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Final  Communiqué                 Berlin,  May  2012  

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Europe’s  Voice  2012  

  The  project  EUropeʼs  Voice  annually  assembles  the  European  Youth  Delegations  to  the  G8  &   G20   Youth   Summits.   EUropeʼs   Voice   takes   place   each   year   prior   to   the   G8   &   G20   Youth   Summits,  the  students’  equivalent  to  the  G8  and  G20.   The  concept  behind  EUropeʻs  Voice  derives  from  the  idea  that  in  the  fast  globalizing  world,  a   common  European  position  has  a  higher  likelihood  of  being  recognized  than  individual  coun-­‐ tries’   positions.   Accordingly,   EUropeʻs   Voice   is   meant   to   provide   all   European   delegations   with   the   chance   to   negotiate   a   common   European   position   prior   to   the   G8   &   G20   Youth   Summits,  which  are  going  to  take  place  in  Washington  D.C,  USA,  from  the  3rd  up  to  the  9th  of   June  2012.     The  summit  took  place  from  the  11th  to  the  13th  of  May  2012  in  Berlin,  organised  by  Policy   Innovation  e.V.  in  cooperation  with  Youth  Diplomacy,  Youth  Diplomatic  Service,  Young  Am-­‐ bassadors  Society  and  Youth  AEGIS.   Each  national  delegation  encompassed  a  Head  of  State,  a  Sherpa  and  seven  Ministers.  Prior   to  EUrope's  Voice,  each  delegate  had  to  prepare  a  position  paper  on  the  agenda  items  the   delegates   had   agreed   to   in   advance.   The   following   pages   contain   the   Final   Communiqué,   which  was  signed  by  all  Heads  of  State  on  the  13th  May  of  2012  in  Berlin,  Germany.  

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Heads  of  State   The  Future  of  the  G20  .........................................................................................................  1   Sustainable  Development  Framework  (SDF)  Post-­‐2015  .......................................................  1   Open  Government  Initiatives  .............................................................................................  2   Global  Security  Risks  ..........................................................................................................  3   Human  Rights  and  State  Sovereignty  ..................................................................................  4  

Foreign  Affairs   Democratic  Aspirations  ......................................................................................................  5   Egypt  and  Tunisia  ......................................................................................................................  5   Palestinian  Territories  ...............................................................................................................  6   Syria  ...........................................................................................................................................  6   Minority  Rights  ...................................................................................................................  7   Women  ......................................................................................................................................  7   Children  .....................................................................................................................................  7   Lesbian,  Gay,  Bisexual  and  Transgender  ..............................  Fehler!  Textmarke  nicht  definiert.  

Finance   Regulation  and  supervision  in  the  financial  system  .............................................................  9   Over-­‐The-­‐Counter  (OTC)  Derivatives  Markets  Regulation  ........................................................  9   Capital  Adequacy  And  Systemic  Risk  .........................................................................................  9   Credit  Rating  Agencies  ..............................................................................................................  9   International  Monetary  System  Reform  ...........................................................................  10   Commodities  Price  Stability  ....................................................................................................  10  

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org    


Exchange  Rates  Regime  ...........................................................................................................  10   International  Monetary  Fund  ..................................................................................................  10  

Economics   Preamble  ..........................................................................................................................  11   Global  Unemployment  .....................................................................................................  11   Small-­‐  and  Medium-­‐Sized  Enterprises  and  Entrepreneurship  ................................................  11   Education  ................................................................................................................................  12   Gender  Equality  .......................................................................................................................  13   Business  Transparency  ............................................................................................................  13   Corporate  Governance  Guidelines  ..........................................................................................  13   Public-­‐Private-­‐Partnerships  .....................................................................................................  14  

Defence   Ballistic  Missile  Defence/Strategic  Issues  ..........................................................................  15   Security  of  the  International  Waterways  ..........................................................................  16   Afghanistan  ......................................................................................................................  17  

Environment   Water  Governance  ...........................................................................................................  19   Right  to  Water  .........................................................................................................................  19   Pollution  /  Hazardous  Waste  ............................................................................................  19   Marine  Protection  ............................................................................................................  19   Green  Growth  ..................................................................................................................  20   Future  of  Energy  supplies  ........................................................................................................  20  

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org    


Supply  ......................................................................................................................................  20   Efficiency  .................................................................................................................................  20   Climate  Financing  ....................................................................................................................  21   Nuclear  Energy  ........................................................................................................................  21  

Justice   International  and  National  Regulation  of  Communication  ................................................  22   Cross-­‐Border  Criminal  Activities  and  Migrant  Rights  .........................................................  23  

Development   Human  Security  ................................................................................................................  24   Scrutinizing  Aid   ................................................................................................................  25  

 

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org    


Heads  Of  State   The  Future  of  the  G20   We   firmly   believe   in   the   potential   of   the   G20   and   recognise   the   positive   difference   it   can   make  in  the  global  arena.  However,  we  are  of  the  view  that  with  some  changes,  the  G20  can   be   even   more   results-­‐oriented,   inclusive   and   responsive   to   the   increasingly   globalized   world   we  live  in.  We  consider  the  following  observations  of  the  current  G20  form:   • •

Summits   fulfil   a   ceremonial   and   profile-­‐raising   objective   effectively,   however   there   is   limited  focus  on  implementation  of  policies  and  direct  results,   While   the   G20   effectively   engages   the   leading   economic   powers,   it   fails   to   fully   draw   on  and  engage  the  aspirations  and  interests  of  all  world  regions,  namely  regions  with   strong  developmental  needs,   As   the   Presidency   rotates   every   Summit,   the   agenda   inevitably   takes   a   short-­‐term   approach   to   tackling   issues,   as   opposed   to   a   longer-­‐term   strategic   viewpoint   and   can   often  centre  around  host  country  interests  as  opposed  to  the  global  interest,   Unlike   other   intergovernmental   gatherings,   there   is   no   formal   dialogue   between   youth  and  the  G20  heads  of  state  and  government.  

Therefore   we   propose   a   new   model   for   governance,   which   can   be   seen   in   appendix   A   and   is   underpinned   by   the   principles   of   inclusion,   dialogue,   participation   and   grassroots   results.   This  model  ensures  a  broader  global  voice  and  the  direct  engagement  of  civil  society  through   the   formal   participation   of   regional   institutions   and   the   existing   Parallel   Fora.   We   support   the  permanent  installation  of  a  civil  society  forum,  as  introduced  this  year  as  CS20.   We   call   to   establish   a   G20   Bureau,   which   would   be   the   political   body   overseeing   the   perma-­‐ nent   secretariat   and   made   up   of   the   previous,   present   and   pending   host   member,   alongside   two  additional  G20  members.  The  Bureau  will  be  responsible  for  the  overall  strategic  plan-­‐ ning   of   the   G20,   and   in   particular   ensuring   continuity   between   summits,   managing   stake-­‐ holder  interests  and  setting  agendas.  The  Bureau  should  also  have  a  duty  to  ensure  a  two-­‐ way  dialogue  with  political  and  civic  voices  with  the  formal  G20  membership.      

Sustainable  Development  Framework  (SDF)  Post-­‐2015   A   sustained,   ambitious   and   appropriately   focused   global   plan   of   action   is   paramount   follow-­‐ ing   the   2015   deadline   of   the   Millennium   Development   Goals   (MDGs).   We   propose   this   should  take  the  form  of  a  Sustainable  Development  Framework.  

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We   call   for   the   G20   members   to   formally   support   a   broadening   of   the   G20   remit   to   more   centrally  discuss  public  health,  international  development  and  social  justice  matters  along-­‐ side  the  largely  financial  paradigms  at  present.   We  recommend  that  the  participants  to  the  2012  G8  &  G20  Youth  Summits  dedicate  some   time   to   develop   some   messages   to   send   to   our   youth   counterparts   attending   the   Rio   +20   Summit   ahead   of   the   main   G20   summit.   We   recommend   that   topics   should   be   addressed   which   correspond   with   the   priority   areas   of   the   EU   Rio   +20   youth   ambassadors   process,   namely  water,  education  and  employment.   While  the  Sustainable  Development  Framework  should  have  an  all-­‐age  remit  similar  to  the   MDGs,  we  promote  central  focus  on  youth,  and  correlate  around  priority  areas.  We  propose   these  are  the  four  “e’s”  of  the  SDF:   • • • •

Youth  Empowerment   Youth  Employment   Youth  Education   Youth  and  Environment    

The  SDF,  like  the  MDGs,  should  engage  a  broad  cohort  of  stakeholders  including  government,   business,  civil  society  and  crucially  those  who  will  sustain  these  goals  over  the  next  genera-­‐ tion,  young  people.  

Open  Government  Initiatives         We  believe  that  more  open,  accountable  and  participative  governance  around  the  world  is   essential   to   the   progressive   development   of   policy   and   enhancement   of   civic   empowerment   through  bringing  politics  closer  to  the  people.  If  we  analyse  much  of  Europe  and  the  world   today,  many  youths  do  not  feel  engaged  or  connected  with  their  governments  or  politicians.   Youths  are  often  the  least  likely  group  to  vote  in  many  of  our  societies  and  cannot  often  fully   participate  in  democratic  life  due  to  age  limits,  financial  barriers,  social  stigmata  or  lack  of   effective  information.   Open  governance  is  key  on  a  global  level  also.  We  feel  our  ideas  in  the  “Future  of  the  G20”   section,  offer  some  solutions  to  a  more  open  and  inclusive  political  process.   However,  active  engagement  in  the  democratic  process  is  most  pivotal  at  a  localised  level.   We   believe   the   G20   have   a   role   to   encourage   youth   empowerment.   Therefore   we   suggest   the  formation  of  G20  Youth  Charters  for  each  member  country.  Every  member  of  the  G20  

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must  provide  a  Charter  that  demonstrates  its  commitment  to  youth.  The  G20  Youth  Charters   should  be  based  on  the  topics  of:   • • • •

Youth  Empowerment   Youth  Employment   Youth  Education   Youth  and  Environment  

Within  the  Youth  Charter,  governments  must  reflect  on  how  they:   • •

• •

Enable  a  youth  governance  body,  that  independently  engages  youth  in  the  decision-­‐ making  process  and  enables  their  voice  to  be  heard  at  national  level,   Provide   a   strong   programme   of   political   education   and   leadership   opportunities.   Governments  must  also  demonstrate  how  they  can  engage  youth  from  all  social,  fi-­‐ nancial,  belief  and  geographical  backgrounds,   Offer  a  range  of  political  engagement  tools  -­‐  namely  online  methods,   Ensure   that   young   people   are   heard   on   all   policies   across   government,   not   merely   is-­‐ sues  considered  as  “youth  policies”  such  as  education.  

One  example  of  good  practice  is  the  EU’s  Citizens  Initiative  where  citizens  (including  youth)   can  directly  propose  legislation  within  the  EU.  This  model  should  be  spread  across  the  world   and  include  financial  empowerment  through  youth-­‐led  budgets.  

Global  Security  Risks   We   support   the   promotion   of   peace   and   security   around   the   word.   While   we   recognise   that   there  are  a  number  of  global  security  risks  that  hold  great  importance  in  the  world  arena,  we   would  like  to  put  forward  the  following  topics  for  discussion  at  the  G8  &  G20  Youth  Summits   2012  in  Washington  DC:   • • •

Resource-­‐based  conflict   Terrorism   Security  consequences  of  climate  change  

As   our   planet   continues   to   face   sustainability   challenges,   and   our   population   increases,   con-­‐ flict  resulting  from  the  scarcity  of  vital  resources  including  water  and  food  is  an  increasing   global  security  risk.  The  uncertainty  around  natural  resource  availability  presents  significant   vulnerabilities  including  hunger,  thirst,  disease,  death  and  degraded  eco-­‐systems.    

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Human  Rights  and  State  Sovereignty   We   note   central   to   this   subject   is   the   Responsibility   to   Protect   Principle.   We   propose   that   the  various  tenets  of  the  responsibility  to  protect  principle  are  discussed  in  Washington  DC.     We   note   that   state   sovereignty   is   very   important.   At   the   same   time,   we   note   the   central   im-­‐ portance  of  upholding  human  rights  across  the  world.  We  observe  there  is  ongoing  tension   between  these  two  maxims  and  recommend  this  forms  the  basis  of  discussion  in  Washing-­‐ ton  DC.   We  recall  the  existing  position  of  the  UN:   “The  international  community,  through  the  United  Nations,  also  has  the  responsibility  to  use   appropriate  diplomatic,  humanitarian  and  other  peaceful  means,  in  accordance  with  Chap-­‐ ters  VI  and  VIII  of  the  Charter,  to  help  protect  populations  from  genocide,  war  crimes,  ethnic   cleansing   and   crimes   against   humanity.   In   this   context,   we   are   prepared   to   take   collective   action,  in  a  timely  and  decisive  manner,  through  the  Security  Council,  in  accordance  with  the   Charter,  including  Chapter  VII,  on  a  case-­‐by-­‐case  basis  and  in  cooperation  with  relevant  re-­‐ gional  organizations  as  appropriate,  should  peaceful  means  be  inadequate  and  national  au-­‐ thorities   manifestly   fail   to   protect   their   populations   from   genocide,   war   crimes,   ethnic   cleansing  and  crimes  against  humanity.  We  stress  the  need  for  the  General  Assembly  to  con-­‐ tinue  consideration  of  the  responsibility  to  protect  populations  from  genocide,  war  crimes,   ethnic  cleansing  and  crimes  against  humanity  and  its  implications,  bearing  in  mind  the  prin-­‐ ciples  of  the  Charter  and  international  law.”   We  believe  all  states  must  abide  by  international  legislation,  and  we  must  consider  also  how   we   collectively   hold   state   leaders   accountable   to   claims   of   crimes   against   humanity.   This   should   include   local   and   regional   approaches,   as   well   as   global   inter-­‐governmental   ap-­‐ proaches.  

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Foreign  Affairs1   Democratic  Aspirations   We  recognize  the  power  of  the  Arab  Spring  movements  and  applaud  the  immense  courage   of   the   demonstrators,   as   well   as   the   important   role   young   people   played   in   the   protests.   More  prosperous  and  inclusive  societies  are  on  their  ways.  Whilst  we  recognize  that  there  is   no   ideal   form   of   democracy,   the   European   delegates   support   the   ongoing   democratic   pro-­‐ cesses  and  people's  aspirations  in  Egypt,  Tunisia,  Syria  and  the  Palestinian  territories.   Equal   political   participation,   freedom,   the   rule   of   law,   respect   for   universal   human   rights,   minority  rights  including  religious  minorities  and  women's  rights  are  of  central  importance.   But   we   are   aware   that   implementing   these   measures   and   building   democratic   institutions   requests   time   and   patience.   The   European   delegates   lend   active   support   to   free   electoral   processes  meant  to  establish  legitimate  civil  governments.    

Egypt  and  Tunisia   As  for  Egypt  and  Tunisia,  in  the  line  of  the  Deauville  partnership,  we  urge  our  G8  partners  to   continue   and   extend   the   technical,   financial   and   structural   assistance   to   these   countries   through:   ●

Supporting  the  development  of  new  Constitutions  formalizing  each  country's  future   political   arrangements.   While   fully   respecting   each   state's   sovereignty,   we   are   willing   to  share  our  technical  support  in  terms  of  rule  of  law,  building  democratic  institutions   and  economy,   Providing   common   financial   support   to   independent   media   and   increase   access   to   internet  and  other  means  of  communication,   Promoting   youth   employment   through   joint   actions,   boosting   initiatives   from   foreign   private   sectors   in   the   region   on   this   matter,   trade   agreements   and   further   extending   the  opening  of  the  European  market,   Encouraging   partnerships   for   mobility   especially   for   students   and   workers   and   further  action  within  the  European  Union  in  order  to  facilitate  visa  procedures,  

                                                                                                            1

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  the  participation  of  a  delegate  from  the  United  Kingdom.  

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Recognizing   and   developing   the   role   of   the   Arab   League   as   a   stakeholder   on   issues   related  to  peace  and  security  in  the  region,   Strengthening  the  contact  groups  among  G8  nations  in  order  to  ensure  collective  and   continuous  evaluation  of  the  application  of  the  Deauville  Partnership.  These  contact   groups  could  eventually  foster  action  and  constitute  a  means  of  pressure  in  case  of   non-­‐compliance   from   the   countries   benefiting   of   the   Deauville   Partnership   with   their   engagements  in  terms  of  freedom  of  speech,  freedom  of  manifest  and  minority  rights.  

Palestinian  Territories   The   Arab   Spring   represents   a   historical   opportunity   to   find   a   solution   to   the   Israeli-­‐ Palestinian   conflict.   Therefore   the   international   community   must   increase   the   efforts   for   a   peaceful  two-­‐states  solution.  The  European  delegates  call  on  Israel  and  Palestine  to  resume   negotiations  as  soon  as  possible.  We  urge  our  G8  partners  to  recognize  that  an  independent,   democratic  and  viable  Palestinian  state  is  the  only  way  to  ensure  Israel’s  security,  peace  in   the  region  and  ensure  life-­‐conditions  in  the  full  respect  of  universal  human  rights  for  Pales-­‐ tinians.  For  that  purpose  the  G8  members  should:     ● ●

Condemn  the  ongoing  Israeli  settlement  as  well  as  the  terrorist  attacks  in  the  region,   Recognize   and   develop   the   role   of   the   Quartet   as   an   important   mediator   and   encourage  it  to  further  take  into  consideration  the  Palestinian  claims,   Recognize   that   economic   development   (securing   economic   exchanges   with   Israel,   labour   flows   and   trade)   is   indispensable   to   foster   democratic   aspirations   of   the   Palestinian  people,   Provide   further   support   for   the   promising   democratic   institution   building   process   under   way   in   the   Palestinian   territories   and   urge   all   groups   involved   to   create   conditions  for  free  elections,   Provide  common  financial  support  to  grassroots  initiatives  (NGOs)  trying  to  promote   dialogue   among   young   people   in   order   to   enable   a   future   without   violence   and   conflict.    

Syria   The  European  delegates  are  deeply  concerned  about  the  ongoing  violence  in  Syria  and  wish   it  to  end.  We  strongly  condemn  the  way  the  Syrian  government  manages  the  uprising.  The   European   delegates   urge   the   Syrian   government   to   entirely   implement   its   international   commitments  (resolution  2043,  the  Annan  Plan)  immediately.  We  express  our  support  to  the   UN  sanctions  (chapter  VII).  We  encourage  our  partners  to  recognize  the  conclusions  of  the   independent  international  commission  of  inquiry  investigating  on  crimes  against  humanity  in   Syria  and  provide  further  financial  assistance  to  the  UNHCR  in  dealing  with  the  huge  influx  of   Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org  |  6  


Syrian   refugees.   We   express   our   support   to   the   Syrian   opposition   in   finding   a   common   ground  and  we  more  generally  support  inter-­‐ethnic  dialogue  in  Syria.  We  encourage  our  G8   partners   to   unite   behind   a   common   plan   of   action   in   response   to   the   ongoing   violence.   Whilst   recognizing   the   UN   Security   Council's   role   to   safeguard   peace   and   security   in   the   world,   the   EU   delegates   are   disappointed   with   the   dead-­‐lock   on   the   Syrian   issue.   We   en-­‐ courage   the   international   community   to   adopt   further   recommendations   (as   for   example   resolution  377),  which  appear  necessary  to  re-­‐establish  peace  and  security  in  Syria.    

Minority  Rights   Women   Human   rights   are   of   central   importance   for   the   European   foreign   policy   and   a   valuable   com-­‐ ponent  to  every  democratic  society.   The  European  delegates  pay  tribute  to  the  role  that  the  civil  society  and  especially  women   have  played  in  the  events  of  the  Arab  Spring  and  call  for  full  participation  of  women  and  mi-­‐ norities   in   the   political   processes   that   are   under   way.   We   would   like   to   encourage   our   G8   partners  to:   Advance  the  efforts  of  all  governments  to  provide  education  on  gender  issues  and   provide  financial  support  to  NGOs  engaged  in  rights-­‐awareness  training,   ● Increase  the  financial  support  to  the  UN  Women,   ● Advance  their  efforts  to  favour  equal  access  of  women  and  men  to  electoral   mandates  and  elective  positions  (as  for  example  the  Parité  law),   ● Establish  bilateral  and  regular  dialogue  between  the  G8  nations  and  China/Iran  on   human  rights.     ●

Children     The  protection  of  children  according  to  the  Convention  of  the  Rights  of  the  Child  is  of  partic-­‐ ular   and   immense   importance.   One   of   our   aims   is   to   protect   children   from   all   forms   of   men-­‐ tal   and   physical   violence.   The   European   delegates   underline   the   importance   of   the   universal   prohibition  of  child  labour.  We  would  like  to  address  the  attention  to  the  issue  of  children  in   war  and  to  stress  that  further  action  should  be  taken  in  order  to  prevent  recruitment  of  child   soldiers.  We  call  on  our  G8  partners  to  encourage  the  systematic  incorporation  of  the  pre-­‐ vention   of   recruitment   of   child   soldiers   into   humanitarian   aid   programs   and   awareness-­‐ raising  programs  in  the  existing  refugee  camps.  We  recommend  to  extend  the  regional  co-­‐ operation  on  the  prevention  of  child  recruitment  among  organizations  acting  in  states  with   complex  crises  and  offer  them  financial  support.    

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Lesbian,  Gay,  Bisexual  and  Transgender     In   the   line   of   the   statements   made   at   the   last   G8   Foreign   Affairs   meeting   in   April   2012   in   Washington,   we   are   aware   that   further   international   action   is   needed   on   Lesbian,   Gay,   Bise-­‐ xual  and  Transgender  (LGBT)  issues.  The  LGBT  community  is  still  discriminated  against,  crim-­‐ inalized,  attacked  and  even  killed,  often  without  police  or  the  society  paying  any  attention.   The  European  delegates  urge  all  governments  to  legalize  same  sex  partnership  among  con-­‐ senting   adults   and   adopt   hate   crime   laws.   We   recommend   that   all   member   states   recognise   equal   love   as   a   key   principle   and   support   the   institutionalization   of   equal   union.   We   encour-­‐ age  the  further  ratification  of  the  Declaration  on  Human  Rights,  Sexual  Orientation  and  Gen-­‐ der  Identity  and  we  recommend  to  add  sexual  orientation  as  one  of  discrimination  reasons   to  Article  2  of  the  UN's  Human  rights  Charter.  We  urge  our  partners  to  support  financially   the  work  of  NGO's  engaged  with  awareness-­‐raising  and  educational  projects  and  to  support   the  Human  Rights,  Sexual  Orientation  and  Gender  Identity  Support  Fund.    

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Finance2   Regulation  and  supervision  in  the  financial  system   Over-­‐The-­‐Counter  (OTC)  Derivatives  Markets  Regulation   As  the  European  Commission  already  decided  to  standardize  the  transactions  of  OTC  deriva-­‐ tives,  we  call  for  them  to  be  cleared  through  CCPs.  However,  as  CCPs  specialize  in  different   types  of  assets,  we  propose  the  creation  of  a  database  that  will  collect  data  linked  to  CCPs’   clearing   prices   and   volumes,   in   order   to   facilitate   access   to   information   related   to   these   transactions.    

Capital  Adequacy  And  Systemic  Risk   Although,   we   agree   that   a   separation   between   investment   and   commercial   banking   would   be  desirable,  we  are  aware  of  the  impracticality  of  its  implementation.     We   would   require   trading   to   be   done   on   traders’   own   funds,   and   not   private   deposits.   Moreover,   private   banks   would   not   be   allowed   to   speculate   on   securities   from   firms   they   also   advise.   If   these   banks   were   to   face   particular   situations   including,   but   not   limited   to,   market  making,  take-­‐overs,  mergers  and  acquisitions,  they  would  have  to  either  bring  their   advising  role  to  an  end,  or  appoint  a  third  party.     This   leads   to   the   discussion   of   capital   adequacy   rules.   Since   those   banks   would   not   be   al-­‐ lowed   to   use   deposits   for   their   trading   activities,   systemic   default   risk   would   be   reduced.   However,  in  the  context  of  Basel  III  requirements,  we  could  face  a  potential  excess  of  regula-­‐ tion,  on  one  side  by  increasing  the  minimal  requirements  for  financial  intermediaries  (includ-­‐ ing  GSIFI),  and  on  the  other  by  ring-­‐fencing  clients’  money  from  potential  trading  losses.  In   order  to  avoid  potential  domino  effect,  such  measures  should  be  implemented  at  G20  level.    

Credit  Rating  Agencies   We  are  willing  to  extend  competition  in  rating  agencies  market.  We  consider  the  creation  of   new  rating  agencies  worldwide.   We  are  willing  to  launch  a  consultation  amid  potential  cli-­‐ ents  interested  in  the  business.  This  would  require  an  in-­‐depth  industry  analysis  in  order  to   give  these  new  institutions  solid  foundations  and  responses  to  general  concerns  raised  in  the                                                                                                               2

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  the  participation  of  a  delegate  from  the  European  Union.  

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rating  sector.  We  ask  other  G20  countries  to  sustain  these  ideas.  Questions  should  be  linked   to  funding  (both  for  creation  and  fees),  reputation,  standards  etc.  

International  Monetary  System  Reform   Commodities  Price  Stability   When  addressing  the  question  of  commodities,  we  want  to  underline  that  we  acknowledge   the   difference   existing   between   the   problems   linked   to   fossil   energies   and   agricultural   prod-­‐ ucts.  At  the  same  time  we  recognize  the  good  results  obtained  by  the  Joint  Oil  Data  Initiative   that  created  a  database  on  oil  resources.  Our  proposal  is  to  expand  the  coverage  on  other   tangible   assets,   in   order   to   have   a   more   accurate   vision   of   the   existing   stocks,   which   may   help  us  anticipate  shocks  that  might  affect  those  commodities.  In  addition,  these  databases   could  be  used  to  better  manage  shortages  and  especially  to  ease  pressure  on  commodities’   prices.  High  interest  rates  and  recent  increasing  pressure  on  inflation  in  emerging  markets   lead   us   to   consider   higher   standards   of   transparency   in   the   commodities   markets.   To   this   extent,  we  would  require  to  easily  obtain  information  about  hedge  funds’  portfolios  invest-­‐ ment  in  order  to  assess  the  impact  of  these  entities  on  commodities’  prices  in  terms  of  short   selling.    

Exchange  Rates  Regime   We   point   out   the   advantages   of   freely   traded   currencies   in   order   to   avoid   distortions   of   trade  balances  and  foster  competition.  We  would  like  to  underline  the  advantages  the  econ-­‐ omies   experience   when   allowing   their   currency   to   float.   As   far   as   China’s   currency   is   con-­‐ cerned,  a  more  flexible  exchange  rate  would  allow  investors  to  promote  the  Renminbi  as  a   currency  benchmark  and  would  encourage  other  G20  countries  to  lower  trade  barriers.    

International  Monetary  Fund   We   acknowledge   the   fact   that   emerging   countries   should   be   pro-­‐active   members   of   the   IMF   and  we  recognize  the  big  effort  that  is  being  made  in  this  direction  and  encourage  further   action.  However  we  think  this  may  not  be  the  right  timing  for  applying  additional  measures.     We  are  aware  of  the  gaps  in  providing  valuable  recommendations  the  IMF  is  undergoing  in   its  internal  structure.  Therefore  we  want  to  provide  the  International  Monetary  and  Finan-­‐ cial  Committee  with  legal  basis  to  gather  information  in  order  to  be  more  efficient  in  its  field.   IMFC   should   gather   reports   issued   by   other   committees,   link   them   and   produce   one   com-­‐ muniqué  underlining  potential  issues  and  proposing  solutions.  

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Economics3   Preamble   The   European   nations   seek   to   discuss   the   currently   pressing   problems   in   the   international   labour  markets  first,  i.e.  set  it  as  the  primary  topic.  Hence,  despite  its  relevance,  the  issue  of   corporate   translucency   has   to   be   placed   at   the   second   slot.   This   is   to   give   credit   to   the   over-­‐ arching   importance   of   the   first   topic.   Globally   especially   youth   unemployment   increased   (2007:   11.7%,   2012:   12.7%;   adv.   econ:   12.5%   to   17.9%,   respectively).   Further,   within   the   OECD  only  half  the  workers  are  adequately  matched.  A  set  of  constructive  solutions  is  the   necessary  condition  for  increasing  global  and  regional  prosperity.  

Global  Unemployment   Though  not  made  explicit  in  a  subtopic,  all  measures  are  primarily  aimed  at  young  individu-­‐ als,  which  are  regarded  as  the  creative  driving  force  of  our  economies  and  upon  which  fu-­‐ ture   builds.   Further,   a   multitude   of   suggested   measures   aims   at   a   recuperation   of   aggregate   demand,   e.g.   increasing   wages.   Local   growth   effects   and   spill-­‐over   effects   are   expected   to   take  place,  further  stimulating  the  (re-­‐)  employment  rates.  

Small-­‐  and  Medium-­‐Sized  Enterprises  and  Entrepreneurship   Being   the   backbone   of   developed   markets,   small   and   medium   sized   enterprises   (SMEs)   have   to  be  supported.  Aside  from  providing  employment  to  a  large  share  of  the  economies,  they   are  also  major  drivers  for  research  and  development.   Pertaining  global  unemployment  we  are  convinced  that  we  have  to  strike  a  balance  of  incen-­‐ tivizing   to   employ   young   individuals   while   not   inducing   lay-­‐off   of   elders,   as   their   skills   and   experience  are  still  important  to  welfare.  The  sluggish  labour-­‐demand  is  at  the  heart  of  the   labour   market’s   problems.   We   seek   boosting   it   by   especially   focussing   on   SMEs   via   wage   subsidies,   according   to   sectorial   differentiation   and   regional   adjustments   (e.g.   innovative   and   regional   adjustments   as   there   are   different   demands   and   working   environments).   Though  it  is  a  credible  measure,  it  can  only  be  in  place  in  the  short  run,  i.e.  targeted  at  three   to  five  years,  extensions  conditional  on  success,  which  will  have  to  be  examined  by  an  inde-­‐ pendent   and   qualified   entity.   Beyond   this   we   seek   improving   overall   working   conditions,   especially  with  regard  to  young  employees  and  the  eligibility  for  the  subsidies:  (i)  The  wage                                                                                                               3

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  the  participation  of  a  delegate  from  the  United  Kingdom.  

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subsidies  shall  be  connected  to  training  of  the  employees,  leading  to  further  long  run  bene-­‐ fits   and   incentives   for   the   employer   to   keep   the   worker.   (ii)   We   support   a   minimum   em-­‐ ployment   time   for   being   eligible   for   the   wage   subsidies.   (iii)   The   initial   working   conditions   shall  orientate  at  regular  permanent  contracts.  (iv)  The  subsidies  are  subject  to  a  marginal   support  which  is  decreasing  in  the  total  number  of  total  employees.  (v)  Eventually,  we  seek   further  opening  the  European  labour  market  for  foreign  high  skilled  workers.   Regarding  entrepreneurship,  we  strongly  believe  that  by  supporting  and  fostering  Entrepre-­‐ neurship   we   can   not   only   fight   against   unemployment   but   also   increase   the   emergence   of   innovative  ideas.     Henceforth,   we   see   the   need   to   facilitate   better   access   to   credits   especially   for   youth   and   women  as  urging.  The  access  will  be  supported  by  an  independent,  competent,  and  recog-­‐ nized   body   that   will   be   made   up   of   successful   entrepreneurs   for   accurately   assessing   the   potential  of  the  newly  presented  innovative  projects.  

Education   We  consider  education  as  a  fundamental  factor  pertaining  Global  Unemployment  Reduction.   Therefore   we   are   committed   to   give   young   Europeans   the   chance   to   receive   deeper   insights   not   only   on   European   issues   but   also   and   especially   on   global   and   non-­‐western   countries.   Thus,   we   see   it   as   our   duty   to   foster   further   intercultural   programs   and   social   projects   for   young   Europeans   in   non-­‐European   countries   to   give   them   the   chance   to   participate   in   the   global  change  and  be  well  prepared  for  future-­‐issues.   Hence,  we  encourage  creating  two  programs:  The  “Worldwide  Program”  and  the  “Internship   Program”.  Those  two  measures  are  inter  alia  aimed  at  enhancing  labour  mobility,  overcom-­‐ ing  labour-­‐supply-­‐side  market  entrance  barriers  such  as  language  and  culture,  and  to  facili-­‐ tate  the  in-­‐situ  integration  of  foreign  labour  force.   1.

Worldwide  Program   With  the  Worldwide  Program  we  are  willing  to  give  same  possibilities  for  education   for  not  only  students  but  also  non-­‐academics  under  the  age  of  30.  The  program  will   include   a   one-­‐year   abroad-­‐program,   which   aims   to   give   the   youth   the   opportunity   to   broaden  their  horizon  by  engaging  in  civil  services.  The  worldwide  program  refers  to   non-­‐industrialized   countries   only.   The   sending   states   will   be   paying   the   local   mini-­‐ mum   wage.   Those,   who   are   benefitting   from   the   worldwide   programme   will   become   afterwards  the  promoters  of  it.      

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We   foster   setting   up   an   online-­‐platform   that   will   include   all   necessary   details   regard-­‐ ing   the   civil   services   and   important   information   on   the   NGOs.   This   online-­‐platform   will  be  provided  not  only  in  English  but  also  in  the  receiving  country's  language.  It  will   be   administered   by   a   young   team   to   effectively   meet   the   needs   of   the   youth.   This   platform   is   aimed   at   being   expanded   towards   the   general   labour   market,   because   an   integral  step  to  improve  the  current  labour  market  situation  is  first  of  all  awareness.   Supply   and   demand   has   to   know   of   each   other’s   needs   and   capabilities   for   establish-­‐ ing  a  market  in  the  first  place.  Thanks  to  ever-­‐accelerating  technologies  it  is  possible   to   provide   both   sides   with   necessary   information   on   a   rather   broad   geographical   scale.   2.

Internship  Program   This  program  aims  at  fostering  further  international  mobility  of  interns.  The  receiving   company   will   be   paying   the   local   minimum   wage   (hence   avoiding   the   problem   of   un-­‐ paid  internships)  and  any  mandatory  expenses  beyond  that  (e.g.  visa  costs  etc.)  will   be   paid   for   by   the   sending   state   of   the   intern   to   close   the   gap.   All   necessary   infor-­‐ mation  will  be  provided  by  a  centralized  online  platform.  

Gender  Equality   The  central  slogan  has  to  be:  Same  pay  for  men,  doing  the  same  work  as  women.  This  shift   of   paradigm   will   make   wage-­‐setters   hopefully   more   aware   of   the   striking   and   disturbingly   state-­‐dependent  gender-­‐inequality.  Given  the  down-­‐ward  rigidity  of  nominal  wages  it  can  be   hoped  that  the  effect  will  eventually  be  a  crack-­‐down  of  the  current  glass  ceiling  for  women.   Beyond  the  too  narrow  focus  on  income,  other  discriminatory  practices  pertaining  internal   and  external  labour  mobility  have  to  be  overcome  swiftly.  It  is  needless  to  elaborate  on  the   importance  of  gender  equality,  as  it  is  obvious  pertaining  domestic  and  non-­‐domestic  eco-­‐ nomic  bargaining  power,  independence,  and  the  striving  for  freedom  of  opportunity.    

Business  Transparency   The  European  nations  are  convinced  that  business  transparency  is  an  integral  part  for  suc-­‐ cessful   business   and   sustained   trust   between   the   different   parts   within   an   economy.   We   seek  stressing  three  major  areas  of  attention.  

Corporate  Governance  Guidelines   A  very  salient  example  of  how  missing  translucency  may  lead  to  undesired  outcomes  is  ob-­‐ servable  when  considering  the  practices  of  Credit  Rating  Agencies,  with  regard  to  corporate  

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as  well  as  sovereign  ratings.  Despite  unambiguous  (quantitative)  evidence  of  the  extraordi-­‐ nary   poor   performance   of   Credit   Rating   Agencies   their   business   model   did   not   become   al-­‐ tered.  It  is  imperative  and  in  the  interest  of  all  market  participants  to  intervene  and  foster   business   transparency,   especially   also   for   those   agents   who   are   supposed   to   facilitate   the   flow  of  information  in  the  market  themselves.     Another   pressing   aspect   of   lacking   transparency   can   be   found   pertaining   pharmaceutical   companies.   The   pricing   mechanism   in   this   industry   is   not   translucent,   even   though   the   granted  monopolies  lead  to  (globally)  highly  undesired  welfare  outcomes,  as  also  mentioned   in   the   2010   and   2011   G8   &   G20   Youth   Summits   Communiqués.   Increasing   transparency   is   one  first  major  step  towards  improving  global  access  to  medication;  the  extractive  industries   transparency  initiative  might  be  an  example  for  improvement.  

Public-­‐Private-­‐Partnerships   Eventually,  we  observe  a  longstanding  conflict  of  interests  between  the  public  and  privates,   when  engaging  in  PPPs.  We  suggest  to  set  up  an  independent  and  competent  authority  for   observing   and   controlling   the   bidding   processes.   We   especially   seek   to   overcome   corruption   in  this  regard.  

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Defence4   Ballistic  Missile  Defence/Strategic  Issues   We  have  identified  two  particular  concerns.  The  first  is  the  threat  posed  by  the  ballistic  de-­‐ velopment  programmes  of  states  contravening  the  Non-­‐Proliferation  Treaty.  This  has  been   highlighted  in  recent  months  by  increasing  concerns  about  Iranian  efforts  to  procure  nuclear   military  technology  and  the  North  Korean  Missile  tests.  They  pose  a  threat  to  their  respec-­‐ tive  regions  and  the  world.     The  second  concern  is  the  increasing  tension  between  NATO  and  Russia  over  the  proposals   for  a  European  Shield.  Relations  have  become  strained  since  the  announcement  at  the  NATO   2010  Lisbon  Summit  that  the  Organisation  had  decided  to  develop  ballistic  missile  defence   capabilities.   We  strongly  believe,  to  address  all  concerns  about  ballistic  missile  programmes,  that  a  com-­‐ mitment  to  transparency,  communication  and  compliance  with  international  law  is  absolute-­‐ ly  vital.     In   particular,   we   have   highlighted   specific   proposals   to   help   tackle   the   following   issues:   NATO–Russia  tensions  and  a  coordinated  sanctions  scheme  for  countries  developing  nuclear   military  capacity.   Observing  the  difficulties  in  the  NATO-­‐Russia  relationship,  we  believe  that  it  is  in  the  inter-­‐ ests  of  all  G8  nations  that  both  parties  resume  the  dialogue.  As  both  parties  have  demon-­‐ strated  notably  in  Afghanistan,  when  their  efforts  are  united,  they  are  more  effective  at  de-­‐ livering  security  for  the  world.  We  hope  these  efforts  will  continue  and  deepen  in  the  future.   •

To  rebuild  trust  and  confidence,  we  propose  an  immediate  return  to  full  cooperation   and  communication  at  all  levels  of  the  NATO-­‐Russia  Council.  To  make  clear  that  the   US   European   Phased   Adapted   Approach   (EPAA)   has   been   designed   “to   protect   all   NATO   European   populations,   territory   and   forces.”   This   is   particularly   critical   at   a   time  when  Iran  has  shown  intent  to  procure  nuclear  weapons  and  a  medium  range   missile  programme.  

                                                                                                            4

 

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  the  participation  of  a  delegate  from  the  European  Union.  

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In  November  2011,  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency’s  (IAEA)  report  raised  concerns   about   developments   in   Iran’s   nuclear   programme.   In   response,   members   of   the   internation-­‐ al  community  individually  imposed  sanctions  on  the  Iranian  regime.  Whilst  they  are  becom-­‐ ing   unified   in   their   purpose,   this   has   taken   time,   undermining   the   effectiveness   of   the   measures.  To  make  this  more  effective  going  forwards,  we  propose  to:   •

Establish   a   voluntary   international   graduated   sanctions   scheme   against   countries   that   contravene   the   Non-­‐Proliferation   Treaty.   This   would   specify   the   triggers   when   sanctions   should   be   imposed   and   coordinate   the   timeframes   of   implementation   of   such  sanctions.  The  perceived  level  of  the  threat  would  then  be  reflected  by  the  ex-­‐ tent   of   the   sanctions.   This   would   range   from   focussed   sanctions   to   diplomatic,   finan-­‐ cial,   trade   and   military   in   the   last   resort.   The   International   Atomic   Energy   Agency   would  have  sole  control  over  determining  how  far  a  state  had  contravened  the  NPT.   This   would   serve   to   make   sanctions   more   effective   and   would   increase   the   reactivity   of   the   international   community   and   the   strength   of   the   message   sent   to   the   con-­‐ travening  country.  

We  reaffirm  the  right  of  Israel  to  defend  itself  against  any  external  aggression  aimed  at  its   territory,  its  population  or  its  assets.     •

We   declare   that   we   would   not   support   any  unilateral  military   action  against  the   Is-­‐ lamic  Republic  of  Iran.  We  strongly  urge  the  Islamic  Republic  of  Iran  to  return  to  ne-­‐ gotiations  with  the  E3+3  in  order  to  find  a  diplomatic  solution  to  address  the  interna-­‐ tional  community’s  concerns.  

Security  of  the  International  Waterways   We  are  seriously  concerned  by  the  significant  problems  posed  by  security  on  the  seas.  We   have   identified   three   key   areas   that   we   will   address:   piracy,   flags   of   convenience   and   ensur-­‐ ing  access  to  international  waterways.  This  can  be  achieved  by  updating  the  United  Nations   Convention   on   the   Law   of   the   Sea.   It   was   concluded   thirty   years   ago   and   needs   to   be   re-­‐ freshed  to  address  the  problems  we  face  today.   90  per  cent  of  international  trade  is  transported  by  sea.  In  2008,  nearly  $1  trillion  of  trade,  to   and  from  Europe  travelled  through  the  Gulf  of  Aden.  However,  in  the  five  years  since,  there   have  been  540  pirate  attacks  in  that  area  alone,  with  3,600  seafarers  taken  hostage.  Some   estimates  suggest  that  this  costs  the  global  economy  $12  billion  per  year.     We   already   make   a   significant   contribution   to   tackling   the   symptoms,   through   Operation   Ocean  Shield,  Atlanta  and  the  EU  Regional  Maritime  Capacity  Building  Mission,  and  are  mak-­‐

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ing  efforts  to  address  the  causes.  However,  the  international  community  needs  a  more  com-­‐ prehensive  approach  that  helps;  bring  pirates  to  justice,  regulate  the  use  of  Private  Military   Security   Companies   aboard   vessels,   combat   financing   of   pirate   activities   and   improve   eco-­‐ nomic  opportunities  in  coastal  regions.  We  propose  to:   •

Re-­‐invigorating  the  International  Tribunal  for  the  Law  of  the  Sea,  by  creating  a  Cham-­‐ ber   for   Acts   of   Piracy   empowering   the   Tribunal   to   prosecute   those   suspected   of   such   acts,     Ensure   that   any   use   of   Private   Military   Security   Companies   complies   with   interna-­‐ tional  humanitarian  law  as  clarified  in  the  Montreux  document.  Any  breach  shall  be   investigated  in  the  appropriate  court,   Ensure   that   states   share   information   on   the   financing   of   illegal   activities   to   combat   kingpin   pirates.   Using   this   information   to   tighten   control   of   the   revenue   streams   funding  piracy  whilst  urging  and  assisting  neighbouring  states  to  do  the  same,   Direct   state   overseas   aid   towards   coastal   regions   to   offer   alternative   livelihoods   to   piracy  and  encouraging  the  private  sector  to  do  the  same  as  specified  at  the  London   Conference  on  Somalia  in  February  2012.  Given  the  importance  of  the  fishing  indus-­‐ try,  we  also  call  on  all  nations  to  support  the  ban  on  international  fishing  in  Somali   waters.  

Flags  of  convenience  (the  practice  of  registering  a  merchant  ship  in  a  sovereign  state  differ-­‐ ent  from  that  of  the  ships  owners)  need  to  be  addressed.  A  lack  of  transparency  surrounding   ownership  has  created  significant  issues  including  money  laundering,  poorer  operating  prac-­‐ tices  and  trafficking.   •

We  strongly  encourage  all  ships  to  adhere  to  safe  and  open  operating  procedures  as   set   out   by   the   International   Maritime   Organisation.   If   significant   progress   has   not   been  made  by  the  next  Summit,  we  will  discuss  restricting  access  for  flags  of  conven-­‐ ience  ships  to  our  ports.  

The  European  nations  are  united  in  their  belief  that  freedom  of  movement  should  be  guar-­‐ anteed  in  all  international  waterways.     •

We  are  resolute  that  any  threat,  attempt  or  act  to  close  any  waterways  will  be  con-­‐ demned  in  the  strongest  terms  and  will  be  countered  with  an  appropriate  response.  

Afghanistan   We  reaffirm  our  commitment  to  improving  stability  and  security  in  Afghanistan.  It  is  vital  for   security  in  Afghanistan,  the  region  and  the  world.  We  are  all  major  contributors  to  the  NATO  

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led,  UN-­‐mandated,  International  Security  Assistance  Force  and  have  said  that  this  commit-­‐ ment   will   continue   until   the   planned   transition   to   Afghan   control.   Significant   progress   has   been  made,  especially  in  recent  years,  but  we  recognise  that  there  is  still  work  to  be  done.     We   have   reached   the   following   conclusions,   which   restate   the   pledges   made   at   the   Afghani-­‐ stan   Conference   in   Bonn,   December   2011,   which   will   ensure   that   the   conditions   continue   to   improve,  both  before  the  transition  date  and  beyond.  These  proposals  include:   •

A   commitment   that   the   overall   transition   will   occur   progressively   until   the   end   of   2014,   and   that   the   planned   drawdown   of   coalition   forces,   until   then,   will   be   deter-­‐ mined  by  conditions  on  the  ground.  

At   the   end   of   March   2012,   the   Afghan   National   Army   and   Police   had   both   exceeded   their   target   strength.   The   total   stands   at   344,108.   This   is   welcomed,   but   there   has   to   be   a   contin-­‐ ued  improvement  in  both  the  capability  as  well  as  the  capacity.   •

We   have   pledged   our   support   to   the   development   of   the   Afghan   National   Security   Forces   and   also   that   this   will   continue   after   the   2014   transition   date.   We   strongly   urge  other  nations,  in  particular  those  with  a  Muslim  majority,  to  contribute  to  this   effort  in  any  way  they  are  capable.  

Drug   trafficking   accounts   for   a   significant   portion   of   GDP   with   over   half   of   the   population   directly   involved   in   Opium   cultivation.   A   United   Nations   Report   from   October   2011   stated   that  90  per  cent  of  the  worlds  opium  is  produced  in  Afghanistan.  Progress  has  been  made  to   tackle  this  and  to  diversify  crops  produced.  However,  more  needs  to  be  done.  We  will:   •

Continue  our  efforts  to  reduce  the  production  of  Opium  in  Afghanistan  both  by  offer-­‐ ing   farmers   alternative   crops   and   by   strengthening   programmes,   such   as   Demand   Reduction  Action  Teams  in  Afghanistan,  and  others  more  broadly  in  the  region  which   tackle  the  demand  issue.  

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Environment   Water  Governance   Right  to  Water   According  to  the  World  Health  Organisation  (WHO),  about  1,5  billion  people  lack  access  to   clean  drinking  water  and  more  than  2,6  billion  people  lack  adequate  sanitation.  The  Millen-­‐ nium   Development   Goal   to   halve   those   without   access   to   safe   water   for   drinking   was   met   early,  as  2  billion  people  have  been  given  access  between  1990  and  2010.  However,  many   nations  are  still  classified  as  'not  on  track'  to  meet  these  goals.  As  defined  during  the  6th  Wa-­‐ ter  Forum  in  Marseille  in  March  2012,  access  to  safe  and  clean  drinking  water  and  sanitation   should   be   implemented   as   part   of   the   human   rights   obligations.   84   government   ministers   have   agreed   on   accelerating   this   implementation   by   all   appropriate   means   as   part   of   the   efforts  to  overcome  the  water  crisis  at  all  levels.     The   European   delegations   want   to   stress   the   importance   of   the   recognition   of   water   as   a   human  right  and  the  necessity  to  guarantee  the  implementation  of  this  right  and  make  uni-­‐ versal   access   to   water   a   reality.   G20   member   states   should   provide   assistance   and   expertise   to   governments   suffering   water   shortage   by   developing   sustainable   and   integrated   water   management  plans.  

Pollution  /  Hazardous  Waste   • • • •

London  convention  on  marine  dumping,   Global  programme  for  action  for  the  protection  of  the  marine  environment  of  the  UN   Island  of  garbage   Impact  of  fertilizers  and  pesticides  on  wetlands  

G20  member  states  should  implement  marine  pollution  reduction  targets  for  all  G20  mem-­‐ bers,   to   be   defined   by   the   International   Maritime   Organization   (IMO).   In   addition,   G20   member   states   should   limit   the   use   of   fertilizers   and   pesticides   by   promoting   sustainable   agriculture.  

Marine  Protection   • •

Nagoya  Protocol  on  Access  and  Benefit-­‐sharing,  Objective  6   Global  programme  for  action  for  the  protection  of  the  marine  environment  of  the  UN  

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The  European  delegations  propose  the  creation  of  an  international  biodiversity  action  plan   on   prohibiting   the   fishing   of   endangered   species   and   certain   fishing   methods   (bombing,   trolling).   Considering   the   impact   of   oil   spills   on   marine   biodiversity,   G20   members   should   create  a  framework  to  effectively  penalize  negligence  on  the  part  of  responsible  bodies  and   ensure  compensation  for  the  damage  caused.  We  note  that  this  should  be  alongside  and  not   contradicting  the  EU’s  existing  fishing  policies.    

Green  Growth   Future  of  Energy  supplies   Environmental  issues  at  the  international  level  are  now  managed  through  a  legal  approach:  a   large  amount  of  principles  and  standards  have  been  made  and  are  embodied  in  a  series  of   over  two  hundred  treaties  linked  to  specific  environmental  issues.   The  European  delegations  strongly  underline  the  necessity  of  the  creation  of  a  World  Envi-­‐ ronmental   Organization   (WEO)   whose   role   would   be   to   coordinate   existing   local,   regional   and  national  treaties.  

Supply   The  European  Union  has  already  put  in  place  strong  targets  for  the  future  of  energy  supply  in   its  Sustainable  Energy  Directive,  by  requiring  that  on  an  average,  the  part  of  renewables  in   the  energy  production  in  all  Member  States  will  multiply  by  two.  Europe  stresses  that  com-­‐ plete  decarbonisation  of  our  energy  supply  in  the  long  term  is  needed  at  the  global  level.     Therefore   European   delegations   call   on   taking   steps   forward   to   improve   significantly   the   energy   mix   in   all   G20   countries,   by   multiplying   the   use   of   renewables   in   all   G20   countries   by   two  by  2020.  This  energy  responsibility  should  extend  to  all  countries,  developed  or  other-­‐ wise.  The  contribution  of  each  G20  member  should  be  based  on  both  a  common  level  and   on  the  country’s  GDP.  In  addition,  the  European  Union  calls  for  reducing  CO2  emissions  by   20%  by  2020  in  all  G20  countries  (based  on  1990  levels).  However,  the  state  of  development   in  emerging  countries  among  the  G20  members  in  1990  should  be  taken  into  account.  

Efficiency   The  European  Delegations  stress  that  using  available  energy  resources  efficiently  is  crucial  in   order   to   reduce   CO2   emissions   and   to   meet   the   increasing   need   for   energy   in   the   whole   world.  The  “Sustainable  Energy  of  all”  initiative  from  UN-­‐Energy  has  set  up  an  objective  of   multiplying  the  ratio  of  improvement  in  energy  efficiency  by  two  on  a  global  level  by  2020.  

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Furthermore,   the   European   Union   as   such   has   already   given   strong   targets   in   its   Energy   Effi-­‐ ciency  Directive  for  its  Member  States,  setting  the  goal  to  reach  a  20%  raise  in  energy  effi-­‐ ciency  by  2020.   We  should  strongly  address  the  need  of  improving  current  infrastructure  and  upcoming  ones,   and  stress  the  importance  of  smart  grid  in  our  future  networks.  We  also  suggest  to  phase-­‐ out   inefficient   appliances   (e.g   light   bulbs),   improve   energy   efficiency   standards   for   new   buildings  and  existing  ones  and  educate  consumers  to  be  more  energy  efficient.  

Climate  Financing   In   2009,   the   G20   members   made   the   commitment   to   “phasing   out   fossil   fuels   subsidies   in   the  medium  term”.     The   European   Delegations   call   on   the   G20   countries   to   strengthen   their   commitment   with   regards   to   phasing   out   subsidies   for   fossil   fuels   and   call   on   the   fulfilment   of   the   objective   by   2020.   In  line  with  the  goal  to  reduce  CO2  emissions,  we  put  forward  the  idea  of  taxing  states  that   do  not  meet  their  emissions  goals  based  on  how  much  they  exceed  the  target.  Tax  income   will  be  collected  by  and  assigned  to  projects  by  the  Global  Climate  Fund.    

Nuclear  Energy   We  agree  to  let  the  IAEA  exercise  its  powers,  by  refusing  the  construction  of  a  nuclear  power   plant   if   all   safety   criteria   are   not   satisfied.   In   addition,   independent   studies   and   surveys   should   be   carried   out   to   estimate   the   economic,   social,   and   environmental   costs   for   nuclear   safety  and  to  provide  more  transparency.  

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Justice5   The   EU   Justice   Ministers   represented   at   the   2012   Europe’s   Voice   summit   in   Berlin,   having   consulted  on  the  two  agenda  points  set  for  the  upcoming  G8  Youth  Summit  in  Washington   DC,  have  agreed  to  the  following  common  position  of  France,  Germany,  Italy  and  the  EU:  

International  and  National  Regulation  of  Communication   Emphasising  the  unalienable  right  to  freedom  of  expression  and  communication  as  laid  out   in   the   Universal   Declaration   of   Human   Rights,   the   International   Covenant   on   Civil   and   Politi-­‐ cal  Rights,  the  Convention  for  the  Protection  of  Human  Rights  and  Fundamental  Freedoms   and   our   respective   national   constitutions,   we   solemnly   affirm   the   necessity   to   ensure   that   such   right   be   upheld   on   the   Internet,   while   at   the   same   time   having   legitimate   limitations   such  as  the  harm  principle  (including  defamation  and  hate  speech)  and  national  security  in-­‐ terests.   We  therefore  declare  to:   •

Enhance   civil   society   (NGOs)   participation   within   the   International   Telecommunica-­‐ tions  Union  through  accreditation  to  its  events  and  the  establishment  of  working  re-­‐ lations  with  particular  departments  or  programmes  of  the  said  organisation.  In  addi-­‐ tion,  international  NGOs  in  the  field  of  communication  may  seek  to  obtain  consulta-­‐ tive  status.   Promote   the   universalization   of   the   Council   of   Europe   Convention   on   Cybercrime   (2001)  and  its  Additional  Protocol  concerning  the  Criminalisation  of  Acts  of  a  Racist   and  Xenophobic  Nature  committed  through  computer  systems.  

Recognising   the   need   to   respect   the   fundamental   right   to   protection   of   personal   data   as   en-­‐ shrined  in  the  Council  of  Europe  Convention  for  the  Protection  of  Individuals  with  regard  to   Automatic   Processing   of   Personal   Data   (1981),   while   tackling   emerging   threats   to   security,   we:   •

Strongly   encourage   each   State   to   establish   one   central   responsible   authority   for   cyber  security  at  national  level,  

                                                                                                            5

 

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  the  participation  of  a  delegate  from  the  United  Kingdom.  

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Urge  to  create  an  International  Cybercrime  Centre  at  INTERPOL  which  will  centralise   information   emanating   from   national   cyber   security   centres,   the   European   Cyber-­‐ crime  Centre  at  Europol  and  internet  private-­‐sector  companies,  thereby  engaging  in  a   collective  and  coordinated  approach  to  combat  cybercrime.  

Cross-­‐Border  Criminal  Activities  and  Migrant  Rights   Recalling   the   need   to   aim   for   a   fair   balance   between   the   protection   of   personal   data   and   ensuring  security  in  cyber  space,  we  stress  that  such  principle  is  equally  applicable  to  other   transnational  criminal  activities.     Bearing  this  in  mind,  we:  

• Call  for  closer  coordination  between  G8  national  operational  centres  and  propose  to   increase  the  direct  exchange  of  information  by  means  of  mutual  legal  assistance  re-­‐ quests   for   DNA,   profile   information   and   fingerprints   with   sufficient   personal   data   protection  safeguards.   Aware  of  the  interconnection  between  transnational  organised  crime  and  terrorism,  we:  

• Support  the  universal  ratification  of  the  United  Nations  Convention  against  Transna-­‐ tional   Organized   Crime;   the   Protocol   to   Prevent,   Suppress   and   Punish   Trafficking   in   Persons,  Especially  Women  and  Children;  the  Protocol  against  the  Smuggling  of  Mi-­‐ grants  by  Land,  Sea,  Air;  the  Protocol  against  the  Illicit  Manufacturing  of  and  Traffick-­‐ ing   in   Firearms,   Theirs   Parts   and   Components   and   Ammunitions,   while   seeking   to   strengthen  their  effectiveness.   Noting  with  deep  regret  the  fact  that  more  than  1,500  migrants  died  in  the  Mediterranean   Sea  in  an  attempt  to  reach  Europe  in  the  year  2011,  we:   • •

Reaffirm  the  general  principle  of  non-­‐refoulement,   Call  on  States  to  recognize  the  need  to  protect  victims  of  armed  conflict  found  at  sea   and   recommend   to   offer   them   legal   temporary   protection   in   our   national   jurisdic-­‐ tions  as  long  as  they  cannot  be  returned  to  their  home  country,   Express   support   for   concerted   refugee   resettlement   plans   among   G8   nations   and   their   partners   in   cooperation   with   the   United   Nations   High   Commissioner   for   Refu-­‐ gees,   Request  swift  and  effective  sanctions  to  be  imposed  on  criminal  organised  groups  in-­‐ volved  in  people  smuggling  at  sea.  

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Development6   Human  Security   “Human  security  …  means…  safety  from  such  chronic  threats  as  hunger,  disease  and  repres-­‐ sion.  [It  also]  means  protection  from  sudden  and  hurtful  disruptions  in  the  patterns  of  daily   life  –  whether  in  homes,  in  jobs  or  in  communities.  Such  threats  can  exist  at  all  levels  of  na-­‐ tional  income  and  development.”7     It   can   therefore   be   considered   to   have   several   core   concerns,   which   are   interlinked:   eco-­‐ nomic   security,   food   security,   health   security,   environmental   security,   personal   security,   community   security   and   political   security.   Given   the   urgent   need   to   address   food   scarcity   and  the  belief  of  this  committee  that  the  members  of  the  G20  have  it  in  their  power  to  cre-­‐ ate   practical   solutions   to   ensuring   food   security   –   the   availability   of   sustainable   sources   of   food  and  the  ability  of  people  to  access  them  –  we  have  chosen  to  focus  on  this  issue.   We  propose  that:     A  new  idea  of  agriculture  able  to  ensure  food  security  has  to  be  focused  on  local  capabilities.   In   order   to   provide   production   security   to   local   farmers,   we   believe   that   a   small-­‐scale   ap-­‐ proach  can  be  an  effective  strategy.  A  practical  tool  to  prevent  crisis  is  the  creation  of  per-­‐ manent   sustainable   local   food   reserves.   These   reserves   are   not   the   answer   to   emergency   crises,  but  they  are  long-­‐term  solutions  to  guarantee  continuous  food  production.  In  devel-­‐ oping  countries,  food  reserves  can  create  work  opportunities  and  represent  permanent  food   stocks.  Concretely  we  propose  to  establish  a  community  field  in  rural  villages  where  every   family  grows  different  crops,  ensuring  a  system  of  subsistence.  The  food  provided  from  the   field   will   be   stocked   in   local   food   reserves.   To   ensure   sustainability   a   correct   agricultural   ed-­‐ ucation  needs  to  avoid  monoculture,  agro  toxics  and  non-­‐safe  GMOs.  Choosing  local  materi-­‐ als  and  renewable  energies  we  promote  new  infrastructures  that  can  improve  food  produc-­‐ tion  (including  drip  irrigation  and  natural  fertilizers).  The  objective  of  promoting  small-­‐scale   agriculture   is   also   to   ensure   land   availability   to   local   communities.   The   protection   of   proper-­‐ ty  rights  can  prevent  the  increasing  trend  of  land  grabbing  by  multinational  companies.  

                                                                                                            6

 This  negotiation  took  place  without  a  delegate  from  France.    United  Nations  Development  Programme,  ´Human  Development  Report  1994’  (New  York:  Oxford  University   Press)  p.23   7

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The  G20  needs  to  take  into  account  that  there  are  certain  regional  food  market  mechanisms   that   put   local   food   security   under   threat.   Hence   we   recommend   reviewing   the   setting   of   global  food  markets  with  a  focus  on  the  effects  of  regional  market  strategies.  This  commit-­‐ tee  affirms  its  willingness  to  continue  their  phasing  out  strategy  as  far  as  agricultural  subsi-­‐ dies  are  concerned  and  demands  other  export  nations  of  agricultural  products  to  do  so.  Giv-­‐ en  that  subsidized  food  products  can  destroy  local  markets  in  developing  countries  it  is  the   responsibility  of  all  G20  members  to  review  their  national  subsidy  policy  in  order  to  offer  a   stable  environment  for  providing  sustainable  food  security  on  a  local  level.     Food  scarcity  is  at  its  greatest  in  humanitarian  crises.  In  those  that  result  from  conflict,  it  is   the   responsibility   of   governments   to   ensure   the   human   security   of   their   citizens   and   thus   their   access   to   food.   Often   however,   they   not   only   fail   in   this   duty,   but   are   also   the   principal   source   of   threat   to   the   civilian   population.   This   was   apparent   in   Syria,   where   the   govern-­‐ ment’s   refusal   to   allow   aid   agencies   to   gain   access   to   affected   local   populations,   compound-­‐ ed  food  scarcity.  This  committee  therefore  implores  the  G20  to  utilize  diplomatic  pressure  to   ensure  that  humanitarian  principles  are  respected  and  that,  as  a  consequence,  food  security   can  be  ensured  in  humanitarian  crises  resulting  from  conflict.  The  scale  and  suddenness  of   emerging   humanitarian   crises   is   a   challenge   to   the   effectiveness   of   the   international   re-­‐ sponse,  but  they  are  far  from  unpredictable.  By  monitoring  meteorological  data  it  is  possible   to  gain  early  warning  of  impending  crises,  including  drought  and  floods,  which  often  precipi-­‐ tate  food  scarcity.  This  committee  recommends  that  the  capacity  to  manage  early  warning   systems  be  built  at  a  regional  level,  so  as  to  guarantee  that  at-­‐risk  countries  have  ownership   of  the  tools  to  mitigate  such  crises.   This   committee   recognizes   food   price   volatility   as   one   of   the   main   causes   of   food   insecurity.   For   this   reason   we   believe   that   a   complete   and   common   understanding   of   the   origins   and   causes   of   food   price   volatility,   which   also   incorporates   a   macroeconomic   perspective,   is   fun-­‐ damental.   In   fact,   it   will   give   G20   countries   the   possibility   to   manage   effectively   the   food   security  issue  through  practical,  realistic  and  innovative  solutions.  Food  reserves  and  small-­‐ scale  agriculture  can  solve  the  problem  of  lack  of  quantity  and  the  related  problem  of  price   instability.   However,   we   believe   in   the   possibility   of   other   and   supplementary   solutions   in   order  to  manage  high  food  price  volatility  now  and  in  the  future.  

Scrutinizing  Aid   The  purpose  of  scrutinizing  aid  is  to  engage  in  a  detailed  examination  of  how  international   aid   budgets   are   spent,   what   they   are   spent   on   and   why.   The   guiding   concern   of   this   process   is  that  whilst  sustainable  development  must  always  be  the  ultimate  goal,  the  amount  spent   on  international  aid  -­‐  133.5  billion  USD  by  the  OECD  DAC  alone  in  2011  -­‐  merits  scrutiny,  as  

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the  utility  of  aid  can  only  be  realised  if  it  is  transparent,  effective  and  reflects  the  changing   geopolitical  context.   In  order  to  find  public  support  for,  and  increase  awareness  of,  development  needs  state  and   non-­‐state   organisations   to   provide   transparency.   Given   that   development   agencies   run   by   the   state   highly   rely   on   tax   revenues   and   NGOs   depend   on   the   citizen’s   readiness   to   donate,   the  credibility  of  cooperation  techniques  is  crucial.  Bad  examples  in  the  misallocation  of  fi-­‐ nancial   and   material   resources   in   the   past   decades   of   development   aid   show   the   urgency   of   transparent  flows  and  dismantling  the  black  box  of  donor  and  recipient  links.  By  increasing   the   transparency   of   G20   aid   flows   coordination   of   activities   and   policy   coherence   within   this   panel   will   then   be   much   easier   to   supervise.   It   will   also   make   an   impact   on   development   programmes  in  the  long  run  and  will  certainly  bring  more  effectiveness  to  the  cooperation   methods  in  the  G20  round.   It  is  critically  important  to  examine  why  aid  is  given  and  what  donor  states  expect  to  achieve   in   doing   so.   In   Afghanistan,   a   large   portion   of   international   aid   was   (and   continues   to   be)   funnelled  through  military  actors  in  support  of  the  International  Security  Assistance  Force’s   counter-­‐insurgency  campaign.  Development  projects  implemented  in  this  way  are  intended   to  achieve  rapid  results  and  many  have  been  poorly  implemented  and  prove  unsustainable.   We  recommend  that  this  practice  be  ended.  In  other  settings,  conversely,  donor  countries   have  attached  conditions  –  compelling  beneficiary  countries  to  improve  their  human  rights   records   for   example   –   to   giving   aid.   We   recommend   that   the   G20   adopt   a   position   on   the   conditionality  of  aid  and  its  desirability  in  these  contexts.     The  rise  of  new  donors  and  their  important  role  in  developing  countries  demonstrates  the   new   constellation   of   actors   in   development   as   well   as   the   need   for   dialogue   on   common   development   policies   and   strategies.   Given   that   many   former   developing   countries   have   profited  from  rapid  socio-­‐economic  growth  in  the  past  decades  and  know  the  challenge  of   pro-­‐poor   growth   from   their   own   experience,   they   have   an   excellent   knowledge   on   how   to   tackle  transformation  processes.  This  committee  seeks  to  strengthen  a  global  development   dialogue   between   traditional   donors,   uprising   donors   and   partner   countries   to   ensure   policy   coherence  and  complementarity  of  action.  Furthermore,  in  order  to  increase  the  effective-­‐ ness  of  multilateral  aid  organisation  an  outreach  programme  of  the  OECD  might  be  desired   in  order  to  provide  a  joint  platform  for  best  practice  of  development  strategies  and  a  mutual   assessment  of  development  policies.   Public-­‐private   partnerships   are   a   possible   alternative   to   aid   that   links   private   investment   with  government  cooperation  that  can  hence  raise  new  capital  and  innovative  ideas  for  de-­‐ velopment  projects.  Furthermore  trilateral  development  projects  that  go  beyond  traditional  

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org  |  26  


bilateral  aid  cooperation  by  involving  traditional  donors,  new  donors  and  partner  countries   have  the  advantage  of  combining  resources,  technical  capacities  and  create  synergies  in  de-­‐ velopment  practices  with  all  relevant  partners.  The  recent  rise  of  new  donors  in  the  south   has  shown  the  potential  for  cooperation  in  the  region  and  proves  the  importance  of  involv-­‐ ing  them  in  a  global  development  dialogue  as  equals.    

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org  |  27  


Signatures               European  Union:     France:     Germany:     Italy:     United  Kingdom:  

 

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org  |  28  


Supporters   On  behalf  of  all  organizers  and  participants,  we  would  like  to  express  our  gratitude  to  the   following  institutions  for  their  support  to  realize  EUrope's  Voice  2012:    

Policy  Innovation  e.V.  |  Wilhelmstr.  67  |  10117  Berlin  |  www.policy-­‐innovation.org  |  www.europesvoice.org  


Memorandum of EUrope's Voice 2012