POINT OF SIMPLICITY ISSUE#5 PINHOLE

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pinhole


COVER IMAGE BY VLADIMIR ŽIVKOVID “WINTER PINHOLE XX”

POINT OF SIMPLCITY ISSUE#5.PINHOLE NOVEMBER 2011 Teya Saveleva, editor in chief



4 POINT OF SIMPLICITY| EDITORIAL

PINHOLE POINT OF SIMPLICITY #5

I am pleased to present the fifth issue

nitely something to get into and ponder.

of “Point of Simplicity”, a free e-magazine

What exactly is pinhole photography?

about fine art photography.

Does it have any advantages at all?

This issue has taken a while to be completed, partly due to the rare subject it is dealing with – pinhole photography. As you may have noticed, pinhole photography as well as solar photography, lomography and other kinds of vintage photographic artistry are on the rise. In the

Browse through the wonderful works of Gabriel Guye, Vladimir Zivkovic, ShiKai Tseng and Marco Valdez Diaz to learn how a technique as primitive and, honestly, ancient can manifest itself nowadays through fresh artistic forms and bold designer projects.

era of state of the art digital solutions

Dear readers, we are sorry for the

handmade and imperfect is gaining more

long wait and hope the issue will repay

and more popularity in various areas from

your time of hopeless checking of our

design and fashion to humble house

page for updates. Have a good read! And

items. Generation Y and new iGen seem

don’t forget to send your feedback, ques-

to prefer good old things that have a soul

tions and suggestions to

to widely available, but beltline digital pieces.

simplicity.pdf@gmail.com.

Although this time the number of authors participating in the issue is few, the

Teya Saveleva

depth and breadth of the material is defi-

November 2011


5 POINT OF SIMPLICITY| EDITORIAL

Acknowledgements I would like to thank every member and watcher of Ode-to-simplicity group at DeviantArt for your patience and kind support! Thank you!


6 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE

www.epytafe.net http://epytafe.deviantart.com/


7 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE

Gabriel lives in a small town near Lausanne, Switzerland. He works in business aviation management for food and does photography for mind. Gabriel discovered lomography in 2007 and fell in love with its uncertain outcome once and for all. Lomography drove him to pinhole pictures. Gabriel uses mostly a ZeroImage wooden pinhole. Also known as Epytafe throughout DeviantArt, he says that pinhole is a kind of zen-photography. The long time exposure and the whole depth of field give this unique smooth and oneiric result, creates this dreamy universe he wants to explore more and more.


8 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


9 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


10 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


11 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


12 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


13 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


14 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


15 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


16 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


17 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


18 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


19 MAITRE OF PHOTOGRAPHY | GABRIEL GUYE


20 GUEST FEATURE | VLADIMIR ŽIVKOVID

www.artz.tk http://oriontrail.deviantart.com/


21 GUEST FEATURE | VLADIMIR ŽIVKOVID

Vladimir Zivkovic is 27 year old amateur photographer from Osijek, Croatia. He took up photography 11 years ago, and he generally uses a wide array of digital SLR, analog SLR and pinhole cameras. Vladimir recollects that as a teenager, Ihe as fascinated with astronomy, especially with astrophotographs, so he got himself a nice old SLR camera for capturing night sky and star trails. That's how Vladimir fell in love with long exposure. After using only a digital camera for a few years, Vladimir has rediscovered film. Now he enjoys pinhole photography the best. He loves making DIY-cameras, developing black and white 120 roll films by himself. Vladimir says that film has a soul, every frame on film is like little touchable piece of art! Since Vladimir does not travel a lot, most of his works are taken in local towns and beautiful natural retreats. But we do not mind as long as his camera captures the romantic views of Croatia!


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PS : Dear Vladimir, thank you very much for joining us! VZ : It's an honor and a pleasure to be a part of your magazine! PS: Vladimir, the red thread of today's talk is pinhole photography. This oldschool photography method is gaining more and more popularity these days (again). Could you please enlighten our readers on the nature of pinhole photography? What kind of photography is it? VZ: Pinhole photography is the most primitive and very simple way of taking photos. Basically, you just need to have light-sealed box of any size, small hole (pin-hole) punched in one side of the box and a photosensitive material (photo paper or film) on the other side. Light rays travel in a straight line, and the light from the outside of the box passes through the hole. In that way image from the outside of the box is projected on a film or paper. Pinhole camera is also called 'camera obscura' which means 'dark chamber'. Camera obscura was invented in ancient Greece and it was projecting an image of the scene outside upside-down onto a viewing surface. In 16th century camera obscura was used by painters as an aid to draw. They were painting upside-down paintings and when finished just rotated them by 180°. For a long time, scientists were pondering the way to fix those projected images from fading. In 1827, French scientist

Nicéphore Niépce succeeded to make a permanent image. But, he was already using lens made of glass. Pinhole lens was skipped in photography. Somewhere around 1885 some of the photographers were sick of sharp images and had an idea that art photographs have to emulate paintings. They started to use pinhole lenses, which gave them soft focus and were not sharp, but that was not a problem at all - all they wanted in their work was to express their feelings. That is how the pictorialism was born. For the next 30 years pinhole photography was popular, but somewhere around 1914 modernism pushed out pictorialism and artists forgot the pinhole lens for another 60 years. In 1970s pinhole photography gained attention, but it was not recognized as art. In 1980s, pinhole photography was 'alive and well' and pinhole photographs were exhibited in fancy galleries. Finally, pinhole art photography was equal to the 'ordinary' photographic art. Pinhole camera became extremely popular in last few years. Today's popularity is based mostly on it's simplicity. Everybody can make it and it's cheap. Very cheap. You can make it for 0$! PS: Vladimir, what was the reason you became involved with pinhole photography? What drawn you into it? VZ: I was always fascinated by the photos from the 1930s, and by the era it-


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self. Since there is a very small number of photos of my hometown from the 30s, I was always asking myself how the city and fields around looked in those old times. Deep inside I was trying to find the way to catch that 30s feeling. After taking photos on film with old cameras (one of them was Zeiss' camera from 1930s!), I saw some pinhole photos on the web. I was stunned! That was it! But since I had some university exams to pass, it took me another year or two to make that move and make my own camera. When it had been assembled, I kept asking myself why didn't I do that before! PS: Vladimir, in comparison with digital photography or usual film photography what makes pinhole photography so special? What are the artistic benefits of this method? VZ: First advantage is simplicity and low cost. This type of camera is so simple to make, and it doesn't cost almost anything. Lens of pinhole camera is a tiny hole, usually 0.2 to 0.4 mm (0.007 to 0.015 inch) in diameter. Light rays don't bend, so the image is free of linear distortion, which is something that any lens made of glass always has. Pinhole cameras can help photographers understand how photography works in its basics. Pinhole camera's lens is so small that you'll need to expose your film or paper for a much longer time than when taking

a photo with regular lens camera. Disadvantage of it is that you'll need to carry a tripod around (it can be any tripod, even that smallest one), but you will compress time. What's that? You need long exposures - your film has to be exposed to light for some time. During that time, many cars or people could pass in front of your camera, clock on a church is moving, trees are moving in wind etc. Everything that was in your field of view will be captured on film (or paper) but not the way they would be captured on an usual photo. Moving cars will give you smooth lines above the road for example. They were there but not standing still. Imagine you are making a exposure of your TV screen for about a minute - can you say which frame of the program is captured? No, because they all are captured and they all become compressed to just one frame your photo! My camera makes exposures of 3 seconds on a bright sunny day with iso100 film. When it's cloudy, I need to expose for 20-60 seconds. That is advantage for me, because I can 'erase' all moving cars and walking people - they become blurry ghosts and sometimes even invisible. Clouds and water also gets interesting smooth look. And just imagine how many things happens during long exposure‌all of that is captured inside of your camera. There is always an element of surprise when film or photo paper is developed. When shooting, you can't predict how the final image will look like. With digital


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cameras, you see the image the same second. With film cameras you know how it will turn out. But with pinhole camera, you really don't know what you'll get! For me, the most important is that feeling of watching a vintage-looking, cool and unique photo that you made with your own hands. PS: Vladimir, I know that you have made a DIY pinhole camera all by yourself. Please tell us about this experience. VZ: As I said, I was always trying to find a way to make photos like the old ones, but, well, that is impossible, we have no time capsule. Yet. Using pinhole camera was something that gave me very satisfying old-styled photos on black and white film. First camera that I made was made as a test for hole sharpness. I named it 'Pintax One' for fun. It was using color 35mm film and image was very wide. I have tested few pin-holes punched in thin aluminum plate and when I developed few films, I selected the sharpest hole which I have put into my new camera - 'Pintax 6x6'. This new camera is the one I still use. It takes black and white 6x6 cm roll film and it has 12 shots per film. The 0.2 mm lens is shifted by 10 mm up and focal distance is 35mm. It has very simple mechanism for advancing a film - a hole (but much larger than pin-hole, don't mix them) on the top of the camera, which takes a regular door


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PS: Vladimir, what would be your tips for making a DIY camera? Any advice? VZ: There are many plans on the internet on how to make pinhole camera from cardboard, scissors, glue and mat black paint. The best plan is the plan you make by yourself. Just make the camera according to your needs. Of course, if you have time and skills, you can make a fancy wooden pinhole camera.

key to manually advance the film. Roll film has a ply of paper on the back, and that paper has printed numbers of shots. So, my camera has another hole on the back, just to see how many shots I have left and not to advance the film too much. This hole is covered by transparent red plastic, to prevent entering too much light inside. Big problem was shutter, but it is easy to make with a piece of sliding cardboard. You can do it on a more complex way, with cable release, springs and a lot of other stuff, but cardboard also works very well. The biggest problem was how to set the camera up on a tripod. Easiest way is to use 1-2 rubber bands, so the camera won't shake in the wind. More fancy way is to take a tripod nut from some old camera and to glue it on the bottom of the pinhole.

One solvable problem in making a pinhole camera is making a hole of just right diameter. For that, you should use thick aluminum foil (for example, from yoghurt) and needle to punch tiny hole‌ stick the needle in cork or eraser so you can have more control. Place the foil on any wooden surface and make tiny hole. Best thing to do is to test few different holes on same camera, so you can see which one gives you sharpest image. Also, you need to make your box light sealed and reflection free, so no light would ruin your photo. You have to use black mat paint or spray, but it has to be mat. PS: Vladimir, do you use your pinhole camera a lot? What is the most challenging part? VZ: Unfortunately I don't use it a lot. In one hand it's bad, because I don't travel a lot. In another hand it's good, I won't got overloaded by pinhole photography, because the feeling in your soul when


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looking in your work is what counts, not the number of photos taken. Hardest thing when using a pinhole camera is to carry my heavy tripod and a digital camera (only for light metering) with myself. If you're photographing in hills and you're going by foot, that can be quite challenging mission. Not just because it becomes heavier with every step up in the hill, but also you need to be very careful with all the equipment when walking in bushes or woods. PS: Vladimir, can you recommend any traditional or modern pinhole photographers that influenced you? VZ: I can't say that my work is influenced by some specific photographers. Before I became enchanted by pinhole, I've had the style of photos I like taking and looking at - square monochromatic photos. So when I wander in a field, on a hill or in a city, I try to find nice, archaic and almost romantic places to capture with my camera. I try to predict how it will look when film is developed, but every time I develop film, I am surprised how better it looks than I was thinking it will! I think that with pinhole camera, the image is not everything. Image showing a building, or a lake etc. is only 60% of the photo. The rest 40% is that smooth, gloomy, retro and vignetted look! Try to take a pinhole photo of a clear sky and you'll see what I mean. I can tell you of some great pinhole photographers, but it's not that I copy

their work because we use different cameras with different films and different focal distances and angles of view and we live in different countries taking photos of different world around us. One of the greatest photographers is Michael Wesely. He was using pinhole cameras to take long exposures - for over few years - to capture the changes of the New York. Diana H. Bloomfield is another great photographer who takes amazing portraits with that camera. Edyta Wyperiowska takes vintage and fine looking still life photos. Bethany de Forest is capturing surreal and amazing color pinhole photos. PS: Vladimir, do you think that pinhole photography is underestimated? Why? VZ: Today, you can find an amateur or professional artist who uses any type of the camera that was ever built. 99% of photographers are using digital cameras,


38 GUEST FEATURE | VLADIMIR ŽIVKOVID

so these photos are most common to see on the internet. Some professionals are still using medium or large format film cameras, because of their advantages over digital technology. But that is primarily for the business. There are many pinhole photographers, but they are silent...just like the sound of using pinhole camera! Pinhole photography cannot be used in commercial photography but only as artist's tool. We all know that photographic art is not something we see so frequently in a busy everyday life...we see photos in newspaper or internet ads. So the art photography (especially pinhole photography) has narrow public. Thanks to the internet, we can share our photos with millions of people all around the World. In conclusion, it's not the pinhole photography which is underestimated in all types of art photography, but the whole art photography is pushed out by commercial photography. PS: Vladimir, what is your favourite shot that you made with your pinhole camera? Please tell us the story behind it. VZ: My favourite shot is taken near the village of Majar in Croatia. It shows bare trees and natural fence in front of a hill on a winter day. Here's the link: It was taken on December 31, 2010. The weather was cold, there was some snow on the ground and everything was covered by thick frost. I like winter and for me this photo captures the essence of it.

Also it's not spoiled with 'modern' stuff like wires, concrete, signs, advertisings nothing. Timeless scene. It was a late cloudy afternoon and me and my girlfriend were going home from shooting nature photos. While driving I saw this scene and I was so impressed. I don't remember exactly, but the exposure was 4 or 5 minutes with my Pintax 6x6 which has 35mm focal distance and f/stop of 175. Film was very fine Efke 100 roll film, which is still produced by traditional chemistry recipes (old-school). Just to add - this film is produced in my country - Croatia by small company called Fotokemika! PS: Vladimir, thank you very much. Do you have any final words of encouragement for our readers? VZ: Thank you for inviting me to talk about pinhole photography! I'd like to say this to all readers: just make a pinhole camera. Anyone can do it! There are plans on the web and anyone can make it in an hour or less. If you become enchanted by this type of photography, you'll make improvements to your camera until it is good enough for you to capture your world with it!


39 GUEST FEATURE | VLADIMIR ŽIVKOVID


40 PROJECT FEATURE | SHIKAI TSENG

www.shikaitseng.com


41 PROJECT FEATURE | SHIKAI TSENG

ShiKai Tseng is a London based designer and photographer who graduated from Royal College of Art in 2011. Influenced by oriental culture and western spirit of adventure, his works possess subtle and experimental characteristic at the same time, and have been exhibited in London, Paris, Milan and Taiwan. One of his latest projects is about changing the common sense of the photography, turning it from 2D to 3D, by the start point of photography history – pinhole camera. He combines the techniques of pinhole camera and liquid light, which let the objects form their faces and tell viewers their stories. Another project he is doing is folding the photographic paper into an architecture model, and put a pinhole on the wall for making the paper building become a camera. It’s a new way to shoot architecture photography. After developing the paper and turning the model inside out, the model will present two different kinds of beauties at the same time, the shape of exterior and the image of interior.


Project by ShiKai Tseng Film by Juriaan Booij



44 PROJECT FEATURE | SHIKAI TSENG

“PhotoGraphy” project is the creation of a process in which the environment, time and light react to each other and generate images on the surface of threedimensional objects.

will see the image become the surface of the object we used as a camera. The Royal Albert Hall is one of the most famous and meaningful architecture in London, which I apply the princi-

The 1st series is about coating ob-

ple I mention before onto it. After 7

jects with a “light-sensitive” layer, put in

hours exposure by the scale Albert Hall

a black box with strategically placed pin-

which is made of photographic paper, the

holes, and exposed for 5 to 50 minutes

interior of the real Albert Hall been print-

depending on the brightness of the envi-

ed onto the exterior of the small Albert

ronment. It is a new way to capture a

Hall. It shows the fact it saw, and flips the

moment in time, no matter whether the

surface of the building which used to be

image on the object is focused or losing

seen in inside of it.

focus – the object will carry the trace of its first moments of experience, its first exposure. The 2nd series is about folding the photographic

paper

into

a

three-

dimensional shape, which includes a light seal on the backside, with the addition of one to two pinholes. Thus, an object is not only an object anymore, but also a camera which can take a photo by itself. We can flip it inside out after we completing the developing process, and you

© All rights for the artistic work presented on pages 42-65 belong to ShiKai Tseng.


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47 PROJECT FEATURE | SHIKAI TSENG


I started treating photography as an-

The pinhole camera is the starting

other serious occupation about 3 years

point of photography history. What I like

ago. At that time, I got an old camera -

most about it is that it requires longer

Asahi Pentax KX and a few manual focus

exposure time. Compared to other mod-

lenses from my grandfather. The old

ern cameras which can finish a perfect

equipment introduced me to a totally

shot in one-sixtieth of a second, it's very

different, new world – a way to discover

different. You can actually observe and

the world we live in everyday, but we

see that the film, which is the object it-

never actually see, a way to freeze the

self, is absorbing the environment onto

scenes between the reality and unreali-

its surface. The camera transforms the

ty. I am still deeply fascinated by this.

huge scale of a scene into this small

In the end of 2010, I started to combine my hobby - photography - and my profession - 3D modeling - together. I

scale of a vessel. Not from 3D to 2D, but 3D to 3D. Thus, it isn't a reduction but rather a translation.

was wondering, what if I make 3D ob-

As I am taking photo with 3D ob-

jects a film and use it to take photos,

jects, my cameras have to be changed

will the shape of the objects and the

as well. In order to do the 360-degree

pictures begin to effect each other? Will

exposure, I need to set 4 pinholes on

the objects start talking and tell us the

each side of the camera. Every pinhole

stories it experienced?

is made of metal foil, and the diameter

In order to take photos with threedimensional objects, I chose two very old techniques, pinhole camera and liquid light. Although both of them are not easy to control, and they all need complicate preparations, they were indeed the straightest way to achieve my aim making the object become light sensitive, and project image onto it.

is exactly 0.5mm. In other words, after converting into the size of aperture, it's very often smaller than f/200. Because the ISO of the liquid light is only 6, the long exposure is very necessary. From few minutes to 7 hours, I always meter the light and consider the change of light and weather. Sometime, I even need to photo three or four times to get



50 PROJECT FEATURE | SHIKAI TSENG

a good shot. Which means I need to start it all over, wash out the coating on the object, repaint the liquid light onto the object and wait another 12 hours for drying naturally.

the commercial mugs. The work I would like to mention here is a snack bowl with 4 people’s portrait on it, one side one face. In traditional Chinese culture, we used to put a

You might know, liquid light is a gela-

snack bowl in the center of the square

tin-base light-sensitive material, which

table, and then friends sat around,

has to be warmed before using. I prefer

chatted and ate together. The bowl has

to apply it onto the objects by paint-

“eyes” on each side, as it must be the

brush instead of airbrush, because I feel

witness of our friendship. By the pinhole

the brush mark and the thickness of the

camera and liquid light, we finally can

paint makes a photo alive. However, it

see what the objects see, because the

also brings out some problems. It will

scene they ever see had been showed

form a drop on the surface if I paint it

on their bodies.

too thick. When it’s too thin, the liquid light layer will have no ability to keep the image. The most challenging thing is that I can only give it one layer once at a time while it’s not dry, otherwise, the brush will damage the first layer of the liquid light. Many people keep telling me, "why don't you use enlargers or projectors to do the exposure, you can easily raise the success rate with their help". However, I believe if I take this short cut, my works will become the copies of the images, which is not too much different with the pictures which being transferred onto

by ShiKai Tseng


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66 PROJECT FEATURE II | MARCO VALDÉS DÍAZ

blog | fb


67 PROJECT FEATURE II | MARCO VALDÉS DÍAZ

Marco is Spanish graphic designer from Cádiz. Marco is also a passionate fan of photography, who took the courage of designing a beautiful DIY pinhole camera and transform this process into an energetic project called MK-1P.


Project by Marco Valdés Díaz



70 PROJECT FEATURE II | MARCO VALDÉS D�AZ

The project MK-1P was created to

The basic principles of pinhole are

bring the photography to everyone re-

found in Chinese texts attributed to V

gardless of lack of resources. At a time

century AD. The Chinese had discovered

when digital technology is imposed,

that light travels in straight line. The phi-

with the obsession to make more per-

losopher Mo Ti was aware that objects

fect images, the true essence of the cre-

reflect light in all directions, and that

ative photography is forgotten. Mark-1

the rays from an object, pass through

Pinhole, is an manual entertainment,

an orifice, producing an inverted image

practical and functional, with which you

a screen, describing the phenomenon of

will can learn to experience for yourself,

the camera obscura.

the principles of operation of any photographic camera. Naturally understand the law of reciprocity between aperture, shutter speed, and ISO sensibility, and then apply them to intuitively way when using your digital camera. It is an opportunity to use 35mm film, before the fac-

What we do when taking a photograph is control the amount of light reaching a sensitive film. In the lateness of the camera depends the accuracy with which we can control the amount of light, and margins from which we can exercise that control.

tory discontinue to make it definitely and replace for the digital cameras. You will have a memory "as it did before the pictures" with a camera made for yourself.

Cameras usual, consist of a diaphragm, which controls the amount of light reaching the film, and a shutter, which controls the time during which the film is exposed. all take any other

A pinhole camera is one that has no optical systems based in the refraction of light, being replaced by a hole called pinhole, which is responsible for forming the image.

camera controls are simply aids to control these two factors, mainly to calculate the values appropriate for each shot.


71 PROJECT FEATURE II | MARCO VALDÉS DÍAZ

The cameras are technically ad-

limitations of optical systems, minimum

vanced to levels unthinkable a few years

distance as the lack of focus and depth

ago, but all are still based on the same

of infinite field.

principles that led to this technique a little more than century and a half. Pinhole photography is somehow a return to the origins of photography. The process begins with the construc-

Providing photographs taken by this method that makes an atmosphere other than those taken by the regular cameras. by Marco Valdes Diaz

tion takes of the camera. It is not just a "romantic" back to the origins and abandonment of technology that moves us to inmates in this type of photography. This photograph saves some of the

© All rights for the artistic work presented on pages 68-81 belong to Marco Valdes Diaz.


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81 PROJECT FEATURE II | MARCO VALDÉS DÍAZ


ISSUE#6.RED SUBMIT YOUR WORK UNTIL DECEMBER 15 2011 & GET PUBLISHED!


HOW TO SUBMIT? 1.

Follow us on Facebook or Twitter and share links to your galleries or shots by replying to our posts.

2.

Follow Ode-to-simplicity on DeviantArt and suggest your photos as Favourites to the specially designated folder.

We are glad to discover and publish photographers with a fresh, untarnished view of the world. We are looking for beauty, novelty, depth, transience, special touch, and, well, simplicity. You may not be very famous, but you should have something special to show ♼ By submitting your work you give us the right to publish it on the pages of this magazine and you agree to your work being distributed digitally via issuu.com media plugin, which can be pasted virtually anywhere on the Internet (see Terms and Conditions). We do not publish every work submitted. We select the shots which we think are a better fit to current theme and general aesthetics of the issue. The choice is subjective and cannot be discussed. Once your work is selected for publishing we will contact you to verify your basic contact information such as your name or nickname, title of the featured work and link to your gallery. This information will be published alongside your work. If you have any questions, please send us an e-mail to simplicity.pdf@gmail.com.


84 INSIGHT | FROM DA VINCI NOTEBOOK

The function of the eye as explained by the camera obscura* Taken from The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci edited by Jean Paul Richter, 1880.

If the object in front of the eye

and in each part; and all the objects in

sends its image to the eye, the eye, on

the whole atmosphere and all of them

the other hand, sends its image to the

in each part; speaking of that atmos-

object, and no portion whatever of the

phere which is able to contain in itself

object is lost in the images it throws off,

the straight and radiating lines of the

for any reason either in the eye or the

images projected by the objects. From

object. Therefore we may rather believe

this it seems necessary to admit that it

it to be the nature and potency of our

is in the nature of the atmosphere,

luminous atmosphere which absorbs

which subsists between the objects, and

the images of the objects existing in it,

which attracts the images of things to

than the nature of the objects, to send

itself like a loadstone, being placed be-

their images through the air. If the ob-

tween them.

ject opposite to the eye were to send its image to the eye, the eye would have to do the same to the object, whence it

PROVE

HOW

ALL

OBJECTS,

PLACED IN ONE POSITION, ARE ALL EVERYWHERE AND ALL IN EACH PART.

might seem that these images were an emanation. But, if so, it would be necessary *to admit+ that every object became rapidly smaller; because each object appears by its images in the surrounding atmosphere. That is: the whole object in the whole atmosphere,

I say that if the front of a building—or any open piazza or field—which is illuminated by the sun has a dwelling opposite to it, and if, in the front which does not face the sun, you make a small round hole, all the illuminated objects


85 INSIGHT | FROM DA VINCI NOTEBOOK

will project their images through that

said dwelling, and the light admitted by

hole and be visible inside the dwelling

it is derived from one or many luminous

on the opposite wall which may be

bodies. If these bodies are of various

made white; and there, in fact, they will

colours and shapes the rays forming the

be upside down, and if you make similar

images are of various colours and

openings in several places in the same

shapes, and so will the representations

wall you will have the same result from

be on the wall.

each. Hence the images of the illuminated objects are all everywhere on this wall and all in each minutest part of it. The reason, as we clearly know, is that this hole must admit some light to the


86 INSIGHT | FROM DA VINCI NOTEBOOK

HOW THE IMAGES OF OBJECTS

hole at n m. Let s t be the sheet of pa-

RECEIVED BY THE EYE INTERSECT WITH-

per intercepting the rays of the images

IN THE CRYSTALLINE HUMOUR OF THE

of these objects upside down, because

EYE.

the rays being straight, a on the right An experiment, showing how ob-

jects transmit their images or pictures, intersecting within the eye in the crystalline humour, is seen when by some small round hole penetrate the images of illuminated objects into a very dark chamber. Then, receive these images on a white paper placed within this dark room and rather near to the hole and you will see all the objects on the paper in their proper forms and colours, but much smaller; and they will be upside down by reason of that very intersection. These images being transmitted from a place illuminated by the sun will seem actually painted on this paper which must be extremely thin and looked at from behind. And let the little perforation be made in a very thin plate of iron. Let a b e d e be the object illuminated by the sun and o r the front of the dark chamber in which is the said

hand becomes k on the left, and e on the left becomes f on the right; and the same takes place inside the pupil. LEARN MORE>>>


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88 THE END | THANK YOU! INDEX OF PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL USED IN THE ISSUE (IN ORDER OF APPEARANCE)

Gabriel Guye Vladimir Živkovid Shikai Tseng Marco Valdés Díaz


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