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Elementary particles

Now we will try to present approximately that can represent "elementary" particles received on accelerators, and which quantity already exceeds three hundred. For this purpose we will enter an approximate scale of weight ("inductance") of the closed semimeasurements of space. We have two stable particles: a electron in which two semimeasurements are closed, which inductance – 1; and a proton in which five semimeasurements are closed, its inductance – 1836,1. From here we give a scale rough estimate, considering strong nonlinearity of these parametres from each other. Thus three closed semimeasurements give an interval of 50−300 electronic weights. Four closed semimeasurements give an interval about 500−1000 electronic weights. With each new measurement in one ring supervacuum pushing away growing, thus "pressure" in a particle grows, grows also its seeming (effective on dispersion) diameter. Force of an electric charge does not increase, since it is defined only by throughput of not closed semimeasurement. A cell of space at collisions with energy received on accelerators we will consider not collapsing (disintegrating), except a case of a birth of pair an electron-positron. Though this restriction can be disputable. Radiations are formed at disconnection of ring-like structures of measurements of space (particles). At connection of rings, the weight of particles – is summarized. Now simply it is necessary to analyse products of disintegration of some particles. So, the most probable combinations of spatial cells: Muon it is possible to present as a complex electron with one spatial cell.

"Impulse" at disconnection (disintegration) on two direct "electric" measurements (semi) gives electron(ic) neutrino, disconnection of an "electric" 1

ring gives muon’s neutrino. It is possible to present a tau-lepton as a complex a electron with two cells of space.

n – number to (from) 27 or more cells of space transmitting this type of deformation. The difference in effective diameters of particles is not shown. The additional weight of connection arises, because of a curvature near the located cells of space (bend), and short circuits of short measurements (are not shown).


Kinds of neutrinos and electromagnetic radiation

As -mesons (pions) are formed in very considerable quantities at formation and disintegrations of astable particles it there should be any characteristic group of the closed measurements of a cell of space, suitable on weight. Thus for 0meson presumably a structure:


Generation γ − radiations or neutrino’s is possibly defined by what of measurements of a particle "electric" or "magnetic" will start to be disconnected by the first, i.e. asynchronous or synchronous "blow" accordingly will take place on "electric" and "magnetic" measurements of cells of space being nearby. Still I will add that, the "magnetic" semimeasurement (it more shortly than "electric" one) is closer to a plane of a ring of "electric" semimeasurements, the weight of the same particle is more, the more strongly loading on supervacuum (muon or pion). At disintegration astable particles, probability of generation the gamma quantum or neutrino’s radiations is defined by what of semimeasurements will start to be disconnected by the first. If this is "electric" semimeasurement, remained "electromagnetic" pair of semimeasurements having opened out, generates γ − quantum, leader which movement goes along "electric" measurement opened out by the first (blow asynchronous). If this is "magnetic" semimeasurement, remained pair of "electric" semimeasurements at disconnection, generates neutrino’s the radiation, which leader of movement goes along "magnetic" measurement opened out by the first (blow synchronous). Let’s consider still a complex of a proton with


- meson (pion)

In the latter case the space makes electron-positron a pair since energy of synthesis is sharply lowered, because of strong catalytic action of a proton or other heavy particle, because of strong contortion (compression-bend) of cells of space near to such particles. Thus the space solves a problem of conservation of a charge, at it disproportion. It is essential at positron β+ nuclear disintegration. 4

Two more possible variants of disintegration of hyperons (baryons)

And others compound baryons breaks up similarly

Antiparticles differs from particles only an opposite electric sign. Certainly, it is only approximate scheme of those processes which can occur at interaction of "clouds" of strongly bent cells of space near to heavy particles and from which can be beaten out set (over 300) astable combinations from the closed or semi closed spatial cells. In a zone of such "cloud" energy of synthesis of particles is sharply lowered, because of "a preliminary" bend of measurements of space cells near to the closed cell of space (a heavy particle), because of their 5

reaction to pressure of supervacuum nearby (catalytic synthesis). I.e. one deformation of space reduces level of achievement of other deformation is a sense of work of the catalyst. By the way, this principle is very wide-spreaded in the Nature, without it, occurrence of an organic Life basically would not be possible! The given graphic schemes are simply resulted (are shown) as an approach example in the analysis of a microcosm from the point of view of structural elements of space. If to assume that cells of space at these processes can disintegrate on various even unequal parts, and from them there can be "elementary" particles to form, the number of possible combinations can be even more. As it is easily possible to see from graphic schemes that astable particles consists of several rings pushing away from each other that actually and distinguishes stable particles — a electron, a proton from astable. Attempts to construct various variants of particles using only one ring (spheroid), lead to their small assortment and sharp increase of weight of each subsequent particle. Still I wish to notice that stability of ring-like structures of particles can depend and on a ratio of the closed "electric" and "magnetic" semimeasurements. In electron one "magnetic" and one "electric"; in a proton two "magnetic" and three "electric", i.e. their ratios accordingly 1:1 and 1:1,5. At change of these ratios probably sharp increase in instability, as for example in 0-meson, where presumably in one ring one "magnetic" and two "electric" semimeasurements, and thus their ratio 1:2. Instability can be thus caused that "magnetic" semimeasurement is shorter "electric" one and plays a role of a collar pulling together a ring (spheroid), it is under stretching pressure. "Electric" semimeasurement is longer, and thus it extends diameter of a ring (spheroid) aspiring to be straightened. At considerable surplus any of semimeasurements in a ring, occurs disbalance forces of compression and a stretching that does a point of connection of measurements unstable. Thus unstable particles are rather ephemeral, than elementary particles, and possibly they are building "dust" of the Nature. Among this "dust" can be and particles with a charge in 2о! The complex of a proton with a positron was already mentioned at the description of a structure of a neutron. Here are shown still (look drawing) to possibility of formation of other combinations with a multiple electric charge.

Also short circuit not only two pairs semimeasurements in one cell of space (electron-positron) and all three pairs with formation of a superneutron, very 6

heavy neutral particle is possible. Such strong deformation can be formed as a result of collision of three very rigid gamma quanta in one point (a cell) of space. The probability of this process is very small. Weight of this particle calculates from a parity: mN=ħc (m(6)=ħ(7)·c(-1)), and now it is visible, whence the number 6 π in the formula of weight of a proton comes from. The proton is not yet limiting deformation of spatial cell and its weight ≈ in 19 times of less weight of a superneutron. Such sharp jump of weight ("inductance") can be caused strong increasing in "pressure" of supervacuum as a result of full short circuit of all measurements of a cell of space, and thus there is no not closed semimeasurements through which there is a surplus of pressure in the form of electric field going out. The superneutron probably exists longer than a neutron, since It, is not a compound particle and possesses limiting "rigidity" of the design. Possibly It, as well as a proton can form a complex with a electron or a positron, and it is much easier, since the superneutron has no external electric charge and the "spin", for coupling of short measurements does not demand synchronization. And this complex will react with a proton as well as an antiproton, i.e. with annihilation. By the first, most likely it will be opened electron got stuck between heavy particles, and this impulse will suffice to open strongly strained superneutron, and then and less strained proton. This complex can be good fuel in the future along with an antiproton and a positron, especially if the superneutron is steady (stable) and is easily stored independently or in a complex with other particle, including and with a superneutron! At mixing of superneutrons with usual hydrogen (p+ and e−) operated reaction annihilation these particles should go. The superneutron can be formed at collision of three very rigid gamma quanta in one cell of space that is improbable, and also is possible catalytic synthesis from a proton or an antiproton. Now we will try to represent synthesis – annihilation process stable particles in the geometrical form. 2( A+BmagC−) – a cell of space

ABC − in this case semimeasurements

Leptons +

А (ВС) + (АВ)С − е+ е


(АА´ВВ´С) С´ +А (А´ВВ´СС´) +υАС´ − р р+

annihilation synthesis free space з Baryons

γВС + γАВ + υАС 2γ + 1υ (in free space)


υС´А + γА´В + γВ´С + γА´В + γВ´С


4γ + 2υ


(in free space)

In the first reaction at annihilation there is a regeneration of one space cell, in the second reaction, regeneration of two cells of space. So, at an annihilation two particles under "pressure" created supervacuum in a particle, and leaving through long "electrical" semimeasurements different in a sign interacting with cells three-dimensional space (polarization), approach, and in case of equality of the masses, two semimeasurements of particles are joined forming neutrino’s deformation (electron neutrino), the closed semimeasurements in each particle thus are unlocked forming gamma-quanta and is possible neutrino (muon neutrino) since in case of a proton-antiproton, in them three are closed "electrical" and two "magnetic" semimeasurements, i.e. for one "electrical" measurement there is no "magnetic" pair for gamma-quanta formation. Though it is possible that the Nature and does not impose so rigid restrictions on generation radiation scale (assortment). The question on preferential formation neutrino or gamma-quanta already has been viewed earlier. The quantity of gamma-quanta can be and more if their energy does not appear limiting, i.e. will be more deformed spatial cells. The given quantity of gamma-quanta concerns the limiting frequency of radiation depending from masses annihilated particles:  ( 3) 

c ( 1)

( 2 )

look a series (a row),

where λ length of a Compton’s wave of these particles:   

( 2)

h (7)  ( 6) ( 1) m c


m c2 . h

Also cells (of space) participate in generation γ - quanta, because (cells) are squeezed on one "electrical" measurement by an electric field of particles and after which annihilation, the squeezed measurements of cells of space are straightened also, causing alternate oscillations of "magnetic" and "electrical" measurements in space. The energy distribution (spreading) of such gamma-quanta should be broadband, because of a different degree of squeezing of spatial cells on different distance from annihilated charged particles. You can easily note that in the geometrical equations neutrino is strictly necessary component for balance of deformations of all geometrical measurements, otherwise, at synthesis of particles superfluous "magnetic" measurements will be formed a lot: γАВ + γВС → (АВ)Cˉ + Bmag − the radical, and also is broken a Conservation law of a charge (symmetry). By the way, my opinion that the free measurements (radicals) can quite be formed at a collision of waves of deformations of space very high intensity among themselves and fundamental particles, or at disintegrations of astable particles, but in the absence of "inductance" (mass), a charge and a zero thickness are found out cannot be, since they will transit through any detector known now, without change of its state. Thus for synthesis of fundamental particles it is necessary to have quantization of three-dimensional space, and it is binding neutrino, without this particle-radiation, in space the free "magnetic" measurements (Bmag) will accumulate. Though to term now neutrino and quanta as fundamental particles already it is impossible! These 8

are zones of dynamic deformation of quanta of space (cells). And still! I consider that the mass exists in the form of the incurvated or closed micromeasurements of space cells and is a loading of the incurvated micromeasurements on zero space which aspires to straighten them (repelling them from each other), in passing deforming environmental space cells. Or it (mass) is, or it in general is not present! Presence of an impulse at "particle" yet does not speak about presence the mass at this "particle". The impulse is the intermediate strain (deformation) of space between mass and energy (look a row) in its classical understanding, and possesses partially properties of that and other strain, and not bindingly can belong to a particle. Light has deformation of four degrees of freedom of space, is perpendicular to a motion, plus one degree of deformation of space along which it is spreading. Total sum − five degrees, it means that light possesses an impulse (look a row), but does not possess mass since for this purpose it should have six degrees of deformation of space and at least two of them should be incurvated! (one-dimension). By the way, the previous calculation with light is real only at interaction of light with substance, in free space the leader of a wave is compressed up to zero and is not active. So, the mass is more higher degree of deformation, than an impulse, i.e. the mass can form an impulse in any interval of velocities, an impulse on prelight’s velocities forms mass cannot, if there incurvated measurements of space is not present. The mass magnification at formation of chemical or nuclear connection testifies to magnification of an arcuation of close located cells of space, in the first case in a zone between and round charged particles, because of "gyration" and orientation thus measurements of space cells on two radiants of a field which cause their arcuation, in-second case, magnification of density of "cloud" of the incurvated cells of space round interacting nucleons, plus closure of short measurements in ring-like structures. From this it should be clear that virtual material carriers "making heavier" nuclear connection does not exist!

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Andrey Vladimirovich Polevikov


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