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National Human Development Report 2013 Summary Employment, structural changes and human development in Cote d’Ivoire


National Human Development Report 2013 Team

Head of the Steering Committee Ndolamb Ngokwey, United Nations Resident Coordinator, UNDP Resident Representative

The Steering Committee Members

Technical Team

Government Representatives

Technical Direction Celestin Tsassa, Economic Adviser, UNDP

Tiekoura Kone, Adviser to the President of the Republic Ministry o f State, Ministry o f Planning and Development: Lacina Kouakou Kouame, Deputy Head of Cabinet Diaby Lancine, Director General for Plan and Poverty Control Ibrahim a Ba, Director General of the National Institute of Statistics

Ministry o f State, Ministry o f Employment, Social Affairs and Professional Training Kipeya Kone , Deputy Head of Cabinet Ange Danho, Director General of Employment Philippe Ndri, Director General of AGEPE

Ministry o f Economy and Finance Sain Oguie, Director General for Economy Ministry o f Environment, Urban Salubrity and Sustainable Development: Gustave Aboua, Director General for Sustainable Development Civil society representative Christophe Kouame, Coordinator of the Convention of the Ivorian Civil Society UNDP Management members Luc Joel Gregoire, UNDP Country Director Aissata De, Assistant Country Director/UNDP Programme Christian Do Rosario, Assistant Country Director/UNDP Operations

Research and Statistics Gustave Aboua, Marcel Kouadio Benie, Caroline Daymon, Loesse Jacques Esso, Desire Kanga, Clement Kouakou, Cedric Lombardo, Rosine Mosso, Jose Coffi N’Guessan, Emile Kone Penatien, Ynsa Traore, Celestin Tsassa Review Committee Members El Allassane Baguia, Madeleine Oka Balima, Loesse Jacques Esso, Joseph Ezoua, Luc Joel Gregoire, Clement Kouakou, Emma Anoh Ngouan Communication Youssouf Diarra Technical and administrative support Christine Kra Agbonon, Abiba Boare Aicha Cherif, Sanaba Coulibaly-Diakite, Souley Diallo, Salimata Karamate, Adele Mathilde Kone, Carol Yangni N'da, Vanessa Ping, Massaran Sanogho, Roland Seri, Stephanie Seri, Soungalo Tangora, Nehla Toure.


National Human Development Report 2013

Summary

Em ploym ent, structural changes and human developm ent in Cote d ’Ivoire

2013 NATIONAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT COTE D'IVOIRE


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PREFACE

Employment is a core challenge for development in Cote d'Ivoire to which the President of the Republic, His Excellency Alassane OUATTARA, attaches the utmost importance. The attachment of the country’s Chief Magistrate to this issue translates in the government’s programme entitled "Vivre Ensemble" (Living Together), which the National Development Plan and the National Employment Policy are the levers. By that very ambitious social and economic initiative, the government and all its partners strongly believe that despite the societal space weakened by years of crisis and a difficult economic and financial context, the situation prevailing in Cote d'Ivoire offers real opportunities for implementing, gradually, the national Development Plan and for ensuring national solidarity which is indispensable for alleviating social inequalities, reducing the populations’ high level of vulnerability, consolidating social peace, and guaranteeing successful economic recovery. Among other challenges, job creation requires, today, more than ever before, the effective implementation of innovative policies that help to curb the unemployment trend and to decrease poverty rates. This explains the importance of this 2013 National Human Development Report that will certainly provide an innovative input to the youth employment issue in Cote d’Ivoire, given the relevancy of topics discussed herein. The report which rightly tackles the issue of employment in a structural change point of view has, in fact, included to the debate other major issues like green job opportunities in the sectors of reforestation, waste management and renewable energies, as well as the reinforcement of the social protection mechanism in favor of workers in the informal sector, etc. These are useful avenues which we have to pursue in searching for sustainable, consistent and inclusive multi-sector solutions which we are bound to build. Skills development issues that have also been emphasized in the document and which significantly contribute in guaranteeing greater employability opportunity and improved revenue through increased productivity, mostly in the informal sector, are very good reasons for saying that the report has come at a good time. We strongly believe that it will be a determining catalyst in Cote d'Ivoire's march towards emergence by 2020. Therefore, we warmly congratulate and thank the whole team that participated to its drafting and publishing.

The Minister of State, Minister of Planning and Development

The Minister of State, Minister of Employment, Social Affairs and Vocational Training

Dr. Albert Toikeusse MABRI

Moussa DOSSO


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FOREWORD

The 2013 Human Development Report in Cote d'Ivoire entitled « Employment, structural changes and human development in Cote d’Ivoire » reviews structural changes that impacted on employment trend and on populations’ welfare. The report also reviews the context of human development, the structural features of employment, the regulatory framework and the functioning of the labor market and identifies their impact on employment. Opportunities for green jobs are discussed to focus the search for solutions for employment issues, mostly youth employment, in a sustainable manner. At the same time, the inclusion of informal sector workers in terms of decent jobs through social protection is discussed in order to gradually give to jobs, particularly the informal sector jobs a truly decent feature. The 2013 National Human Development Report is the result of a participatory process involving experts from the Government, civil society, private sector, national consultants and experts of United Nations agencies and funds including UNDP. Topics discussed in the report have been subjected to consultation works and the results have been reviewed in workshops. That was the case for the regulatory framework and the functioning of the labor market as well as for three studies on opportunities for green jobs in the sectors of renewable energy, reforestation and waste management, studies on structural change and employment changes, and on human development trends and mapping in Cote d'Ivoire. A pre-validation workshop was held on 7 March 2013 in Abidjan to review all the chapters of the report and to collect recommendations in view of finalizing the report. So the report’s initial results were considered while drafting the national employment policy and while elaborating the green economy roadmap. This report is a contribution to the debate on inclusive growth issues which is a key principle of the 2012-2015 National Development Plan which is the basis for Cote d'Ivoire’s emergence vision. The report goes beyond national averages by taking into account local aspects, development hubs, based on thorough processing of data from surveys carried out by the National Institute for Statistics during the last few years, particularly on households’ living standards. The report emphasizes the need to focus on the promotion of employment within the context of

structural changes. According to the report, job opportunities would be very limited if major structural changes would not be made and the productive base widened up. Such structural changes and productive base widening up initiatives must be coupled with or fuelled by increased productivity that would help to make created jobs decent. The report recommends to promote structural changes that generate jobs and social change. So it would be necessary not only to make huge investments but also to set incentives for guiding private investments to sectors with high growth and job-creation potentials. Barriers in terms of economic and social infrastructure, energy availability, storage facilities, transportation, etc., must be removed to fuel economic activity and sectors with high job-creating and inclusive growth. Productivity and competitiveness should be promoted through targeted public schemes in case the market cannot enhance them. The informal sector that employs a high proportion of women should also be considered as a recipient for support in order to promote productivity. Business units, mostly smallest ones, must benefit from support schemes in view of accessing regional and international markets which must be foreign outlets for processed agricultural products and essential supplements to the domestic market. Partnerships with the private sector from emerging countries should be stimulated in that view and act as catalysts to enhance foreign investment in the country. They also are opportunities for skills development, vocational training and technology transfer and must be promoted. The report highlights the need to promote employment through sectoral policies. In addition to objectives for which they were set forth, each sectoral program should also aim at improving employment productivity and promotion. The analysis of the regulation and functioning of the labor market has highlighted the need to act on the business environment, the laws and rules governing the labor market, incentives for job creation, the organization and functioning of labor institutions, and the development of the country’s employment policy. The improvement of the business environment must help to stimulate economic activities nationwide, to promote the local private sector and foreign investment. FOREWORD

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While tax benefits are needed in priority development areas, some of the barriers to business development highlighted in the Doing Business report need to be lifted too. Furthermore, it would be necessary to improve the labor market regulatory framework through relevant incentives like the reduction of labor costs and the improvement of labor flexibility, and to make sure that the principles of social protection and social dialogue are observed. The promotion of employment should primarily be based on transparent mechanisms of dissemination of information on job opportunities in order to enhance transparency, guarantee equity, including gender. It is also recommended to reinforce the capacity of systems meant for coordinating the implementation of the employment policy.

Terms of participation in the welfare system are crucial for guaranteeing transparency, simplicity and proximity to right holders and potential beneficiaries. The sustainability of that system must be based both on the direct contribution of informal workers or through their professional associations and public contribution based on thorough assessments meant for guaranteeing the sustainability of the system, its efficiency and transparency. Finally, my deepest hope is that this report could serve to strengthen the debate on policies targeting the promotion of employment, equity and inclusive growth. In this sense, it will constitute a great contribution on the conditions for the emergence of Cote d'Ivoire.

Inclusion through social protection is an important aspect of inclusive growth which Cote d'Ivoire intends to promote through the National Development Plan. That is the reason why the report recommends promoting the inclusion of the workers of the informal sector, mostly women, in a social welfare system The community rules on social mutuality enacted within the framework of the WAEMU must be seen in light of other experiences in emerging countries as one of the avenues to explore for the extension of the social protection to the poor and to the informal sector.

United Nations Resident Coordinator, United Nations Development Programme Resident Representative


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The drafting of the 2013 Human development Report for Cote d’Ivoire falls within a participatory process which involved Senior Administrative Executives of Cote d’Ivoire, civil society leaders, representatives of the private sector, researchers from the University and Research Centres, as well as few independent experts. The theme of the report, Employment, Structural Changes and Human Development, of which the relevancy is known to all, also served as key driver for the strong involvement of national partners. Many colleagues from other UN agencies also shared their points of view with us and made proposals for the in-depth review of issues tackled in the report. We wish to seize this opportunity to thank warmly all Senior Administrative Executives of Cote d’Ivoire, civil society leaders, Gustave Aboua, Ibrahim Ba, Ange Danho, Kipeya Kone, Tiekoura Kone, Christophe Kouame, Lacina Kouakou Kouame, Diaby Lancine and Sain Oguie, who, in their quality as members of the Steering Committee, made suggestions which were very useful for the completion of the work. Still during the workshops of exchange and restitution of the results of the report’s background studies, many other national experts made remarkable contributions for enhancing some points of the report. We are grateful to them all for their contributions. We are sorry to cannot name all of them, because they are so many. Yet, we would specially like to thank Dede Genevieve Adjei, Angele Goulia, Anderson Koffi, Hyppolyte Mbanan Kone, Philipe Ndri, Eugene Sandro, Didier Sian and Anatole Thougbe for their constant availability and valuable input. Among partners and other UN colleagues, we wish to mention Suzanne Maiga Konate, Resident Representative of UNFPA who, despite her very busy timetable, took time to underline to us the central place which demographic issues as well as youth, gender and equity issues occupy in the examination of the employment issues. We wish to extend to her our thanks for her input and encouragements. Few other colleagues from UNFPA, namely Saidou Kabore and Etienne Miessa Ohoman, did not fail to make comments as well as suggestions to us. This was also the case for Benjamin Lapk Low from ILO, Paul Dougna from AfDB, and Manuel Mattiat from ONUDI. We deeply thank them all for their contributions.

This report would not have been possible without the contributions or researchers and experts who carried out good-quality background studies. They are: Gustave Aboua, Marcel Kouadio Benie, Caroline Daymon, Loesse Jacques Esso, Desire Kanga, Clement Kouakou, Cedric Lombardo, Rosine Mosso, Jose Coffi N’Guessan, Emile Kone Penatien, Ynsa Traore. Their participation was a strong brand of national ownership. The UNDP Management thanks you for your contribution to the debate on human development in Cote d'Ivoire. The UNDP Management’s commitment, the commitment of its Head, Ndolamb Ngokwey, Resident Representative and Coordinator of UN Operations in Cote d'Ivoire, was crucial for implementing the project. He authorized and guided the reflection on employment and structural changes in Cote d’Ivoire. Andre Frangois Carvalho, former UNDP Country Director for Cote d’Ivoire, supported the project by provided funds needed. The Regional Office, through its financial assistance and the input by its Chief Economist, Pedro Conceigao, contributed in finalizing baseline studies that helped for the drafting of the report. Luc Joel Gregoire, UNDP Country Director for Cote d’Ivoire, reviewed the report and made contributions which were very useful for the final version of the document. Many other colleagues, notably El Allassane Baguia, Joseph Ezoua, and Emma Anoh Ngoua, provided valuable assistance for the drafting of the report and we thank them so much for that. We also wish to extend our thanks to Christine Kra Agbonon, Abiba Boare, and Massaran Sanogoh for their operational and administrative support. We also thank national experts who made remarkable contributions which helped to enhance some points in the report during the workshops of exchange and restitution of the results of the report’s background papers. We seize this opportunity to extend our warmest thanks to all the persons who directly or indirectly contributed to the drafting of this report.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


CONTENTS OF NHDR 2013 Preface

Section II: Key labor market institutions

Foreword

Section III: New guidelines for promoting employment

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER V: Green jobs opportunities and structural changes

Overview INTRODUCTION

Section I: Renewable energy, sustainable development drive and jobs creation opportunities

Section I: Employment trends in Cote d’Ivoire

Section II: Reforestation-related job opportunities

Section II: The need for further brainstorming on employment crisis and prospects for solution

Section III: Job-niches in waste management

CHAPTER II: Slowdown of human development and rise in deprivations

CHAPTER VI: Employment, social inclusion and protection Section I: Social protection for informal-sector workers Section II: Analysis of the Ivorian social welfare system

Section I: Trend of the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Inequality-adjusted HDI

Section III: Considerations for the extension of social protection to the informal sector

Section II: Multidimensional Poverty Index Trends Section III: Drivers of disparities between regions and the rise in deprivations

GENERAL CONCLUSION MAPS

CHAPTER III: Structural changes and employment Section I: Structural dynamics impacting on employment

BOXES GRAPHS TABLES

Section II: Structural characteristic of employment REFERENCES Section III: Sectoral analysis of job opportunities in Cote d'Ivoire CHAPTER IV: Institutional and regulatory framework of the labor market Section I: Regulatory and institutional framework of the labor market

TABLE DES MATIERES DU RNDH 2013


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OVERVIEW

A

Em ploym ent and its reverse thrust, unemployment, particularly among young people, are among the major issues of development which Cote d'Ivoire faces like many other countries in Africa. Statistics based on shifting concepts and definitions do not always reflect the magnitude of problems. What would an unemployment rate of 10% of the labor force in a country where one in two people live below the poverty line mean? Employment must go hand in hand with its ability to provide sufficient income to people who work and their family members. Work must be decent as recommended by the International Labor Organization. Decent work takes into account the working conditions and a socially acceptable level of compensation. Job creation stems from social and economic transformation processes that need to clearly identify the national context to lead to relevant recommendations. A whole set of problems to which em ployment policy cannot provide adequate answers because it is most often directed towards measures that are rather cyclical. The Human Developm ent Report 2013 for Cote d'Ivoire has been dedicated to the debate on em ployment in a long-term perspective while taking into account structural changes that affect employment and populations' welfare trends. Hence, the report was entitled Employment, Structural Changes and Human Developm ent in Cote d'Ivoire. This report aims at pointing out that though the analysis of em ployment issues has a short-term interest, it should be included in a perspective of structural changes and human development. The inclusion of structural changes was strongly requested by the National Employment Council through its terms of reference which stated: "wherever the situation required structural response, incidental solutions have so far been provided as part of other growth and development policies. Such solutions are only limited to a little aid to support specific social groups to gain a foothold in active life. As long as things would remain as they are, the employment issue would not be solved. There might even be the risk of exposing Cote d'Ivoire to the depletion of its human and social capital, and to economic decline. " This report exam ines the structural and institutional factors that have hindered job creation in Cote d'Ivoire and sets out recommendations combining employment, poverty alleviation and sustainability. So the report goes very far beyond the m ilitary and political crisis triggered in 2002 often underlined

to explain the various upheavals that affected Cote d'Ivoire in recent years. The review of the accumulation process as well as population size and the behavior of actors are at the heart of reflection in the labor market. At the same time, job characteristics are highlighted, in particular sectors of activity (fields and formal or informal status), the participation of women, labor productivity and registration of workers for a social protection scheme. The report highlights the slowdown of human development and the concomitant increase in deprivation. It also examines the regulatory fram ework and the functioning of the labor market. O pportunities for green jobs are addressed to emphasize the search for solutions for em ployment issues, especially for the youth, in a sustainable manner. Meanwhile, the inclusion of informal sector workers in a decent job through social security is tackled in order to give to em ployment a real decent character.

Wherever the situation required structural response, incidental solutions have so far been provided as part of other growth and development policies.

The report highlights the

SLOWDOWN OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, INCREASE IN DEPRIVATION, AND DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT

slowdown o f human development and the concomitant increase in deprivation.

The report starts with an analysis and the mapping of human development trends and multidimensional poverty assessment in Cote d'Ivoire. The estimates of indicators made are based on refinements introduced in the context of the 2010 and 2011 UNDP's Human Development Report. The analysis goes beyond national averages and reviews indicators of human development and multidimensional poverty at the regional level too, thus providing some light on development disparities by regions and their evolution between 2002 and 2011. This approach supplements the overall analytical framework used for global human development reports, giving it an intra-territorial nature. OVERVIEW


Thus, estimates show that Human Development Index (HDI) increased at the national level, during the period under review, from 0.390 in 2002 to 0.400 in 2008, and to 0.404 in 2011. However, regional disparities exist and are important at the expense of development hubs with low economic activity. The report particularly shows that high HDI characterize clusters with the highest concentration of activities such as the South, which also record high enrolment rates in primary and secondary education, in access to health care and in the most favorable level of life to people. In contrast, the northern part of the country (the North, Northwest, and Northeast) has rather low human development indexes due to delays noted in the setting up of educational and health facilities as a result of the various crises Cote d'Ivoire had been experienced until 2011. However, it is recognized that inequality reduces growth potential. So due to the high level of inequality noted in Cote d'Ivoire, at the national level and within many regions and despite their downward trend, the human development potential has decreased as shown in the report. Gender-based inequalities persisted in various aspects of life despite measures that have been taken namely with respect to education, health and the involvement of women in economic and political life. Yet, some progress is noted given that the gender inequality index decrease throughout the country, from 0.700 in 2002 to 0.679 in 2008, and 0.662 in 2011. Inequalities are still high despite their downward trend and will require more effort of equity in education, health and participation of women in economic and political life at national and local levels. The type and scope of discrimination vary greatly across the regions. The southern region of Cote d'Ivoire has rather low gender inequality indicators due to the high level of education, economic empowerment of women, but also to achievements in maternal health. Gender based inequalities are prevalent as regards the access to and control over resources, economic opportunities, power and political opinion. Multidimensional poverty increased from a Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of 27.8% in 2002 and 31.8% in 2008 to 34.4% in 2011, representing an average annual increase of 0.7% between 2002 and 2008 and of 0.9% between 2008 and 2011. In 2002 and 2008, the Center-W est part, the West part, South-W est part and Center of the country were among the most OVERVIEW

affected poles in terms of MPI. In addition to these development hubs, the North-East, the North and North-West were added in 2008 and 2011. The South part of the country and Abidjan had been recording the lowest MPIs during the above-referred years and this is still the case. Multidimensional poverty indexes increased in all regions between 2002 and 2008. Furthermore, between 2008 and 2011 multidimensional poverty indexes of three development hubs (Center-West, South and Center) over ten rose. So between 2008 and 2011, in three development hubs, namely the Center-West, the Center and the South, annual average deprivation rates decreased. It is noted that during the two periods under review (2002-2008 and 2008-2011), the m ultidimensional poverty trend in Cote d'Ivoire is linked to income poverty. The aggravating factor of multidimensional poverty in Cote d'Ivoire is the number of increasing dimensions in which individuals are located. Deprivation rates increased and this generated multidimensional poverty, highlighting the poor quality of social services and difficulties in accessing to such services. Though the socio-political crises cannot be considered as being entirely responsible for the degradation of human development factors noted in many regions of Cote d'Ivoire, neither for the rise in deprivation, nor for the increase in multidimensional poverty, it is obvious that they hampered the implementation of appropriate policies, influenced public choices, limited the access to services and degraded the quantity as well as the quality of such services. Income poverty and multidimensional poverty rates increased at the same time as unemployment during the same period. The decline in economic activity reduced opportunities for increasing incomes. Even for aspects not related to economic life and to household incomes, growth rates remained unchanged, in best cases.


Dem ographic Trends rate of growth

number of children by woman

Fertility rate (num ber of children per woman — Population growth rate ---------- W orking age population growth rate Source : World Bank, WDI, GDF, 2012

The displacement of populations, the interruption of activities and obstacles to the free circulation of peoples and goods have negatively impacted on the functioning of markets, the allocation of resources and the generation of livelihoods. All these factors result in limited access to social services and limited presence of staff members (especially in the sectors health and education) at their workplace due to insecurity. Even health and education systems were disrupted so much that multidimensional poverty seems to rely heavily on health and education factors.

A favorable development context of economic activity, the directing of resources to priorities for economic and social development rather than to the post-conflict management would probably have helped to curb the rise in multidimensional poverty and deprivation.

A favorable development context o f economic activity, the directing of resources to priorities for economic and social development rather than to the post-conflict management would probably have helped to curb the rise in multidimensional poverty and deprivation.

OVERVIEW


Mapping of the Human Development Index by Region

Source : RNDH, 2013 Trend of Inequality-adjusted HDIs by region between 2002 and 2011 REGIONS

2002

2008

2011

2002

2008

CENTER NORTH

0,399

0,338

CENTER-WEST

0,355

0,417

0,350

3,1

0,375

3,5

NORTH-EAST

0,352

0,355

0,343

NORTH

0,325

0,296

WEST

0,345

SOUTH SOUTH-WEST

HDI annual growth rate (%) 2011

2002/2008

2008/2011

3,7

3,7

-2,6

1,2

2,2

2,2

17,4

-3,3

7,5

5,2

5,2

0,8

-1,1

0,315

2,7

3,3

3,3

-8,9

2,1

0,376

0,367

3,9

2,6

2,6

9,1

-0,8

0,479

0,489

0,490

0,1

0,2

0,8

2,0

0,1

0,364

0,401

0,383

1,6

2,0

2,0

10,1

-1,5

CENTER

0,364

0,397

0,378

4,3

4,1

4,1

9,1

-1,6

CENTER-EAST

0,408

0,405

0,406

3,4

1,8

1,8

-0,6

0,1

NORTH-WEST

0,305

0,287

0,294

4,5

4,4

4,4

-6,1

0,8

ABIDJAN

0,510

0,501

0,512

0,4

0,5

0,9

-1,7

0,7

COTE D'IVOIRE

0,378

0,391

0,394

2,9

2,3

2,5

3,3

0,3

Source: NHDR Estimates 2013 OVERVIEW

Loss (%)

Gender inequality adjusted HDI


Trends of M ultidim ensional Poverty indicators by region 2002

REGIONS

2008

2011

Annual tren d b etw een 2 0 0 2 and 2008

Annual tren d b etw een 2008 an d 2011

2,79%

11,5%

Incidence

Depth

MPI

Incidence

Depth

MPI

Incidence

Depth

MPI

CENTER NORTH

0,480

0,522

0,251

0,516

0,568

0,293

0,535

0,596

0,319

CENTER-WEST

0,630

0,523

0,329

0,550

0,617

0,339

0,515

0,623

0,321

0,51%

-1,8%

NORTH-EAST

0,520

0,517

0,269

0,552

0,639

0,353

0,570

0,700

0,399

5,20%

4,3%

NORTH

0,471

0,503

0,237

0,559

0,596

0,333

0,610

0,669

0,408

6,75%

7,5%

WEST

0,597

0,539

0,322

0,573

0,695

0,398

0,562

0,745

0,418

3,93%

1,7%

SOUTH

0,508

0,494

0,251

0,470

0,593

0,279

0,453

0,612

0,277

1,86%

-0,2%

SOUTH-WEST

0,562

0,529

0,297

0,530

0,637

0,337

0,514

0,662

0,341

2,24%

0,4%

CENTER

0,584

0,502

0,293

0,524

0,637

0,334

0,497

0,664

0,330

2,33%

-0,4%

CENTER-EAST

0,531

0,520

0,276

0,498

0,633

0,315

0,483

0,660

0,319

2,36%

0,4%

NORTH-WEST

0,534

0,515

0,275

0,517

0,579

0,299

0,508

0,594

0,302

1,45%

0,3%

ABIDJAN

0,465

0,459

0,213

0,427

0,570

0,243

0,421

0,583

0,246

2,35%

0,4%

COTE D'IVOIRE

0,541

0,513

0,278

0,517

0,615

0,318

0,506

0,680

0,344

2,40%

2,7%

Source: RNDH estimates 2013

SHORTNESS OF ACCUMULATION, SLOW STRUCTURAL CHANGES AND LESS FAVORABLE TO EMPLOYMENT After two decades of growth, Cote d'Ivoire subsequently witnessed slow economic development with a growth rate of the real GDP per capita of -4.5% over the period 1961-1969, -2.9% over the period 1970-1979, -4.1% over the period 1980-1989, -0.3% over the period 1990 to 1999 and -1.26% during the period 2000-2009. The real GDP per capita at constant dollars of 2000 rose 550.7 in 1960 to 1091.2 constant dollars in 1978 and fell to 591.1 constant dollars in 2010. Policies for promoting agricultural exports, import substitution of manufactured products and exportations of manufactured goods supported by public investment programs fostered strong growth in Cote d'Ivoire during the first two decades after independence. The 1980 and 1990 decades were marked by the im plementation of structural adjustment programmess characterized by drastic budget management and the reduction of public investment programmess in an environm ent of strong public debt. Political crises amplified economic and social difficulties, and impeded the translation of efforts made in structural adjustment in sustainable economic convincing results.

The period 1990-1994 particularly had a negative trend with a growth rate of real GDP per capita of -3.4%. The devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994, budgetary and structural measures taken helped to boost economic activity so much that real GDP per capita increased between 1995 and 1999 by 2.7% annually. The year 1999 characterized by the military coup was the only sub-decade that recorded a negative growth rate with a real per capita GDP of - 0.7%. In the 1960s and 1970s, in addition to huge investments supported by significant levels of domestic savings volumes that were noted, there were significant external debt and significant foreign direct investment. Investments as a percentage of the average annual GDP were 19.09% during the period 1960 to 1969 and 24.09% during the period 1970-1979. Their level dropped to 16.46% during the period 1980-1989, to 11.31% during the period 1990-1999, and to 10.22% during the period 2000-2009. This resulted in a drastic drop in investments in dollars (2000 constant) per worker. After an increase of $ 309.2 to 892.7 million between 1960 and 1978, they were no longer higher than 122.9 constant dollars (2000) per worker in 1984. They then fluctuated until 2010 between a maximum of $250.8 in 1986 and a minimum of $ 102 per worker in 2005.

OVERVIEW


Share of employed Labor force

Share of employed labor force among the youngs olded between 15-24 year old 70 ,0%

90 ,0% 80 ,0%

60 ,0%

70 ,0%

50 ,0%

60 ,0% 40 ,0%

50 ,0% 40 ,0%

30 ,0%

30 ,0%

2 0 ,0%

2 0 ,0% 1 0 ,0%

1 0 ,0% 0,0%

1—r

3 9 9

i—

i— i— r

5 7 9 9 9 9

i—r

9 9 9

n—

i— i— i—

r

«o w

"i—r i—r 7

9

Share of employed labor force among the women of more fifteen years old --------Share of employed labor force among the men of more fifteen years old --------Share of total employed labor force among of more fifteen years old.

Source : World Bank, WDI, GDF, 2012

The shortness of the accumulation process is the factor that really sealed the Ivorian economy and job creation. The macro-economic adjustment efforts and the business climate fostered as part of structural adjustment programmes did not produced long-lasting impact expected for boosting economic activities and employment. The Ivorian economy got stuck in a regressive process worsened by the military and political crises. The accumulation process was extensive from independence till the mid-1980s; iIt was then intensive but with some breaks due to the impacts of political and military crises. The improvement of the capital productivity seemed to result from structural adjustment programs characterized by the destruction of capital considered inefficient, the restructuring of the productive sector along with the privatization process and the devaluation of the CFA franc in 1994. The development of new sectors such as the oil industry in the first instance, and, later on, the development of information and communication, including the mobile industry, characterized by high productivity rates, contributed to increasing productivity.

0,0%

n — i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— i

3 9 9

5 9 9

7 9 9

9 9 9

3

5

7

9

Share of employed labor force among the women of between 15-24 years old --------Share of employed labor force among the men of between 15-24 years old Share of total employed labor force among of between 15-24 years old.

Source : World Bank, WDI, GDF, 2012

Trend of investment by worker Investment by worker (2000 US constant dollars)

Investment growth rate by worker

Investment by worker (2000 US dollars) --------Evolution of investment by worker

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates on the basis of the World Bank WDI, GDF, 2012


Production structures, the level and changes in capital, and the productivity of factors did not lead to positive employment trend. They limited the effectiveness of employment policies that were carried out during this period. The promotion of employment was rather limited in the absence of measures for increasing the quantity and quality of production capacity. Investment and the development of production capacity were insufficient to contribute to job creation. Rhythm and level of capital accumulation Stock o f capital by w o rker (2000 constant US dollars)

G row th rate o f capital by w orker

Capital by worker (2000 US constant dollars) -----Growth rate of capital by worker

sector grew, which promoted self-employment in the commercial sector and jobs for women. Structural changes in the economy go hand in hand with those of the population structure. Fertility rates dropped gradually with countries' industrialization process and with increased income. Cote d'Ivoire witnessed tremendous demographic changes with an estimated population of 22 million people in 2010 against 3.4 million in 1T60. Population growth rates are estimated at 3.8% in 1T61, 4.03% in 1T63, with a peak of 4.7% in 1T77, and 3.14% until 1TT5. The slowdown trend continued with a rate of 2.25% in 2000 and a lower limit of 1.58% in 2004. The rise was, once again, gradually bearing the population growth rate above 2% in 2010. That population trend was backed by a high fertility rate of 7.4 children per woman in 1T60, which even increased to 7.T children per woman between 1T6T and 1T76, before decreasing steadily from 7 children per woman in 1T85 to 5.6 children per woman in 1TT5, 4.T children per woman in 2005, and 4.4 children per woman in 2010.

Production structures, the level and changes in capital, and the productivity o f factors did not lead to positive employment trend.

Evolution of the productivity of capital, labor and workforce

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates on the basis of the World Bank WDI, GDF, 2012

The fall in the weight of agricultural activity with respect to GDP and to total number of employment did not result from the improvement of agricultural productivity which would release excess manpower for other sectors. The attractiveness of urban centers where formal activities of the secondary and the tertiary sectors are concentrated contributed to swelling the ranks of job seekers in cities where they were forced to turn to informal activities which are more accessible to them. Meanwhile, the agricultural sector remained a refuge beyond development potentials also due to low levels of processing means for agricultural products. Local processing activities only concerned 2% of the production of rubber, 5% of the production of cashew, 10% of the production of coffee, 20% of the production of cotton, and 27% of the production of cocoa. These low processing rates did not help to add value to local production, to promote economic diversification, and to foster the development of industrial employment. Growth did not help at all to produce increased job opportunities as expected in the industrial sector while the service

------- T re n d o f la b o r p ro d u c tiv ity ------- T re n d o f c a p ita l p ro d u c tiv ity ------- T re n d o f a c tiv e p o p u la tio n

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates on the basis of the World Bank WDI, GDF, 2012

The migration phenomenon seems to have produced an important effect on the supply of labor by a population of immigrants that increased from 1.4% to 4.4% from independence until the beginning of the m ilitary-political crisis. That rate dropped to 0.3% between 2000 and 2005. Compared to the overall population, immigrant workers decreased: they were 22.3% of the overall population in 1T60; 14.4% of the overall population in 1TT0 against 12.3% in 2005 and 11.2% in 2011. OVERVIEW


The increase in the participation o f women in the labor force has contributed to the rapid growth o f the labor force while job creation in the formal sector was declining.

A significant portion o f the workforce is employed in sectors whose dynamic could not even guarantee decent wages to their workers who could not generate sufficient income to pull themselves and their family members out o f poverty.

Many sectors have not generated productivity gains able to attract new workers or those from other sectors

The share of working active populations of more than fifteen years old fluctuated a bit between 1991 and 2010, ranging from a minimum of 62.8% in 1993 to a peak of 64.2% in 2010, showing the convergence of the shares of men who were more than fifteen years old actually working and those of women who were more than fifteen years old actually working during the period 1991 and 2010. The employment rate for men over fifteen years old decreased steadily from 81.5% in 1991 to 77.6% in 2010, while the number of women of the same age group increased from 42.4% in 1991 to 49.9 % in 2010. This convergence is also observed for the share of the male labor force aged between 15 and 24 years and women from the same age group. The increase in the participation of women in the labor force has contributed to the rapid growth of the labor force while job creation in the formal sector was declining. This coincided with a decrease in the number of jobs created in the formal industrial sector and in an increase in jobs created in the utility and the informal sectors. So in 2008, women accounted for 44.5% of workers in the primary sector, 22.5% in the secondary sector and 48.2% in the tertiary sector (UNDP NIS, 2011). The structural characteristics of employment changed significantly in Cote d'Ivoire, and this was accompanied by a strong trend towards job insecurity. In fact, a large majority of workers are employed by companies that neither keep accounting books nor issue pay sleeps, particularly in the primary sector. The employment status, whether formal or not, has a correlation with workers poverty status so much that the poor are more likely to be self-employed or to work for companies without any records concerning them. The low capital required to launch activities in the informal sector explains the high concentration of poor workers in this sector. C ontribution of the sectors to total em ploym ent (%)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2002

Agriculture OVERVIEW

Industry

2008

Services

Source: Living standards survey (ENV) 2002 and 2008.

The lack of training and lack of appropriate skills also exposed individuals in this case to turn to informal activities usually with low productivity. Thus, the development of education and vocational training is deemed necessary in order to improve the productivity of workers and guarantee their access to decent working conditions, the creation of decent and formal jobs that would workers to benefit from social insurance and social services. Contribution of the sectors to total employment

- CNCN CNCNCN

-------S ervices

Source : World Indicators, 2012.

— A g ric u ltu re -------Industry

Bank,

World

Development

In general, a significant portion of the workforce is employed in sectors whose dynamic could not even guarantee decent wages to their workers who could not generate sufficient income to pull them selves and their family members out of poverty. Many sectors have not generated productivity gains able to attract new workers or those from other sectors. Few sectors, such as ICT which have attracted new workers through the benefits they initially had, have their increase in em ploym ent accompanied by the decline in average earnings. The majority of traditional agricultural sectors are in decline due to the aging of means of production, especially plantations. Furthermore, shortcomings noted in the production system limit yields that are still very low. Those activities are no longer able to provide an appropriate source of income and employm ent in regions w here they are carried out.


In contrast, cashew and rice production provide significant income that may be regarded as annuities to northern growers and are crops to be favored in this region. The cocoa and coffee sector have a great potential to generate em ploym ent for poor people in rural areas by providing average income growth simultaneously with the reduction of inequalities and contribute to alleviating poverty just like during the period 2002 and 2008. The mining sector can also be a creator of jobs, either directly or indirectly, not only by increasing mining production through the exploitation of newly discovered oil fields but also by processing extracted substances. This might be quite promising provided that plans for support populations in neighbor areas are implemented and environmental degradation risks are monitored. Income gains would be effective only when the primary sector witnesses substantial productivity increases. Increasing productivity and competitiveness also requires improving the quality of foodstuffs produced. This will have a beneficial impact on many things, namely the increase in sale prices, increased exports and farm ers’ revenues ultimately. Modernizing the agricultural sector will therefore imply two challenges in Cote d'Ivoire which are: modernizing it through mechanization and the use of new farming techniques (training, seeds, etc.); and preserving the environment and natural resources. This will require facilitating farmers' access to finance and technological know-how and to appropriate equipment. The main source of jobs in the industrial sector is related to processing agricultural and mining products which are currently insufficient to significantly contribute to adding value to the primary sector. To that end, the presidential plan "Vivre ensemble/Living Together" considers that the first initiative to process 300,000 tons of raw cashew nuts produced annually in Cote d'Ivoire and the mastery of the technical and commercial chain would help to create 100,000 perm anent direct jobs and tens of billions CFA Francs of additional added value. On the other hand, the cultivation of jatropha and its conversion into biofuel could also be vectors of jobs.

In the sam e perspective of job creation in the mining sector, the presidential program believes that the transformation in special steels thanks to hydraulic power would provide the country with mining royalties (in addition to other taxes), w hereas the developing of deposits and the associated investments would create tens of thousands of jobs. To promote the developm ent of this type of processing activities, the statutory and legal environment should be favorable to the private sector developm ent as recommended in the National Developm ent Plan. This is the unique means for setting up new businesses that would create new jobs. It is also important that SM Es be developed in this area with a minimal contribution of funds, for exam ple in food processing. There is no doubt that Cote d’Ivoire has a good potential for tourism which is a sector which was relatively developed before the first politico-m ilitary crisis of 1999. Yet, since then, its activities have declined. Henceforth, the objective, for that sector, is to make sure that tourism industry become, once again, a source of employment and a sector that promotes economic and social development. To be more attractive, Cote d’ Ivoire may also rely namely on the development of its handicraft sector and its communication network and on its opening up to the sea. The development of this sector will also help to better valorize local products and to promote cultural activities. As regards the potential of job creation in the service sector, in addition to the areas initially highlighted in the PRSP, the Presidential Plan and the National Development Plan consider that other sectors also create jobs. Sectoral support for employment is expected to significantly boost the sources of income that households receive. It must therefore be accompanied by measures to promote productivity, so as to have a massive impact in terms of increased wages and poverty reduction.


Number of sources of income for households according to poverty level in 2008 Inactive U ne m plo yed P ublic and colle ctive service s O th e r s e rvic e s P ost a nd te le c o m m u n ic a tio n T ra n sp o rts a nd c o m m u n ica tio n s T rade a nd re pa ir C on struction Electricity, g as and w a te r M a n u fa ctu rin g in d u strie s E xtractive ind u strie s Fishing and fish farm ing F orestry and tim b e r industry Livestock, hun tin g and re late d a ctivitie s S e e d lin g s and s e e d s Industrial and e xp ort agricu ltu re O ilse ed plant g row in g B an a na and p in e ap ple g row in g C otton grow in g C offee g row in g C o co a g row in g S ub siste nce a griculture â–  Pauvres

â–  Non pauvres

----------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i----------------- :---------------------i----------------- :---------------------------------------------------0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Source: UNDP, INS, 2011. IMPROVING THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND ENSURING MORE FAIRNESS AND TRANSPARENCY IN THE FUNCTIONING OF THE LABOR MARKET

The match between labor-force supply and demand is worrying due to low employability o f school and university graduates.

However, access to employment substantially depends on family relationships and acquaintances that are useful for job seeking.

OVERVIEW

Unequal access to decent jobs thwarts poverty alleviating initiatives. This is characterized by gender or ethnic inequalities but also by casual, irregular, poorly paid employment and have no social protection. The analysis of employment in the light of the concept of decent work can show the precarious situation in which few workers are and how the structural characteristic of employment could affect the fight against poverty in Cote d'Ivoire. Few com ponents of the Regulatory and Institutional Framework of the labor market had a negative impact on employment. They include the business environment, the constraints of employment policy, the deregulation of the labor market, rigidities of the labor market, and inappropriate training systems. Measures of deregulation of the labor market adopted under the 1995 labor code had been challenged in the pre-social forum in 2006 established a compensation for insecurity and

instituted the involvement of the National Labor Council in the procedure of redundancy for economic reasons and this resulted in reduced-flexibility in the Ivoirian labor market. Few employers believed that the institutional framework was not conducive to job creation and business development. Dismissal procedures, wages fixing, and hiring procedures are considered constraining points for job creation. The match between labor-force supply and demand is worrying due to low employability of school and university graduates. Higher education has often been considered unsuited to needs of the labor market and job seekers also lack professional experience. Efforts initiated by jobseekers and support institutions for developing skills seem to be effective to a point where 39% of job seekers report having additional training different from their initial training. However, access to em ployment substantially depends on family relationships and acquaintances that are useful for job seeking. Thus, job seekers would attribute their failures, regardless of the channel used: i) to the lack of


transparency on the labor market (67.8%), ii) the business environm ent (58.5%) and iii) lack of information on vacancies (52.2%). Self-em ploym ent which is one of the ways recommended in the context of support for youth em ployment programs would be limited by inappropriate access to credit that young people face. Beyond individual strategies adopted to cope with the Labor Code constraints, a large proportion of employers would like the Labor Code to be reviewed. According to them, such review scheme should focus on: i) the redundancy procedure, ii) the fixing of wages, and iii) the hiring procedure. Professional integration could be improved through: i) facilities of support for business and job creation, ii) incentives for urging companies to accept to take in trainees, iii) improving the business environment, iv) training programs on entrepreneurship, v) facilities for access to credit vi) the matching of curriculums with the labor market the requirements, and vii) the improvement of the system used to share information of the labor market. In that respect, it is essential to develop a clear and operational strategy of professional integration of young people and to set forth a guarantee fund for specific groups. A close look at the regulatory and institutional framework and analysis of the views of key stakeholders on all laws, rules and standards that affect the functioning of the labor market, show that there are many avenues for reflection and actions for an effective functioning of the labor market. These initiatives include: i) the business environment, ii) laws and regulations governing the labor market, iii) incentives for business creation and employment, iv) the structuring and functioning of the labor market institutions, v) the im plementation of the employment policy, vi) the public sector/private sector partnership. In terms of business environment, the National Development Plan and the economic program include measures for improving the business environment. Few of them have already being taken, like the adoption of new investment code in 2012 and the creation of a center for business formalities in the same year. Restoring State authority, improving the judiciary system, the public administration and public procurement

systems will help the enhancement macro-economic environment.

of the

Concerning the regulatory framework, it would be necessary to review the Labor Code and the legal framework for occupational training as well as to set up an appropriate and auditable incentive system. The revision of the Labor Code must be completed in the light of recommendations from the social dialogue initiative that will help to set up regulatory patterns on the following issues: i) flexibility and precariousness ii) capacity building of the Labor administration iii) freedom of association, iv) business management, v) conflict settlement, and vi) compensation and working conditions. The promotion of employment requires regulatory measures that foster incentives needed pertaining to labor costs reduction, labor flexibility while ensuring that social protection principles are complied with. It is obvious that the promotion of employment should go hand in hand with economic business development, sectoral development and measures meant for promoting the productivity and competitiveness of the economy.

GREEN JOBS OPPORTUNITIES AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES Promoting employment through sectoral policies being an essential component of the promotion of employment, it seems indispensable to explore job opportunities which green economy can offer. Given that green economy is so broad and complex, three areas have been considered in this report because of the potential for job creation they offer, but also because of benefits that actions in these sectors could offer in terms of mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The three areas are renewable energies, reforestation, and waste management. The development of these sectors shall help to promote structural changes, productivity gains due to external savings they can generate, but also due to technologies they require for their development. Similarly, each area offers many opportunities for skills development. The development of green job opportunities is a valuable supplem ent for the sectoral aspect of the National employment policy in terms of sustainability.

Beyond individual strategies adopted to cope with the Labor Code constraints, a large proportion of employers would like the Labor Code to be reviewed.

It is obvious that the promotion of employment should go hand in hand with economic business development, sectoral development and measures meant for promoting the productivity and competitiveness of the economy.

The development of green job opportunities is a valuable supplement for the sectoral aspect of the National employment policy in terms of sustainability.


Renewable energies are valuable source o f green jobs. Cote d'Ivoire has significant potential for the development of clean energy that not only supplem ents but also enhances its energy mix. Cote d'Ivoire has a significant hydroelectric solar, wind or geothermal potential as well as a substantial biomass generated through agricultural and forestry activities. The biomass exploitation for energy use and especially for cooking is an important source of green jobs through the activities of collection, transport and processing of biomass and related training activities. Agricultural wastes such as cocoa pods, shells of cashew nuts, branches of cut wood, etc., may be important sources of biomass. Meanwhile, the production of cooking ovens suitable for the use of products derived from biomass can be a source of jobs. Jobs that will be created through the transformation of biomass into pellets for cooking will be preserved as substitute for wood energy. Energy offers endless opportunities for sustainable development. Such opportunities can be systematically seen in the production activities and the transport of energy, but also in green jobs made possible through energy services, or in the improvement of the status of women by the constraints avoided in the collection wood energy. Sustainable energy also means equitably shared energy. Access to energy is as much indispensable as the access to water and food. Cote d'Ivoire can develop biofuels value chains based on energy needs assessment, relevant markets, fuel, arable land, potential food competition, technology production/consumption, distribution channels, socio-economic and environmental factors. Therefore, this production of biofuels must be in synergy with the agricultural, transport, energy, industrial and environmental policies. The purpose is to maximize benefits and outcomes in terms of jobs, reduced costs of access energy while minimizing the potential consequences that impact on food and cash crops. Potential markets are dependent on transportation, electricity produced with gasoil and distillates, and lighting. Renewable energies like solar and wind energies do not permanently receive sunshine and wind. But once these are interconnected to the national grid systems, they may be sources of supplementary energy whose overall use at the local level would create direct jobs and other related advantages OVERVIEW

accruing from the availability of electric power. For the aforementioned sources of renewable energy (wind, solar and many other sources) the potentials of which are unknown, it is important to develop a clean energy Geographic Information System. Each clim atic zone of Cote d'Ivoire has its own renewable energy sources with a potential that is to be quantified by identifying technically and economically exploitable sources per area before consolidating them in a nationwide survey. Relevant choices will then be made for the networking and development of the national energy mix based on local solutions, their geographic location, and their impact on the local or national production. Green jobs that are directly created by developing a renewable energy technology are only a small portion of jobs that will be created indirectly. Niches o f green jo b s in forest managem ent activities are numerous and concern all the activities of the chain, from the identification of areas of planting, seedling production, the planting, maintenance and forestry activities which will add to those related to the preservation and reforestation works in natural forests as well as to the monitoring of forest technicians. The forestry sector employs a large number of unskilled workers especially for reforestation purposes. For the 2009-2011 period, about 294,400 man-days of planting program had been completed, and about 422,500 man-days had been completed for maintenance works in existing planted plots. You can also add any job niche in the domains of production, processing and marketing of forest products (in the form of fuel wood or any other products). The waste sector is an area of growing employment opportunities at its various sub-sectors: pre-collection, storage and collection. Such jobs can be created in all major urban areas in Cote d'Ivoire. Yet, in few sub-sectors, like pre-collection and sorting, the sector is not professionalized and jobs offered do not meet the criteria of decent jobs because of child labor, lack of hygiene and occupational health, and the lack of social protection. Though jobs in the recycling chain and reuse of waste are im portant sources of income, they are not decent jobs.


Other levels of the supply chain such as transport of waste, transportation, storage, recycling, composting and disposal activities by the business can still generate jobs if they receive appropriate technologies and infrastructures. Skills should also be developed for workers to be used in the field to enable them to fulfill their tasks. The professionalization of the waste management sector through capacity building for providers, namely pre-collectors and collection companies, and through the organization of their businesses in specific areas of intervention will help make the jobs which abound in them decent. Significant investments will also be needed for the equipment industry, transport, storage and treatment of waste and their re-use and production. It will be necessary to mobilize funds and to develop standards and regulations in order to enable stakeholders in the sector to fully play their role and create direct and indirect jobs as well as activities related to waste management. An appropriate and transparent cost retrieval system might help to mobilize funds for financing activities in the sector. It would also be necessary to initiate partnership ties with urban areas in countries where required technologies have been developed in order to draw benefit from foreign partners' experience. The involvement of various stakeholders, including government, relevant government departments, communities and local authorities, the private sector, the sectors producing different types of waste (manufacturing companies, mining companies, agribusiness companies, chemical industries, public and private hospitals and health care centers, pharmaceutical products manufacturing companies, etc.) and of populations is essential for managing the sector of waste as area of growing job opportunities and means for improving the quality of life.

INCLUSION OF INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS IN A SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM Based on ILO's definition of informal employment, in 2008, in Cote d'Ivoire, 93% of interviewed persons declared to be working in the informal sector, which meant that they did not answer by yes to any of the following questions, which are: ‘are you declared/registered to CNPS?'; ‘Are you entitled to a pension paid?'; ‘Are you entitled to paid leave?'. Women are

more interested by informal jobs (96% of them) than men (91%), mostly women living in urban areas, Abidjan excluded (90%) than women in Abidjan (82 %). Jobs should help to guarantee social integration and to benefit from regulatory and legal assistance that facilitate social integration. The integration of the informal sector workers into the social welfare system must help to implement the equity and integration principles included in the National Development Plan/Scheme. The social protection system in force in Cote d'Ivoire, despite taking into account the main risks (illness, retirement and disability, maternity, etc.) is limited to formal sector workers. Contributions are based on wages which are high while texts regulating social protection do not target workers in the informal sector. This is the reason of the low coverage rate (6%) among the working population.

The integration o f the informal sector workers into the social welfare system must help to implement the equity and integration principles included in the National Development Plan/Scheme.

The Ivorian Government, through its development strategy displayed in the National Development Plan, wishes to promote equity. This objective must be consolidated by appropriate regulation and institutions. Given the current weaknesses of the social welfare system and lessons learned from other countries' experiences, mostly emerging countries, it is noted that the system that would help to open up social protection schemes in Cote d'Ivoire must be based on the risk-sharing principle. This model has been chosen by countries considered to be reference-countries for the opening up of social welfare systems. This model has also been chosen by the formal sector workers in Cote d'Ivoire to benefit from health insurance services. The promotion of social protection schemes could be based on the following guidelines: involvement of the state, a locally-based organization that knows to capitalize on experiences underway at the national level and on a contribution pattern suitable for the informal sector. The involvement of the State is im portant for the opening up of the social welfare system, the adoption of regulations, the establishm ent of institutional fram eworks and the provision of warranties for ensuring the financial viability of the system. The State must also help to promote, manage and monitor mutual health insurances. Furthermore, the desire to open up the welfare system requires the inclusion of social groups with low contributory capacity. In this case, the

Jobs which must be promoted are decent jobs that can help workers to get rid o f poverty while taking into account the sustainability aspect.

3


To promote structural changes that help to create new jobs and social transformations, it would be necessary to invest in infrastructures with high external economic opportunities and to foster the involvement of private investors in agricultural products processing activities and to promote green economy.

It would also be necessary the productivity and competitiveness o f formal activities carried out in the informal sector in order to enable such activities to reach greater scale.

In that respect, obstacles to the development of the private sector and employment must be removed.

survival of the scheme depends on the financial support of the State in order to manage potential financial unbalances. The welfare system should be characterized by its proxim ity to current and potential beneficiaries. Sensitization should help to establish a decentralized system based on professional associations of beneficiaries. Decentralization could also be used as vehicle, not forgetting modern tools provided by information and communication technology, relying effectively on networks of partner-organizations like microfinance institutions. The proximity of the system could be based on the decentralization policy around which social mutual com panies might revolve. Appropriate regulation is necessary for the gradual inclusion of informal sector workers in a social welfare system. Community rules on social mutuality enacted in the W AEMU is a potential means to explore given that it seeks to open up social welfare schemes to the poor and the informal sector workers. Terms for participating to welfare schemes must be set forth in a way that guarantees transparency, simplicity and proximity to right-holders and potential beneficiaries. Potential beneficiaries reluctance must be overcome through constructive dialogue on the rights and obligations of each party. Beneficiaries' professional associations must play a crucial role in implementing social welfare schemes supposed to include informal workers. They should play a go-between role in order to guarantee closeness, reassure beneficiaries, and involve them in the collection of contributions. The financing of social welfare schemes for workers in the informal sector should be at the same time contributory and based on national solidarity. The State must provide its financial contribution based on rigorous evaluations meant for ensuring the viability of the system, its efficiency and transparency. Experiences from other countries show how the combination of information and communication technology, tools used by private insurance companies and microfinance institutions could help to guarantee the sustainability of existing schemes. *

OVERVIEW

*

*

The employment trend in Cote d’Ivoire is inseparable from the trend of the economy as a whole and from associated structural changes. The promotion of employment must be fitted in this perspective. Jobs which must be promoted are decent jobs that can help workers to get rid of poverty while taking into account the sustainability aspect. The National Development Plan and the National Employment Policy have brought about a set of measures whose implementation would guarantee the promotion of employment in Cote d'Ivoire. In the light of analyses made, the report points out areas in which supplementary useful efforts have to be made to trigger a new dynamic for employment in the country. The report recommends to take measures for ensuring a new employment drive in view to: i) promote structural changes that help to create jobs and positive social impact; ii) Revamp the accumulation process and help to develop infrastructures and the private sector; iii) Enhance com petitiveness in the international market, iv) Remove obstacles to the resumption of productive investments, v) Promote investment in productivity, vi) Enhance agricultural products including biomass, vii) Promote green jobs and related professional skills, viii) Strengthen the principles of equity and inclusion in employment policies and social protection, ix) Improve the regulatory framework for the labor market, x) Associate sectoral policies and employment promotion; xi) Promote labor productivity in the informal sector; xii) Create conditions for the inclusion of informal sector workers in a social welfare system. The report highlights the need to focus the promotion of employment in a context of structural changes. To promote structural changes that help to create new jobs and social transform ations, it would be necessary to invest in infrastructures with high external economic opportunities and to foster the involvement of private investors in agricultural products processing activities and to promote green economy. Sectoral policies must be a key means for improving productivity and encouraging the promotion of employment. In that respect, obstacles to the development of the private sector and employment must be removed. It would also be necessary the productivity and com petitiveness of formal activities carried out in the informal sector in order to enable such activities to reach greater scale.


The analysis of the regulation and functioning of the labor market underlines the need to focus namely on the business environment, the occupational regulatory framework, the organization and functioning of labor institutions, in order to guarantee efficiency and transparency in the access to job. Employment must help to get people out of poverty. Therefore, it must be gainful. Progresses in labor productivity, the widening of the accumulation and sectoral diversification, including namely the processing of primary products are indispensable for creating enough decent jobs. New channels must be explored and green economy offers many opportunities for creating new jobs and for developing skills that will be necessary to promote. We must therefore focus reforms in promoting structural changes bring jobs and social transformation. In that respect, reforms must be focused on promoting structural changes that foster employment opportunities and social transformations.

Investments are necessary. They must be promoted while ensuring that they can produce effects expected in terms of capacity building, in terms of improvement of productivity, and in terms of boosting the economy. Investment efforts must be based on transparent and effective organizational models. The private sector's role is essential and measures meant for promoting them must not just be based on fiscal and regulatory incentives. It is also necessary to focus on the access to technology an to markets that will stimulate the economic drive as well as the employment drive. Low productivity rates recorded in the informal sector and the inclusion of informal sector workers in a welfare system are also major axes to focus on in order to improve the lives of the majority of workers by increasing their capacity to reduce deprivations which they are faced with.

Progresses in labor productivity, the widening o f the accumulation and sectoral diversification, including namely the processing o f primary products are indispensable for creating enough decent jobs.

In that respect, reforms must be focused on promoting structural changes that foster employment opportunities and social transformations.

OVERVIEW

^

5


APPENDIX : METHODOLOGY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY INDICATORS

Table A1: List of dimensions, indicators and data sources (HDI) Indicators

Required Indicators for calculation

Data source

Life expectancy at birth: average probable number of years the members of a generation can expect to live at birth

Method proposed by M. POULAIN, 1990 1. National mortality tale, separate genders RGPH 1998 Demographic forecasts

HDI

IIG

Coverage

2. Age and gender based structures of each region 3. Total number of deaths actually observed per sex, where possible

10 administrative regions in 2005

10 administrative regions in 2005

Average duration of schooling

ENV 2002 and 2008

Barro and Lee (2010)

Expected duration of schooling: this is the schooling life expectancy

Number of children in school per age and grade

Schooling life expectancy

Maternal mortality rate

HDS 1994, AIS 2005

10 administrative regions in 2005

Adolescent fertility rate

HDS 1998 and AISSA 2005

10 administrative regions in 2005

Number of women and men having at least attended secondary school IPM

Child mortality

HDS 1998, AIS 2005

Under-1 mortality rate

TableA2: List of dimensions, indicators and data sources (HDI) Dimension

Indicators

Data source

Health and longevity

Life expectancy at birth

RGPH 1998, INS

Education

Average duration of schooling Expected duration of schooling

Decent living standard

GNI per capita

Observations To be esti mated

ENV 2002 & 2008 & 2011 (Barro and Lee, 2010) UNESCO Statistics Institute, DIPES, BNETD ENV 2002 & 2008 & 2011 WDI 2012

To be esti mated To be estimated To be esti mated

Table A3: Highest and lowest values of HDI Indicators

Highest value

Low est value

Life expectancy at birth Average duration of schooling Expected duration of schooling Combined education index Gross domestic product per capita (in PPA in $)

83,4 13,1 18,0 0,978 107721

20,0 0 0 0 100

Source: UNDP (2012), HDR 2011.

OVERVIEW

10 administrative regions


Table A4: List of dim ensions, indicators and data sources (GII)

Dimension

Indicators

Data source

Observations

Reproductive health

- Maternal mortality rate (MMR) - Adolescent fertility rate (AFR)

MICS 2000 & 2006 HDS 1998 & EIS 2005

- elected members of parliament and local authorities (PR)

Parliament Ministry of the Interior (Directorate for Decentralization)

To be estimated

Empowerment

Secondary and higher education

To be estimated

ENV 2002 & 2008 & 2011

labor market participation rates

Labor market

To be estimated

To be estimated

ENV 2002 & 2008 & 2011

Table A5: List of dimensions, indicators and data sources (MPI) Dimension

Indicators

Health

Child mortality

Education

Living standards

Number of years in school School children Cooking fuel Water Electricity Land Equipment Toilets

Source de donnees HDS EIS ENV ENV ENV ENV ENV MICS ENV ENV

Date 1998 2005 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2000 & 2006 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011 2002 & 2008 & 2011

Table B1: Evolution of life expectancy at birth (years), 2002-2011 2002 REGIONS

2008

2011

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

54,55

57,99

56,27

55,66

59,27

57,46

55,01

58,61

56,81

CENTRAL W EST

53,92

57,46

55,69

55,82

59,46

57,64

55,15

58,78

56,97

NORTH EAST

54,40

57,91

56,16

56,39

60,16

58,47

55,85

59,59

57,73

NORTH

54,54

58,07

56,30

56,97

60,74

59,10

56,43

60,18

58,30

W EST

54,04

57,41

55,73

57,32

60,97

59,21

56,58

60,22

58,40

SOUTH

53,20

56,67

54,93

55,31

58,90

57,10

54,70

58,27

56,48

SOUTH W EST

54,25

57,30

55,77

57,07

60,59

59,06

56,51

60,02

58,26

CENTER

54,07

57,57

55,82

56,10

59,85

57,97

55,42

59,12

57,27

CENTRAL EAST

54,58

58,03

56,30

54,65

58,23

56,90

54,51

58,09

56,30

CENTRAL NORTH

N ORTH-W EST

54,20

57,67

55,94

57,31

60,99

59,27

56,62

60,29

58,45

ABIDJAN

54,03

57,49

56,83

54,12

57,68

55,86

54,13

57,68

55,86

COTE D'IVOIRE

54,17

57,61

55,89

56,26

59,91

58,22

55,68

59,32

57,50

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates

OVERVIEW

^

7


Table B2: Evolution of the average duration of schooling, 2002-2011 2002

REGIONS

2008

Men

W omen

Both

Men

CENTRAL NORTH

5,52

2,32

3,88

CENTRAL W EST

4,57

1,80

3,14

NORTH EAST

3,47

0,89

NORTH

2,39

W EST SOUTH

2011

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

3,63

1,37

2,49

4,84

2,30

3,65

3,63

1,37

2,49

4,84

2,30

3,65

2,07

3,18

1,01

2,03

3,18

1,01

2,03

1,05

1,73

1,94

0,78

1,35

1,94

0,78

1,35

4,87

1,82

3,30

4,43

7,27

6,17

6,71

7,81

1,98

3,24

4,43

1,98

3,24

5,22

6,72

7,81

5,22

6,72

SOUTH W EST

3,19

1,69

2,54

4,77

2,31

3,71

4,77

2,31

3,71

CENTER

4,37

1,56

2,84

4,80

1,75

3,13

4,80

1,75

3,13

CENTRAL EAST

5,78

2,35

N ORTH-W EST

1,80

0,62

4,06

4,86

2,50

3,75

4,86

2,50

3,75

1,19

1,52

0,53

1,02

1,52

0,53

1,02

ABIDJAN

7,51

6,21

7,05

7,95

5,27

6,75

7,82

5,27

6,77

COTE D'IVOIRE

4,32

2,03

3,15

4,18

2,08

3,14

4,18

1,98

3,11

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates

Table B3: Evolution of the expected duration of schooling, 2002-2011 2002

REGIONS

2008

2011

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

CENTRAL NORTH

7,51

6,34

6,94

4,54

3,42

3,99

4,19

3,92

4,06

CENTRAL W EST

6,25

4,54

5,45

9,57

7,71

8,73

5,54

4,34

4,96

NORTH EAST

4,28

7,49

5,78

6,25

5,00

5,68

5,69

4,37

5,09

NORTH

5,09

3,99

4,56

4,29

3,06

3,69

4,60

3,59

4,11

W EST

6,46

4,55

5,56

5,68

3,66

4,73

6,20

4,14

5,23

SOUTH

8,48

5,63

7,10

8,10

6,30

7,02

7,63

6,52

7,04

SOUTH W EST

5,18

3,58

4,40

5,33

3,67

4,52

4,39

3,47

3,95

CENTER

6,74

5,48

6,16

8,04

6,30

7,22

7,54

6,22

6,92

CENTRAL EAST

5,78

5,05

5,42

6,84

5,44

6,17

5,61

4,57

5,11

N ORTH-W EST

4,88

3,03

4,02

4,07

2,28

3,24

4,01

2,97

3,53

ABIDJAN

8,59

5,67

7,48

8,22

6,52

7,26

8,90

7,51

8,10

COTE D'IVOIRE

6,07

4,97

5,54

6,27

4,58

5,47

6,03

4,95

5,50

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates


Table B4: Evolution of the gross regional product (PPA) in USD, 2002-2011 REGIONS

2002

2008

2011

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W omen

Both

Men

W om en

Both

CENTRAL NORTH

1 242

1 128

1 182

1 214

1 177

1 196

1 554

1 507

1 530

CENTRAL W EST

946

926

937

1 213

1 136

1 177

1 124

1 053

1 091

NORTH EAST

2 146

1 621

1 860

1 595

1 464

1 527

1 421

1 304

1 360

NORTH

1 195

1 087

1 139

946

914

930

1 288

1 244

1 266

W EST

776

705

740

1 344

1 201

1 275

1 008

900

956

SOUTH

2 176

2 033

2 099

2 207

2 286

2 247

2 382

2 467

2 425

SOUTH W ES T

1 762

1 579

1 673

1 853

1 779

1 819

1 528

1 468

1 500

CENTER

1 184

1 106

1 145

1 473

1 385

1 428

1 076

1 012

1 043

CENTRAL EAST

2 102

1 675

1 878

1 484

1 409

1 448

1 978

1 878

1 930

N ORTH-W EST

1 655

1 496

1 576

1 351

1 233

1 295

1 468

1 340

1 407

ABIDJAN

2 644

2 995

2 818

2 890

3 028

2 960

2 951

3 344

3 146

COTE D'IVOIRE

1 518

1 336

1 425

1 568

1 545

1 557

1 759

1 643

1 700

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates

Table B5: components of the gender inequality index Maternal m ortality rate

Adolescent fertility rate

Proportion of men and wom en having at least attended secondary school

2002

2011**

2002 2008 2011

H-02

F-02

H-08

F-08

H-11

F-11

REGIONS 2008*

CENTRAL NORTH

1 123

715

715

153

117

110

29,5

10,9

31,1

15,3

31,8

21,4

CENTRAL W EST

952

521

521

193

160

156

22,7

6,1

29,0

12,2

31,2

15,2

NORTH EAST

1 293

412

412

136

126

130

18,1

3,6

20,6

7,6

23,0

9,3

8,0

16,8

11,0

NORTH

427

493

493

163

94

77

12,5

5,3

15,5

W EST

748

463

463

165

164

176

24,2

7,2

27,7

12,0

30,9

15,9

SOUTH

282

288

288

114

115

124

47,7

28,5

49,5

37,7

57,1

53,9

SOUTH W ES T

543

405

405

228

145

124

15,3

7,2

22,9

14,2

23,3

17,7

CENTER

617

1 058

1 058

182

125

111

22,6

6,0

30,0

12,2

31,8

15,1

CENTRAL EAST

449

498

498

131

120

123

31,3

8,4

34,5

15,5

38,9

19,8

N ORTH-W EST

813

565

565

182

176

187

8,6

2,8

11,0

4,4

11,9

6,0

ABIDJAN

231

371

371

89

102

95

68,1

41,2

72,4

57,0

75,1

63,2

COTE D'IVOIRE

656

542

542

159

130

124

21,0

7,0

25,2

12,0

27,3

15,7

* Value o f 2005; * V alue o f 2008

Source: 2013 NHDR estimates

OVERVIEW

^

9


Components of the gender inequality index (cont'd) Participation rate (%)

Activity rate (%) REGIONS

H-02

F-02

H-08

F-08

H -11

F-11

H-02

F-02

H-08

F-08

H-11

F-11

CENTRAL NORTH

60,6

55,2

81,7

63,4

77,7

62,3

90,2

9,8

90,2

9,8

90,9

9,1

CENTRAL W EST

56,2

52,6

79,8

59,0

75,3

58,2

92,9

7,1

92,9

7,1

92,7

7,3

NORTH EAST

65,4

59,8

93,0

77,3

87,6

74,5

99,9

0,1

99,9

0,1

97,0

3,0

NORTH

72,3

66,6

85,7

53,4

83,3

55,7

97,8

2,2

97,8

2,2

98,1

1,9

W EST

70,1

59,2

88,4

63,1

85,0

62,7

95,8

4,2

95,8

4,2

91,7

8,3

SOUTH

52,6

46,5

80,4

59,5

74,9

57,4

92,8

7,2

92,8

7,2

90,5

9,5

SOUTH W ES T

65,6

56,0

83,4

56,4

80,1

56,7

99,9

0,1

99,9

0,1

99,9

0,1 8,0

CENTER

63,1

57,3

80,0

65,0

76,8

64,0

91,7

8,3

91,7

8,3

92,0

CENTRAL EAST

69,9

67,3

82,3

53,1

80,1

55,6

99,9

0,1

99,9

0,1

92,9

7,1

N ORTH-W EST

75,1

71,8

88,9

58,6

86,4

61,0

92,6

7,4

92,6

7,4

96,6

3,4

ABIDJAN

50,2

44,5

83,8

68,6

78,0

66,3

86,0

14,0

86,0

14,0

80,0

20,0

COTE D'IVOIRE

64,7

58,8

84,3

60,5

80,6

60,6

94,3

5,7

94,3

5,7

93,6

6,4

Source: NHDR estimates, 2013

Table B6: Contribution to the multidimensional poverty index (in %), 2002 REGIONS

Vulnerability

Extreme poverty

Number of years in school

Child education

Equipment

Fuel

Sanitation

Access to Access to water electricity

Floor covering

Child mortality

9,1

6,6

89,4

87,7

41,1

11 ,9

32,7

CENTRAL NORTH

25,7

32,5

38,6

CENTRAL WEST

20,2

39,4

48,0

8,1

6,3

98,1

96,0

60,0

62,0

14 ,9

36 ,8

NORTH EAST

23,0

35,2

28,9

8,2

6,8

93,5

88,9

31,4

66,9

26 ,6

35 ,9

NORTH

29,4

30,5

20,1

3,0

4,3

97,2

96,1

57,4

61,3

25 ,4

34 ,4

WEST

24,5

37,8

42,6

10,0

6,2

97,6

96,1

62,6

65,8

32,2

35,5

SOUTH

15,4

26,9

45,0

11,9

2,9

64,9

67,3

39,8

20,0

6,3

35,4

SOUTH WEST

29,9

34,6

35,8

12,0

5,3

96,5

95,1

68,8

76,6

28 ,3

30 ,9

CENTER

17,0

31,2

40,3

4,7

6,0

95,5

93,2

40,7

57,5

8,5

37,8

CENTRAL EAST

18,3

32,7

39,9

10,4

2,9

86,8

87,6

51,5

37,8

5,4

35,8

NORTH-WEST

28,7

31,9

33,9

7,5

4,4

99,2

98,0

67,7

60,7

35 ,1

30 ,2

51,8

ABIDJAN

10,3

20,2

43,6

11,8

1,5

40,8

49,6

29,9

5,3

1,2

34,6

COTE D'IVOIRE

22,6

33,1

36,3

7,9

4,9

91,3

90,1

50,5

53,0

16 ,0

34,5%

Source: NHDR estimates, 2013


Contribution to the multidimensional poverty index (in %), 2002 (cont'd) Number of years in schoo

Child education

Equipment

Fuel

Sanitation

Access to water

CENTRAL NORTH

19,2

5,3

0,7

9,9

9,5

CENTRAL WEST

22,6

3,9

0,8

10,4

10,2

NORTH EAST

15,4

5,1

0,8

10,1

NORTH

11,8

2,1

0,6

WEST

19,9

SOUTH

21,0

SOUTH WEST

19,4

CENTER

19,7

2,6

0,7

CENTRAL EAST

19,0

6,3

0,4

NORTH-WEST

18,6

4,6

0,6

10,8

ABIDJAN

20,8

7,8

0,2

5,3

COTE D'IVOIRE

18,4

4,6

0,6

9,9

9,9

Access to electricity

Floor covering

Child mortality

4,5

6,2

1,2

43,4

6,5

7,0

1,5

37,3

10,0

3,5

7,9

2,9

44,5

10,6

10,7

6,7

6,5

2,5

48,5

0,8

10,1

9,9

6,7

7,3

3,5

36,8

7,1

0,4

7,7

8,0

5,2

2,7

0,8

47,0

6,6

0,7

10,3

10,2

7,1

8,2

2,7

34,7

10,6

10,4

4,9

7,1

9,4

9,6

6,6

5,0

1,1 0,6

43,2

10,7

7,3

6,5

4,2

36,6

6,6

4,3

0,8

0,2

54,0

5,8

6,2

1,8

41,2

5,1

42,9

Source: NHDR estimates, 2013 Table B7: Contribution to the multidimensional poverty index (in %), 2008 Extreme poverty

Number of years in school

Child education

REGIONS

Vulnerability

CENTRAL NORTH

29,5

30,6

57,8

13,7

23,5

44,5

CENTRAL WEST

16,9

39,6

60,0

7,1

24,2

51,6

Equipment

Fuel

Access Access to to water electricity

Floor covering

48,0

86,7

95,3

53,8

44,4

62,1

93,3

96,0

60,6

64,4

Sanitation

Child mortality

NORTH EAST

11,7

46,8

66,5

6,8

21,4

52,2

31,7

90,3

94,8

38,6

79,1

NORTH

21,7

37,3

78,3

7,0

35,7

42,1

43,5

92,0

97,4

69,6

56,7

WEST

6,2

51,6

55,4

7,9

38,2

50,3

58,3

95,7

98,5

49,9

87,5

SOUTH

23,6

38,7

49,5

8,7

9,8

19,0

37,4

74,9

57,4

33,9

66,9

SOUTH WEST

15,5

41,1

60,8

9,7

22,8

54,7

72,1

90,0

92,6

41,4

69,5

CENTER

12,5

44,1

56,4

7,2

16,7

42,4

31,4

90,3

92,6

48,7

77,9

CENTRAL EAST

16,3

41,0

55,8

8,1

16,0

33,2

45,7

88,2

88,1

47,9

73,6

NORTH-WEST

26,8

32,0

64,4

6,8

36,7

48,8

54,0

92,4

98,4

54,8

48,9

ABIDJAN

28,2

36,8

65,3

9,0

3,2

5,9

28,7

63,5

32,8

26,1

65,9

COTE D'IVOIRE

14,9

39,4

59,6

7,9

20,8

40,1

45,2

89,0

89,0

47,9

64,1

Source: NHDR estimates, 2013 Contribution to the multidimensional poverty index (in %), 2008 (cont'd) Number of years in schoo CENTRAL NORTH 29,0 CENTRAL WEST 26,8 REGIONS

NORTH EAST

25,7

Child education

Equipment

Fuel

Sanitation

Access to water

4,9

2,4

4,6

5,5

8,8

1,8

2,2

4,7

5,9

8,5

1,3

4,7

3,0

7,9

Access to electricity

Floor covering

Child mortality

6,0

29,0

8,9

5,7

35,6

8,3

3,5

43,4

9,6

NORTH

27,7

1,7

2,1 3,4

4,1

4,3

8,7

34,3

23,7

2,0

3,1

4,1

4,6

7,7

9,1 7,9

6,6

WEST

4,3

42,6

SOUTH

27,8

2,7

1,2

4,1 6,8

7,5

6,0

3,8

44,9

SOUTH WEST

26,0

2,6

2,1

2,1 5,0

8,2

8,2

3,7

37,5

CENTER

25,8

2,4

1,5

4,0

2,8

7,9

8,2

4,5

42,7

CENTRAL EAST

26,2

1,8

1,6

3,4

4,4

8,0

8,0

4,6

42,0

NORTH-WEST ABIDJAN

28,6

2,2

3,8

5,0

5,3

9,3

9,5

5,9

30,5

28,8

3,1

0,3

0,7

3,0

6,7

3,9

3,0

50,5

COTE D'IVOIRE

26,7

2,1

2,1

3,9

4,4

8,2

8,2

4,7

37,4

Source: NHDR estimates, 2013


The 2013 Human Developm ent Report for Cote d ’Ivoire reviews the issue of employment in an approach which combines structural, institutional and behavioral changes that impacted on employm ent trend and populations’ welfare. The last few years developm ent context which is rather marked by post-conflict management initiatives hampered economic activity and lowered the volumes of transactions and resources earmarked to social and economic developm ent schemes. The slowdown in economic activity and in the accumulation process witnessed during three decades also hindered human developm ent and reduced job opportunities, mostly for young people. The report underlines the need to promote structural changes with high potential of creating productive and decent jobs, and to link the promotion of employment to sector-based developm ent as well as to the improvem ent of productivity and competitiveness. The report also tackles the huge potential in terms of job creation and skills developm ent that exists in the sectors of green economy and which enables it to promote human developm ent based on sustainability principles. The report also reveals that the promotion of employment should as well combine incentive measures in terms of flexibility and reduction of the cost of labor while emphasizing the decent feature of jobs. The dominance of informal employm ent is also highlighted as well as measures to be taken in order to improve productivity and to promote the gradual inclusion of workers in the informal sector, particularly women, in social protection schemes. Issues related to vocational training for young people are also underlined in view to improving employability and enhance Cote d’Ivoire’s human and socio-institutional capital.

www.ci.undp.org


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