nollendorfplatz and the Schönhauser Allee in the districts of Schöneberg and Pankow, gays show their pride of being gay whenever and wherever they can. And because homosexuals sometimes need a special equipment for their love life, there are shops like Bruno’s that vest sexually active homosexuals with sex articles, gay magazines and many other gay oriented things. CONDOMS FOR YOUNG GAYS
Alberto Scaravaggi Italy, 26 years old Likes Spaghetti and strawberry ice cream.
“Gays may still be a kind of minority in some parts of Germany, but in Berlin and other strongholds of homosexuality like Cologne, they are certainly a coequal part of society”, said Frank, manager of a Bruno store which was opened 17 years ago. “Unlike other minorities, most homosexual people are proud being homosexual and want to show their sexual orientation. They want to be seen.”
Frank himself helped many young boys with the right accessories and condoms for their ﬁrst gay intercourse. “It is a fortune that a store like this one exists. It really helps people to have safer sex, no matter which gender they want to have it with.” TRADITIONAL CONCEPTS HINDER INTEGRATION
But even if gays are well integrated in society in most parts of Germany, they are still facing problems living their life. Frank: “Still many people have to change their mentality and the traditional concept of a family.” A family should not necessarily consist of a mother and a father, but of two loving fathers, said Frank. “In fast times like these, more and more traditional thoughts have to be reviewed.” There were still too many prejudices, often triggered by beliefs related to religions, said Frank. The climate for homosexuals in the creative German capital Berlin may be generally positive, but it is still to be improved.
IMPRESSIONS FROM THE CONGRESS
MORE THAN 30 UPCOMING YOUNG JOURNALISTS FROM SEVERAL COUNTRIES FOLLOWED THE INVITATION OF THE FRIEDRICH-EBERTFOUNDATION AND DISCUSSED A WHOLE WEEKEND ABOUT MINORITIES IN EUROPE. PHOTOGRAPHED BY JULIA KNEUSE ONE CONVENTION, MANY CULTURES AND A LOT TO DISCUSS
LINKE BOTSCHAFTEN KOMPAKT, LINIENGETREU SORTIERT.