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Into the Ice



The summary below is comprised of the most important Norwegian expeditions and events, most often because they can be labeled as ‘firsts’. In order to place Norwegian activities into a broader perspective, some non-Norwegian expeditions and events are included here. The latter are indicated with an bullet point (•) in front of the date, and represent milestones or examples of nonNorwegian activities.


• 1596 (June) The Dutch Northeast Passage Expedition with Willem Barentsz, among others, discovered Bjørnøya (Bear Island) and Northwestern Spitsbergen. The discovery of the Svalbard archipelago was the beginning of major whaling and research activity along the coast of Svalbard, which lasted throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. • 1672 The German medical doctor Fredrich Martens, who was traveling on a whaling ship from Hamburg, visited the large Dutch station at Smeerenburg on Amsterdam Island in Svalbard. He found the settlement deserted and partly destroyed. • 1672 Captain and trader Henrik Helberg and a number of other leading tradesmen and ship-owners from Bergen, led by Jørgen Thormøhlen, formed the Greenland Company (det Grøndlandske Compagnie). The company organised whaling in the Arctic Ocean during the period from 1672 to 1679.

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1721–36 Missionary Hans Poulsen Egede equipped a trade and missionary expedition to Greenland. Egede worked as a missionary on Greenland for 15 years. In 1740, he was appointed Bishop of Greenland. • 1733–42 Czar Peter the Great sent Russia’s Great Northern Expedition to systematically explore the Russian Arctic. 1778 The first attempt was made to launch a hunting expedition from Hammerfest to Svalbard. Tradesman Peter Christian Buck sent the large sloop, Forellen, to the hunting grounds, but difficult ice conditions prevented the vessel from reaching Svalbard. 1794–95 The first Norwegian expedition wintered on Svalbard. The trip was equipped by the Hammerfest trading company of Buck, which sent the Kjøllefjord under the command of Captain Hans P. Wencke. 1823–24 The first well-documented Norwegian wintering expedition on Bjørnøya. It was sent out by Hammerfest tradesmen Sigfried Akermand and Aage Aagaard. It is possible that there had been a winter expedition there in 1821–22. 1827 Geologist Balthazar Mathias Keilhau, a traveling school teacher who also traversed Norway to study special geological conditions, joined German Barto von Löwenigh aboard the Haabet. The ship sailed from Hammerfest to Svalbard from August 16th to September 26th, and stopped at Bjørnøya, the southwestern coast of Spitsbergen, and Edgeøya (Edge Island). 1828–29 Geophysicist Christopher Hansteen travels to Siberia, where he conducted research of the permafrost in Turukhansk, primarily studying the measurements of the earth’s magnetic fields, to determine whether the earth had one or two magnetic axes. • 1838, 1839 The French scientific expedition which included Scandinavians, sailed with La Recherche to Svalbard during both summers. • 1845–48 Sir John Franklin was sent with the Erebus, the Terror, and 128 men to find the Northwest Passage. The expedition disappeared. A flurry of reconnaissance expeditions followed in its wake, which in itself contributed to the mapping of large territories in northern Canada, and to discovering the route through the passage.

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1853 Sailing aboard the Tønsberg vessel Nordbye, Erik Eriksen participated in a sealing and exploration expedition to Svalbard. He discovered Kong Karls Land, which he originally believed was ‘Gillis Land’. This was probably the second time that the islands were discovered. English whalers in the early 17th century had called the islands ‘Wiches Land’. Eriksen was the first to land on the islands in 1859. 1863 Elling Carlsen circumnavigated all of Svalbard, except for Hopen and Kvitøya, in the Jan Mayen. This was probably the second time a trip like this was made, the first time being by Cornelius Giles in 1797. Carlsen reached 81° N on August 2nd. 1865–66 Sivert Tobiesen’s walrus-hunting expedition stayed the winter on Bjørnøya and constructed Tobiesens House (Tobiesenhuset) next to Hammerfesthytta. 1867 Elling Carlsen sailed the Solid due east, and expanded Norwegian walrus-hunting territories to Novaya Zemlya. 1869 Edvard Holm Johannesen’s expedition with the Nordland through the Kara Sea proved that the area could be ice-free. Together with Elling Carlsen and John Palliser’s expedition of the same year, this proved of great significance for later hunters, tradesmen and explorers. 1870 Edvard Holm Johannesen sailed on the Nordland, on the first circumnavigation of Novaya Zemlya made during in a single season. Novaya Zemlya had previously been circumnavigated, once, and that was by Savva Loshkin in about 1760–62. 1870 Capitalizing on the news of an ice-free Kara Sea, Fritz E. Mack, sailing aboard the Polarstjernen, conducted an extensive walrushunting expedition in the area. 1871 Sailing the Solid, Elling Carlsen discovered the 1596–7 wintering base of Willem Barentsz, at Ledjanaja Gavan on Novaya Zemlya. 1871 The Vestfold whaling vessel Haabet was shipwrecked in the ice. It was the largest single Norwegian accident in the Arctic, and 45 men were lost.

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1872–73 At Isfjorden on Svalbard, 17 walrus hunters died in Svenskhuset, after their ships were frozen into the ice on the northeastern coast of Spitsbergen. Johan Mattilas Johannesen and Gabriel Anderssen died at Gråhuken. 1872–73 When Sivert Tobiesen was on a walrus hunt to Novaya Zemlya, aboard the Freya, the ship froze in the ice pack, and Tobiesen was forced to winter at the northwestern tip of the island. Tobiesen and his son died that winter. Two of the crew who had camped the winter with them, and six of the seven others aboard who had rowed south in the autumn of 1872, all survived. 1872–74 Elling Carlsen was the ice pilot on board the Tegetthoff on the Austrian-Hungarian expedition to Franz Josef Land led by Karl Weyprecht and Julius Payer. The ship was trapped in the ice. The participants in the expedition managed to get to Novaya Zemlya, where they were saved. 1875 Amund Helland conducted glaciological and geological surveys at Disko Bay in West Greenland, from Egedesminde to the Umanak region. Helland traveled up on the inland glacial ice to Pakitsoq. 1876 Johan Kjeldsen discovered Hvide-ø, now known as Kvitøya. This was probably the second time the island was discovered, the first being by the Dutch whale-hunter Cornelius Giles (or Gillis), who sited the island in 1707, and named it ‘Gillis Land’. 1876–77 Christian Bjerkan carried out a planned winter expedition, with the Adolf. He set up the prefabricated cabin he had transported from Norway, and successfully stayed the winter at Malyje Karmakuly on the west coast of Novaya Zemlya. This was probably the first planned, non-Russian wintering on Novaya Zemlya. The expedition was a hunting expedition, but also took continuous meteorological observations. 1877 Johan Adrian Jacobsen, on a mission sent by Carl Hagenbeck of Hamburg, conducted his first ethnographic artifact-gathering expedition to the Arctic. Jacobsen returned with six Greenlanders, who were ‘exhibited’ throughout the capitals of Europe over an eight-month period of time, before they were returned to Greenland in the summer of 1878.

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1876–78 The Norwegian expedition to the northern seas sailed with the Vøringen, with meteorologist Henrik Mohn and zoologist Georg Ossian Sars aboard. In 1876 the expedition conducted oceanographic observations in the Norwegian Sea. In 1877 the expedition landed on Jan Mayen and also continued its oceanographic exploration in the area between Tromsø, Jan Mayen, and Bodø. In 1878 the expedition conducted oceanographic studies at Bjørnøya and west of Spitsbergen, and also mapped Advent Fjord. • 1878–80 Finnish-Swedish Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld successfully sailed the Northeast Passage. 1878 Hans Christian Johannesen and the Lena followed Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld and the Vega expedition through the Northeast Passage to the Lena River in Siberia, where it was agreed that he should attempt to find a trade route between Western Europe and the great Siberian rivers: the Ob, the Yenisey and the Lena. 1878 On a walrus hunt with the Nordland at Novaya Zemlya and in the Kara Sea, Edvard Holm Johannesen discovered the island Ensomheden, which means ‘loneliness’, now known as Ostrov Ujedinenija. There, observations were made of flora, fauna and topography. 1879 Aboard the Johanna Maria, Johan Kjeldsen sailed about 110 kilometres north of Sjuøyane (which constitute the northernmost islands in the Svalbard archipelago) on an ice-free ocean. He matched or beat Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld’s 1868 record of sailing from Svalbard and farthest north, to 81° 42’ N. 1880 Johan Adrian Jacobsen again conducted ethnographic artifact collection expeditions for Carl Hagenbeck. Halted by the pack ice, he ended up collecting artifacts from Hebron in Labrador. He also took a Labrador Inuit family back, and ‘exhibited’ the Inuits around Europe until all nine of them died of smallpox. 1881 The first tourist cruise to Svalbard was organised. With Elling Carlsen as the local guide, Captain Gran of the Pallas visited the fjords along the west coast of Spitsbergen.

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1882 Fridtjof Nansen traveled aboard the Arendal vessel Viking on a sealhunting expedition to the Western Ice Fields (east of north-east Greenland). • 1882–83 The first International Polar Year. The Norwegian contributions in Northern Norway were made from the Bossekop station (by Aksel Steen) and the Kautokeino station (by Sophus Tromholt). 1886 The first known Norwegian walrus expedition to Franz Josef Land was made by Karl Johan Wirkola on the Ørnen. 1888 Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, O. C. Dietrichson, K. K. Trana, S. J. Balto, and O. N. Ravna sailed with the Jason to the ice fields off Eastern Greenland. After they finally landed, they skied across the Greenland inland ice sheet to the west coast. They stayed the winter in Godthaab and returned to Christiania on May 30th, 1889. 1889 Ragnvald Knudsen sailed the Tønsberg vessel Hekla through the belt of ice in the East Greenland Current, and he caught walrus and muskoxen along the coast. This heralded the beginning of regular Norwegian hunting in Eastern Greenland. 1891–92 Eivind Astrup, at the age of 19, joined Robert E. Peary in Northern Greenland, where the two carried out a three-month long ski trip to map north and northeastern Greenland. 1893–94 The first known Norwegian trade expedition to stay the winter on the east coast of Greenland. Peder Michelsen led the expedition on the Ino, which went to Kulusuk near Angmagssalik, to hunt and trade with the Greenlanders. The expedition was not particularly successful. 1893–94 Eivind Astrup went on a new expedition with Robert E. Peary to northwestern Greenland. Several of the participants, including Astrup, became ill. Nonetheless, Astrup conducted important mapping of the north coast of Melville Bay on a 1300-kilometrelong sled trip with Greenlander Kolotengva.

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1893–96 The first Fram expedition. Fridtjof Nansen drifted across the Arctic Ocean in his specially constructed Colin Archer ship. The captain was Otto Sverdrup. The crew included: Sigurd Scott-Hansen, Henrik Greve Blessing, Anton Amundsen, Bernt Bentsen, Peder Leonard Hendriksen, Theodor Claudius Jacobsen, Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen, Adolf Juell, Ivar Otto Irgens Mogstad, Bernhard Nordahl, and Lars Petterson. The journey continued along the New Siberian Islands (Novosibirskija Ostrova), where the Fram froze into the ice pack. From September 25th, 1893, to August 14th, 1896, the Fram had to drift where the ice took her. She did not reach farther north than about 86° N, but extensive scientific measurements were taken and observations made, which formed the raw data that led to a greater understanding of the Arctic Ocean. On March 14th, 1895, Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen left the Fram, taking dogs and sleds in order to try reaching the North Pole. They got to 86° 14’ N (later calculated to be 86° 4’ N) before they had to turn around. After struggling, they managed to arrive at Franz Josef Land, where they stayed the winter in a miserable earth and stone hut. The next spring, they met Frederick Jackson, who gave them passage back to Norway on the Windward. • 1897 After an unsuccessful try in 1896, Swedish engineer S. A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg and Knut Frænkel took off in a hydrogen balloon from Virgohamna on Danskøya in the Svalbard archipelago, in order to reach the North Pole. The balloon was forced to land at 82° 56’ N, and the three men wandered across the ice for nearly two and a half months, until they arrived on land on Kvitøya. Their remains were discovered in 1930. • 1898 Hunting expedition with Johannes Nilsen on the Freia and Ludvig Bernhard Sebulonsen on another vessel discovered Victoria Island (Ostrov Viktorija) east of Svalbard. P.W.Nilssen on the Victoria sailed around the island the next day and named it after the ship. 1898–1902 Otto Sverdrup led the second Fram expedition to northwestern Greenland and the islands north of eastern Canada. The expedition was financed by Axel Heiberg and the Ringnes brothers, Ellef and Amund. Extensive scientific work was planned. The scientists included: cartographer Gunnar Isachsen, Swedish botanist Herman Georg Simmons, Danish zoologist Edvard Bay, geologist Per Schei, and medical doctor Johan Svendsen. The ten crew members were

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Victor Bauman, Oluf Raanes, Peder Leonard Hendriksen, Karl Olsen, Jacob Nødtvedt, Adolf Henrik Lindstrøm, Sverre Helge Hassel, Rudolf Stolz, Ove Braskerud, and Ivar Fosheim. Ove Braskerud died on the trip, and Johan Svendsen committed suicide. The men traveled by dog sled and skis over an area of 150,000 square kilometres, which was mapped and where a significant amount of scientific material was gathered. During the last winter of the expedition, the group was frozen in by the ice, and the entire expedition took one year more than originally planned. 1899 Søren Zachariassen sailed the Gottfred to Svalbard and brought back a load of coal. In 1900, he founded the Isefjord Coal Company (Kullkompagniet Isefjord), and he was thus a pioneer in the history of coal on Svalbard. 1900 Johan Hjort sailed the Michael Sars on an oceanographic expedition from Ålesund to the area north of Iceland, the Western Ice Fields and Jan Mayen, where the participants landed. The trip returned via Bjørnøya. Participants included: Fridtjof Nansen, oceanographer Bjørn Helland-Hansen, biologist H. H. Gran and zoologist A. Wollebæk. 1901 Roald Amundsen tested the Gjøa in the ice in the Barents Sea between the Novaya Zemlya shelf and the Greenland Sea. Oceanographic observations were made based on Nansen’s instructions. 1902–03 The Norwegian Aurora Polaris expedition, organized by Kristian Birkeland. The station on Svalbard was part of a network of four stations which were to make parallel observations throughout the winter, on Novaya Zemlya, on Iceland, and at Kåfjord in Finnmark, Northern Norway. 1902–03 The Norwegian Aurora Polaris expedition to Novaya Zemlya, led by H. Riddervold. The three participants built two observatories which were in operation from August 30th to March 11th. H. Schaanning conducted botanical and meteorological observations and Johan Koren collected zoological data. 1903–06 Roald Amundsen sailed the Gjøa through the Northwest Passage. Participants on the expedition were Godfred Hansen, Peder

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Ristvedt, Helmer Hanssen, Anton Lund, Gustav Juel Wiik, and Adolf Henrik Lindstrøm. The scientific program included taking magnetic measurements and confirming the northern magnetic pole. Two years were spent in Gjøahavn on King William Island, and the expedition returned with ethnographic artifacts and having mapped Victoria Island. The skeletal remains of two of Franklin’s men were discovered near Simpson Strait. The expedition had to remain for the third winter after having sailed through the Northwest Passage, and Gustav Wiik died during the wintering at King Point. In the meantime, Amundsen had made the sled trip to Eagle City near the Yukon River to telegraph the news of expedition results to the world. 1906–07 The first Norwegian wintering expedition on Jan Mayen, in order to hunt for fox. The three hunters had a good season, but they all died in a shipwreck on the way home to Norway. 1906, 1907 Gunnar Isachsen led the Norwegian research and cartography team on the scientific expedition to Svalbard, sponsored by Prince Albert of Monaco. This was the start of regular Norwegian scientific expeditions to Svalbard, which in turn led to the founding of the Norwegian Svalbard and Arctic studies in 1928. Geologist Adolf Hoel and botanist Hanna Dieset (Resvoll-Holmsen) were among the participants in 1907. 1908 Adolf Hoel and Gunnar Holmsen conducted a geological expedition to Svalbard, funded by the University of Oslo. The ice pilot on the Holmengraa was Andreas Beck, and Hjalmar Johansen was hired as an assistant. 1908 Hanna Dieset (Resvoll-Holmsen) led her own botanical expedition to Svalbard, where she later joined Hoel and Holmsen’s expedition. 1908–09 Anton Eilertsen and five men were the first to winter on Kong Karls Land in the Svalbard archipelago. They made a good haul of polar bear, but because the ice conditions prevented access, they were unable to be picked up during the summer of 1909. They managed to get to Barents Island, Edgeøya and Agardhbukta by boat, and then walked and skied to Longyearbyen. From there, they were sent home to Norway on the Arctic Coal Company’s ship, W. D. Munroe.

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1908–09 Severin Liavaag led a hunting expedition to northeastern Greenland, sailing the Floren from Ålesund. The seven members of the expedition built two cabins at 74° 30’ N. Liavaag and Johan A. Hareide drowned during a polar bear hunt on May 12th, 1909. • 1909 At almost the same time, Americans Frederick Cook and Robert E. Peary announced that they believed they had reached the North Pole, on April 21st 1908 and April 6th 1909, respectively. Both claims are still disputed. 1909 Gunnar Isachsen led a scientific expedition to Svalbard, and it was the first expedition to receive Norwegian state funding. From that point on, there were annual Norwegian expeditions to the archipelago. Thereafter, these became known as the Norwegian statesupported Spitsbergen expeditions. 1909 Gunnar Holmsen led a geological expedition to the Bellsund and Grønfjorden area in western Spitsbergen. The primary purpose of the trip was to prospect for minerals, for private rather than public interests. 1909 Field zoologist Johan Koren traveled from Nome, Alaska, through the Bering Strait, beyond the Diomede Islands to the Chukchi Peninsula. He observed bird life and collected eggs and pelts, and is considered the first person in the world to have localized the nesting place of the rare spoon-billed sandpiper. In 1910, he made new artifact-collecting expeditions to Alaska and to the Chukchi Peninsula. 1909–10 The third Norwegian wintering expedition to eastern Greenland. S. Th. Sverre of Oslo sent out a six-man team led by Vebjørn Landmark. They sailed on the 7de juni from Ålesund, built a hunting cabin, and hunted near Clavering Island and Germania Havn, in the same area as the 1908–09 expeditions. Hunting expeditions, especially from the Ålesund area, went regularly to eastern Greenland, until as recently as 1959. 1911–13 Field zoologist Johan Koren made a new journey to the northern coast of the Chukchi Peninsula with his own ship, the Kittiwake, in order to collect more artifacts. He stayed the winter up the Kolyma River in Siberia. The Kittiwake was shipwrecked in the

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ice in October of 1912, and the expedition managed a difficult journey in a purchased whaleboat back across the Bering Straits to the Large Diomede and then the Small Diomede Islands. In March of 1913, Koren walked alone across the ice to the Alaskan coast, after having been swindled by an American he had been stranded with on the Diomedes. Koren made several trips to Siberia, to collect artifacts, before he died of pneumonia in Vladivostok in 1919. 1912 Fridtjof Nansen made an oceanographic expedition to Svalbard on the Veslemøy. 1913 Arve Staxrud led a rescue expedition in search of survivors from the 1912–13 German Schröder-Stranz expedition to Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Staxrud had two dog sleds and 20 reindeer with him, and managed to save two of the Germans. 1913 Jonas Lied led his first successful trading expedition from Norway to the Yenisey River and back. Ice pilot H. C. Johannesen and a guest, Fridtjof Nansen, were aboard the Correct. 1913–16 The Norwegian anthropology expedition led by Christian Leden, for the purpose of studying the Inuit in the western and northwestern Hudson Bay region. Leden made several studies of the Inuit, and was particularly interested in their music and dance. He was in Northwestern Greenland in 1909, in Eastern Greenland in 1910, in northern Canada in 1911, Western Greenland in 1912, and Eastern Greenland in 1923 and 1926. 1914–15 The Russian authorities requested the assistance of Otto Sverdrup, in connection with the disappearance of the 1912–14 Brusilov expeditions and the 1912–13 Rusanov expeditions. Sverdrup led the search on the Eklips during the summer of 1914 and was caught in the ice for the winter. During the summer of 1915, Sverdrup sailed to Ostrov Ujedinenija in the Northern Kara Sea, but discovered no remains of the expeditions. After that, Sverdrup’s ship, the Eklips, escorted the Taimyr and the Vajgatsj to Arkhangelsk. During the winter of 1914–15, these two ships had been frozen in along the coast of the Taymyr Peninsula. Sverdrup and his crew rescued them with dog sleds in the spring of 1915.

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1918–25 Roald Amundsen’s Maud expedition sailed through the Northeast Passage in 1918–20. The Maud was north of Cape Serdce Kamen near the Bering Strait in 1920–21. The ship then drifted around in the ice north of eastern Siberia from 1922 to 1925, under the command of Oscar Wisting. Participants under Amundsen’s command during the first part of the expedition were: Scientific leader H.U. Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, Knut Sundbeck, Peter Tessem, Helmer Hanssen, Paul Knudsen, Martin Rønne, Emanuel Tønnesen, and Genadij Olonkin, who came aboard at Khabarovo. After the first winter, Tessem and Knudsen disembarked to follow the Taymyr coast back to Dikson, close to the gulf of the Yenisey. They never made it. In 1920–21, only Sverdrup, Wisting and Olonkin remained on board with Amundsen. A few Chukchi Inuits were hired to help. In 1922–25, Wisting was in command, and the participants on the expedition included: Sverdrup, Wisting, Olonkin, Karl Hansen, S. Syvertsen (who died on June 10th 1923), Swedish meteorologist Finn Malmgren, and Odd Dahl. A Chukchi, Kakot, also worked onboard. The expedition did not drift over the Arctic Ocean, nor did it reach the Pole, which was Amundsen’s original goal. However, Sverdrup collected a significant amount of important scientific data. During the last part of the expedition, Amundsen and Oskar Omdal tried to fly to the Pole from Alaska. With the 1903–06 Gjøa expedition and then the Maud, Roald Amundsen and Helmer Hanssen became the first men to have sailed around the entire Arctic. 1920/1925 The Svalbard Treaty was signed in Paris on February 9th, 1920; and was finally ratified in 1925. The sovereignty transfer took place on August 14th, 1925 in Longyearbyen. 1921 A Norwegian telegraph and weather station was established on Jan Mayen, where the meteorological station has been in operation since, with the exception of a few months during the winter of 1940–41, during World War II. 1921 Geologist Olaf Holtedahl rented a ship and conducted a research expedition to Novaya Zemlya. 1924 On July 9th, the East Greenland Agreement between Norway and Denmark gave Norwegians the right to fish and hunt on and near Eastern Greenland north of Scoresbysund for at least 20 years.

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1925 Roald Amundsen led the N24 and N25 flights from Ny-Ålesund to approximately 88° N. Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was the pilot and second in command, and Lincoln Ellsworth was the sponsor and a participant. The other participants were: second pilot Leif Dietrichson, Oskar Omdal, and mechanic Karl Feucht. The planes landed on pack ice, and after three weeks of intense work to make a runway, Riiser-Larsen managed to fly all six men back to Svalbard in the N25 aircraft. • 1926 On May 10th, Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett flew from NyÅlesund toward the North Pole, and then back. Today they are not recognized as actually having reached the North Pole. 1926 On May 11th, the ‘Amundsen-Ellsworth-Nobile Transpolar Flight’ traveled from Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, to Teller in Alaska. The airship N1 Norge was constructed in Italy by Umberto Nobile. Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was the second in command, and Lincoln Ellsworth was sponsor and participant, again. The crew included: Emil Horgen, Oscar Wisting, Finn Malmgren, Fredrik Ramm, Birger Gottwaldt, Frithjof Storm-Johnsen, and Oskar Omdal, together with Nobile and five other Italians: Cecione, Alesadrini, Arduino, Caratti and Pomella. The Norge landed in Teller on May 14th, Svalbard time. 1928 On March 1st, as a result of the initiative taken by Adolf Hoel, the Norwegian state-supported Spitsbergen expeditions were institutionalized and became the Institute for the Exploration of Svalbard and the Arctic Ocean (NSIU). 1928 On June 18th, Roald Amundsen, Leif Dietrichson and the French crew of four (René Guilbaud, Gilbert Brazy, Albert de Cuverville, and Émile Valette) died when their plane, the Latham, went down at sea, en route to search for Umberto Nobile’s airship, the Italia, which had crashed near Svalbard. 1929 On May 8th, Jan Mayen was declared to be under Norwegian sovereignty. It was declared a part of Norway, in accordance with the law of February 27th, 1930. 1929 The Danish Østgrønlandsk Fangstkompagni Nanok a/s (established on May 20th) and the Norwegian Arktisk Næringsdrift a/s

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(established on June 24th) were formed in order for each to promote their respective national interests through hunting activity, and by constructing hunting stations and cabins in Northeastern Greenland. This was a part of the conflict regarding what was to be known in Norway as Eirik Raudes Land (Erik the Red Land). 1930 The NSIU expedition to northeast Svalbard and Franz Josef Land with the Ålesund hunting vessel Bratvaag landed on Kvitøya. There the NSIU team discovered Salomon August Andrée’s last camp, from his 1897 balloon expedition. 1931 On June 27th, the Norwegian flag was raised at the Myggbukta hunting, radio, and meteorological station by Hallvard Devold, Thor Halle, Eilif Herdal, Søren Richter and Ingvald Strøm. The area north of Scoresby between 71° 30’ N and 75° 40’ N was proclaimed Norwegian, and it was named Eirik Raudes Land. Adolf Hoel and Gustav Smedal were deeply involved in the initiative, and the Norwegian Parliament agreed to this line of action two weeks later. Helge Ingstad was appointed as the local governor. The annexation was annulled by the International Court of Justice in The Hague in 1933. After agreement with Denmark on hunting rights, the Norwegian flag was not lowered until 1959. 1931 Arne Høygaard and Martin Mehren led the Ajungilak expedition from west to east, across Greenland. • 1931 Sir Hubert Wilkin’s planned trip beneath the polar ice north of Svalbard, in the submarine Nautilus, was a partial fiasco, probably due to sabotage by the crew who did not trust the rickety ship. Professor H. U. Sverdrup was on that trip, in charge of scientific observations. Afterwards, the Nautilus was sunk in Byfjorden, the city fjord near Bergen. 1932 On July 12th, the area between 60° 3’ N and 63° 4’ N on Eastern Greenland south of Ammassalik was annexed by Norway and called Fridtjof Nansen Land. 1932–33 Helge Ingstad led a hunting expedition to Antarctichavn on the northeastern coast of Greenland, where he also functioned as the Norwegian governor in Eirik Raudes Land. The expedition was to stay for two years, but was concluded after the verdict in The Hague.

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1932–33 The Second International Polar Year, in which Norway participated by virtue of the work at existing meteorological stations in the Arctic. 1933 The Norwegian Polar Club was founded in Oslo, with Adolf Hoel as its first chairman. 1933 On April 5th, the International Court of Justice in The Hague pronounced the verdict on the Greenland dispute between Norway and Denmark. Denmark’s claim for sovereignty over all of Greenland was recognized, and Norway lost on all counts. The ‘governor’, Helge Ingstad, went home to Norway that summer. • 1937 Russian Ivan Papanin’s expedition by plane from Franz Josef Land landed at 89° 43’ N. 1940–44 Norwegian-born Henry Larsen, who became a Canadian citizen in 1928, was the first to sail the Northwest Passage from west to east. On his return journey, he was the first to sail that route without having to stay the winter. The ship St. Roch was the first to sail that route in both directions. Larsen served in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 1941 Civilians on Svalbard were evacuated by the Allied Forces during the autumn of 1941. That included 1955 Russians and 765 Norwegians. 1948 On March 1st, the Norwegian Polar Institute was formally established as a direct continuation of the NSIU. Oceanography professor H.U. Sverdrup was invited back from the U.S.A. to become director of the institute. 1948, 1952, 1953 There were mining accidents at the Kings Bay mining complex at Ny-Ålesund; and altogether 43 persons lost their lives. 1954 Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) introduced its intercontinental routes over the High Arctic: Copenhagen-Los Angeles over Greenland in 1954 and Copenhagen-Tokyo over the North Pole in 1957. • 1958 The nuclear submarine USS Nautilus reached the North Pole by navigating under the ice.

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1959 On August 22nd, Søren Richter lowered the Norwegian flag at Myggbukta. He had been in the group that raised the flag there in 1931. 1962 Bjørn Staib’s Nanok expedition with Bjørn Reese was to follow Nansens exact route over Greenland, using 16 dogs and two sleds. They arrived 31 days later with one dog. 1962 On November 5th, 21 miners lost their lives in an accident in the Kings Bay Kull Company mining complex at Ny-Ålesund. In the aftermath of information-gathering and investigation, this so-called Kings Bay incident caused the resignation of the Norwegian government and Prime Minister Gerhardsen. Furthermore, mining operations in Ny-Ålesund were closed down permanently. 1964 Bjørn Staib began his expedition from Alert, Canada, and planned to cross the Arctic Ocean on skis and with the help of dogs. He had to give up after major delays, and he was mocked by some people in Norway for not having upheld the proud Norwegian polar tradition. • 1968 A North American group led by Ralph Plaisted left Ward Hunt Island near Ellesmere Island on snow scooters, bound for the North Pole. All four were picked up at the North Pole by plane. It was probably the first expedition which had reached the North Pole, traveling on the ice. (In 1937, the Russian Ivan Papanin’s expedition had landed by plane at 89° 43’ N, having flown from Franz Josef Land. In 1948, another group of Russian airmen stood at the North Pole.) • 1968–69 The British Trans-Arctic Expedition, led by Wally Herbert, left from Barrow, Alaska, with 40 dogs and four sleds, to cross the Arctic Ocean via the North Pole. The four men stayed the winter on the ice, and they reached the pole the following year, before they continued on to Svalbard. Provisions were brought by plane to them along the route. • 1978 Japanese Naomi Uemura traveled alone, by dog sled, from Ellesmere Island to the North Pole. He was flown back to the northern coast of Greenland; and from there, he traveled all the way to the south coast.

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1982 Ragnar Thorseth’s North Pole snow scooter expedition left from Eureka on Ellesmere Island on March 4th, with three scooters and six sleds. The expedition reached the polar point on April 29th, and received air-dropped provisions along the way. The return was by plane. This was the first Norwegian expedition to reach the North Pole, traveling on the ice. • 1986 Frenchman Jean-Louis Etienne marched alone to the North Pole, receiving regular provisions, air-dropped along the way. An eightperson team led by Will Steger and Paul Schurke drove dog sleds to the North Pole without outside support. Ann Bancroft participated, and she became the first woman ever to reach the North Pole. 1990 Erling Kagge, Børge Ousland, and Geir Randby made the first unsupported ski expedition to the North Pole. They started from Ellesmere Island on March 8th. Kagge and Ousland reached the polar point on May 4th. Randby had injured his back along the way and was rescued by plane. This led to complaints that the team had received outside assistance. Kagge and Ousland were picked up by plane after they had reached the North Pole. 1992 Sjur and Simen Mørdre, Australian Mike McDowel, and Canadian Martyn Williams went to the North Pole from Ward Hunt Island in Canada. They had dogs flown in halfway through the journey, and they reached the North Pole; apparently they were the 18th expedition to do so, according to the publication, Polarboken. The Mørdre brothers became the first Norwegians to have skied to the North and the South Poles, and the first to have been on both expeditions within less than a one-year interval. 1993 On June 9th, the Norwegian Parliament adopted a resolution to move the Norwegian Polar Institute from Oslo to Tromsø, and finally closed down the Oslo office, in 1998. • 1993 Canadian Richard Weber and Russian Mikhail Malakhov went from Ward Hunt Island, in Canada, to the North Pole; and then back. They became the first to have traveled on the ice both ways, assuming that Cook and Peary did not reach the polar point. 1993 A resolution was passed to establish UNIS, the University Studies on Svalbard, and it began operations in Longyearbyen.

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1994 In March to April, Børge Ousland was the first person to go alone to the North Pole without outside support. He started at Severnaya Zemlya and was picked up from the North Pole by plane. 2000 Rune Gjeldnes and Torry Larsen were the first to ski straight across the Arctic Ocean, without receiving any additional provisions along the way. They left from Severnaya Zemlya north of Siberia, and went to Ward Hunt Island in Canada. 2001 Børge Ousland was the first to cross the Arctic Ocean alone. He left from Cape Artisjeskij, a northern point in the archipelago of Severnaya Zemlya north of Siberia. It took him 82 days to reach Ward Hunt Island, Canada. He gave up on the ‘unsupported’ conditions when he had to switch sleds after only a few days. 2006 Børge Ousland and South African Mike Horn were the first to go to the North Pole in the middle of the winter. They reached the polar point on March 23rd after having left Cape Artisjeskij on Severnaya Zemlya on January 23rd.


• Late 18th Vessels from several nations explore around the unknown conticentury nent in the south, and seal hunting began on the islands around the Antarctic. • 1820 Probably the first sighting of land in Antarctica. The British Williams exploration party led by Captain William Smith discovered the northwest coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The Russian Vostok and Mirnyy expedition led by Thaddeus Thadevich Bellingshausen sighted parts of the continental coast (Dronning Maud Land) without recognizing what they had seen. They discovered Peter I Island in January of 1821. • 1841 James Clark Ross sailed with the Erebus and the Terror through the ice in the Ross Sea, and mapped 900 kilometres of the coast. He discovered Ross Island and Mount Erebus. 1892–93 Financed by Chr. Christensen from Sandefjord, C. A. Larsen sailed

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the Jason in search of new whaling grounds. The first fossils in Antarctica were discovered on Seymour Island, and the eastern part of the Antarctic Peninsula was explored to 68° 10’ S. Large stocks of whale were reported in the Antarctic and near South Georgia, and this discovery paved the way for the large-scale whaling industry and activity in the south. 1893–94 C. A. Larsen embarked on a new exploration trip with the Jason, financed by Chr. Christensen. 1893–95 Svend Foyn of Tønsberg sponsored a combined whale-hunting and exploratory expedition to the Ross Sea, during which Henrik Bull, Carsten Borchgrevink, Leonard Kristensen and five others landed on Possession Island near Victoria Land and on Cape Adare on Januray 24th, 1895. For a long time this was claimed to be the first landing on the Antarctic continent, but it probably was the fourth. The rock and lichen they collected indicated that vegetation could survive in Antarctica. • 1895 The Sixth International Geographical Congress meeting in London approved a resolution that scientific societies around the world should try to focus on the exploration of Antarctica. • 1895–1922 The so-called ‘heroic age’ which brought forth legendary polar heroes and their great accomplishments, such as: Robert F. Scott (1901–04 and 1910–13), Ernest Shackleton (1907–09 and 1914–16), Otto Nordenskjöld (1901–04), Erich von Drygalski (1901–03), Jean Charcot (1903–05), Wilhelm Filchner (1911–12), Douglas Mawson (1911–14), William Speirs Bruce (1902–04), and others, in addition to the Norwegians who are mentioned below. 1897–99 Roald Amundsen was first mate on the Belgian Antarctic expedition aboard the Belgica, led by Adrien de Gerlache. The ship was originally the Norwegian Patria; the crew included three Belgians and five Norwegians, and among them was 17-year-old Johan Koren. Aside from Amundsen, the officers were Belgian, and the expedition included scientists from Belgium, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.A. This was the first, though unplanned, expedition that wintered in Antarctica.

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1898–1900 Carsten Borchgrevink’s British Antarctic Expedition with the Colin Archer barque, the Pollux, which was re-christened the Southern Cross. The ship had a crew of 19, of which 18 were Norwegian, and the steward was a Swede. The ten-man wintering group that stayed on Cape Adare was comprised of Borchgrevink, three scientists from Tasmania and England, plus the following Norwegians: zoologist Nicolaj Hanson, medical doctor Herlof Kløvstad, scientific assistant Anton Fougner, and assistant Kolbein Ellefsen, as well as two Norwegian Sami: Ole Must and Per Savio. Hanson became ill and died during the winter stay, and became the first man to be buried in Antarctica. This expedition was the first planned wintering in Antarctica, and the first on land. The stay provided a lot of interesting scientific data and observations, not least that it was possible to stay the winter on such an inhospitable continent. En route home, the Bay of Whales (Hvalbukta) in the Ross Ice Shelf was discovered, which Amundsen later remembered. A short ski and dog sled trip inland on the ice shelf provided useful information for later expeditions. 1901–04 Nils Otto Gustav Nordenskjöld led the Swedish ‘South Pole expedition’ with Carl Anton Larsen as captain of the ship, the Antarctic. Half of the crew was Norwegian. Nordenskjöld stayed the winter with five others on Snow Hill on the Antarctic Peninsula. Meanwhile, the Antarctic spent the winter near Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia. The Antarctic did not manage to reach Snow Hill the next winter, and three men were set ashore at Hope Bay in order to march to Snow Hill. They did not manage the trip, and had to remain for the winter with minimal provisions at Hope Bay. The Antarctic was screwed down into the ice, and the crew had to stay the winter in a stone hut on Paulet Island. All three groups were saved by the Argentinean naval vessel Uruguay in November 1903. 1903 Adolf Amandus Andresen who had emigrated to Chile, began modern whaling in the south by harpooning a whale in the Magellan Strait. In 1905, he established the Magellan Whaling Society (Sociedad Ballenera de Magellanes), which lasted until 1914. 1904–05 C.A. Larsen established the Argentinean whaling company, called Compañia Argentina de Pesca, and set up a station in South Georgia at Grytvika. He took his family with him to the station. This

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marked the beginning of the modern Antarctic whaling industry, and the importance of South Georgia as the base for Norwegian whalers. 1905–06 A/S Ørnen, from Sandefjord and owned by Chr. Christensen, utilized the Admiralen, the first modern factory ship in the southern hunting grounds. The expedition hunted near the Falkland Islands and the South Shetland Islands. 1906–07 Adolf Amandus Andresen used Whalers Bay on Deception Island for the first time, as a base for a factory ship. He took his spouse with him. The company used the bay for ten years, and Whalers Bay became the most important factory ship harbour in the area. 1908–09 The French-Norwegian whaling and elephant seal-hunting station was established in Port Jeanne d’Arc on Îles Kerguelen, in the Southern Ocean. The buildings were prefabricated and transported there from Norway. The station was used for only a few years. 1910–12 Roald Amundsen’s South Pole expedition. The expedition traveled on the Fram and constructed its base, Framheim, on the Ross Ice Shelf at the Bay of Whales. The Fram sailed as far south as possible in the bay, and thus became the ship which had sailed farthest north and south of any in the world. Amundsen, Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel and Oscar Wisting were the first to reach the South Pole, on December 14th, 1911; and they beat Robert Scott’s expedition by one month. The Scott expedition members died on their return trip. Kristian Prestrud and Hjalmar Johansen explored King Edward VII’s Land. Under the command of Captain Thorvald Nilsen, the Fram conducted oceanographic studies in the South Atlantic Ocean. 1910–13 Twenty-one-year-old Tryggve Gran was a member of Robert Scott’s Antarctic expedition as a skiing expert. He was among the group that discovered the bodies of Scott, Bowers and Wilson in November 1912. 1912–13 A/S Hektor from Tønsberg established a land station in Whalers Bay on Deception Island. The buildings were prefabricated and transported from Norway. The station was operative every season until 1931.

expeditions and events


1913 The Norwegian Church in Grytvika, South Georgia, was consecrated. 1922 Petter Sørlie got a Norwegian patent for the slip stern haul, which was used to pull whales aboard factory ships. The equipment was first utilized in the Antarctic aboard Lancing in 1925–26. The system dramatically increased catch and production figures. 1926–27 Lars Christensen’s scientific expedition with Odd I, led by Eyvind Tofte, was sent to Peter I Island, but was unable to land. 1927–28 Financed by Lars Christensen, the first Norvegia expedition was undertaken. Norway annexed Bouvet Island on December 1st, 1927, which was officially ratified by royal Resolution on January 23rd, 1928. The island was declared to be under Norwegian sovereignty on February 27th, 1930. Oceanographer Haakon Mosby was the scientific leader of the expedition, and geologist Olaf Holtedahl was among the participants. The expedition conducted biological, geological, oceanographic and cartographic data collection and research. In cooperation with the whaling fleet, Holtedahl and Ole Olstad were able to conduct geological and zoological observations on the South Shetland Islands and the Palmer Peninsula. 1928–29 The second Norvegia expedition led by Captain Nils Larsen and Dr. Ole Olstad visited Bouvet Island and carried out the first landing on Peter I Island on February 2nd, 1929. The island was annexed by Norway, and this was ratified by Royal Resolution on May 1st. 1928–29 The third Norvegia expedition was led by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, with Captain Nils Larsen. The expedition used planes, piloted by Riiser-Larsen and Finn Lützow-Holm, for reconnaissance and mapping. Bouvet Island was photographed from the air, and the west coast of Enderby Land on the Antarctic continent was mapped from the air. Riiser-Larsen and Lützow-Holm landed on a small island off Cape Ann, and annexed that part of the continent in the name of Norway. In 1933, that was defined as within the Australian sector claim, and Norway made no official protests. 1929 Bernt Balchen was first pilot on Richard Byrd’s Antarctic expedition, which on November 29th became the first to fly over the South

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Pole. Balchen became an American citizen in 1931. (In 1949, he flew the first transpolar flight from Alaska, over the North Pole to Norway. Thus, he became the first person in the world to have flown over both poles.) 1930–31 The Norvegia made its fourth and last expedition to Antarctica. Nils Larsen was again captain, and the first part of the expedition was led by Gunnar Isachsen, the second by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen. They circumnavigated the continent on the first part of the expedition. Reconnaissance flights were undertaken under Riiser-Larsen’s command. Princess Ragnhild Coast was annexed by Norway on February 17th, 1931, and the area became part of the Dronning Maud Land annexation, which was approved by Parliament in 1939. 1930–31 This was the best whaling season ever in the Antarctic, in terms of total whale oil production. The Norwegian whaling fleet was responsible for the discovery of many new territories and for mapping activity. 1931–32 Most of the world whaling fleet was laid up because of overproduction and the Great Depression. The majority of the land stations in and around Antarctica were closed for good, and quota systems were established. 1932–33 Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen led his own expedition to the Antarctic, which was to have traveled by dogsled along the coast from Enderby Land to the Weddell Sea. Participants were Hallvard Devold and Olav Kjelbotn. They were landed on the ice near land, but the ice broke up during the course of the first night; and the men drifted away on one ice floe, while the dogs floated off on another. RiiserLarsen was able to use the short-wave radio to call the whaling fleet for assistance, and the men and four dogs were rescued. 1933–34 Lars Christensen, aboard the Thorshavn, with Captain Klarius Mikkelsen, circumnavigated the Antarctic and conducted mapping reconnaissance across the continent by airplane. Christensen sent several research and airplane mapping expeditions to Antarctica in the 1930’s. 1935 On February 20th, whaling Captain Klarius Mikkelsen aboard Thorshavn, landed on Ingrid Christensen Land, which is located in

expeditions and events


today’s Australian sector claim. Christensen’s wife, Caroline, was on the trip and became the first woman to land on the Antarctic continent itself. 1939 On January 14th, Dronning Maud Land was annexed by Norway, just before a German expedition arrived in the area. 1947–48 The Norwegian Whaling Companys’ Association sent a scientific expedition to Antarctica with the Brategg, to several areas including Peter I Island and Deception Island. Captain Nils Larsen and scientific leader Holger Holgersen led the trip, which conducted oceanographic and geological exploration and zoological studies. 1947–48 Finn Rønne, who had became an American citizen, led his own scientific expedition to the Antarctic Peninsula. His wife Edith (Jackie) and Jennie Darlington became the first women to stay the winter in the Antarctic. 1949–52 The Norwegian Polar Institute organized the Norwegian-SwedishBritish Antarctic expedition, which was led by John Giæver, and which traveled aboard the Norsel. The expedition base, Maudheim, was established on Dronning Maud Land in February 1950. Fifteen men stayed the winter for the first season, and 17 wintered the next year; but three of these died in an accident at the end of February. The expedition conducted geophysical, geological and mapping work on dogsled forays and by plane. 1956–60 The Norwegian expedition Norway Station was conducted in connection with The International Geophysical Year (IGY). The expedition went to Dronning Maud Land, and was organized by the Norwegian Polar Institute and led by geodesist Sigurd Helle. The Polarbjørn and the Polarsirkel transported the participants and equipment south, and the Polarbjørn handled the return trip. For the first two years, 14 men stayed the winter, and the third year nine wintered at the station. Sigurd Helle, geophysicist Torgny Vinje, and John Snuggerud were the only participants to have stayed the entire time. The work was conducted in accordance with the IGY programme, and the team did a lot of mapping, on dog sled trips and by plane.

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• 1957–58 The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was held from July 1st, 1957 to December 31st, 1958. This was a worldwide cooperative programme in which 66 nations participated. Twelve nations established stations in the Antarctic and on the sub-Antarctic islands. This marked a watershed in Antarctic history because national and international research programs with permanent bases, modern equipment and transportation dominated the arena. International cooperation led to development of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, led by Vivien Fuchs and Sir Edmund Hillary, crossed the entire continent. • 1958 The Special Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) was established, and Norway became a participant. 1959 The Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., on December 1st, and Norway was one of the twelve signatories. The treaty is valid for the region south of 60° S, and does not take a standpoint on territorial claims. At the same time, the treaty guarantees free access for scientific activities, no military activity except as logistics in support of science, and a free flow of information regarding these activities. The treaty went into effect on June 23rd, 1961. • 1965 Swede Lars-Eric Lindblad started the cruise business to the Antarctic Peninsula. 1967–68 This was the last season of operations for Kosmos IV, the largest Norwegian whaling factory. • 1980 The British Trans-Globe Expedition, led by Sir Ranulph Fiennes, crossed the continent by snow scooter, going from Dronning Maud Land to Ross Island. • 1985–86 British Robert Swan and two others followed in Scott’s footsteps, on his route to the South Pole on foot and pulling sleds. 1986–87 Monica Kristensen led a dog sled expedition to follow Amundsen’s route to the South Pole. The expedition was transported to and from the Antarctic aboard the Aurora, while provisions and depots were flown in from New Zealand. The four participants, including a British glaciologist and two Danish dog sleders, had to turn around at 85° 59’ S.

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1989–90 The summer base, Troll, was established at Jutulsessen in Dronning Maud Land. Scientific work was conducted in Dronning Maud Land and on South Georgia. 1990–91 Logistic cooperation with Sweden and Finland initiated in 1990 ensured greater continuity in regular Norwegian Antarctic Research Expeditions (NARE). Each country in turn was responsible for an annual Nordic expedition. 1990–91 Ralph Høibakk, Herman Mehren, Simen and Sjur Mørdre went by dog sled from Berkner Island in the southern part of the Weddel Sea, to the South Pole. Photographer Hallgrim Ødegaard joined the trip along the way. The Mørdre brothers and Ødegaard continued without dogs to McMurdo. 1992–93 The Nordic Antarctic expedition, with over 100 participants, coordinated by the Norwegians, traveled on the Polarbjørn and the Lance, to Dronning Maud Land. The ornithological base, Tor, was established at Svarthamaren. 1993–94 Erling Kagge was the first person to reach the South Pole alone. He started from Berkner Island in the southern part of the Weddel Sea on November 18th, and reached the South Pole on January 7th, 1994, having completed the journey without outside support. 1993–94 Monica Kristensen led her third expedition (prior expeditions were in 1986–87 and in 1991–92) in order, among other things, to find Amundsen’s tent from his South Pole expedition. The participants, who were to drive to the South Pole by snow scooter, encountered an expanse of fissures. In a serious accident, two participants fell into cracks in the glaciers. One was rescued six hours later, while Jostein Helgestad could not be saved. The expedition was halted, and the survivors had to be saved by a rescue team sent from New Zealand, the U.S.A., and the company, Adventure Network International. 1994 Liv Arnesen was the first woman to ski alone to the South Pole. She started at Hercules Inlet at the southern end of the Weddel Sea on November 5th, and reached the South Pole on December 24th, without having received supplies along the way. She was flown out.

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1994 Cato Zahl Pedersen, skiing together with Harald Hauge and Lars Ebbesen, became the first handicapped person (one entire arm and a lower arm had been amputated) to ski to the South Pole. They left Berkner Island on November 4th, and reached the South Pole on December 27th, without having had provisions supplied along the way. They were flown out. 1996–97 Børge Ousland was the first person to cross the entire Antarctic without outside assistance. He skied 2,845 kilometres, leaving from Berkner Island on November 15th, and arriving at Scott Base in McMurdo on January 17th. 2000–01 Rolf Bae and Eirik Sønneland stayed the winter with two others at the Norwegian Troll station, before they started out on the longest, unsupported ski trip to that time. It was 3,800 kilometres long, from the coast of Dronning Maud Land, across the South Pole, to McMurdo; and the journey took 105 days. 2005 The Norwegian research base, Troll, was expanded and converted into a year-round base. It was inaugurated by Queen Sonja on February 12th. A 3,000-meter air strip on the blue ice nearby was officially opened on the same day. 2005–06 Rune Gjeldnes skied alone and without outside assistance for 4,808 kilometers from Novolazarevskaja to Terra Nova Bay. The trip, from November 6th to February 3rd, took 90 days.


The pioneers

The lodya is a Russian river and coastal vessel. The term is also used to describe sailing vessels that were used in the Pomor Trade in Northern Norway until World War I. A roadstead is a protected harbour-like area. Pomors refers to Russians who lived in the White Sea area, and who were known as skillful fishermen and hunters. The term comes from the Russian word pomorye, ‘the land beside the sea’; Pomors means ‘coast-dwellers’. Matka is the old Pomor name for Novaya Zemlya. Matka Strait is the same as the Matthew Strait, the term which is sometimes mentioned in English sources. An iceblink is a luminosity in the sky, near the horizon, caused by the reflection of light from an expanse of ice. Aurora is a luminous atmospheric phenomenon, now considered to be of electrical character, occurring in the vicinity of the earth’s northern or southern magnetic pole. It is visible at times, by night, over more or less of the adjoining hemisphere. In popular terms it is called the Northern or Southern Lights. A serac is a pointed mass or pinnacle of ice left standing among the crevasses of a glacier. A dragstert in Norwegian is a kind of pulling hook often used on hunting expeditions in the ice. A seal pickaxe was the most important implement for a seal hunter. It was five feet long, with a long spike on one end, and a short hammer on the other. It was useful when jumping from ice floe to ice floe, but was mainly used for killing seal pups by smashing the spike into the pup’s head.

s o m e b ac kg ro u n d i n f o r m at i o n a n d t e r m s


Nunataks are mountain tops and bedrock knobs that rose above the surrounding glaciated area.

The heroes

A hummock is a low ridge or bump in an ice field.

The entrepreneurs

A flenser’s job was to cut up an animal, such as a whale, and take out the ‘valuable’ blubber.

The explorers

Dead reckoning is used in navigation, often at sea (though it was also used on land). Generally, a position is calculated by using compass readings and distance traveled, instead of relying on celestial observation. It is used, for example in fog or bad weather. Duraluminium or duralumin is the name for a number of heat-treatable wrought aluminum alloys containing copper and other elements. These are comparable to mild steel in strength and hardness, but are much lighter. They were first produced in Germany.

Playing with the big boys

A radiosonde is a small package of meteorological instruments, carried through the atmosphere by balloon or other means. It automatically transmits measurements of conditions at various heights by radio.

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CONTRIBUTIONS The authors and their contributions This book is a condensed and edited version of the three-volume work: Norwegian Polar History (Norsk polarhistorie). These three volumes consist of the following contributions: Volume I: The Expeditions A ‘polar nation’? By Einar-Arne Drivenes and Harald Dag Jølle The era of heroes Chapter 1: The enigmas of the ‘polar regions’. By Urban Wråkberg Chapter 2: Three giants among men. By Atle Næss Chapter 3: A matter of honour for our nation. By Narve Fulsås The flight Chapter 4: Amundsen and his aeronauts. By Roald Berg The memories Chapter 5: Racing in old tracks. By Matti Goksøyr Chapter 6: Polar heroes – memories and monuments. By Anne Eriksen Chapter 7: Expeditions and events. By Susan Barr Volume II: The Sciences Polar research Chapter 1: The mapmakers. By Geir Hestmark A polar power Chapter 2: Nansenism. By Robert Marc Friedman Chapter 3: Arctic imperialism. By Einar-Arne Drivenes Chapter 4: North Pole neighbors. By Harald Dag Jølle Polar cooperation Chapter 5: Playing with the big boys. By Robert Marc Friedman Chapter 6: Global health as viewed from the poles. By Dag O. Hessen Volume III: The Wealth Into the ice Chapter 1: The first Arctic town. By Thor B. Arlov Chapter 2: The Arctic Ocean is there to harvest. By Jens Petter Nielsen There for the taking Chapter 3: Mining communities in the Arctic. By Bjørg Evjen Chapter 4: The brave, free life in the wilderness. By Marit Anne Hauan



Chapter 5: Streets of gold. By Åsa Elstad Chapter 6: The first Norwegian oil era. By Åsa Elstad New boundaries Chapter 7: A greedy hunting nation? By Åsa Elstad and Bjørn-Petter Finstad Chapter 8: Coal mining and the Cold War. By Thor B. Arlov and Alf Håkon Hoel Chapter 9: An Arctic fishing superpower. By Bjørn-Petter Finstad and Alf Håkon Hoel Chapter 10: Polar tourism. By Åsa Elstad This condensed version incorporates the original contributions as follows: Chapter 1: The pioneers is based on Jens Petter Nielsen’s ‘The Arctic Ocean is there to harvest’ and Atle Næss’ ‘Three giants among men’. Some segments also draw upon Thor B. Arlov’s ‘The first Arctic town’ and Geir Hestmark’s ‘The mapmakers’. Chapter 2: The heroes is based on Urban Wråkberg’s ‘The enigmas of the “polar regions”’, Atle Næss’ ‘Three giants among men’, and Narve Fulsås’ ‘A matter of honour for our nation’. Chapter 3: The entrepreneurs is based on Åsa Elstad’s ’Streets of gold’, Marit Anne Hauan’s ‘The brave, free life in the wilderness’, Bjørg Evjen’s ‘Mining communities in the Arctic’, and Åsa Elstad’s ‘The first Norwegian oil era’. Chapter 4: The explorers is based on Robert Marc Friedmann’s ‘Nansenism’, Atle Næss’ ‘Three giants among men’, Harald Dag Jølle’s ‘North Pole neighbors’, Narve Fulsås’ ‘A matter of honour for our nation’, and Roald Berg’s ‘Amundsen and his aeronauts’. Some passages are drawn from Geir Hestmark’s ‘The mapmakers’. Chapter 5: The conquerors is based on Einar-Arne Drivenes’ ‘Arctic imperialism’. Chapter 6: Playing with the big boys is based on Robert Marc Friedmann’s chapter of the same title and Dag O. Hessen’s ‘Global health as viewed from the poles’. Chapter 7: A greedy hunting nation? is based on Åsa Elstad and Bjørn-Petter Finstad’s chapter of the same title. Chapter 8: New frontiers, new borders is based on Thor B. Arlov and Alf Håkon Hoel’s ‘Coalmining and the Cold War’ and Bjørn-Petter Finstad and Alf Håkon Hoel’s ‘An arctic fishing superpower’. Chapter 9: Memories is based on Matti Goksøyr’s ‘Racing in old tracks’ and Anne Eriksen’s ‘Polar heroes – memories and monuments’. Chapter 10: Expeditions and events is based on Susan Barr’s contribution with the same title.

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Adventfjord 147, 148 Ahlmann, Hans Wilhelmson 321–324, 336 Alaska 74, 81 Albert, Prince of Monaco 147 Allen, James van 340, 352 Alps 36, 57–58 Ameralik Fjord 52, 55 Amund Ringnes Land 208 Amundsen, Leon 248, 259 Amundsen, Roald 61, 117, 201, 207–231, 240–279, 286, 452–458, 478 Anderssen-Rysst, Torgeir 277 Andreassen, Alf 130 Andrée, Salomon August 102 Antarctic Ocean 175, 176, 180, 376–383 Antarctica 68, 70–71, 193, 211–213, 292, 307–308, 328–330, 337, 342–359, 369–371, 463 Archangel 14, 35 Archer, Colin 77, 114 Arendal 15 Arild, Ferdinand 272–273 Arnesen, Liv 463, 470–471, 472 Arnesen, Odd 279, 456 Astrup, Eivind 79, 85, 236, 238–241, 243, 253 Austfjordneset 141 Australia 64, 328, 347 Axel Heiberg Land 208 Baden-Powell, Sir George 114 Balchen, Bernt 273, 326 Balto, Samuel J. 43, 47, 49, 233

Bancroft, Ann 462, 470 Barents Sea 8, 366, 421, 426, 429, 433, 435–444, 447, 477–479 Barentsburg 148, 154, 158, 164, 344, 422, 426 Barentsz, Willem 14, 281 Baronen, Anders 233 Baronen, Lars 233 Barrow, John 60 Bear Island 8, 13–15, 17–18, 20, 30, 37, 140, 147, 156, 158, 167, 279, 303, 324, 343–344, 366–367, 411, 435 Bellsund 283, 384 Belyy Ostrov 31 Bennet, Steven 14 Bennett, Floyd 272–273 Bergen 15, 138, 204, 291, 307, 369 Bering Sea 67 Bering Strait 36, 71, 73, 74, 76, 81, 209 Berkner, Lloyd 340–343 Beutlich, Captain 150 Birkeland, Kristian 35, 248 Bjaaland, Olav 210, 217, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 227–230, 478 Bjerknes, Wilhelm 203–204, 251, 254, 321 Bjørnes, Georg 141, 143 Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne 107, 112, 453 Blessing, Henrik Greve 82, 99 Blåhuken 418 Bohemanneset 148 Bomann-Larsen, Tor 453, 456–458 Bouvet Island 178, 180, 182, 343–344 Braastad, Johan 300



Braganzavågen 149 Brandal, Peter 123 Brandal, Ruben 131 Breii, E. 37 Brooks Range 275 Bruce, William Speirs 313–314 Brundtland, Gro Harlem 467 Brækmo, Sivert 138 Brøgger, Waldemar Christopher 75, 111, 195–198, 453 Bugge, Alexander 314 Byrd, Richard E. 272–273, 275 Byron, Lord 58 Cagni, Lieutenant 65 Cape Artichesky 478 Cape Chelyuskin 80, 82, 251 Cape Farewell 43, 55 Cape Fligely 88 Cape Horn 212 Cape Linné 344, 348 Cape Mitra 274, 281 Cape Norvegia 330 Cape Thordsen 140 Carlsen, Elling 23, 30–32, 35 Castberg, Captain 37 Castberg, Frede 300 Cecioni, Natale 270 Christensen, Chr. 172 Christensen, I.E. 307 Christensen, Lars 183, 346, 389 Christiania (Kristiania, Oslo) 55, 65, 106–107, 114, 149, 152, 204, 231, 246, 277, 283, 478 Christianshaab 46 Christophersen, Don Pedro 215, 223 Coles Bay 148 Conway, Martin 313 Cook, Frederick 211, 236 Cook, James 64, 172 Crocker Land 259 Dahl, Odd 255 Danish Island 100, 102 Danmarkhamna 297 Davies, Brian 401, 403 Davis Strait 328 De Long, George W. 73, 74 Denmark Strait 390, 398



Devil’s Glacier 225, 229 Devold, Hallvard 296, 297, 298, 300, 302, 206, 310 Dickson, Oscar 61, 198 Dieset (Resvoll-Holmsen), Hanna Marie 283 Dietrichson, Leif Ragnar 259, 260 Dietrichson, Oluf Christian 47 Eastern Ice Fields 20, 29, 31–33, 34, 122, 123 Ebbesen, Lars 471, 472 Edge Island 18 Edlund, Erik 61 Eielson, Ben 277 Eilertsen, Bernhard 188 Eilertsen, Åse 188 Eisenhower, Dwight D. 341, 353 Ekman, Vagn Walfrid 203–204 Ekström, Bertil 331, 334 Ella Lake 367 Ellef Ringnes Land 208 Ellesmere Island 73, 210, 462, 466 Ellsworth, Lincoln 259–260, 262, 264–273, 278 Elton, Charles 366 Engan, Erling 417 Erik Raude’s Land 298, 300, 303 Eriksen, Alfred 247 Eriksen, Ole 158, 161, 164 Esmarch, August Wilhelm Stiernstedt 303 Essen, Reinhold von 337 Etienne, Jean-Louis 462 Eva-Liv Island 97 Everest, Robert 17 Faeroe Islands 432, 441, 444, 447, 448 Fahlgren, Erik 13 Farsund 15 Fiennes, Sir Ranulph 463, 465–469, 473–474 Filchner, Wilhelm 71 Finckenhagen, O.I. 31 Finnmark 8, 13–15, 17, 18, 20, 33, 324, 410 Foyn, Svend 20–23, 36 Franklin, Sir John 7, 60, 61 Franklin, Sir John 7, 60–61 Franz Joseph Land 29, 61, 65, 88, 91, 98, 102, 105, 220

Frederik VIII 303 Frydenlund, Knut 403 Fuchs, Vivien 463 Fuglefjell 143, 145 Funchal 212 Færingehavn 431, 432 Gamél, August 108 George III 172 Gerhardsen, Einar 323, 476 Giæver, John 308, 329, 333 Gjelsvik, Tore 359–364, 372 Gjertsen, Captain 176 Gjøahavn 240 Godthaab (Nuuk) 47, 52, 53, 55 Godthul 174 Goebbels, Joseph 307 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang 58 Gorbachev, Michail 427 Gottwaldt, Birger 270, 274 Gran, Trygve 232, 242, 258 Greely, Adolphus 65, 73–78, 105 Greenland 8, 40–55, 64, 73–74, 108, 110–114, 140, 141, 206–208, 211, 217, 231, 233–240, 292–295, 296–307, 308–310, 431–435, 443,458–465 Greenland Strait 122, 125, 130 Grefstad, Richard 414 Greve, Tim 453, 458 Grumant 17, 148, 426 Grytvika 171, 172, 175, 181, 189, 193, 377, 378 Grønfjorden 138, 282 Gråhuken 29 Gulf of St. Lawrence 125 Haakon VII 209, 275, 303 Haakon VII Plateau 231 Hagerup, Johan 139, 142 Hague, The 299, 302–305, 356, 431, 443, 446 Hall, Charles Francis 61 Hallgren, Stig Eugen 334 Hambro, Carl Joachim 291, 293, 294, 303, 305, 451 Hammer, Håkon 256, 258, 259, 260 Hammerfest 13, 17–21, 23, 26, 28, 30–33, 138, 149

Hamre, I.M. 147 Hamsun, Knut 106, 116 Hansen, Oluf 177 Hanssen, Helmer 209, 215–221, 228–229, 250, 254 Hansteen, Christopher 40 Harang, Leiv 356 Harloff, Lillemor 321 Hassel, Sverre 208–210, 217–221, 224–228 Hauan, Johan 23 Hauge, Odd Harald 471, 472 Havøysund 436 Heiberg, Axel 198, 208 Heiberg, Gustav 342, 346, 348, 354, 355 Heine, Heinrich 58 Helgeby, Carsten 403 Helland, Amund 42 Helland-Hansen, Bjørn 204, 251, 291, 321 Hellstad, Captain 37 Hendriksen, Peder 84, 208 Heo, Young Who 466 Hillary, Sir Edmund 463 Hinlopen Strait 30 Hiorthamn 167 Hjort, Johan 204 Hobart 230 Hoel, Adolf 281–287, 289, 291–295, 297–315, 320 Holler, Kjell 417 Holm, Andreas 140 Holmsen, Gunnar 282, 283 Holt, Kåre 457 Hopen 20, 422, 435, 437 Horgen, Emil 270, 274 Horn, Gunnar 294, 478 Horn, Mike 478 Hornsund 141, 143, 145, 146 Hudson, Henry 14 Huntford, Roland 244, 458 Husvik Harbour 174, 378 Hvalbukta 211, 213–215, 220 Hyttevika 143 Iceland 20, 21, 29, 36, 313, 323, 340, 395, 427, 432, 441, 443, 445, 448 Ingebrigtsen, Morten 182 Isachsen, Gunnar 182, 210, 277, 281, 282–283, 285, 289, 291, 313–315 Isaksen, Isak Nils 39



Isbjørnhamn 143, 145 Isfjorden 29, 412 Iversen, Thor 433 Jackson, Frederick 105, 111 Jacobsen, Guttorm 131 Jahre, Anders 192, 389 Jakobsen, Guttorm 330, 339 Jan Mayen 20, 23–24, 29–30, 37, 42, 140, 340, 343, 430, 433, 443 Jarlsberg, Fredrik Wedel 278, 288 Johannesen, Edvard J. 71 Johannesen, Søren 36 Johansen, Asle T. 462 Johansen, Fredrik Hjalmar 77, 94–106, 210, 212, 217, 220, 230, 245, 270 Jonasen, Jonas Schanche 300 Juell, Adolf 88 Kagge, Erling 465–467, 469, 473, 474, 479 Kalinin, Mikhail, 323 Kaminski, Marek 469 Kane, Elisha Kent 61 Kanin Nos 34 Kanin Peninsula 17 Kara Sea 19, 31, 35, 36, 71 Keilhau, Balthazar 40 Keltie, J. Scott 313 Khabarovo 79, 250 King William Land 61 Kiær, Johan Aschehoug 285, 286 Knox Coast 347, 349 Knudsen, Gunnar 150, 248 Kofoed, Einar 433 Koht, Halvdan 307 Kola Peninsula 34, 421, 425, 426 Kolstad, Peder 300 Kongsfjord 123, 147, 149, 272, 371 Konow, Wollert 247 Konyukhov, Fyodor 466 Kosygin, Alexey 421 Kotzebue Bay 275 Krarup Nielsen, Aage 186 Kristensen, Monica 463, 469–470, 478 Kristiansand 15, 106, 114, 212 Kristiansen, Kristian Trana 43, 47, 48, 51, 76 Kruse, Just. P.C. 170 Kyrö, Johannes Person 28



Lamont, James 147 Lange, Halvard 321, 325, 356, 421 Laptev Sea 80 Larsen, Carl Anton 36, 67, 171, 172, 175–177 Larsen, Erling 192 Leith Harbour 174, 188, 192, 378 Leiv Erikson 478 Lena Delta 74 Leningrad 323 Lever, William 175 Liestøl, Olav 340 Liljequist, Gösta 274 Lindberg, Odd F. 403–406 Lindboe, Asbjørn 300 Lindqvist, Gustav 145 Lindstrøm, Adolf Henrik 208, 209, 216–220, 230, 241 Linné, Carl von 40 Lockwood, Lieutenant 73, 88, 105 Longyear Valley 414 Longyear, John Munro 148, 150 Longyearbyen 147, 148, 149, 150, 162, 163, 164, 165, 170, 171, 289, 370, 410, 412, 413, 414, 415, 421–425, 429 Lovén, Sven 36, 61 Lund, Anton 209 Lund, Julius Fredrik Macody 283–284 Lykke, Ivar 275 Lützow-Holm, Finn 277–278 Lønø, Odd 144 Mack, Arild 171, 181 Mack, Fritz 36, 37 Madeira 212 Magill, Robert N. 342, 346 Malmberg, Finn 269 Malthus, Robert 366 Marie Byrd Land 336 Markham, Albert 65 Markham, Sir Clemens 114 Marstrander, Carl 296, 300, 302 Marstrander, Fredrik 300, 303 Maske, Julie 463 Masuda, Monica 463 Matthew Straits (Matochkin Shar) 31 Maudheim 326, 331 McClintock, Leopold 60 McMurdo 357, 467, 469

Melbu 435 Melsom, Jacob 36 Mezen 18 Midbøe, Finn Backer 415 Mikkelsen, Anders 20 Mikkelsen, Peder 20 Mo i Rana 417 Mohn, Henrik 37–39, 74, 286, 313, 314 Molotov, Vjatsjeslav 323, 324, 410, 411, 421 Moncrieff, George 385 Montesquieu, Charles 18 Mossin, Katinka 463 Mowinckel, Johan Ludvig 293, 294, 303, 305, 451 Munk, Walther 325 Mussolini, Benito 259, 268, 278 Myggbukta 297, 302, 304, 310 Myhre, Svein 277–278 Märtha Louise 478 Nansen, Egil 478 Nansen, Eva 82 Nansen, Fridtjof 7, 9, 24, 43–55, 61, 64–65, 73–117, 195–210, 217, 219, 220, 223, 230–253, 255, 277–278, 285, 311, 324, 451–466, 469, 476, 478 Nansen, Liv 82 Napoeon, emperor 59 Nathorst, Alfred 37 New Fortuna Bay 174 New Zealand 64, 175, 178, 213 Newfoundland 125, 127, 392, 394, 396, 398–399, 403, 432 Nicholas II 34 Nilsa, Henrik 266 Nilsen, Anton 140 Nilsen, Mikal 127 Nilsen, Nils 266 Nilsen, Thorvald 215 Nobel, Alfred 198 Nobile, Umberto 267–269, 274, 276, 277, 278, 295, 456 Nome, Alaska 253, 255, 275, 276 Nordahl, Bernhard 85 Nordaustlandet 30, 348, 460 Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik 29, 35, 37–39, 45, 61, 64, 70–71, 76, 195, 198, 233, 321 Norderval, Monrad 402

Norselbukta 334 North Gate 30 North Pole (magnetic) 209, 244 North Pole 9, 61, 71, 73–76, 81, 107, 211, 255, 260–264, 266–267, 270, 273–277, 346, 353, 369, 460–462, 465–469, 473–474 North Pole Basin 206 Northeast Passage 14, 39, 71, 76, 195, 253 Northern Ice Fields 29, 33, 125, 394 Northwest Passage 60, 61, 71, 208–209, 231, 240–241, 244–246, 253 Novaya Zemlya 14, 17, 19, 29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 71, 79 Nuuk (Godthaab) 47, 52, 53, 55 Ny-Ålesund 123, 147, 148, 150, 154, 162, 164, 166, 170, 171, 262, 263, 270, 271, 272, 275, 362, 371, 410, 412–415, 417,418 Nygaardsvold, Johan 307 Ob 35, 36, 367 Obdorsk 36 Oftedal, Lars 298 Olav Tryggvason 453 Olonkin, Gennadij 250 Olsen, Arne M 9 Olsen, Nils E. 140 Olsen, Trygve 436 Omdal, Oskar 255–256, 259, 264, 266, 269, 270, 274 Orheim, Olav 372 Orvin, Anders K. 298, 320, 325, 340, 359 Oscar II, king of Norway and Sweden 35 Ousland, Børge 465–469, 474, 478–479 Pajala 39 Parry, Sir William Edward 60, 65, 73 Paulaharju, Samuli 39 Payer, Julius 61, 71, 93, 98 Peary 45, 73, 79, 85, 211, 227, 236, 238, 264, 459, 460 Pedersen, Cato Zahl 471, 472 Pensgård, Anne Marte 463 Peter I Island 178, 343 Petermann Land 93–94 Petermann, August 61, 67, 70, 93 Petterson, Lars 84, 88 Plaisted, Ralph 460



Point Barrow 255, 256, 275 Prestrud, Kristian 217, 219, 220, 245 Prince Karl’s Forland 281, 313 Prince Olav Harbour 174 Prinsesse Astrid Coast 346, 347 Pyramiden 148, 154 Qasiguanguit 46 Queen Maud Land 180, 250, 307, 320, 323, 326, 330, 337, 343, 344, 346, 349, 351, 354–355, 358 Quennerstedt, August 37 Quisling, Vidkun 306, 308, 310 Ramm, Fredrik 269, 274 Randby, Geir 465–466 Rasmussen, Knud 239 Ratzel, Friedrich 310–311 Ravna, Ole N. 43, 47, 233 Reece, Alan 334, 336 Reese, Bjørn 458–459, 463 Riddervold, Hans 35 Rieber, Christian 402, 403 Riiser-Larsen, Hjalmar 178, 180, 259–266, 267, 269, 270, 272–278 Ringnes, Amund 208 Ringnes, Ellef 208 Rink, Heinrich 239–240 Robertson, Charles 138 Robin, Gordon 332, 336 Rogstad, Egil 332, 334 Rolfsen, Nordahl 75, 195, 453 Ronne Shelf 470 Roots, Frederick 333, 334 Ross Sea 71, 176, 177, 328, 336 Ross, James Clark 60, 64, 67 Ross, John 60 Rosseland, Svein 346 Russekeila 348 Ruud, Odd Ivar 141 Rydning, Engineer 161 Rygh, Per 303 Røkke, Kjell Inge 435 Rønne, Martin 250, 254 Salekhard 36 Sandar 180, 188 Sandefjord 21, 174, 180, 192, 193, 386 Sars, Michael 36, 204



Schumacher 349 Schytt, Valter 333, 334 Scoresby Sound 297 Scoresby, William 281 Scott, Robert 61, 211, 232, 242 Scott-Hansen, Sigurd 86, 88 Sea of Pechora 14 Sebulonsen, Ludvig 28 Senni, Count 277 Seven Islands 30, 88 Seward Peninsula 275 Shackleton Range 470 Shackleton, Ernest 193, 211, 217, 226, 227, 470 Shannon Island 297 Siberia 35, 39, 42, 79–81, 199, 251, 254 Sidorov, Michail 35–36 Silver Spring, Maryland 340 Simpson, Myrtle 463 Skancke, Ragnar 308 Skarbøvig Nils 431 Skeie, Jon 300 Skjerdal, Karl O. 417 Skjoldborg, Per 276 Smedal, Gustav 297, 298, 300, 302, 303, 305, 307, 308, 310 Smith-Jensen, Toralf 401 Snow White Field 429, 448 Solberg, Halvor 342–344, 354 South Cape 30 South Gate 30 South Georgia 171 South Orkney Islands 174 South Pole 68, 211, 215, 218–231, 456, 463, 467–474 Spitsbergen 8, 14, 17–19, 30–31, 36–37, 121, 126, 138, 140–141, 147–154, 158, 163, 272, 281–290, 313–314, 410, 433 St. Petersburg 34 Staib, Bjørn 458–462, 463, 473, 474 Stalin, Josef 323, 339 Stanley, Henry 236 Stauning, Th. 298 Staxrud, Arve 282, 285, 286 Steenstrup, Japetus 36 Steger, Will 462 Storegga 122 Storm, Gustav 314

Stromnes Harbour 174 Stroud, Mike 466 Strømme, Engineer 161 Stubberud, Jørgen 217, 219, 220 Sundbeck, Knut 250, 254 Sunnmøre 121–122, 125, 128, 137 Svalbard 15, 17–20, 28, 33, 37, 71, 138, 140–149, 152–166, 170, 260, 281, 287, 289, 291–295, 303, 311–315, 320, 324, 339–340, 342–343, 348, 358–361, 370–372, 410–430, 444–448 Svartisen 37 Svatoy Nos 34 Svea 148, 149, 154, 170, 410, 424 Svendsen, Alfred 146 Sverdrup Islands 80 Sverdrup, Einar 169, 170 Sverdrup, Harald Ulrik 321, 322, 324–326, 329, 333, 339, 341, 342, 344, 346–347, 349, 354 Sverdrup, Otto Neumann Knoph 42–56, 77–80, 84, 87, 89–90, 99–103, 106, 207–209, 244–245, 251–254, 258, 277, 359 Syse, Jan P. 466 Sæterdal, Anders 141, 145, 146 Sørensen, Jon 453–454 Sørensen, Marit 463 Sørlie, Petter 177 Sørsdal, Leif 389 Terre Adélie 328 Thommessen, Rolf 268, 277, 300 Thorseth, Ragnar 462 Thue, Klaus N. 140 Thule 460 Tobiesen, Jakop 29 Tobiesen, Sivert 29 Tordsson, Bjørn 474 Torell, Otto 36–37, 61 Torup, Sophus 78 Tromsø 18, 21, 23, 26, 28, 33, 127, 128–131, 147–150, 370, 392 Trondheim 15, 106, 114, 148 Uemura, Naomi 462 Urville, Dumont d’ 67, 328

Vaidaguba 122 Van Mijenfjorden 139, 142 Varangerfjord 34 Vardø 76, 78, 106, 116, 138 Vaygach 31 Veblen, Thorstein 117 Velkomstpynten 29 Verlegenhook 30 Vestfjord 34 Vik, Rolf 364, 366 Vinje, Torgny 340 Vogelhoek 281 Wainright 256 Weddell Sea 67, 71, 336, 347 Werenskiold, Erik 453 Western Ice Fields 20, 21, 23–24, 29, 37, 122, 126, 127, 130, 390, 395, 403 Weyprecht, Karl 61, 71 Whale Sound 236 White Sea, the 14, 17, 23, 24, 29, 31, 34, 122, 125–127, 130, 291, 290, 392 Wiesener, Peder 163 Wilander, Hjalmar 37 Wilczek, Count 61 Wilhelm II, emperor 106 Wilhelmsen, Werner 394, 295 Wilkes, Charles 67 Wilkins, Hubert 277 Wilson, Ove 333, 334 Wisting, Oscar 217, 219–221, 227–229, 250, 254–255, 269–270, 274–275, 456 Woldstad, Wanny 141, 143, 146 Yamal Peninsula 31, 39 Yenisey 35, 36, 39, 367 Yugor Strait 79, 250 Yugorskiy Shar 31 Zapffe, Fritz 262, 264, 272, 273 Zapffe, Peter Wessel 278 Zeppelin, Count Ferdinand von 267 Øritsland, Torgeir 402 Østby, Jan 456, 457 Øverland, Arnulf 256 Ålesund 122, 123, 128, 138 Aasheim, Stein P. 462, 466




Page 6: Photo: Pål Hermansen, Samfoto. Page 7: Photo: Gunnar Markussen, The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 10–11: Photo: Per Eide, Samfoto. Page 12: Öfver land och haf. Illustrerade reseskildringar från alla verdsdelar, Stockholm 1878–1879. Page 13: Photo: Gunnar Markussen, The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 16: Öfver land och haf. Illustrerade reseskildringar från alla verdsdelar, Stockholm 1878–1879. Page 19: Tromsø University Museum, University of Tromsø. Page 22: Fridtjof Nansen, Blant sel og bjørn. Min første Ishavs-ferd, Oslo 1924. Page 25: The Norwegian Maritime Museum, Oslo. Page 27: Photo: Mats Forsberg. Page 32: Die oesterreichische NordpolExpedition 1872–1874, München 1875. Page 38: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Page 41: Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, First volume, Kristiania 1876. Page 44: Aquarelle: Thorleif Holmboe 1889, The National Library of Norway. Page 47: Photo: Siems & Co, 1888, The National Library of Norway. Page 50: The Fram Museum, Oslo. Page 53: Aquarelle: Thorleif Holmboe in Paa ski over Grønland 1890, The


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National Library of Norway. Page 54. Drawing: Andreas Bloch in Paa ski over Grønland 1890, The National Library of Norway. Page 56: Photo: Olav Bjaaland, 1911, The National Library of Norway. Page 57: Photo: Gunnar Markussen, The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 63: The Fred Goldberg collection. Page 69: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Page 72: The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 75: Fridtjof Nansen 1861–1893. Ed. Waldemar C. Brøgger and Nordahl Rolfsen, København 1896. Page 77: The National Library of Norway. Page 83: Map: Fridtjof Nansen, Naturen, 1890. Page 86: Photo: Fridtjof Nansen, 1894, The National Library of Norway. Page 90, 95 and 101: Photo: Fridtjof Nansen, 1895, The National Library of Norway. Page 104: Drawing: Andreas Bloch, ca. 1897, The National Library of Norway. Page 109: Photo: Worm-Petersen, 1896, The Oslo City Museum. Page 113: Photo: Fridtjof Nansen, 1894, The National Library of Norway. Page 115: The Norwegian Canning Museum, Stavanger. Page 117: Postcard, ca. 1889, The National

Library of Norway. Page 118–119: Photo: Kjell Ove Storvik. Page 120: The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 121: Photo: Gunnar Markussen, The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 124: Photo: Torger Singelstad. Page 129 and 134: The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 137: Photo: Otto Sandnes. Tromsø University Museum, University of Tromsø. Page 139: Photo: Aksel Aker Koller, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 142: Photo: Stein P. Aasheim. Page 144: The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 151: Photo: Dalqvist. Tromsø University Museum, University of Tromsø. Page 156–157: Photo: Thor Iversen, The Thor Iversen Collection, Bergen. Page 160: The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 165: Photo: Birger Amundsen. Page 168: Photo: Sverre A. Børretzen, Aktuell, Scanpix. Page 173: Photo: Edward B. Binnie, The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 179: Photo: Bentze, The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 185: Photo: Switinbank, Royal Geographical Society, London. Page 190 and 191: The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 194: Photo: Anders Beer Wilse, 1924, The Norwegian Museum of Cultural History, Oslo. Page 195: Photo: Gunnar Markussen, The Polar Museum in Tromsø. Page 197: Photo: The National Museum, Stockholm. Page 200: In Northern Mists. Arctic exploration in early times. Vol II, Fridtjof Nansen. London 1911. Page 205: Map. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893–1896. Scientific results Vol III. Ed. Fridtjof Nansen, Christiania, London, New York, Bombay and Leipzig 1902. Page 210: The Fred Goldberg Collection.

Page 214 and 222: The National Library of Norway. Page 232: Photo: H.G. Ponting, 1911, Royal Geographical Society, London. Page 234: Photo: Roald Amundsen, The Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. Page 237: Drawing: Eivind Nilsen, ca. 1890, after a photo by Fridtjof Nansen, The National Library of Norway. Page 242: Photo: Roald Amundsen, The Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. Page 249: Painting: Eivind Engebretsen, 1921, Photo: Ann Christine Eek, The Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. Page 252: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, archive. Page 257: The National Library of Norway. Page 261: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, archive. Page 263: Photo: Paul Berge, 1925, The National Library of Norway. Page 265: Knudsens Fotosenter. Page 271: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, archive. Page 279: The National Library of Norway. Page 280: Photo: Adolf Hoel, 1907, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 281: The Norway Post Philatelic Services. Page 284: Photo: Adolf Hoel, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 290: The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 301: Photo: Thorolf Vogt, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 304: Photo: Anders K. Orvin, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 309: Private collection, Tom B. Jensen. Page 312: Map: Travaux topographiquea de l’expédition Isachsen 1909–1910, Gunnar Isachsen, Kristiania 1915. Page 315–316: Photo: Knut Bry. Page 318: Photo: Harald U. Sverdrup, 1951, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 319: The Norway Post Philatelic Services. Page 322: The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 332: Photo: Harald U. Sverdrup, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø.

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Page 335. Photo: Ove Wilson, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 338: Photo: Harald U. Sverdrup, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 345: Photo: Charles Switinbank, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 350: Photo: Torgny Vinje, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 352: The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 357: Photo: U.S. Navy, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 362: Photo: Ola Steine, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 365: Photo: Pål Hermansen. Page 368: Photo: Mikael West Hammer, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 371: Photo: Marzena Kaczmarska, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 373: Photo: Jan Gunnar Winther, The Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø. Page 374: Photo: Bentze, The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 375: Postcard: Christian Rieber. Page 378: Photo: Switinbank, Royal Geographical Society, London. Page 381: Photo: Ole Aanderud-Larsen, The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 384: Photo: Mielche, The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 389: Photo: Sverre A. Børretzen, Aktuell, Scanpix. Page 391: Photo: Otto Sandnes, Tromsø University Museum, University of Tromsø. Page 393: Knudsens Fotosenter. Page 397: Photo: Ketil Zachariassen. Page 404: Photo: Leif R. Jansson, FLT Pica, Scanpix. Page 407: Photo: Ketil Zachariassen. Page 408: Photo: Helge Sunde 1991, Samfoto. Page 409: Photo: Påål Hermansen, Samfoto. Page 413: Photo: Aage Storløkken, Aktuell, Scanpix. Page 416: Photo: Gunnar Iversen, Aktuell, Scanpix. Page 419: Photo: Aage Storløkken, Aktuell, Scanpix.


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Page 423: Photo: Sverre A. Børretzen, Aktuell, Scanpix. Page 425: Photo: Ketil Zachariassen. Page 428 and 434: Photo: Torfinn Kjærnet. Page 439: Photo: Ola Røe. Page 449: Photo: Kjell Karlsson, Samfoto. Page 450: Photo: Ketil Zachariassen. Page 451: The Norway Post Philatelic Services. Page 455: Photo: Ketil Zachariassen. Page 461: Photo: Bjørn Staib. Page 464: Photo: Stein P. Aasheim. Page 468: Photo: Børge Ousland. Page 472: Photo: Knut Bry. Page 476: Scanpix. Page 480: The Whaling Museum, Sandefjord. Page 481: The Fred Goldberg Collection.


Thor Bjørn Arlov (born in 1958), (in History), Associate Professor II, University Center in Svalbard; Senior Advisor, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). Susan Barr (born in 1946),, Advisor, Polar Issues, the Directorate for Cultural Heritage in Norway. Roald Berg (born in 1954),, Professor of History, University of Stavanger. Einar-Arne Drivenes (born in 1946), cand.philol., Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Tromsø. Harald Dag Jølle (born in 1971), cand.philol., University Research Fellow, Department of History, University of Tromsø. Åsa Elstad (born in 1956), dr. art. (in History), Curator with the Museum of the North. Anne Eriksen (born in 1958), dr.philos., Professor, Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Languages, University of Oslo. Bjørg Evjen (born in 1952), (in History), Research Fellow, Senter for Sámi Studies, University of Tromsø. Bjørn-Petter Finstad (born in 1964), (in History), Associate Professor, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø. Robert Marc Friedman (born in 1949), Ph.D., Professor of the History of Science, University of Oslo. Narve Fulsås (born in 1953), dr.philos., Professor, Department of History, University of Tromsø.

the authors


Matti Goksøyr (born in 1952), cand.polit., dr.scient., Professor of History, Norwegian School of Sports Sciences. Marit Anne Hauan (born in 1955), cand.philol., Associate Professor, Tromsø University Museum, University of Tromsø. Dag O. Hessen (born in 1956), dr.philos., Professor of Biology, University of Oslo. Geir Hestmark (born in 1958), dr.scient. and (in Philosophy), Professor of Biology, University of Oslo. Alf Håkon Hoel (born in 1959), cand.polit., Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Tromsø. Jens Petter Nielsen (born in 1949), cand.philol., Professor, Department of History, University of Tromsø. Atle Næss (born in 1949), cand.philol., author. Urban Wråkberg (born in 1956), M.Sc., Ph.D., Research Director, The Barents Institute, Kirkenes. Picture editor: Ketil Zachariassen (born in 1969), cand.philol., University Research Fellow, Department of History, University of Tromsø.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A great many people have contributed to the realisation of Into the Ice. Firstly, the editors would like to thank the authors for their major contributions. Secondly, we wish to express our gratitude for the positive contributions from our editorial advisory members. We are indebted to the Department of History at the University of Tromsø for its good working environment and the solid professional network it has provided. Finally, we wish to give special thanks to Elisabeth K. Akselvoll, Arve Andersen, Ann-Kristin Balto, Sigrun Høgetveit Berg, Narve Bjørgo, Vidar Bjørnsen, Erik Bjørnstad, Ida Blom, Dag I. Børresen, Olav Christensen, Pål Christensen, Lars Ivar Hansen, Mary Jones, Kari Myklebost, Einar Niemi, Bengt Flygel Nilsfors, Svein-Olaf Nilssen, Ane Ohrvik, Åge Olsen, Olav Orheim, Fred Inge Presteng, Anders Ringen, Jan Erik Ringstad, Erik Rudeng, Morten Ruud, Teemu Ryymin, Ole Anders Røberg, Johanne Raade, Jørn Øyrehagen Sunde, Øystein Sørensen, Hallvard Tjelmeland, Stein Tronstad, Helge Vold, Helge A. Wold, and André Zachariassen.

© Gyldendal Norsk Forlag AS 2006 Translated by Bruce Bawer, Deborah Dawkin, Joan S. Rongen and Erik Skuggevik The King’s Mirror (p. 6) is translated from Old Norse by Laurence Marcellus Larson, 1917 General graphic design and cover design: Kristin Berg Johnsen / ko b o lt Front cover photo: Fridtjof Nansen, 1894. Henrik Greve Blessing is on his way to taking algae tests. The polar exploration vessel, Fram, is in the background. The Norwegian National Library. Back cover photo: © Trym Ivar Bergsmo, 1999. Samfoto. Repro: RenessanseMedia A/S, Oslo 2006 Printed in Denmark Printed by Nørhaven, 2006 Paper: Arctic Volume 115g (1,12) Typeface: Adobe Garamond 11/13,5 pt og MetaPlus 9,2/13,5 pt ISBN-10: 82-05-36185-1 ISBN-13: 978-82-05-36185-0

This book has been published with support from: The University of Tromsø The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police Statoil The Norwegian Polar Institute GC Rieber Fondene

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.

Into the Ice – part 2  

Into the Ice is a revised edition of the three-volume Norwegian edition of ‘Norwegian Polar History’ (Norsk polarhistorie), published in 200...

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