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Migration Management Stock Taking Matrix


Participating institutions:

CARIM: Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration– European University Institute, Florence CREAD: Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour le Développement, Alger DIAL, IRD : Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris Egyptian Society for Migration Studies, Cairo European Commission - DG ECOFIN European Commission - DG JUSTICE European Commission – BEPA: Bureau of European Policy Advisers European Training Foundation, Turin FEMISE: Forum Euroméditerranéen des Instituts de Sciences Economiques, Marseille ILO: International Labor Organization, Geneva IMI: International Migration Institute, Oxford University INSEAD & Fondation Hassan II pour les MRE, Rabat IOM: International Organization for Migration – Regional Office for the Mediterranean, Rome ITC ILO: International Training Center, Turin IZA: Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn Lebanese American University, Institute for Migration Studies - Paul TABAR OECD Development Center, Paris OECD LEED Program ÖIF: Austrian Integration Fund The Syrian Trust for Development UNDP: United Nations Development Program University of Jordan - Abdel Baset ATHAMNEH University Paris Dauphine – Mouhoub EL MOUHOUD University of Saint Joseph, OURSE – Choghig KASPARIAN


CARIM – European University Institute/ Completed by Philippe FARGUES, Scientific director NB: The distinction sending vs. receiving countries is not relevant for most research on Mediterranean migration at the EUI since Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries are systematically dealt with by CARIM and other projects as source and host countries of international migration at the same time. Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short (Title, Type, and Description) short Description)

Perceived Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Mediterranean Migration at the Migration Policy Centre of the European University Institute

1. CARIM: Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration CARIM was created at the European University Institute in 2004 and is co-financed by the European Commission, DG AidCo, under the Thematic programme for cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum. CARIM aims to observe, analyse, and forecast migration in 17 countries of the Southern & Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Palestine, Senegal, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. All are studied as origin, transit and destination countries. CARIM network of experts: CARIM is composed of a coordinating unit established at the European University Institute (Florence, Italy), and a network of around 70 scientific correspondents based in the countries under observation, as well as external experts from the European Union and the rest of the world. CARIM database covers three major dimensions of migration: demographic and economic; legal; socio-political. 

The demographic and economic module contains a wide range of statistics on migration (a list of 75 tables for each country) that are provided by national institutions. With a view to facilitate international comparison and aggregation, names and formats of tables and variables have been standardised as far as possible, while respecting the specificity of each national set of data.

The legal module contains the legal provisions directly or indirectly linked to international migration, its causes and consequences as well as notes and papers from our national experts.

The socio-Political module contains documents emanating from governmental and nongovernmental institutions which play a role in defining or applying migration related policies.

CARIM publications (ca. 250 titles): 

Mediterranean Report on Migration: it provides a comprehensive overview of the major developments concerning migration into, through, and from each of the SEM countries.

Research Reports and Analytical and Synthetic Notes: papers based on original research related to the CARIM Research Programmes.

Migration Profiles: provide an overview of demographic, economic, legal and sociopolitical aspects shaping migration in the country.

1. Observing migration: Migration data are among the most inaccurate, unreliable and outdated data on population and the economy. In most cases, they are too incomplete and imperfect to be used for policy-making purposes. Programmes aiming at improving data collection systems are useful efforts, but they will bring no tangible results in the short-term. Research needs to focus on how existing administrative systems can be used, now, to produce better data.

2. Evaluating migration policies: methodologies to monitor in real time migration and migration-related policies must be developed. 3. Assisting both migration and development stakeholders in the Mediterranean: Regular channels of exchanges should be reinforced between decision-makers and government officials, on the one hand, and the scientific community, on the other. Research expertise can identify the real challenges and priorities that need to be tackled in order to foster the contribution of migrants to development in the short- to long-term.


CARIM research programmes: CARIM conducts comparative and multidisciplinary research on issues that are crucial for countries and peoples of the region. Research is applied and policyoriented, with a view to identifying and analysing emerging questions, and providing support for the definition and monitoring of public policies. The following research programmes have been completed: 

Border Management

Circular Migration

Irregular Migration

Transit Migration

The following research programmes are ongoing 

Highly-skilled migration

Gender and migration

CARIM conferences: each research programme comprises one expert meeting and one or two policy-makers meetings; an annual summer school − the Florence School on Mediterranean Migration and Development − is also organised in the framework of CARIM.

2. METOIKOS: Circular migration in Southern and Central Eastern Europe: Challenges and opportunities METOIKOS, a project co-funded by the European Commission DG-JLS, studies the links between circular migration and processes of integration (in the country of destination) and reintegration (in the source country) of circular migrants and their families in three regions of Europe (southeastern Europe/Balkans; south-western Europe/Maghreb; central-eastern Europe). The project will identify the main challenges and opportunities involved in circular migration for source countries, destination countries and migrants (and their families) as regards the latter’s social, economic and political integration in the destination country. It will also look at problems and opportunities of reintegration of circular migrants in their countries of origin. The project will develop a Guide for local, regional and national policy makers as to how to frame circular migration with appropriate (re-)integration policies. Three Regional Workshops (on Spain, Italy and Morocco; on Greece, Italy and Albania; and on Poland, Hungary and Ukraine) will be organized. The project will foster online discussion on circular migration with a view to raising awareness on the challenges and advantages of circular mobility in the wider area of the EU Neighbhourhood and the Euro-Mediterranean region.

Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects This project financed by the European Commission DG-ECFIN and completed in fall 2009 pursued the following: 

To analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs) labour markets;

To propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of EU’s migration


policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand. The project has delivered a regional report and 10 background papers that were presented in an international conference hosted by Cairo University.

MIREM Return Migration to the Maghreb The main objective of the MIREM project revolved around a more in-depth consideration of the challenges linked to return migration as well as its impact on development. Analyses and userfriendly tools have been provided to understand further the impact of return migration on the Maghreb countries. These were aimed at identifying the factors inherent in the returnees’ migratory experience, as well as those that are external to it, which shape their patterns of reintegration, as well as their opportunities to participate in the development of the Maghreb countries (i.e., Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia). Main outcomes of the MIREM project include: The MIREM field survey on returnees to the Maghreb countries Includes a large number of comparable datasets allowing the manifold factors shaping returnees’ patterns of reintegration in their country of origin (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) to be better understood. The Database on Return Migrants to the Maghreb (DReMM). The DReMM constitutes a rich source of information about the processes of reintegration of around one thousand return migrants and about their post-return conditions in their countries of origin. Statistics on return migration to the Maghreb Include a series of statistical data and graphs allowing return flows and stocks in the Maghreb countries to be evaluated. The inventory of the bilateral agreements linked to readmission A unique database of all the bilateral agreements linked to readmission (i.e., standard agreements, police cooperation agreements, memoranda of understanding, administrative arrangements, exchanges of letters) that have been concluded and negotiated by the Maghreb countries and the EU Member States, since the 1950s. Three policy meetings aimed at securing the concrete exploitation of the analytical data produced by the project team.


CREAD: Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour le Développement, Alger / Completed by Nacer Eddine HAMMOUDA , Research director 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Sensitizing youth departure from Algeria to Italy, namely on human smuggling – FACM/CREAD

Fieldwork though main actors (local authority, government officers, security officers, youth and their parents)

Information of migrants rights through mass media create more public awareness in Algeria and in Sicilia (Italy)

Informed migrant on human smuggling through transnational networks

Migration & Development -CREAD

Sample derived from Census data 2008 Survey on Algerian migrant's household to be run on both sexes

Receiving countries unknown Reasons for migration Remittances behavior

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Data improvement on inflows Clear-cut understanding of migrants' (Algerian & foreigners) impact on economic and social development, namely through remittances & social remittances


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Survey on foreigners in Algeria

Remittances behavior of migrants in Algeria ( bi-national, workers, students, employers)

Scope of outflows Social remittances

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration & Development


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Return Algerian migrants from overseas Within MIREM/EUI Florence (2007)

New panel survey

Return migration of sub-Saharan migrants from Algeria (2006) CISP/SARP/CREAD

New panel survey

Informed Migrant (2006) -IOM

Review of legal instruments

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Data available

outcomes of returnees or new departure

Reinforcement of returnees re-integration and investment in Algeria

Data available

outcomes of returnees or new arrival

Measuring impact of policies on irregular migration

New Law on foreigners in Algeria

to be updated

New informed migrant report

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Survey on Algerian Diaspora involved in HTA overseas – data available though HTA in France, USA and Canada National Council of Algerian Migrants (law published in 2009)

Relieve Diaspora contribution to economic and social development

Diaspora contribution to the development of foreign countries and of Algeria

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

HTA social remittances

Investment opportunities for Diaspora


DIAL, IRD : Institut de Recherche pour le DĂŠveloppement / Completed by Flore GUBERT

4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

Research paper on the Future of Migration from North Africa to OECD Countries. (Assessment of the likely evolution of the various factors (economic, demographic and environmental) which could influence the movement of people out of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in the next twenty years, either in the form of intra-regional migration or to OECD countries)

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

Coordination of the MIDDAS project on Senegalese migration (I do not know whether it has to be mentioned or not). Analytical. (http://www.dial.prd.fr/dial_enquetes/ dial_enquetes_middas.htm) -In French only-

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition 2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

3. RETURNING

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

MIDDAS Project on Senegalese migration with surveys among Senegalese migrants in 4 destination countries (France, Italy, Mauritania and C么te d'Ivoire).

Will provide data on points 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 + Will inform on channels through which migrants send remittances

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Participation to the MIREM project headed by Jean-Pierre Cassarino on return migration in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

2 research papers on return migrants and entrepreneurship and on return migrants and social mobility.


Egyptian Society for Migration Studies/ Completed by Dina ABDEL FATTAH 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

A message to the youth: how to migrate legally

A campaign on awareness raising on migration issues for potential youth migrants in Menoufyia Governorate

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

Pre-departure orientation programs

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Impact of Financial crisis on Egyptian migration and Egyptians abroad


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Diaspora organization: a directory for Egyptian institutions abroad

3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

Diaspora organization: a directory for Egyptian institutions abroad

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


European Commission - DG ECOFIN/ Completed by Nuria DIEZ GUARDIA, Oscar GOMEZ LACALLE 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Regional project on migration in the EuroMediterranean area, "EuroMed Migration II" with a budget of 5 Million Euro, funded by the European Commission. The purpose of this project is to strengthen the EuroMediterranean cooperation in the management of migration, so as to build up the Mediterranean partners' capacity to provide an effective, targeted and comprehensive solution for the various forms of migration. That includes: setting up mechanisms to promote opportunities for legal migration, support for measures to promote the linkage between migration and development and the stepping up of activities to stamp out people trafficking and illegal immigration, and to manage mixed flows. http://www.euromed-migration.eu

Efficient delivery of information about risks and costs associated with illegal migration at all stages

How to manage legal and illegal migration in a more integrated way, channeling candidates to Legal routes or presenting attractive alternatives in their home country (ranging from micro-credit or support to entrepreurship to education and training programmes).

How to reach to , and support, potential migrants before they attempt the move, in order to shape their decisions to migrate or stay


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

Thematic study on "Migration and the Economic Crisis: Implications for Policy in the European Union and the Post-2010 Lisbon Agenda" by the EU funded IOM Independent Network of Labour Migration and Integration Experts (2010)

Medium-term impact of the current crisis on migration and remittances

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Taylor-made policy design: Corridor based analysis on remittance markets' functioning, including operators, users and regulators/regulations.

European Commission Study on the Innovative Approaches towards Successful Integration of Third Country Migrants into the Labour Market (2010) DG ECFIN note on Migration into the EU: main determinants and economic impact For discussion by the Economic Policy Committee (2007)

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Eurostat data base on migration and remittances in the European Union (2010)

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

4. CIRCULATING

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

How to make temporary migration schemes for high skilled attractive and efficient?

Evaluate the current practice of keeping seasonal/temporary work schemes for low skilled jobs. How could temporary schemes be designed to attract the needed skills (whether high or low) and to benefit from mobility through increase of productivity.

Practical ways to allow circulation (legal constraints such as 5 years residence, loss of rights after interruptions etc).


European Commission - DG JUSTICE / Completed by Nuria DIEZ GUARDIA, Oscar GOMEZ LACALLE 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Regional project on migration in the EuroMediterranean area, "EuroMed Migration II" with a budget of 5 Million Euro, funded by the European Commission. The purpose of this project is to strengthen the EuroMediterranean cooperation in the management of migration, so as to build up the Mediterranean partners' capacity to provide an effective, targeted and comprehensive solution for the various forms of migration. That includes: setting up mechanisms to promote opportunities for legal migration, support for measures to promote the linkage between migration and development and the stepping up of activities to stamp out people trafficking and illegal immigration, and to manage mixed flows. http://www.euromed-migration.eu

Efficient delivery of information about risks and costs associated with illegal migration at all stages

How to manage legal and illegal migration in a more integrated way, chanelling candidates to Legal routes or presenting attractive alternatives in their home country (ranging from micro-credit or support to entrepreurship to education and training programmes).

How to reach to , and support, potential migrants before they attempt the move, in order to shape their decisions to migrate or stay ?


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Thematic study on "Migration and the Economic Crisis: Implications for Policy in the European Union and the Post-2010 Lisbon Agenda" by the EU funded IOM Independent Network of Labour Migration and Integration Experts (2010)

Medium-term impact of the current crisis on migration and remittances

Eurostat data base on migration and remittances in the European Union (2010) European Commission Study on the Innovative Approaches towards Successful Integration of Third Country Migrants into the Labour Market (2010) DG ECFIN note on Migration into the EU: main determinants and economic impact For discussion by the Economic Policy Committee (2007)

Taylor-made policy design: Corridor based analysis on remittance markets' functioning, including operators, users and regulators/regulations.

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration EC AENEAS project 4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

«Programme de Gestion Intégrale de l´ Immigration Saisonnière » entre la province de Benslimane et la province de Huelva.

4.4. Other Topics

Le projet va mettre en œuvre un système de gestion intégrale de l´immigration saisonnière de travailleurs marocains vers un groupe de municipalités agricoles espagnoles nécessitant tous les ans une grande quantité de main d´œuvre étrangère pour les cultures de fraises et d´agrumes. Les objectifs sont (A) de développer l´immigration légale pour les emplois temporaires entre les deux régions concernées, (B) d´inclure dans un système global de gestion toutes les étapes de la relation employeurtravailleur ainsi que différents services pionniers à l´attention des travailleurs et (C) de prévenir les pratiques illégales favorisant les flux clandestins et de garantir le retour après saison. Les activités à accomplir seront la mise en service de deux « Centres du Saisonnier » à Benslimane (1) et Cartaya (2), la mise en service d´un serveur Internet (3) pour la communication entre ces deux centres et la création d´une Fondation Non Lucrative (4) pour le développement durable du programme.

EC Thematic programme funded project TEMPORARY AND CIRCULAR LABOR MIGRATION BETWEEN PORTUGAL AND UKRAINE 1. To develop the operational framework and logistical roadmap for the pilot circular migration scheme between Ukraine and Portugal 2. To test the effectiveness of the established operational framework/logistical roadmap for the pilot through selection of migrant workers and delivering pre-departure and post-arrival trainings 3. To facilitate the return and effective reinsertion of 50 Ukrainian temporary migrants into the local labour market, through provision of vocational trainings 4. To test the effectiveness of incentives package for circularity through comparative analysis, monitoring and evaluation of the pilot projects. Target group(s)1 Fifty Ukrainian migrant workers and their households, Portuguese enterprises

METOIKOS European University Institute (EUI) European Integration Fund Community actions 2008 SELECTED PROJECTS Study of the links between different types of circular migration and processes of integration and reintegration; identification of the main challenges and opportunities involved in circular migration for source countries, destination countries and migrants (and their families) and development of new conceptual instruments for the analysis of circular migration and integration and of policy recommendations. Six pairs of countries have been selected for the study: Greece and Albania, Italy and Albania, Spain and Morocco, Italy and Morocco, Hungary and Ukraine, Poland and Ukraine.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

How to make temporary migration schemes for high skilled attractive and efficient?

Evaluate the current practice of keeping seasonal/temporary work schemes for low skilled jobs. How temporary schemes could be designed to attract the needed skills (whether high or low) and to benefit from mobility through increase of productivity.

Practical ways to allow circulation (legal constraints such as 5 years residence, loss of rights after interruptions etc).


European Commission – BEPA: Bureau of European Policy Advisers / Completed by Stefano BERTOZZI

4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Selection criteria of would-be migrants

There is a pressing need to study the impact of information campaigns in third countries.

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Within the framework of the EU-Africa migration partnership, the EU, in close cooperation with the Malian Government, has established the Bamako Centre for labour migration.

Database of available skills in third countries

Each Member State has a vast array of admission and residence procedures, and thus it is important for the Commission to have a clear understanding of the situation before proceeding any further with its legislative proposals. The main objectives of this BEPA study are to develop Europe's comprehensive approach to migration and to provide BEPA with more insight into the following issues: A. compiling an inventory of admission and residence procedures for unskilled and low-skilled third-country nationals to enter the labour markets of all twenty-seven EU Member States; and B. assessing the average costs of EU employers in all twenty-seven EU Member States to recruit unskilled and low-skilled third-country nationals to cover their labour shortages. This study should be completed by 15 March 2010.

Urgent need to examine how countries of destination establish their labour market needs that cannot be met by their local labour forces. Careful consideration should also be given to what skills countries of destination need most to develop their socio-economic fabrics in the context of a more interdependent and competitive world. In this context, it would also be relevant to point out how and to what extend the diversity of skills of thirdcountry nationals may have an impact on enhancing the Europe's global competitiveness.


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

BEPA Study in 2009 "Impact of the Rise in immigrant unemployment on public finances" –

Timely availability of vacant posts, which cannot be filled by EU nationals

http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3051137

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

The Commission is working on this issue

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

In the coming months, the Commission will table a proposal to amend the existing EU Directive

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

The Commission is working on the establishment of a Euro-African Remittances Institute

Availability of reliable and up-to-date data

BRAIN DRAIN (female migrants) The UN database reveals a feminization of international migration, which raises specific economic issues related to the gender determinants and consequences of migration. In particular, women's brain drain is likely to affect sending countries in a very peculiar way. But paradoxically, female migration remains an understudied issue

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

No comprehensive study to better examine the reasons behind failures of voluntary programmes (e.g. the Czech and Spanish recent schemes)

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

EU Mobility partnerships

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

EU Policy Plan on legal migration – There is a dedicated legislative proposals to be tabled in the coming months

Need to study the correct structure of incentives to foster circular migration, which could include (1) the socioeconomic conditions in destination countries, (2) whether the return is forced, spontaneous or accompanied by the destination country; (3) the professional characteristics of migrants, be they unskilled, low-skilled and highly-skilled; and (4) whether migrants maintain ties with their countries of origin.

4.4. Other Topics

The issue of undocumented migrants

Return is not always an available and politically sound solution

Trafficking in human beings (very acute for seasonal workers)

How to enhance coordination with countries of origin and hone their skills to deal with this scourge more effectively

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


European Training Foundation, Turin / Completed by Ummuhan BARDAK (with inputs from other colleagues) 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase 1. SENDING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description) 

1.2. Migration and Sectoral Skills in Egypt in construction, tourism and agriculture sectors (2007-2010): Its aim is to review the local occupational classification currently used to accredit migrant workers and assess the impact of skills shortages on migration patterns, in particular between Egypt and Italy as they have a legal labor agreement with an annual quota, and develop recommendations on how migrants can fill skill needs of Italian and Egyptian LM before and after migration. The Italian-funded project with Egyptian Ministry of Manpower and Migration as the beneficiary compares and combines some occupational profiles in Egypt and Italy in construction and tourism, conduct a small survey of existing skills in these sectors in Egypt and produce a policy report for the Ministry on how to match skills to LM needs for managed migration flows including an assessment methodology for migrants’ skills in Egypt. 1.2. EC Mobility Partnership in Moldova (2008-2011): The mobility partnership agreement signed between EC and Moldova include many diverse areas of cooperation on legal and illegal migration, but ETF is involved only in the skills recognition component for a better LM matching under legal migration schemes with the perspective of circularity and return. The core idea behind skills recognition is more transparent professional qualifications, involving both certified and non-certified skills learned at school and on-the-job. Three dimensions of transparency are employer’s requirements, the content of the Moldovan qualification system and the role of returnees in the local LM with the skills acquired abroad. The ultimate goal is to improve the available information on skills supply and demand in Moldova to improve the matching both on the domestic LM and in relation with migration to the EU with profiles comparison.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

1.2. Research project on migration and skills in 2006-2008 covering Albania, Moldova, Ukraine, Egypt and Tunisia (Tajikistan recently included). Its aim is to analyse the links between migration and skills, skill composition of migrants and role of migration on skill development. Field surveys were conducted with 2000 respondents in each country (1000 potential migrants and 1000 returning migrants) with structured questionnaires, and data was analysed in the country reports and a cross-country synthesis report. Comprehensive information on the skills and LM experiences of migrants can help better design of legal/ regular labour migration and return schemes to the governments.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. Despite many theories, the actual relationship and outcome of interaction between migration and education& skills are still far from clarity, and it is greatly changing according to the specific conditions of individuals and countries. Thus, country specific knowledge gaps still exist on the education& skill levels of potential migrants and returnees, how migration process develops with skills matching dimension between migrants and available jobs abroad, and whether and under what conditions their skills are used before, during and after migration process.

1. Migrants’ skills and their effective use can bring immense benefits for sending and receiving countries and migrants themselves, turning migration into win-win-win situation for all parties. Therefore, similar household surveys can be conducted with potential and returning migrants in other sending countries as well in order to better understand migrationskill linkages at the individual, household and country level, covering both before- and after-migration stages. To conclude, more country case studies with actual research in the field should be available for informed policy actions.

2. In addition to the information needs on the existing skills available among potential migrants and returnees (both formal education levels and their real competences), we need to know more on labour matching mechanisms in the migration process and demand side of LMs for the specific skills needed. For a better matching and use of those skills with existing jobs in domestic and international LMs under managed migration, knowledge gaps must be filled on the specific skill needs of receiving country sectors and specific mechanisms used to accredit migrants skills for job matching (including assessment/ testing and certification of skills) between migrants and jobs in sending countries, both for potential migrants and returnees.

2. In addition to the information needs on the existing and demanded skills of migrants for migration purposes, specific country surveys/ studies must be performed as case studies on the available mechanisms to match skills to LM needs for managed migration flows in both sending and receiving countries (including the development of new assessing/ testing and certifying methodologies for migrant’s skills). When there is a clear perspective of managed migration between two specific countries, specific occupational profiles and sectoral needs of these countries should be compared and revised and combined if necessary.


FEMISE: Forum Euroméditerranéen des Instituts de Sciences Economiques, Marseille / Completed by Maryse LOUIS 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics: 1.3.a. Push factors/determinants of migration (incl. social conditions, Brain drain, ..etc.) 1.3.b. the Role of remittances in improving the social life (policies, schemes, ..etc)

1. “A Dynamic Long and Short Term Approach to Migration Between MP’s And EU: Demographical Framework And The Role Of Economic And Social Reforms” (FEM32-06- Leader: A. Lorca, AGREEM, Spain)– Analytical- The argument of this study is that sociodemographic dynamics in the euro-med region are so strong that creates a significant ‘migratory pressure’, defined by the study as the result of demographic and socio-economic conditions. This study asses EU immigration policies, the fight against illegal migration, projects migration scenarios in the long term and draws a quantitative migration map between EU and Med countries while measuring the economic and social weight in the latter. (policy areas: 1.3.a, and 2.1) 2. “Regional Integration and Goods and Factors Flows in the MENA Region” (FEM31-07- Leader: S. Boriss, DIW, Germany) - analytical-This multi-paper project addresses different aspects of migration, taking the case studies of (Turkey as sending and Germany as receiving), including the determinants, the remittances and their impact on output in both countries, economic reforms and finally the integration of the migrants in their host country. (policy areas: 1.3.a, 1.3.b and 2.1) “The Challenge of Employment in the Mediterranean Countries”. (FEM3d _ leader; FEMISE)- analytical. This research while addressing the labour market of of the South Med countries have addressed the issue of migration and the gaps created by north and South demographic trends, needs for the labour markets that can be filled my migration. (Policy areas: 1.3 and 2.4.a)

1. 1. “Determinants and Consequences of Migration and Remittances: The Case of Palestine and Tunisia”- (FEM33-16- Leader: M. El-jafari, AlQuds Univ., Palestine)- Analytical-This project will identify the major factors behind skilled labour and graduates mobility and its impact on the Human Capital accumulation of the country of origin from one hand and the impact of the remittances flows on the sending country’s social and economic performance (where remittances are larger than FDI2. and Aid) (policy areas: 1.3.a, 1.3.b. and 1.2) 2. “ Impact des transferts de fonds des migrants sur la pauvreté et les inégalités : une comparaison Maroc-Algérie“ (FEM32-22- leader: EM Mouhoud, CEPN, France) - Analytical- this project will investigate the role of remittances in reducing poverty and inequality in the sending countries through a survey of recipients’ household in 2 countries. The survey will tackle the usage of these remittances and their role in education, alleviating inequalities, investments and informal markets. (policy areas: 1.3.b) 3. “Système financier, politique de change et transferts de fonds des migrants marocains: Quelles interactions?” (FEM33-28- Leader: J. Bouoiyour, Al-Akhawain Univ, Morocco) -analytical-This project will investigate the role of remittances in promoting growth in Morocco through the financial sector from one hand, and its impact on the exchange rate from the other. This will include an assessment of the financial regulations in Morocco but also the institutional framework of the migration policies (policy areas: 1.3.b)

4. “Impact of Migration on Development of the South Med countries”.-analytical- This research project’s main objective is to measure the (net) impact of migration on the sending countries’ development (special case study). This will include an overall assessment of inter-relation migrationdevelopment, its mechanism and how it impacts different aspects of development (labour market, financial markets incl. remittances, trade, political reforms, social aspects, brain drain ..etc.).

FEMISE will be organizing a seminar on ‘Impact of Migration on development’ in the second semester of 2010. This seminar will be attended by experts in the field, but most importantly by policy makers from both shores of the Mediterranean. FEMISE is also preparing an issue of its newsletter ‘Inside FEMISE’ following this seminar that would include important policy oriented articles, based on the seminar, that will be distributed to different EU commission offices across the EU-Med region and to national policy makers.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. Research to address the issue of how market failures (such as inefficiency of the labour markets, asymmetry and distorted information about receiving markets, mismatch between what the receiving countries need and what they receive in terms of skills, matching the competences and skills of the migrant (pool of standardized skills database)) affect negatively the outcome of migration. 2. An assessment of emigration policies for Countries of the EU-Med. What is best for each country in particular, what skills that can migrate and what skills to stay (to avoid brain drain). 3. A proper methodological research that integrates migration as part of development and global transformation. This could be done by first dropping the idea that migration is a problem that should be solved but rather an asset that if rightly exploited can bring welfare to both sending and receiving countries. Within this context, an evaluation on the net impact of migration, can help draw national policies. 4. Migration is an individual decision that is made regardless of the macro, demographic and social trends, research can only observe its determinants and its impact OVERALL, therefore linking the micro-level research with the macro will be beneficiaries. Surveys and questionnaires in this case would be ideal.


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Completed

Projects Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer) 2.4.a. Impact on labour market

1. “Recent Migration Patterns from MENA Countries to the EU: A Quantitative Assessment and Policy Implications” (FEM31-01, N. Peridy, Unveriste Toulon Var, France)analytical-This project provided a quantitative assessment of recent migration patterns from MENA countries to the EU, highlighted the role of migration policies in the EU in managing/’regulating ‘ this increasing trend and programs to attract skilled workers in areas with employment gaps. An econometric model described new determinants of migration from the Med towards the EU and specially the ‘brain drain’ phenomena. (policy areas mainly: 2.1, 2.2 and also 1.2)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1.Reserach Project to produce two Policy reviews on “Impact of Migration on Employment in the European Union “ and “Outcomes of Policies on Labour Market Integration of Migrants in the European Union “ (Femise is one partner in this large project, directed by the OIM) due June 2010. analytical- The study attempts to draw comparisons across the 30 countries (EU-27+Turkey, Croatia and Norway) on those two large aspects of migration policies. This will also include stocking data and national references on the effects of/trends in migration within the national policies, migrant population profile, labour market indicators with the aim of finding the factors that maximize the economic benefit of migration. A policy oriented outcome of this project would be able to measure the impact of migration on labour market growth, competition, labour market outcomes, and national policy to respond to the needs. (policy areas: (2.1 and 2.4.a)

2. Research Project on “Skill Development to Promote the Emergence of Knowledge Based Economies” (FEMISE is the leading partner in this large project due in mid2011).-operational- This project aims to develop a regional qualifications framework that would facilitate transparency, access, progression and quality of those qualifications in relations to the labour market and civil society. This framework ‘Regional qualifications system for the Med countries’ will be an important tool in facilitating the mobility of workers and bridge the skills gap between formal and non-formal education and the needs for the labour market. (Policy areas: 1.2. 2.2 and also 4.3)

1. An assessment of different integration policies in the receiving countries: what policies to channel/facilitate remittances towards sending countries to be best used in raising the social and economic performance of the latter? 2. EU countries have not reach consensus (even individually) about what their economies/societies need in terms of migrants. An assessment of this issue across the EU countries coupled with an evaluation of the labour markets and identifying the gaps can be very useful in drawing the right policies for each. 3. On the micro-level, to study how migrants are settling after migration as social and economic actors in the society. What problems in the process itself (the move, search for jobs, settlement in the social community)? What are the role of recruitment agencies? What problems from the receiving society (failing to integrate, unwelcomed,etc) ? Linking the micro level to the macro (overall) would be a new research area.


3. RETURNING

Migration Migration Management Projects Management Completed Projects Under Preparation (Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. While ‘brain drain’ can constitute a loss of human capital for some developing countries, returnees could play an important role in, not only compensating this loss, but multiplying the benefits. This is done through knowledge and skills transfer. This huge potential benefit is still under-utilized by countries of the South Med. Incentives to encourage migrants to return and benefit their countries are non-existent in some of those countries (Lebanon is by far an exception to this overall trend). An assessment of national policies towards returnees (if any) and how to encourage returnees would be a contribution to the knowledge gap.

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

2. Skill transfer is not an automatic process; in fact migration can lead to de-skilling, when migrants accept to undertake jobs that are less than their skills (especially among illegal migrants). An assessment of skill matching of returnees would be filling a gap. Also existence of programs of re-settlement and labour market re-entering are also important in encouraging returnees.

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description) 1. Most research on migration focus on the receiving and sending countries (Rich vs Poor countries), neglecting the effect of transitional migration on the receiving country and its role in the transition/globalization process. Analyzing the changing patterns of migrations and the alternate role played as receiving and sending countries. (Sub-Saharan African countries migrate to the North African, while those migrate to Europe).


ILO: International Labour Organization/ Completed by Samia KAZI AOUL 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase 1. SENDING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Project 1 Data on migration flows and current statistics on labour migration

Project 1 Data on labour markets’ needs in destination and origin countries.

(Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description) Project 1 Title: “Improving institutional capacity to govern labour migration in North and West Africa”

Project 1 Capacity-building for better governance of labour migration on:  International labour migration  Labour administration & institutions dealing with labour migration issues.  Training for labour attachés.  Migrant Workers’ Rights  Role of employers dealing with labour migration issues  Promotion of the ILO Conventions on migrant workers and dissemination of the ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration  Statistics and migration

Type: Capacity building Programme implemented by the ILO Regional Office for Africa, in close collaboration with the ILO International Migration Programme (MIGRANT) in Geneva, with the financial support of the Spanish government (November 2008 – March 2010). Description: The main objectives of the Programme aim to enhance capacities of constituents and social partners to govern labour migration in a regional perspective, to maximize benefits from international labour migration for development of both countries of origin and destination and to protect migrant workers. The Programme covers the following countries: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal. http://www.ilo.org/public/french/protection/migrant/afrique/index.htm Project 2 Title: Expanding Knowledge Base on Decent Work In Mediterranean Countries. - Migration for Decent Work, Economic Growth and Development

Project 2 Five country reports : Algeria - Egypt - Lebanon - Morocco - Tunisia

Type: Research project implemented by the ILO Employment Policies Department in cooperation with the EC- Directorate of Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities “(April 2009 - March 2010). Description: This research covers three themes: 1- Growth, Economic Policies and Employment Linkages 2- Labour Market Policies and Institutions with focus on inclusion, equal opportunities and informal economy and 3- Migration for Decent Work, Economic Growth and Development (MDWEGD) in collaboration with the ILO International Migration Program.

A synthesis report: diagnosis on countries’ experience, policies and institutions. Project 4 Title: Good Governance of labour migration and links with development (Senegal).

Project 3 Title: Improving the coordination of the migration flows between Spain and Senegal.

Type: Pre-departure training and information. (2009-2012). Funded by Spain

Type: Capacity building for public labour services, pre-departure training (2007-début 2009). Funded by Spain.

Description: In close collaboration with labour public services, developing tools (departure guide, return guide, databases etc.) to better manage migration for development.

Description: To Improve the coordination of migration flows between Spain and Senegal: capacity building on labour migration’s management, database on migration candidates based on competences and skills + pre-departure trainings (language course etc.)

Project 2 - Migration and public finances - Public employment services interconnectedness in origin and destination countries - Support to policies of education and training


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Project 2 Migrants’ integration in labour markets and skills development

Project 2 Prospects and characteristics of skills’ Demand

Discrimination and labour market outcomes in destination countries: job access, earnings, labour mobility, social protection coverage

Demand for migrant workers in the informal economies of south European countries

Entrepreneurship and migration 2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Project4 Facilitation of Labour market integration: through the development of migration toolkit. Improving the employability of young unemployed and candidates for migration. Studies on migrants’ skills recognition and development in agriculture, construction and restaurant services.


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Project 1 Training course with the ITC ILO Turin on “Fostering the social and professional reintegration for returning migrants workers in Maghreb countries” (Tunis, 2327 November 2009).

Project 2 Assessing the reintegration of returning migrant workers in countries of origin’s labour markets

Project 2 Assessment of origin countries’ policies and measures regarding return migration (housing, entrepreneurship, pensions and medical care)

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

Statistics about returning migrants with distinction by age, education, skills, migration duration and entrepreneurship, voluntary versus forced returnees… Entrepreneurship and migration

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

Project 4 In the migration toolkit: capacity building on ILO-GERME (Gérez mieux votre enterprise) toolkit.

Project 4 A qualitative research on labour migration and return in Mali, Senegal and Mauritania

Project 5  A feasibility study about the use of remittances to develop health micro insurance in origin countries (Senegal, Mali, and Comoros) is under preparation.

Project 5 5 reports i) A preliminary report that reviews available labour migration data, social security schemes and national social security legislations, existing regional protocols, gaps, potential social security schemes coordination, and propose strategies to extend the social security coverage of African migrant workers and their families in each country and subregions ii) Diagnosis/Policy options and strategic approach to strengthen the social protection of Senegalese migrant workers; iii) The evaluation of the prospects for the conclusion of a sub-regional multilateral social security agreement: EAC and SADC; iv) Temporary labour migration programmes and schemes in Africa and the inclusion of social security provisions. v) Assessment report on existing initiatives of extension of social security by countries of origin to migrant workers and their families through voluntary insurance schemes.

3.4. Other Topics Project 5 Title: Extending social security coverage to African migrant workers and their families” (MIGSEC) Type: Building knowledge and capacities on strategies /mechanisms for extending social security coverage to African migrant workers and their families Description: To strengthen national and regional strategies for the extension of social security coverage to African migrant workers and their families through: the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral social security agreements, the inclusion of social security provisions in temporary labour migration programmes, voluntary insurance schemes, or community-based approaches.

Project 5 Specific mechanisms to ensure social security coverage of migrant workers’ families in origin countries


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Project 2 Assessing the policies of temporary and seasonal migration in European countries (conditions of work, social protection etc.)

Project 1 The effects and impacts of seasonally/temporary migration schemes in origin countries

Workers and employers’ organisations and seasonal migration 4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics Improved labour force Mobility at the regional level Better coordinated labour markets of the Mediterranean countries

Project 5 Social security provisions in temporary labour migration programmes

Project 5 Mechanisms to guarantee that temporary migrant workers are not excluded from social security schemes.


International Migration Institute, University of Oxford / Completed by Emanuela PAOLETTI 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION Migration Management Projects Completed CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description) 1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

The IMI's African Migration Programme (AMP) aims to improve the understanding of migration trends within, from and to the continent. IMI actively works with African researchers and universities to support empirical and theoretical research and to improve research capacity in African institutions studying migration. The programme particularly looks at integrating research from different regions of the continent, bridging geographical divisions between sub-Saharan and North Africa and bridging the linguistic and cultural divide between Anglophone, Francophone and Arabic academic traditions. Activities include the promotion of workshops on African Migration and the creation of online tools mapping existing expertise and facilitating collaboration.

As part of the African migration programme we produced a Directory of African Researchers and an online Library of African migrations literature. We also organized two workshops. One is the African Migration research Methodologies and Methods which took place in Morocco in 2008. The second was the workshop on Understanding migration dynamics in the continent which took place in Ghana in 2007.

The African Perspectives on Human Mobility is a three year programme, starting in January 2008, aims to explore alternative conceptions of human mobility based on empirical research in Nigeria, Ghana, Morocco and the Democratic Republic of Congo. A series of studies, designed and conducted in partnership with African researchers, aim to generate new data, methodologies and conceptual frameworks. The programme is also designed to help develop the capacity of African institutions to undertake state-of-the-art migration research.

As part of the first phase in 2008 we focused on country papers and organized a workshop in Oxford in September. During the second one in 2009 we produced case studies and comparative reports.

EUMAGINE is a collaborative European research project in which IMI is a partner. The central aim of the project is to investigate the impact of perceptions of human rights and democracy on migrants’ aspirations and decisions. To achieve this, the project systematically analyzes migration aspirations and decisions, using a multidisciplinary, mixed-method approach in four major ‘source’ and ‘transit’ countries. Special attention is given to how perceptions of human rights and democracy affect these aspirations.

The four countries under study are Morocco, Turkey, Senegal and Ukraine. In each country, fieldwork will be conducted in four locations: 1) an area that is characterized by high emigration rates; 2) a second, comparable socio-economic area with low emigration; 3) a comparable area with a strong immigration history; and 4) a location with a specific human rights situation. Fieldwork will combine quantitative surveys and semi-structured interviews.

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

The project Transnational Migrant Organisations focuses on the linkages between migrant organisations and their countries of origin. In particular it seeks to identify the characteristics of cross border migrant organisations (CBMOs), analyse the diffusion of transnational migrant organisations (TRAMOs) and study the contextual factors which influence the emergence of TRAMOs. Furthermore the project considers the consequences of the transnationalisation of migrant organisations for participation and incorporation of migrants in European national societies.

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

The Global Migration Futures considers the implications of European migration policies through the elaboration of long term perspectives. To do so it aims to initiate a debate among policy makers, business, academics and other stakeholders about future migration patterns and their consequences for sending and receiving countries. Due to the short-term focus and receivingcountries bias of much policy and research, there is still a limited understanding of the forces driving international migration. A key problem is the lack of insight into the ways in which future social, economic, political, demographic and environmental change are likely to affect future migration trends. In order to fill these gaps, this project aims to assess future global migration trends and their effects on European receiving countries and sending countries mainly located in Africa, Asia and the Middle East through the elaboration of scenarios, taking account simultaneously of likely future social, cultural, economic, political, demographic and environmental changes in sending, transit and receiving countries. The project on “Theorizing the Evolution of European Migration Systems (THEMIS) explores the conditions under which initial moves by pioneer migrants to Europe result in the formation of migration systems and the conditions under which this does not happen.

The key outcomes of the project involve (1) a substantially improved theorization of migration system dynamics by integrating theories on the initiation and continuation of migration and (2) a comparative, multi-sited, and longitudinal study of the evolution of heterogeneous migrant groups following different settlement trajectories from a range of origin countries to 8 European cities in the UK, Norway, the Netherlands and Portugal.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development 4.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

The project “DEMIG: The Determinants of International Migration� is a fiveyear project funded by the European Research Council (ERC). It seeks to answer the question: how do migration policies of receiving and sending states affect the size, direction and nature of international migration to and from wealthy countries?

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

The project is expected to generate groundbreaking insights into the way policies shape migration processes in their interaction with other migration determinants. It will also generate new data, improve insight into the drivers of migration processes, and provide empirical tests for general migration theory on the drivers of migration by exploring the complex, reciprocal and nonlinear links between human development and migration.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


INSEAD, Rabat & Fondation Hassan II pour les MRE/ Completed by Pr. Bachir HAMDOUCH 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description) 1- Migration de Développement/Migration de sousdéveloppement ? Une étude sur l'impact de la migration internationale dans le milieu rural du Maroc, Bachir Hamdouch(Coordinator), INSEA-SGI Amsterdam, Rabat, 1979

.

Household survey, migrants and non-migrants in the two main rural regions of origin of migration in 1960-1970: south west ( Souss) and north east ( Rif). Main objectives: characteristics of migrants , determinants and effects of migration.

2- Migration internationale au MarocUne enquête sur ses caractères et ses effets en milieu urbain, B.Hamdouch(Coordinator),INSEA-UQAM, Rabat,1981

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

Household survey : sample of 2139 migrant households and 1229 non-migrants households from the urban areas of the Souss, the Rif and the center of Morocco. Main objectives: characteristics of migrants , determinants and effects of migration.

1.3. Other Topics

3- Les Marocains résidant à l’étranger- Une enquête socio-économique, B.Hamdouch (Coordinator), INSEA, Rabat, 2000. Migrants survey : sample (1239) of Moroccan migrants leaving in Europe ( about 85% of total Moroccan migrants). Socio and economic characteristics of migrants , determinants of emigration and remittances. Web : www.alwatan.ma 4-Marocains Résidant à l’Etranger-L’Utilisation des transfertsRésultats d’enquête, B.Hamdouch(Coordinator) Fondation Hassan I I pour les Marocains résidant à l’etranger, Rabat , 2008. Migrants survey : sample(2126) of Moroccan migrants leaving in Europe ( about 85% of total Moroccan migrants). Socio and economic characteristics of migrants and remittances uses. Web : www.alwatan.ma

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description)

- Le Troisième âge des Marocains résidant à l’étranger, B.Hamdouch (Editor), Fondation Hassan II pour les MRE,

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

Rabat, 2006. Proceedings of a Seminar organised by The Fondation Hassan I I for Moroccans living abroad. Results of a migrants survey: sample (1005) of retired migrants and aged migrants (more than 50 years old). Web : www.alwatan.ma

- La Réinsertion des migrants de retour au Maroc-Analyse des résultats de l’enquête sur la migration de retour des Marocains résidant à l’étranger de 2003-2004 : exemple des régions du Grand Casablanca et de Souss-Massa-Draa, CERED , HCP , Rabat ,2006. Results of a household survey : sample ( 1500) of rural and urban households with at least a return migrant . Web : www.HCP.org.ma

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


IOM: International Organization for Migration – Regional Office for the Mediterranean, Rome/ Completed by Peter SCHATZER, Director of the Regional Office 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information 1) Management of migratory flows from Sri Lanka to Italy in the field of the personal care sector; Localization in Sri Lanka of 85 workers able to work as family caregivers; language and vocational training in Sri Lanka job matching with the families willing recruit them , assistance with the transfer to Italy,

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

2) Technical cooperation initiative for the selection, training and transfer of migrant workers from Moldova to Italy Identification and selection of 40 workers with professional competencies able to respond to the labour needs of enterprises of the Province of Piacenza; Organization of training courses, on Italian language and on cultural orientation targeting around 200 workers. Employment of 200 workers by enterprises.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description) 2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration / 2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition 3) SYSTEM ACTIONS TO SUPPORT SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND EMPLOYMENT POLICIES IN FAVOUR OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN ITALY Organization of 99 Training courses designed to support the social integration of 2000 migrant workers: basically Albanians and Tunisians, unemployed Organization of 50 workshops. addressed to officials of Employment Centres, Regional and Provincial Labour Agencies and Regional and Provincial councillors’ authorities in order to promote the migrants’ recruitment. 2.4 Other Topics 4) Facilitating a Coherent Migration Management Approach in Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Libya by Promoting Legal Migration and Preventing Further Irregular Migration The project aims to enhance national capacities for labour migration management in West Africa and Libya; to contribute to the development of mechanisms for the insertion of workers into the EU labour market; to strengthen networking and dialogue among governments on labour migration; and to enhance efforts at reducing irregular migration from, into, and through West Africa and Libya, including to the EU.

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description) 2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration 13) Independent Network of Labour Migration and Integration Experts (LMIE-INET) By June 2010 the network will produce two policy reviews focusing on the impact of migration on employment and the outcomes of labour market integration policies for migrants in the 27 EU Member States as well as Croatia, Norway and Turkey 14) The Albanian National Action Plan on Remittances: Moving from policy development to implementation This project aims to support the implementation of the Albanian National Action Plan on Remittances by strengthening the institutional and technical capabilities of the Albanian Government, private sector, nongovernment agencies, and other local partners to enhance the economic, social, and political impact of labour migrants’ remittances.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation (Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support 5) Mig-ressources 1st and 2nd phase Assisting 65 migrants living in italy through training (investments, enterprise creation, not for profit cooperation) in order to help them to become actual agents of development for their country of origin; (see under 4.3 too) 6) MIGRIMPRESA 1st and 2nd phase The project aimed at supporting migrants in business development through research, training and tutoring, IOM PSI has trainined cultural mediators in facilitating business development for.

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

7) Sharing learning for a better life The project leaded by the Italian Ministry of Labour aimed to enhance national capacities for labour migration management in Morocco and Egypt ; 2) to contribute to the development of mechanisms for the insertion of workers into the EU labour market 8) Rapprochement des systèmes pour une gestion partagée de la migration The project leaded by the Italian Ministry of Labour aimed to enhance national capacities for labour migration management in Tunisia ; and to contribute to the development of mechanisms for the insertion of workers into the EU labour market 9) IMIS and IMIS Plus IMIS and IMIS Plus are Implemented in close cooperation with the Ministry of Manpower and Emigration, with the aim to consolidate the capacity Egyptians Emigration and Employment offices to strengthen the socioeconomic and cultural ties with the Egyptians abroad and to allow the management of orderly migration flows. . 10) Feasibility study L.I.S.T.E. - (LIAISON INFORMATION SYSTEMS and TOOLS FOR EMIGRATION) The survey aims specifically at assessing if rosters of candidate migrant workers from third countries seeking employment in Italy can be established and managed. The feasibility study has been functional to identify institutional partners and existing labour migration management systems to register migrant workers’ profiles and manage economic migration process in 11 target countries.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description) 4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development 11) Mig-ressources 1st and 2nd phase Support to 30 qualified migrants trained in Morocco in their efforts to find in Italy paid internships able to help them to strengthen their professional skills. (see under 3.2 too)

(Title, Type, and short Description) 12) KNE Knowledge Network Estero This project leaded by the Chamber of Commerce of Rome is intended to offer skills upgrading, requalification and better integration to migrant workers through language training, cultural orientation, vocational and on the job training.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


ITC ILO: International Training Center/Completed by Miriam BOUDRAA 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation (Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Language : FR 1 week open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Understand the fundamental concepts and definitions of labour economics and labour statistics which apply to international labour migration; - Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about migrants in the labour market; - Promote the harmonization of labour statistics among countries for better international cooperation and understanding of migration; - Underline the importance of tripartite actors in the domain of labour statistics on migration. 2) TARGET GROUPS : - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions ; - Statisticians from public institutes in charge of collecting, analyzing and use of data on labour market; - experts on migration, organizations associations dealing with migrant workers; - Representatives of Workers and Employers’ organizations.

“Governing International Labour Migration”1 Languages : EN-FR-ES-AR 2 weeks open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Identify key issues and policies regarding global and regional labour migration, with a gender perspective; - Promote migration-development linkages and rights based approaches to labour migration policies and programmes at national and regional levels; - Recognize the special roles of employers’ and workers’ organizations in the development of labour migration policy, taking into account the positions of the social partners in resolving critical issues on labour migration; - Analyze and use the ILO Conventions and other mechanisms and procedures for protecting migrant workers’ rights. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues.

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

« Migration et administration du travail dans les pays de l’Afrique du Nord et de l’Ouest » Language : FR 1 week tailor made course : Rabat 1) OBJECTIVES : - Address the reinforcement of institutional capacity building of labour administration, employment services in the governance of labour migration; - Analyze the role, functions and potentials of each institution dealing with labour migration; - Understand the competences of labour inspectors regarding labour migration.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Data on migration flows and current statistics on labour migration.

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about nationals abroad.

“Governing International Labour Migration”: -The role of labour administration in the governance of labour migration; - Brain Drain; - Skill Mismatching ; - Maximizing the use of remittances; - Negotiation of bilateral agreements; - Specific role of employers and workers and social dialogue in governing LM.

“Governing International Labour Migration”: - coordination and dialogue between the different institutions dealing with migration in order to optimize the good governance of labour migration; - Skill Mismatching; - Improve capacities to negotiate a bilateral agreement on labour migration. « Migration et administration du travail dans les pays de l’Afrique du Nord et de l’Ouest » Coordination and dialogue between the different institutions dealing with migration in order to optimize the good governance of labour migration.

« Migration et administration du travail dans les pays de l’Afrique du Nord et de l’Ouest » The role of labour administration in the governance of labour migration.

2) TARGET GROUPS: - Officials from Labour Administration in charge of labour migration ; - Labour Inspectors ; - Agents of public and private employment services. 1

This course is organized in partnership with the ILO International programme on Migration. It was launched for the first time in 2007 in English. In 2008 it was organized in English and French. In 2009 it was organized in English, French and Spanish. In 2010 this course will be given for the first time in Arabic ( + the 3 other languages)


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description) “Statistiques du travail et migration” Language : FR 1 week open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Understand the fundamental concepts and definitions of labour economics and labour statistics which apply to international labour migration; - Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about migrants in the labour market; - Promote the harmonization of labour statistics among countries for better international cooperation and understanding of migration; - Underline the importance of tripartite actors in the domain of labour statistics on migration. 2) TARGET GROUPS : - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions ; - Statisticians from public institutes in charge of collecting, analyzing and use of data on labour market; - Experts on migration, organizations associations dealing with migrant workers; - Representatives of Workers and Employers’ organizations.

(Title, Type, and short Description) “Governing International Labour Migration” Languages : EN-FR-ES-AR 2 weeks open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Identify key issues and policies regarding global and regional labour migration, in particular from a gender perspective; - Promote migration-development linkages and rights based approaches to labour migration policies and programmes at national and regional levels; - Recognize the special roles of employers’ and workers’ organizations in the development of labour migration policy, taking into account the positions of the social partners in resolving critical issues on labour migration; - Analyze and use the ILO Conventions and other mechanisms and procedures for protecting migrant workers’ rights. 2) TRAGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues. “Migrant Workers: Promoting integration, managing diversity” Language: EN 1 week open course in Turin 1)OBJECTIVES : - Identify the structural linkages between globalization, increasing migratory flows and phenomena of racism, xenophobia and fanaticism;

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Data on migration flows and current statistics on labour migration.

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about return migrants in the labour market.

-

-

“Governing International Labour Migration”: addressing irregular migration; role of social partners in antidiscrimination policies and social inclusion; migration and statistics; circular migration and right of migrant workers; role of labour administration.

“Migrant Workers: Promoting integration, managing diversity” The specific role of workers and employers’ organizations in the development of comprehensive antidiscrimination policies

“Governing International Labour Migration” - the role of workers and employers’ organizations in the good governance of labour migration in countries of destination; - deskilling and brain waste; - the role of labour administration in promoting harmonious labour migration. “Migrant Workers: Promoting integration, managing diversity” Improve the capacity of workers and employers’ organization to address discrimination against migrant workers.


-

-

-

-

-

Understand the relationship between non-discrimination at the workplace, equality of opportunities and decent working conditions; Identify the sectors of priority intervention to curb the phenomenon of discrimination at the workplace; Promote the methods and tools developed by the ILO to analyze labour discrimination; Recognize the specific role of workers and employers’ organization in the development of anti-discrimination policies; Analyze the linkages between social integration and anti-discrimination policies.

2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues.


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Language : FR 1 week open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Understand the fundamental concepts and definitions of labour economics and labour statistics which apply to international labour migration; - Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about migrants in the labour market; - Promote the harmonization of labour statistics among countries for better international cooperation and understanding of migration; - Underline the importance of tripartite actors in the domain of labour statistics on migration. 2) TARGET GROUPS : - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions ; - Statisticians from public institutes in charge of collecting, analyzing and use of data on labour market; - Experts on migration, organizations associations dealing with migrant workers; - Representatives of Workers and Employers’ organizations.

“Governing International Labour Migration” Languages : EN-FR-ES-AR 2 weeks open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Identify key issues and policies regarding global and regional labour migration, in particular from a gender perspective; - Promote migration-development linkages and rights based approaches to labour migration policies and programmes at national and regional levels; - Recognize the special roles of employers’ and workers’ organizations in the development of labour migration policy, taking into account the positions of the social partners in resolving critical issues on labour migration; - Analyze and use the ILO Conventions and other mechanisms and procedures for protecting migrant workers’ rights. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

“Statistiques du travail et migration” : Data on return migration “Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants” -

-

“Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families” -

« Soutenir la réintégration socioprofessionnelle des migrants de retour dans les pays de la CEDEAO et de l’Afrique du Nord » Language : FR 1 week tailor made course in Dakar (for CEDEAO countries) + 1 week tailor made course in Tunis (for North African countries) 1)OBJECTIVES : - Address the social and professional reintegration of migrants and its impact on development; -

2

Understanding further the factors, public policies as well as the pre- and post-return conditions shaping migrants’ manifold patterns of reintegration in their country of origin;

This course exists since 2009 in English. In 2010 it will be given in French and English

“Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants”2 Languages : EN-FR 1 week open course in Turin 1)OBJECTIVES: - Address the social and professional reintegration of migrants and its impact on development; - Set out to gather innovative data on returnees’ various profiles, by carrying out field surveys; - Raise awareness on the need to develop adequate mechanisms sustaining the reintegration of returnees and propose solutions. In order to contribute to: - Understanding further the factors, public policies as well as the pre- and post-return conditions shaping migrants’ manifold patterns of reintegration in their country of origin; - Explaining why returnees may or may not have a positive impact on the development of migrants’ countries of origin; - Providing analytical tools and instruments allowing adequate policies to be

the role of employment services in professional reintegration of returnees Skill Mismatching and national labour market statistics on return migration exportations of social benefits and other mechanism

-

Negotiating bilateral agreements Coordination at regional level Unilateral measures that can be undertaken at national level Community-based initiatives

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

“Statistiques du travail et migration” Improve the capacity to collect, manage and interpret data and other information about returnees in the labour market “Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants” Measure the social and professional reintegration of returnees. “Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families” -

Unilateral measures at national level: best practices How to cover the families staying behind?


-

Providing analytical tools and instruments allowing adequate policies to be adopted with a view to supporting migrants’ reintegration.

2) TARGET GROUPS: -

Officials from Ministries in charge of labour migration issues ;

-

Officials from Ministries in charge of employment and professional reintegration ;

-

Agents working in private and public employment services ;

-

Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters.

adopted with a view to supporting migrants’ reintegration; - Further integrating return migration issues in national and regional development strategies. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues.

“Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families”3 Language : EN 2 weeks open course in Turin 1)OBJECTIVES: - Formulate national and regional strategies, consistent with ILO Conventions and Recommendations, for the extension of social security coverage to migrant workers through the conclusion of social security agreements or, when such agreements are not feasible, through voluntary insurance and community-based initiatives; - Plan, negotiate, and implement bilateral and multilateral social security agreements on behalf of their governments; - Promote the inclusion of provisions on social security in temporary or seasonal labour migration agreements or programmes. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Senior officials from government ministries responsible for planning and implementing strategies and policies for extending social protection coverage to migrant workers and, in particular, for negotiating (now or in the future) bilateral and multilateral social security agreements on behalf of their governments; - Senior administrators from social security institutions responsible for providing operational advice to government ministries during the process of negotiating social security agreements and implementing such agreements once they are concluded as well as implementing other measures such as voluntary insurance for extending social security coverage to migrant workers; - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions in charge of governing labour migration; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of community based insurance schemes, and civil society organizations dealing with the social protection of migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on social protection and labour migration issues. -

3: This course is organized in close cooperation with the MIGSEC project. Last year it was organized in English and French for the African countries covered by the project.


« Migration, marché de l’emploi et réintégration socio-professionnelle” Language : FR 1 week tailor made course in Bamako (Mali) 1) OBJECTIVES: -

Analyze the imbalance between labour markets and current and future demographic changes;

-

Identify the role, functions and potentials of institutions and services dealing with employment during the whole process of migration, with a focus on the return;

-

Address the issue of social and professional reintegration of migrant workers and its impact on development;

-

Develop relevant mechanisms encouraging reintegration of migrant workers in West Africa;

-

Analyze instruments assisting in the implementation of adequate employment policies supporting professional reintegration of returnees.

2) TARGET GROUPS: MALI-MAURITANIE-SENEGAL + principal countries of destination -

Officials from Ministries in charge of labour migration issues in countries of origin as well as in countries of destination ;

-

Officials from Ministries in charge of employment and professional reintegration in countries of origin as well as in countries of destination;

-

Agents working in private and public employment services in countries of origin as well as in countries of destination;

-

Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters.

« Return and reintegration of exploited Thai and Filipino migrants, including trafficked persons, from the EU.” Language : EN 1 week tailor made course in Turin + development of training modules (under preparation)


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

“Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants” What kind of professionally reintegration for temporary migrant?

“Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants” What kind of professionally reintegration for temporary migrant?

“Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families”:

“Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families”

(Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

“Governing International Labour Migration” Languages : EN-FR-ES-AR 2 weeks open course in Turin 1) OBJECTIVES : - Identify key issues and policies regarding global and regional labour migration, in particular from a gender perspective; - Promote migration-development linkages and rights based approaches to labour migration policies and programmes at national and regional levels; - Recognize the special roles of employers’ and workers’ organizations in the development of labour migration policy, taking into account the positions of the social partners in resolving critical issues on labour migration; - Analyze and use the ILO Conventions and other mechanisms and procedures for protecting migrant workers’ rights. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues. “Fostering the social and professional reintegration of return migrants” Languages : EN-FR 1 week open course in Turin 1)OBJECTIVES: - Address the social and professional reintegration of migrants and its impact on development; - Set out to gather innovative data on returnees’ various profiles, by carrying out field surveys; - Raise awareness of the need to develop adequate mechanisms sustaining the reintegration of returnees and propose solutions. Finally, it contributes to: - Understanding further the factors, public policies as well as the pre- and post-return conditions shaping migrants’ manifold patterns of reintegration in their country of origin; - Explaining why return may or may not have a positive impact on the development of migrants’ country of origin; - Providing analytical tools and instruments assisting and developing adequate policies to be adopted with a view to supporting migrants’ reintegration; - Further integrating return migration issues in national and regional development strategies. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters; - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of NGOs and civil society organizations and activists dealing with migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on labour migration issues “Extending social protection to migrant workers and their families” Language : EN 2 week open course in Turin 1)OBJECTIVES: - Formulate national and regional strategies, consistent with ILO Conventions and Recommendations, for the extension of social security coverage to migrant workers through the

-

-

Integration of social protection provision in the seasonal agreement Social protection of families stayed behind

What kind of mechanism to extend social protection to temporary migrant workers?

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


conclusion of social security agreements or, when such agreements are not feasible, through voluntary insurance and community-based initiatives; - Plan, negotiate, and implement bilateral and multilateral social security agreements on behalf of their governments; - Promote the inclusion of provisions on social security in temporary or seasonal labour migration agreements or programmes. 2) TARGET GROUPS: - Senior officials from government ministries responsible for planning and implementing strategies and policies for extending social protection coverage to migrant workers and, in particular, for negotiating (now or in the future) bilateral and multilateral social security agreements on behalf of their governments; - Senior administrators from social security institutions responsible for providing operational advice to government ministries during the process of negotiating social security agreements and implementing such agreements once they are concluded as well as implementing other measures such as voluntary insurance for extending social security coverage to migrant workers; - Policy makers and administrators from concerned governmental institutions in charge of governing labour migration; - Representatives of workers and employers’ organizations handling migration matters - Staff of international development agencies and regional economic communities; - Staff of micro insurance schemes, and civil society organizations dealing with the social protection of migrant workers; - Researchers and academics working on social protection and labour migration issues.


IZA: Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn / Completed by Martin KAHANEC 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

- Impacts on long-term socio-economic potential and brain circulation - Impacts on the demographic transition - Impacts on social security - Impacts on vulnerable groups such as the Roma - What will be the flows and use of remittances?

-Will migrants return, or how long will they stay abroad? -Will migrants return with additional human and/or social capital -How does emigration interact with integration of vulnerable groups? - What will be the role of remittances for the stayers and relatives?

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets This Migration Program research sub-area combines IZA's internal scientific potential with the expertise of external researchers to address two primary scientific objectives. First, we assess the effects of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements on the labor markets of the fifteen original member states as well as the ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. The second objective is to evaluate the different immigration policies adopted by the original member states towards immigrants from the new member states. To foster collaboration with external experts on achieving these objectives, the IZA Expert Network on EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets has been established. The network is coordinated by Martin Kahanec and currently involves nine members (Alan Barrett, Ireland; Denis Fougere, France; Marek Gora, Poland; Joop Hartog, The Netherlands; Timothy J. Hatton, The UK; Mihails Hazans, Latvia; Peder J. Pedersen, Denmark; Sara de la Rica, Spain; and Eskil Wadensjรถ, Sweden) Duration: 2006 - present


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets This Migration Program research sub-area combines IZA's internal scientific potential with the expertise of external researchers to address two primary scientific objectives. First, we assess the effects of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements on the labor markets of the fifteen original member states as well as the ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. The second objective is to evaluate the different immigration policies adopted by the original member states towards immigrants from the new member states. To foster collaboration with external experts on achieving these objectives, the IZA Expert Network on EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets has been established. The network is coordinated by Martin Kahanec and currently involves nine members (Alan Barrett, Ireland; Denis Fougere, France; Marek Gora, Poland; Joop Hartog, The Netherlands; Timothy J. Hatton, The UK; Mihails Hazans, Latvia; Peder J. Pedersen, Denmark; Sara de la Rica, Spain; and Eskil Wadensjö, Sweden) Duration: 2006 - present

- Is Europe a melting pot for the postenlargement migrants? - What are the implications for socioecological transition of European employment? - Will migration affect industrial relations in Europe, and how?

- The long term effects of migration in an enlarged Europe.

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Study on Active Inclusion of Immigrants The overriding objective of this study is to provide the European Commission with expert assessment of the main trends in the situation of migrants with regards to social assistance and access to social services, in-depth analysis of the main determinants of these trends and rigorous account of the mutual interaction of migration policies and social assistance policies. Within this project the unique IZA Expert Opinion Survey of 2007 is replicated in 2010 (collection of primary data). Duration: July 2009 - December 2010. Study on the Social and Labour Market Integration of Ethnic Minorities The overriding objective of the study is to provide the European Commission High Level Group on the social and labour market integration of minorities with an expert analysis of mechanisms to overcome the barriers that members of ethnic minorities, including immigrant ethnic minorities, in Europe may face in gaining access to employment. Several initiatives, such as the network of ten Country Experts and the IZA Expert Opinion Survey (collection of primary data), have been fostered within this project. Duration: October 2006 - March 2008. The Economics and Persistence of Migrant Ethnicity The central aim is to define migrant ethnicity, measure ethnic capital, and identify the parameters for immigrants’ success or failure in the field of economy and society. The need for additional knowledge about the costs and benefits of ethnicity and migration has further increased as a result of the effects of globalization, the upcoming demographic burden, and the sluggish economic development in many parts of the world. A major topic of the IZA project therefore is to identify the forces which determine immigrant ascension to major indicators of success like citizenship, interethnic marriages and self-employment, as well as to define and measure immigrants’ ethnic capital.

- How do welfare policies impact upon immigrant selection? - Do immigrants use welfare more intensively than natives, and why? - Good practice of immigrant inclusion - What are the key barriers preventing ethnic minorities from access and success on the labour market and how can we mitigate them? - How does ethnic identity interact with immigrant's labor market and social outcomes? - What is the skill mismatch in Europe and how can we overcome it?

- Data covering migration trajectories with multiple moves - Data covering full migrants' histories.

- Effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of inclusion policies. - Attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities, towards the "other". - Social norms interacting with immigrant inclusion - Formation, persistence, and role of ethnic identity for socio-economic outcomes. - The image of Europe as a receiving country - Measurement of the skill mismatch

- The methodological issue of selection into migration; and how it interacts with our ability to collect representative data adequately mapping migration trajectories.


Duration: 2004 - 2006 High-Skilled Immigration Policy in Europe Whether Europe will be able to stand up to its internal and external challenges crucially depends on its ability to manage its internal mobility and inflows of international migrants. Using a unique expert opinion survey (collected by IZA in 2009), we document that Europe needs skilled migrants, and skill mismatch is to be expected. A review of current immigration policies shows that despite a number of positive recent developments Europe lacks a consistent strategy to address this challenge effectively, paralyzed by the notion of “fortress� Europe, which we argue should be abandoned. Since significant political tensions can be expected between native actors that favor and disfavor further immigration, improving European immigration policies and procedures is a formidable challenge. This task involves the need to improve Europe’s image among potential migrants, especially the high-skilled ones. Duration: 2009 - present IZA's IDSC hosting e.g. the IZA Evaluation Dataset IDSC is IZA's organizational unit whose purpose is to serve the scientific and infrastructural computing needs of IZA and its affiliated communities. IDSC aims at becoming the place for economically minded technologists and technologically savvy economists looking for data support, data access support and data services about labor economics. A number of datasets uniquely cover migration and immigrant integration. Duration: 2003 - present


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets This Migration Program research sub-area combines IZA's internal scientific potential with the expertise of external researchers to address two primary scientific objectives. First, we assess the effects of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements on the labor markets of the fifteen original member states as well as the ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. The second objective is to evaluate the different immigration policies adopted by the original member states towards immigrants from the new member states. To foster collaboration with external experts on achieving these objectives, the IZA Expert Network on EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets has been established. The network is coordinated by Martin Kahanec and currently involves nine members (Alan Barrett, Ireland; Denis Fougere, France; Marek Gora, Poland; Joop Hartog, The Netherlands; Timothy J. Hatton, The UK; Mihails Hazans, Latvia; Peder J. Pedersen, Denmark; Sara de la Rica, Spain; and Eskil Wadensjรถ, Sweden) Duration: 2006 - present

- Will the post-enlargement migrants return? When, how many, what type of them?

- The decision to return.

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets This Migration Program research sub-area combines IZA's internal scientific potential with the expertise of external researchers to address two primary scientific objectives. First, we assess the effects of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements on the labor markets of the fifteen original member states as well as the ten new members from Central and Eastern Europe. The second objective is to evaluate the different immigration policies adopted by the original member states towards immigrants from the new member states. To foster collaboration with external experts on achieving these objectives, the IZA Expert Network on EU Enlargement and the Labor Markets has been established. The network is coordinated by Martin Kahanec and currently involves nine members (Alan Barrett, Ireland; Denis Fougere, France; Marek Gora, Poland; Joop Hartog, The Netherlands; Timothy J. Hatton, The UK; Mihails Hazans, Latvia; Peder J. Pedersen, Denmark; Sara de la Rica, Spain; and Eskil Wadensjรถ, Sweden) Duration: 2006 - present

- Will the mobile post-enlargement migrants embark on circulatory migration trajectories, thus increasing EU overall mobility? - Will this generate any response of nonmigrants and institutions? - How will this affect the flows and generation of human capital in Europe?

- The decision to migrate (stay, return, or go to another host country). - The overall impact of mobility on EU economy; gains from migration.

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Geographic Mobility in the European Union: Optimising its Economic and Social Benefits The study has a dual goal. The first objective is to present both a comprehensive and at the same time concise picture of the extent of geographic mobility in the European Union, its evolution over time and of the characteristics of individuals affected by mobility. The second objective is to investigate how geographic mobility in the European Union can be optimised. Duration: 2007 - 2008

- Has, or will, EU enlargement mobilized the European potential for circular migration?

- The labor market interaction between circular migrants and natives. - The effect of circular migration on EU human and social capital.


Lebanese American University, Institute for Migration Studies / Paul TABAR, Director 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase 1. SENDING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

Non-existent

Non-existent

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

Non-existent

Non-existent

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

Non-existent

Non-existent

2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members 2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

There is a lack of research and data collection on emigration to Europe from Lebanon. The making of such research is highly needed to inform policy makers in both sending and receiving countries

There is no systematic knowledge about emigration to Europe from Lebanon. Who goes to where? What are the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors behind this phenomenon? Social networks, job opportunities and other factors such as the need for further education need to be explored. Compare and contrast the various skills and qualifications produced in Lebanon with the market demands in European countries.

The research agenda should focus on: 1. The gaps in the government policy to regulate and train potential emigrants to Europe 2. The history of Lebanese emigration to European countries post WW2 3. More recently, research should address the question: who goes where? 4. Skill (at all levels) development and production in Lebanon and matching demands or lack thereof in receiving countries

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

As far as I know, there are knowledge gaps in points 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 in relation to the Lebanese case

In the case of Lebanese emigrants there is a need to do research on: 1. Their labour market integration or lack thereof in France, Germany, Sweden and Italy. 2. Skills recognition, skills adaptation and skills acquisition in these countries using the Lebanese emigrants as a case study 3. To what extent Lebanese emigration to these countries is family migration? 4. A study of family based economic activities in these countries, e.g. restaurants and grocery shops 5. Social and cultural formation and political mobilization among Lebanese migrants in the countries indicated above


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

To my knowledge no such programs exist

N/A

No research and data collection on this topic

If such programs exist, there is a definite knowledge gap on such programs

If such programs exist, there is a need to conduct a research on them and assess their impact

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

N/A

N/A

No research and data collection on this topic

If such a program exists, there is a definite knowledge gap on it

If such a program exists, research on it must be done

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

I have no idea about these benefits

N/A

No research and data collection on this topic

If such benefits exist, there is a need to know about it

If these benefits exist, there is a definite need to do research on them

3.4. Other Topics

4. CIRCULATING

In general, research must be conducted on various types of return migration from Europe to Lebanon

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such research and data collection being conducted in the case of Lebanese migrants in Europe

Obviously knowledge gaps exist in these areas

As a result, research is needed on these topics indicated in 4.1., 4.2. and 4.3.

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such research and data collection being conducted in the case of Lebanese migrants in Europe

Obviously knowledge gaps exist in these areas

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such projects being implemented in the case of Lebanese migrants

I am not aware of such research and data collection being conducted in the case of Lebanese migrants in Europe

Obviously knowledge gaps exist in these areas


OECD Development Center/ Completed by Johannes JUTTING and Jason GAGNON 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

“Policy Coherence for Development: Migration [see Effective Partnerships for Better Migration Management and Adepoju, A. (2005), “Perspectives The implications of emigration N/A and Developing Countries”, Study, This book Development project] on Migration Within and From on home country labour gives an overview of migration trends and the Sub-Saharan Africa”, OECD markets. links between migration and development. It Development Centre, Paris. makes concrete policy proposals for more coherent policy-making between sending and Cogneau, D. And S.Lambert receiving countries. (2006), « L’aide au développement et les autres flux Weblink: nord-sud : complémentarité ou http://www.oecd.org/document/46/0,3343,en substitution ? » OECD _2649_33935_39207662_1_1_1_1,00.html Development Centre. [see also Gaining from Migration list]


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

“Gaining from Migration”, Study, This book argues that N/A the objectives of international migration stakeholders are not necessarily at odds. The book makes a detailed analysis of the European case on labour market integration, circular migration and diaspora networks, Completed in 2007. Weblink: http://www.oecd.org/document/30/0,3343,en_2649_339 35_39207646_1_1_1_1,00.html

1. Cavounidis, J., N.Glytsos and T.Xenogiani (2002), “Migration in Greece”, OECD Development Centre. 2. Dayton-Johnson, J. and L.T.Katseli (2006), “Aid, Trade and Migration: Policy Coherence for Development”, Policy Brief No.28, OECD Development Centre. 3. Fontagné, L. and N.Péridy (2006), “Morocco : Trade and Migration”, OECD Development Centre. 4. Freije, S.(2006a), “Migration and Trade Between Mexico and Central America: Policy Coherence for Development: Mexico/Central America Case Study”, OECD Development Centre. 5. Freije, S (2006b), “Guatemala/Honduras: Migration and Trade”, OECD Development Centre. 6. Gubert, F. and M.Raffinot (2006), “Mali: Aid and Migration”, OECD Development Centre. 7. Hamdouche, Bachir (2006) « Les migrations: une analyse économique », OECD Development Centre. 8. Icduygu, A. (2006), “Gaining from Migration: A Comparative Analysis and Perspective on How Sending and Receiving Countries can Gain from Migration. Turkey Case Study”, OECD Development Centre. 9. Katseli, L., R.Lucas and T.Xenogiani (2006a), “Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective”, Policy Briefs No.30, OECD Development Centre. 10. Katseli, L., R.Lucas and T.Xenogiani (2006b), “Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What do we Know?”, Working Paper No.250, OECD Development Centre. 11. Markova, E. (2006a), Gaining from Migration: Albania Case Study, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 12. Markova, E. (2006b), Gaining from Migration: Bulgaria Case Study, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 13. Martiniello, M. (2006), “What are the Requirements for Migrants’ Effective Integration?”, OECD Development Centre. 14. Okolski, M. (2006), “Costs and Benefits of Migration for Central European Countries”, OECD Development Centre. 15. Olivié, I.A. Sorroza and H.Jacomé (2006), “Ecuador: Migration and FDI”, OECD Development Centre. 16. Papademetriou, D. and D. Meissner (2006), “New Migration Thinking for a New Century”, OECD Development Centre. 17. Quartey, P. (2006), Migration, Aid and Development – A Ghana Country Case Study, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 18. Rindoks, A., R.Penninx and J.Rath (2006), “Gaining from Migration: What Works in Networks? Examining Economically Related Benefits Accrued from Greater Economic Linkages, Migration Processes and Diasporas”, OECD Development Centre. 19. Spencer, S. and B.Cooper (2006), “Social Integration of Migrants in Europe: A Review of the European Literature 2000-2006”, OECD Development Centre, Paris. 20. Stark, O., S.Fan, E.Kepinska and M.Miceveska (2006), “Seasonal Migration”, OECD Development Centre, Paris. 21. Xenogiani, T.(2006), “Policy Coherence for Development: A Background Paper on Migration Policy and its Interactions with Policies on Aid, Trade and FDI”, Working Paper No.249, OECD Development Centre, Paris.

The OECD Development N/A Centre is currently not working in this field of research.


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

“Horizontal Project on Managing Labour N/A Migration to Support Economic Growth”, OECD Report, The OECD Development Centre was given the task of providing input for the horizontal project on return migration and migration management from the perspective of the sending countries. To this end, the Centre commissioned three case studies on return migration (Albania, Mexico, and Moldova) and three papers on migration management (Mexico, Indonesia and the Mediterranean region). The papers touched on all three topics mentioned in section 3 (voluntary return, entrepreneurship and portability of social security), Completed in 2008.

The project’s input was based on six commissioned The impact of return migration on Surveys that track migrants in their host research papers as well as two background papers migrants themselves, other household country as well as in their home country produced at the Centre: members and other community members. (over time) and examines their outcomes 1. Alba, Francisco (2008), Migration Management in Mexico, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 2. Hugo, Graeme (2008), Migration Management in Indonesia, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 3. Tovias, Alfred and Y.Tovias (2008), Migration Management in the Mediterranean basin, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 4. Borodak, D. (2008), Return Migration in Moldova, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 5. Mendoza, Eduardo (2008), Return Migration in Mexico, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 6. Piracha, Matloob and F.Vadean (2008), Return Migration in Albania, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 7. Dayton-Johnson, Jeff and J.Gagnon (2008), Volver, volver, volver, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris. 8. Dayton-Johnson, Jeff and D.Drechsler and J.Gagnon, Migration Management – Policy Options and Development Impact, unpublished ms., OECD Development Centre, Paris.


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

N/A

“Effective Partnerships for Better Migration Management and Development project�, this project will make a critical analysis on migration based on two themes (impact on sending country labour markets and migration management) in two regions (Central America and West Africa). This project also covers many themes under the first heading (Sending).

Weblink to workshop organized in Costa Rica in the framework of this project: http://www.oecd.org/document/20/0,3343,en_2649_33935_43080852_1_1_1_1,00.html

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

One analytical paper on The implications of South-South migration governance in migration. Nicaragua and Costa Rica (2010). The implications of emigration on home country labour One analytical paper on markets. migration governance in Burkina Faso (2010).

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

South-South and migration research.

transit

Evaluation of circular migration schemes.


OECD LEED Program/ Completed by Francesca FROY 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

1. SENDING Study on Local Skills Strategies in Sending Countries 1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

Study on emerging policies and local practice to better manage emigration, and assesses the possible impacts that this can have on local development paths. The work focused on case studies and interviews in sending countries, including Ecuador, El Salvador, Ghana, Nigeria, Nicaragua, Mexico, Romania, and Sierra Leone.

Hofer, A (2009) “Addressing the loss of skills to international migration� in OECD (2009) Designing Local Skills Strategies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

OECD Study on the local integration of immigrants into the labour market

OECD Study on Strategies for Improving Employment Outcomes for Ethnic Minorities

This project carried out research at the national and local level in five countries: Canada, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom to understand how local actors can best integrate immigrants into the labour market. The research looked at both new instruments (e.g. mapping job profiles to make the labour market more transparent) and emerging governance arrangements. OECD Study on Designing Local Skills Strategies This study focused on how local areas can effectively combine strategies to attract talent, with mechanisms for integrating disadvantaged groups into the labour market and upgrading the skills of workers.

This study focuses on strategies for Improving Employment outcomes for Ethnic minorities and 2nd/3rd generation immigrants. It is supported by a grant from the European Commission DG Employment & Social Affairs.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

OECD (2006, with translations in 2007 and 2010), “From immigration to integration: local solutions to a global challenges”, OECD Publishing, Paris. OECD (2009) Designing local skills strategies, OECD Publishing, Paris OECD (2008) A fine balance: managing migration to meet local labour market needs, internal document, OECD, Paris

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


3. RETURNING

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Studies on return migration in Albania and Bulgaria Two studies into the management of return migration and impacts on local development in Albania and Bulgaria.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

OECD (2004), “Return Migration and Local Development in Albania”, internal document, OECD Trento Centre OECD (2004), “Return Migration and Local Development in Bulgaria”, internal document, OECD Trento Centre

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


ÖIF: Austrian Integration Fund/ Completed by Alexander SCHAHBASI 2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Statistisches Jahrbuch 2009: Zahlen. Daten. Fakten [Statistical yearbook 2009: Numbers. Data. Facts] http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/zahlen_und_fakten/statistikjahrbuch_2009/

Outcome of linguistic integration measures (labor market integration, educational attainment)

migraMAP http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/zahlen_und_fakten/migramaps/

Mapping of recognition/transferability of skills/qualifications

Chechens in the European Union (Janda/Leitner/Vogl) http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/chechens_in_the_eu/

Translation of educational credentials into usable human capital on the labour market

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

Mentoring for Migrants http://www.integrationsfonds.at/en/support/career_at_the _oeif/ Mentoring for Migrants is a joint initiative of the Austrian Integration Fund, the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber, and the AMS job market service. The goal is to bring together experienced individuals from the business world – mentors – and people from a migrant background – mentees – and support them in their integration into the Austrian job market. The project is carried out in Vienna and Upper Austria.

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Managem ent

ÖIF Dossier N°. 1 - The Integration Process in Israel (Yehuda Lav) http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/oeif_dossier/oeif_dossier_n1/ ÖIF Dossier N°. 3 - Die Bildungssituation der zweiten Zuwanderergeneration in Wien (Andreas Steinmayr) [Educational Attainment of second-generation immigrants in Vienna] http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/oeif_dossier/oeif_dossier_n3/

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

National Action Plan for Integration The National Action Plan for Integration has been passed by the Ministerial Council in January 2010 and aims to streamline integration policies. http://www.integrationsfonds.at/de/nap/

ÖIF Dossier N°.6 – Migration aus Nordafrika sowie dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten (Florian Walter) [Migration from North Africa and the Middle East] http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/publikationen/oeif_dossiers/oeif_dossier_n6/ ÖIF Dossier N°. 7 – Umweltmigration (Matthias Jurek, Susanne Weber) [Environmental Migration] http://www.integrationsfonds.at/wissen/publikationen/oeif_dossiers/oeif_dossier_n7/ Integration Indicators of the National Actionplan for Integration http://www.integrationsfonds.at/fileadmin/Integrationsfond/NAP/nap_indikatoren.pdf

3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Return patterns Motives/Incentives for return and reintegration

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


The Syria Trust for Development / Completed by Zaki MEHCHY 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

Title: Voluntary Return of Irregular Migrants Stranded in Syria (with IOM):

Research Title: Migration in Syria (in Arabic)

Type: Orderly return of non-Syrian

Author: Jamal Barout

The project enabled about 100 irregular migrants to return to their countries of origin, by providing the necessary counseling.

Title: Agreements to protect the Syrian workers in several countries:

The study is an attempt to come up with a rough estimation on the number of Syrian migrants. Additionally, the study examines the migration effect on the Syrian economy through remittances.

Research Title: Labour Market Performance and Migrations Flows in Syria

Type: Agreements and Regulations 1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

Bilateral agreements between Syria and “receiving” countries to protect and organize the Syrian labour force outside the country.

1.3. Other Topics P.S.: there are many “resettlement” programmes conducted by UNHCR to “send” Iraqi refugees to EU and USA. Yet, the Syrian government considers the Iraqis in Syria as refugees and not regular/irregular migrants.

Author: Samir Aita The study examine the effect of the migrations status in Syria on the labor force indicators including employment and unemployment rate among Syrians

Build-up a reliable database on the Syrian migrants. There is no official and reliable data on Syrians who migrated. Conducting research (based on the established database) on the most important projects that are needed for the Syrian migrants. Increasing awareness among the Syrian officials on the importance of “sending” migration management projects.


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Title: decree No. 81 in 2006 to control the “housekeepers” flow from outside Syria.

Title: Adjusting the current Labour Law No.91 in 1959

Research Title: Migration in Syria (in Arabic)

Type: Laws and Regulations

Author: Jamal Barout

The expected adjustments will organize, control and try to reduce the foreign workforce in the Syrian market in order to replace it with local workers.

The study is an attempt to come up with a rough estimation on the number of Syrian migrants. Additionally, the study examines the migration effect on the Syrian economy through remittances.

Type: Laws and Regulations 2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

The decree aims to organize the flow of housekeepers by registering them and taxing the beneficiaries.

Several projects conducted by UNHCR and UNRWA for Iraqis and Palestinians. These projects aim to provide “refugees” with working skills, and some of them (UNRWA) provide microfinance loans for the Palestinians to start-up their enterprises. Again, the Syrian Government considers the Iraqis and Palestinians as refugees and not migrants. Other projects conduct with the coordination of the Ministry of Interior aiming mainly to control the border and reduce the illegal migrants to and from Syria.

Research Title: Labour Market Performance and Migrations Flows in Syria

Author: Samir Aita The study examine the effect of the migrations status in Syria on the labor force indicators including employment and unemployment rate among Syrians

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Build-up a reliable database on the existing migrants in Syria. There is no official and reliable data on that. To distinguish between “refugees” and “migrants” in Syria. Conducting research (based on the established database) on the most important projects that are needed for the migrants in Syria.


3. RETURNING

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Title: Laws and regulations to attract Syrian expatriates to invest in Syria

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

These laws and regulations issued by the Ministry of Expatriates in close coordination with the Ministry of Economics to facilitate investment procedures. Title: Law issued by Ministry of defense to reduce the length of military service for the migrant young Syrians

Improving the performance of the Ministry of Expatriates.

Author: Jamal Barout

Establishing a database for the Syrian expatriates by educational level and professions in their countries.

The study is an attempt to come up with a rough estimation on the number of Syrian migrants. Additionally, the study examines the migration effect on the Syrian economy through remittances.

Research Title: Labour Market Performance and Migrations Flows in Syria

Type: Laws and Regulations Author: Samir Aita Military service considers an “incentive” for the young Syrians to migrate. It used to be 3 years, and nowadays, it is reduced to be one and a half year for the University graduates.

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Research Title: Migration in Syria (in Arabic)

Type: Laws and Regulations 3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

The study examine the effect of the migrations status in Syria on the labor force indicators including employment and unemployment rate among Syrians

Benefiting from the experience of MENA countries in the “return” migration management projects.


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Title: Regulations to manage and organize the Syrian migrants to neighboring countries (Lebanon and Jordan)

Build-up a reliable database on the Syrians who “migrated” on a regular basis. There is no official and reliable data on that.

Type: Laws and Regulations

Conducting research (based on the established database) on the most important “circulating” migration management projects.

The regulations aim to control and organize the Syrian workers in Lebanon and Jordan who go there on temporary basis.


UNDP: United Nations Development Program/ Completed by Sarah ROSENGAERTNER 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1.4 UN-IOM Handbook on Mainstreaming Migration in National Development Strategies In early 2010, the IOM, with contributions from UNDP and other UN agencies, will publish a Handbook on Mainstreaming Migration in National Development Strategies; the publication is intended to be a practical tool for governments of developing countries to mainstream migration into Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP). The handbook is targeted at policymakers from different backgrounds whose work affects or is affected by migration. The handbook will also serve as an important reference tool for other stakeholders (academia, donors, nongovernmental organization (NGOs), employers and trade unions) interested in learning more about the interplay between migration and development.

There is a lack of systematic analysis at the country-level of the interlinkages between migration and human development, which would allow countries to holistically assess the costs and benefits of migration in terms of human development and formulate policies accordingly.

UNDP would like to see a human development lens systematically included in migration related research, starting with the collection of disaggregated data at the country-level.

(Title, Type, and short Description) (Title, Type, and short Description)

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.1 Travel Safe: Pre-migration Registration and Due Diligence Inquiry Programme in Armenia – UNDP (2007-2009) Partners: State Migration Agency, Ministry of Territorial Administration of the Republic of Armenia, Regional Administration, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia, International Organization for Migration mission in Armenia Funding source: Norway As part of larger anti-trafficking programme, the Travel Safe partnership between UNDP and the State Migration Agency equips potential labour migrants with knowledge to help them identify dangerous or fraudulent job offers. The programme also establishes a network to enable due diligence inquiries to reduce the chance of exploitation or trafficking of potential labour.

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries 1.1 Information Campaign to Prevent Trafficking and Irregular (all Levels of Skills) Migration and the Establishment and Operation of Hotlines and Consultation Centers to Raise Awareness and Inform Vulnerable and Potential Victims of Trafficking and Smuggling 1.3 Orderly in Ghana - IOM and UNDP (2006-2007) Departure This project aims to prevent trafficking in persons and irregular (Regulation of migration through the provision of information to vulnerable Overseas people and potential victims of trafficking and transit migrants. Recruitment ) The project built the capacities of local governmental and nongovernmental partners in urban and selected rural areas in Accra and Takoradi. 1.4. Other Topics 1.1 Interventions to Address Stress and Mental Health among Women Migrant Workers from the Philippines – UNDP (20092011) Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* Implementation partners: Action for Health Initiatives (ACHIEVE), Philippines-Vrije Universiteit-Metamedica/Health Care and Culture (VU-MHCC), Netherlands This project focusing on stress and mental health issues is part of a larger initiative aimed at improving the general conditions for women migrant workers and the prevention of discrimination, abuse and violation of their rights in all phases of the migration cycle. Research on the stress levels and overall mental health of women migrant workers engaged in overseas

1.3 Illegal Migration: Filling the Information Gap in Nigeria – UNDP (2009-2011) Partners: Coventry University, United Kingdom, Child Adolescent and Family Survival Organization (CAFSO), Ibadan, Nigeria Funding source: EU Currently in the planning stages, this project intends to create awareness of the challenges and potential dangers of illegal migration.

1.3 Migrant Rights, Nigeria and Poland – UNDP (under preparation) Partners: Instytut na Rzecz Pastwa Prawa (FIPP) (Rule of Law Institute Foundation), Poland, Human Support Services (HSS), Nigeria The project will raise awareness of abusive and exploitative labour practices and the dangers of irregular channels of migration among potential migrants, migrant communities, policy makers and law enforcement. To benefit migrant communities, the project seeks to create hubs, in the form of websites, newsletter and hotlines, for information and assistance and to report exploitative labour practices, including violence against women migrants. Together with partners, UNDP will organize thematic trainings and conferences for employers

Somalia’s Mission Million: the Somali Diaspora and its Role in Development (2009) This report highlights the diaspora’s efforts in Somalia in the areas of humanitarian assistance, remittances and participation in recovery, reconstruction and development. It provides a better understanding of trends of diaspora activities and interests in the country. The result of a workshop on the topic, it provides specific guidance on future collaboration including the forging of a new partnership between the UN and international community and the Somali Diaspora, to work together with Somalis to enhance development in the country. 2009 Human Development Report: Overcoming barriers: Human Mobility and Development The report looks at inequalities in the global distribution of capabilities as a major driver for movement of people. It shows that migration can expand people’s choices, but opportunities vary between those who are best endowed and those with limited skills and assets. National and local policies play a critical role in enabling better human development outcomes for both those

Research questions that would help countries to better understand and address migration and human development could include: Who moves (disaggregate as far as possible using indicators such as income, country/region of origin, group affiliation, age, gender, education, occupation, legal status)? Why do they move (motivations)? How do they move (regular/irregular channels, intermediaries used)? What are the costs involved? Where do they go? How long do they stay abroad? How often do they come home? How do migrants fare compared to nationals in communities left behind (in terms of income, health, education, civil and political rights…)? What are the main determinants of migration "success" (e.g. voluntary vs. forced decision, legal status, availability of social networks, level of education etc.)? How does emigration affect families/communities/regions in the country of origin? How does it affect the labour market (sector-specific impacts, skills shortages)? How does it affect gender relations? How does internal migration affect those who move (in terms of HD outcomes such as income, education, health, access to services etc)?


employment will inform a package of interventions including pre-departure programmes, self-diagnosis, strengthening care systems abroad, counseling and crisis response. 1.1 Joint UN Programme on HIV and Migration in the Philippines – UNDP (2007-2009) Partners: UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, UNRC, Department of Labor and Employment, Department of Health This project supports the provision of rights-based services to Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) and their families to reduce their HIV risk at all phases of migration process. As most migrants from the Philippines are women, it also reinforces and further integrates gender sensitive awareness and HIV prevention for OFWs into government mandated and private sector-led pre-departure seminars and appropriate training programmes. A review of existing policies and protocols on HIV and migration inform capacity development of local government and national and local institutions working on HIV and migration. Activities also work to reintegrate returning Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs), including HIV-positive OFWs, into the workplace, family and community life through health and psychosocial care, social protection services, livelihood projects or microfinance.

1.1 Strengthening Institutional Capacities and Partnerships on HIV and Migration in the Philippines – UNDP/UNFPA/UNAIDS (2009-2011) Partners: Department of Labor and Employment Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* In the Philippines, UNDP and partners integrate gender-sensitive HIV prevention into government-mandated and private sector led pre-departure seminars and training programmes for migrant workers. This project is one component of the larger programme, "Promoting Leadership and Mitigating the Negative Impacts of HIV and AIDS on Human Development". 1.3 Capacity Building for the Management of Migration in Ghana - UNDP/IOM (2006-2007) In Ghana the IOM and UNDP worked with a number of government agencies including the Ghana Immigration Service (GIS) and the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MoTI) as well as the University of Ghana to form a policy framework conducive to supporting management of migration in and out of Ghana. In order to get a clearer picture of the migration landscape, the project provided support for the establishment of the Centre for Migration Studies at the University of Ghana. Noting that difficulties in obtaining travel documents and poor knowledge of relevant migration procedures fuels irregular migration, the project sought to make information more transparent with the creation of the Migration Information Bureau within the Ghana Immigration Service. The bureau has received support from UNDP to develop Information Campaign and Education materials (ICE), to develop staff capacity and to set up migration

and law enforcement on laws regarding the protection of the rights of migrants and their families in both partner countries. Partnerships with independent monitoring organizations will review migration-related legislation and its impact of migrant rights. Capacity building programmes in the law reform initiatives will be guided by the ILO Conventions on the protection of migrant workers, the Migrant Workers Convention and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. UNDP will also facilitate networking opportunities to facilitate exchange of knowledge on migration issues as part of the effort to build PolishNigerian bilateral relations.

who choose to move in order to improve their circumstances, and those forced to relocate due to conflict, environmental degradation, or other reasons. The HDR 2009 shows how a human development approach can be a means to redress some of the underlying issues that erode the potential benefits of mobility and/or forced migration. Some recent National Human Development Reports (NHDRs) in Mexico, El Salvador and Albania have explored the development consequences of massive migration and population mobility. Other NHDRs have considered mobility a factor influencing different aspects of development, such as employment in Romania, rural development in Uganda, economic growth in Moldova, social cohesion in the Ivory Coast and inequalities in China. Regional HDRs in Africa and Central Asia have included migration in their analysis of regional integration and as a key issue for regional cooperation. 2007 Romania Human Development Report: Fostering Human Development by Strengthening the Inclusiveness of the Labour Market in Romania The Romania HDR emphasizes the diversity of labor market issues and opportunities for improvement of quality of life. It also provides examples of the most successful government programmes implemented at the regional level that contributed to Romania's accession to the EU and ongoing efforts to achieve the country's MDGs. Recommendations focus on ways to capitalize on remittance flows for investment in health and education and on filling the gap in the labour market left by those who have migrated to other countries in Europe for higher wages. 2005 Kerala Human Development Report examines the interlinkages between education and emigration, and the impact of emigration and remittances on economic growth, gender dynamics (e.g. female labour market participation), technological innovation etc. in Kerala.

How does internal migration affect families/communities/regions of origin and destination (e.g. in terms of labour supply, urban infrastructures, availability, accessibility and quality of public services)? What is the total amount, volatility and trends of remittances inflows? Who sends and receives remittances (location, nationality, gender, income, household size etc.)? What are remittances being used for? What channels are being used and what are the transaction costs for different transfer channels? How to provide effective consular protection to nationals abroad? How to include the human development implications of mobility into national development strategies and migration policies, as well as bilateral/international migration cooperation agreements? How to regulate the activities of intermediaries to reduce the transaction costs of migration and illegal migration practices?


hotlines and Management Information Systems (MIS). Previously, the absence of a national framework on migration had resulted in "independent" interventions on migration implemented without any coherence or synergy which minimized their impact; thus this initiative focused on harmonizing migration-related roles and functions of relevant ministries including the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labour, National Development Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Finance.

1.3 EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) – UNDP (2005-2011) Partners: EU, OSCE The EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) contributes to the delivery of good quality border and customs services to the citizens and companies of Moldova, Ukraine and the European Union through training of borders guards and other interventions. 1.4 Mitigating the Negative Impact of Migration on the MultiGenerational Household in Jamaica – UNDP (2009-2010) Partners: Hope for Children Development Company Limited (Jamaica), HelpAge nternational (UK) Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* This project will create positive linkages between migration and development in Jamaica through increasing the protection and social inclusion of migrants and their families. The overall objective is to reduce the negative impact of migration on multigenerational households (MGHs) in Jamaica by increasing access to information, services and entitlements and reducing socioeconomic exclusion. The main beneficiaries include 1,500 poor households in 3 inner-city Kingston communities. These households receive caregiver guidance and training in remittance-management, job skills and entrepreneurship.


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Perceived Key Policy Design Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

2.1 Protecting and Promoting the Rights of China's Vulnerable Young Migrants – UNDP (UN joint programme in China) (2008-2011) Partners: China International Centre for Economic and Technical Exchanges (CICETE) Funding source: UNDP UNDP has initiated a study on migration trends, institutional and social barriers for migrants' integration in urban areas, and on existing protection mechanisms on the national and local levels. This research aims to inform the creation of new policy framework to enhance the protection of rights of young migrants.

Who comes through regular channels (disaggregate as far as possible using indicators such as income, country/region of origin, group affiliation, age gender, education, occupation, legal status, duration and reason for/purpose of migration)?

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

2.1 Capacity Building in Promoting Social Inclusion for Migrant Workers and their Families in China – UNDP (2007-2010) Partners: China International Centre for Economic and Technical Exchanges (CICETE); Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS); National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) In China, UNDP addresses the rights and needs of domestic migrant workers and their families that are often not well reflected in social security and access to public social services. UNDP assists the Chinese government at multiple levels in enhancing their capacity in the areas of management and service delivery to incorporate migrant workers and their families within social policy and reform of administrative systems serving migrants populations. In addition to employment opportunities and migrant access to social security and compensation and rehabilitation for workers’ injuries, policy will be oriented towards migrant access to basic education for children, general health and maternal care and housing.

2.1 + 2.2 State-Level Support to Livelihood Promotion Strategies in Rajasthan, India – UNDP (2005-2012) Partners: Dept. of Labour & Employment, Government of Rajasthan, India The state government of Rajasthan has launched a Mission on Livelihoods (RMOL) to address issues related to employment and employability, to strengthen and diversify livelihoods of poor people and to reduce the vulnerabilities faced by women and socially marginalized groups. The RMOL has identified concerns faced by migrant workers in the state and has implemented specific interventions to address these concerns with support from UNDP since 2005. Activities have included skill development, job creation, livelihood promotion in selected sectors, and capacity development of government and NGOs to support these efforts. Mobile training facilities have contributed to reaching remote underserved areas with skills building courses. UNDP has shared the Rajasthan experience with other states in India.

2.4 Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Women Workers in Uzbekistan - UNDP (2007) Partner: Women’s Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan The main objective of the project is to protect the rights of women migrants and to increase the quality of services provided by relevant government bodies and non-governmental organizations. Research conducted on internal labor migration in Uzbekistan informed recommendations for the national strategy to respond to the challenges of labor migration, improve the legal status of women, to promote

2.4 Tracking Urban Poverty in Vietnam – UNDP (2009) Partners: People Committee of Hanoi Capital, People Committee of Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi Statistical Office, Hochiminh Statistical Office The project assists Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh cities in identifying the scope, depth, characteristics and issues of urban poverty in relation to migration. The research aims to support the city governments in developing their own concrete responses to identified issues. As a follow up to this project, additional support will be directed at strengthening the capacity of the cities in developing and implementing local strategies on poverty reduction to accelerate progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals and also the Vietnam Development Goals (VDGs).

2.4 Migration, Remittances and Development – UNDP (2005-2007) From 2005-2007, UNDP led a number of global and regional multi-stakeholder consultations on migration, remittances and development. These meetings underscore the interest of stakeholders in (i.) gaining a better understanding of the demand for and influence of remittances on the productive base of a local economy, (ii) catalyzing activities in a learning-by doing framework (iii) putting in place functional policies and capacity development strategies to support the positive

Who comes through irregular channels (disaggregate as far as possible using indicators such as income, country/region of origin, group affiliation, age gender, education, occupation, legal status, duration and reason for/purpose of migration)? How do migrants move (channels, intermediaries used)? What are the costs involved? Where do they settle? How long do they stay? How often do they go home? How do migrants fare compared to nationals in receiving communities (in terms of income, health, education, civil and political rights…)? What are the main determinants of migration "success" (e.g. voluntary vs. forced decision, legal status, availability of social networks, level of education etc.)? How does immigration affect families/communities/regions in the country? How does internal migration affect those who move (in terms of HD outcomes such as income, education, health, access to services etc)? How does internal migration affect families/communities/regions of origin and destination (e.g. in terms of labour supply, urban infrastructures, availability, accessibility and quality of public services)? What is the total amount, volatility and trends of remittances outflows? Who sends remittances (location, nationality, gender, income, household size etc.) and how (channels used)? What are the transaction costs for different transfer channels?


migrant workers' rights and improve the overall situation of the rural population in the sphere of employment. Seminars organized for government, law-enforcement and civil society raised awareness on the rights of women labor migrants and victims of human trafficking. 2.4 Microcredit for Poor Households of Migrants in Korea – UNDP (2007-2009) Partners: Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Social Solidarity Bank The objective of this project is to support poor households of migrants naturalized in Korea by marriage who generally experience difficulty in getting jobs and engaging in economic activity in the country. Korea has no systematic support programme for marriage migrants. While the project originally intended to identify potential individual beneficiaries, primarily poor women of migrant households in Korea, and provide them with business training and access to microcredit, the process proved difficult and therefore community organizations were instead selected as the beneficiaries. 2.4 S-UN Fund for Youth, Turkey – UNDP (2008-2010) Funding source: SDC (Swiss Development Cooperation Agency) Budget: US$ 750,000 S-UN Fund for Youth is a grant and technical assistance programme, jointly implemented by UNDP and Youth Services Department under the General Directorate of Youth and Sports. For young people residing in Konya, Muðla and Kocaeli, the S-UN Fund for Youth provides grants for youth-generated initiatives in the culture and tourism sectors to support the social integration of young women and men from migrant populations. Initiatives support increasing youth participation and youth employment in culture and tourism sectors, tolerance and dialogue among youth, and efficient use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in creating new employment opportunities and avenues for entrepreneurship.

2.4 Gender & Remittances: Building Gender Responsive Local Development UNDP/UN-INSTRAW (2007 – 2010) A UNDP joint project with UN-INSTRAW approaches the relationship between remittances and development through a gender lens. The project acknowledges the influence of gender dynamics in remittance flows, in the use of transferred funds and the impact of remittances on the lives of families, households and communities. It is implemented in six countries, which provide a global representation of UNDP’s Regional Bureaus: Albania, Dominican Republic, Lesotho, Morocco, Philippines and Senegal. The project gathered data on the flow and use of remittances in the six pilot countries, including formal and informal transfer mechanisms and the decision-making processes (the gendered power relations) taking place in households/communities beneficiaries. After the identification of key stakeholders, workshops were held to focus dialogue around polices for low-cost remittance services that also worked to link recipient households with financial services for secure investments. Phase 2 involved the development and implementation of pilot projects in each of the six countries, which link demand-based capacities and identified catalytic policies in regard to migration, remittance flows, and co-development.

impact of remittances on income generation, strengthening sustainable livelihoods and entrepreneurship creation. 2.4 “HIV Vulnerabilities Faced by Women Migrants: From Asia to the Arab States: from silence, stigma and shame to safe mobility with dignity, equity and justice” - UNDP (2008) The study published by the UNDP Regional Centre in Colombo covers four countries of origin: Bangladesh, Pakistan, Philippines, and Sri Lanka; and three host countries: Bahrain, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). By analyzing the economic, socio-cultural, and political factors that influence the HIV vulnerability of migrant workers, especially female migrant workers, the study aims to aid the design of appropriate rights-based HIV prevention programmes. It identifies emerging challenges and trends in the response to HIV and migration issues in host countries, particularly in the area of human rights and public health. The study underscores the responsibility of host countries and countries of origin to provide protective policies and programmes for migrant women. It outlines some of the positive steps taken by Arab states to ensure responsiveness to the needs of migrant women including the provision of health insurance schemes and the reform existing labour laws to cover migrant workers in the domestic sector. 2.4 Gender & Remittances: Building Gender Responsive Local Development UNDP/UNINSTRAW (2007 – 2010) A UNDP joint project with UN-INSTRAW approaches the relationship between remittances and development through a gender lens. It is implemented in six countries, which provide a global representation of UNDP’s Regional Bureaus: Albania, Dominican Republic, Lesotho, Morocco, Philippines and Senegal. The project gathered data on the flow and use of remittances in the six pilot countries, including formal and informal transfer mechanisms and the decision-making processes (the gendered power relations) taking place in households/communities beneficiaries. After the identification of key stakeholders, workshops were held to focus dialogue around polices for low-cost remittance services that also worked to link recipient households with financial services for secure investments. From June 29 to 1 July 2009 in Geneva, the UNDP Gender team, in collaboration with UN-INSTRAW, the IOM, and the ILO, convened a Global Consultation on Migration, Remittances and Development.

How to reach out to and ensure their access to relevant information and services? How to build trust between migrants and receiving communities? How to build trust of migrants in formal institutions, including formal channels for financial transfers? How to provide accessible and acceptable services to migrants to facilitate their integration? How to facilitate skills recognition and skills acquisition of migrants? How to include the human development implications of mobility into national migration policies, as well as bilateral/international migration cooperation agreements? How to ensure respect for labour standards and prevent the exploitation of migrants? migrant communities


2.4 Mutual Support for Self-Empowerment (MUSE), Nigeria and the United Kingdom – UNDP Partners: London Rebuilding Society, UK Nurses across the Borders, Nigeria, EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* MUSE is a mechanism for collective investment of remittances for the development of community programmes in Nigeria. The model is built on the principles of mutuality and self-help and will involve mobilizing investment from ten Nigerian migrant organizations in the United Kingdom that will be expected to raise £20,000 as their investment to which £80,000 will be added, raised as co-financing for social enterprises to be developed under MUSE. This aggregated investment will then be used to invest in the development of healthcare and social enterprises in Nigeria. 2.4 Leveraging Remittances for Socioeconomic Development in Sri Lanka – UNDP (2009-2010) Partners: Sewalanka Foundation - Sri Lanka, Sarvodaya Economic Enterprises Development Services (SEEDS) - Sri Lanka, International Network of Alternative Financial Institutions (INAFI) Asia Funding Source: Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* This project addresses the need for financial literacy among remittance recipients in order to make remittances work for development. Financial literacy courses will be held for Sri Lankan migrants and their families residing in Europe (Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy) and those at home in Sri Lanka. Project partners will collaborate with banks and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) to create financial products for remittance recipients and offer them entrepreneurship courses. By promoting formal financial services in Sri Lanka the project also aims to avoid some of the costs and obstacles associated with informal transfers systems. 2.4 Mobilizing Migrant Remittances for Local Development in Senegal – UNDP (2009 – 2011) Partners: Union des Mutuelles d’Epargne et de Crédit des Artisans du Sénégal (UMECAS), Echanges Internationaux pour le développement et la coopération (ECIDEC) Funding source: UNDP, ECIDEC, UMECAS The objective of this project is to channel migrant remittances to support economic and social development in five regions in Senegal. Surveys of the Senegalese migrant community living in France informed the design and creation of formal, transparent channels for sending money home and to, in turn, finance individual and community projects. 2.4 Protecting the Flow of Remittances in Somalia - UNDP UNDP Somalia stepped in to protect the flow of remittances following the events of 11 September 2001 in New York after the main wire transfer company closed down. UNDP assisted in establishing the Somali Financial Services Association – a key organisation for transfer of remittances in Somalia, which has contributed to the creation of a stronger financial services system.

2.4 “The Threat Posed by the Economic Crisis to Universal Access to HIV Services for Migrants” – UNDP and ILO (2009) Issued jointly by UNDP, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), this report comments on migration policies, the current global financial situation and HIV/AIDS programmes in light of what was learned and observed after the ’97 financial crisis. The report warns against cuts to essential HIV/AIDS programmes and adverse policies such as deportation and a decrease in work permits that worked against migrant workers and contribute to irregular migration. Without access to formal channels of migration, many people on the move seek informal, unsafe channels of movement that places them in conditions with greater risk and vulnerability to HIV. The paper illustrates that governments have stopped issuing work permits, are cracking down on undocumented migrants (Malaysia, Taiwan) and many foreign workers in manufacturing and construction are being laid off (Indonesia, China). In several countries there are increasing reports of worsening working conditions (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore).


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

3.1 Facilitating Return and Increasing its Sustainability and Development Impact in Iraq and Afghanistan – UNDP and IOM Return and reintegration of qualified nationals (RQN), targeting expatriate nationals with specific professional skills and knowledge in demand in the country of origin willing to return temporarily or permanently to support reconstruction and socio-economic development there. RQN programmes entail the matching of émigré skills with resource needs in key growth areas in the public and private sectors (e.g. Return of Qualified Afghan Nationals in Afghanistan (RQA), the Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals from the Netherlands, the Iraqis Rebuilding Iraq programme (IRI) implemented in cooperation with UNDP). 3.1 Supporting Deported Jamaican Migrants and their Families – UNDP (2009-2010) Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* Partners: Institute of Sustainable Development, University of the West Indies, Mona (Jamaica), FPWP Hibiscus (UK) The Project will reintegrate deported returnees and ensure the rights of children of migrants in detention. Programmes will support deported returnees through skills training and certification programmes and by connecting them to potential employers in Jamaica. Research will also help to determine the long-term needs of female deportees. 3.1 Facilitating Return of Diasporas – Ecuador - UNDP In Ecuador, UN agencies are supporting the government help migrants returning from Spain resettle and rebuild their lives, helping create job opportunities, particularly for youth. From August to December 2008, the number of jobless Ecuadorians in Spain doubled, from 25,000 to 50,000, and the number of inquiries about the Voluntary Return Programme has increased sevenfold. 3.1 Migration for Development (MIDEth) in Ethiopia – UNDP (August 2007 - December 2009) Partners: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA); Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED); Ministry of Capacity Building (MoCB); International Organization for Migration (IOM); Regional Diaspora Coordination Offices; five government hospitals (Black Lion, Yekatit, Menelik, St. Pauls and Armed Force); EU-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)*; Ethiopian North American Health Professionals Associations (ENAHPA); and Operation Heart Beat (OHB) Funding source: UNDP TRAC Resource MIDEth supports the institutional capacities and systems within the Ethiopian government to establish procedures for the recruitment and deployment of skilled Ethiopian diasporas to encourage the return of Ethiopian professionals and address acute human resource constraints in the country. With the assistance of UNDP, new systems and procedures were created so the Ethiopian Directorate General of Expatriate Affairs and four Regional Diaspora Coordination Offices could identify gaps in knowledge and skills in the priority sectors of health and education and facilitate the recruitment and deployment of skilled Ethiopian Diasporas. The return of doctors and nurses and the donations of medical equipment and medicines greatly strengthened the capacity of four major hospitals in Addis Ababa. The development of a comprehensive National Policy Framework on Migration is ongoing.

Who returns and for what reasons? Whereto do migrants return? How do returnees fare compared to locals in receiving communities (in terms of income, health, assets…)? What are the main determinants of reintegration "success"? What kind of assistance should be provided to returnees to facilitate their reintegration? How to ensure the portability of pensions and other benefits? How does return affect receiving communities? How do returns affect financial flows?


3.2 Harnessing Diaspora, Local Women's Groups, Rural Banks and Local Government for Rural Development in Four Provinces of the Philippines – UNDP (2009-2011) Partners: Economic Resource Center for Overseas Filipinos (ERCOF), Philippines-COS Utrecht, Netherlands-Damayang Pilipino sa Nederland, JEP Consultants and Trainers Funding source: Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* The project will contribute to rural development in areas in the southern Philippines by mobilizing local government, local women's associations, rural banks and diaspora community organizations in multi-stakeholder partnerships for the realization of women-run social enterprises. Activities also aim to facilitate access to local markets for women entrepreneurs.

3.2 Enhancing the Capacity of Migrants as Partners in Economic Development in the Philippines – UNDP (2009-2011) Partners: Unlad Kabayan Migrant Services Foundation (UKMSF), Philippines Migrant Forum Association (MFA), Philippines Commission for Filipino Migrant Workers (CFMW), Netherlands Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* This project will build capacity of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) to plan and organize their eventual return (and reintegration) and will harness their skills and resources to contribute to local development in the Philippines. The partners aim to motivate and mobilize migrant workers to save, invest and help build local enterprises to eventually create jobs, generate incomes and help improve living conditions for in their community. Free seminars and training on rights, economic dynamics, financial management, savings, and social entrepreneurship will be offered to overseas Filipino workers and their families. The project will facilitate the organization of savings groups to encourage migrants to regularly set aside a portion of their income. Cooperation among local and overseas Filipino communities and organizations, government agencies, banks and the private sector will ensure the sustainability of the project. 3.2 Migrants S.T.E.P. - Supporting Tools for Economic Projects in Senegal – UNDP (2009 to 2011) Partners: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)*, Confederation Senegalaise pour la promotion des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises et l’Entreprenariat des Migrants (CONFESEN), Senegal-Agence Regionale de Developpement (ADR) de Diourbel, Senegal-Regione Veneto, Italy-Union des Chambres de Commerce du Veneto, Italy-Coordination Generale des Migrants pour le Developpement (CGMD), Belgium The overall goal of this project is to improve access to quality financial services for migrants by lowering costs through partnerships with financial institutions and technological innovation and by enhancing accessibility and capacity in rural areas for capital investment in support of entrepreneurship in Senegal. Key actors in this effort are financial services institutions and government agencies and Ministries in Italy and Senegal. Through the proliferation of points of service for microcredit and money transfer, migrants have begun to help finance small enterprises in rural Senegal. 3.2 Partnerships with banks, micro-lending organizations and other financial institutions to provide remittance investment in Tajikistan - IOM and UNDP In Tajikistan, working in partnership with UNDP, IOM has continued to expand on its growing remittance-linked microcredit initiative. Migrant-sending households receiving remittances are offered access to micro loans to start or expand a business, using their remittance income stream as collateral. These small businesses help increase household income, put more money into circulation in the community and generate employment, all of which contribute to local development. Participating families also receive entrepreneurship training, and local community resource centres receive capacity building training to improve their ability support these activities over time. Additionally, in coordination with local development committees, the IOM provides participative financing facilities for community initiatives, telecommunications infrastructure and counseling services for potential labour migrants and their families.


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics

4.3 TOKTEN (Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals) – UNDP and UNV (ongoing) First launched in 1977, TOKTEN is UNDP’s global mechanism for tapping expatriate nationals who have migrated to other countries and achieved professional success abroad -- TOKTEN (Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals) – has been used to mobilize them to undertake shortterm consultancies under the aegis of the UN in their countries of origin, such as in Lebanon, Mali, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sudan, Syria, the Philippines and Palestine Territory. Beneficiaries can be governmental agencies, academic and research institutions, NGOs and private sector companies in countries of origin. TOKTEN consultants volunteer their services and thus forego professional fees. In Mali, for example, the expertise and capacity of Malians living in Europe were harnessed in the form of temporary assignments and permanent relocation to mitigate the shortages in staff and quality of teaching in schools and universities (especially in the areas of science and technology) and to support the work of the Ministries of Health and Agriculture. They are motivated by a desire to give something back to their countries of origin, and contribute to its development. The TOKTEN programme covers the travel costs and provides consultants with a daily allowance and medical insurance while on mission.

4.3 Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Support – Migration for Development in Africa (QUESTS-MIDA) – IOM and UNDP (2009 – 2011) This project is a component of UNDP’s Somali Institutional Development Programme (SIDP). The programme builds upon UNDP efforts during the last four years through its Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Service (QUESTS) project as part of a wider governance programme for Somalia. IOM will implement the programme, using the experience and expertise it has developed through its Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA) initiative and its network of missions in countries where Somalis with appropriate skills reside. The project targets Somalis with professional expertise in policy and legislation, human resources management, and public financial management living in North America, the UK and the Nordic countries. Through the project, these experts will be engaged in short-term capacity-building placements in Somalia, for an average period of six months to provide on-the-job peer-topeer training in their respective fields. 4.3 Programa "Desarrollo Humano y Migraciones" in El Salvador – UNDP (2007-2010) Partners: -ministerio para Salvadoreños en el Exterior del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) The analysis and recommendations of the 2005 El Salvador Human Development Report on migration inspired the launch of a series of projects on the topic that focus on maximizing the benefits of migration and supporting networks between the diaspora and country of origin. Through partnerships with academic institutions, research on specific migrant communities has provided policymakers with tools to reform national and regional policy and work towards establishing a body to better coordinate mobility. In the context of return migration, UNDP is creating internship opportunities for young members of the diaspora (born or raised outside of El Salvador) linked

4.1 Study on “Low-skilled workers and regional, bilateral and unilateral initiatives: Lessons for the GATS Mode 4 Negotiations and other agreements” The study examines how bilateral and unilateral schemes manage the temporary movement of lowskilled workers by examining their various features. The aim is to draw useful lessons for the GATS negotiations on Mode 4 and for future agreements that address Mode 4.

4.4 Capacity Development for the Ministry for the Diaspora of Serbia – UNDP (2008) Budget: US$ 68,000 UNDP provided technical assistance by organizing an international conference with the Serbia government on engaging Serbian Diaspora to support development in their country of origin. The three day international conference organized in Belgrade brought together experts on migration and Diaspora issues from countries with large diasporas and established mechanisms to sustain their collaboration. The conference covered a range of issues including citizenship, voting, asylum, labor migration and remittances and provided an opportunity for networking and discussion of challenges, various models and good practices. The meeting produced an Action Plan that proposed new mechanisms for developing the relationship between Serbia its Diaspora. 4.4 Mobilizing Diaspora Resources: Lesotho and South Africa – IOM and UNDP (under preparation) The aim of this project is to map the diaspora of Lesotho, in particular Lesotho nationals residing in South Africa, and to analyze its potential to contribute to the development of Lesotho. Based on the results of the mapping of diaspora location and skills profile, the government of Lesotho will work together with the IOM and UNDP to develop strategies for mobilizing diaspora resources for Lesotho. Consultations with diaspora organizations, networks and business groups will assess the potential investment of remittances and return and skills transfer of migrants to address the shortages in the domestic labour market in Lesotho, in particular the health sector.

How often/long do migrants go abroad and how frequently/long do they return? How do migrants move (channels, intermediaries used)? What are the costs involved? How to facilitate skills recognition and skills acquisition of migrants? How to ensure respect for labour standards and prevent the exploitation of migrants? How to ensure the portability of pensions and other benefits? How to regulate the activities of intermediaries to reduce the transaction costs of migration? How does circular migration affect families/communities/regions in the country of origin? How does it affect the labour market (sectorspecific impacts, skills shortages)? How to provide effective outreach to nationals abroad to encourage temporary returns? Which kind of visa regimes can facilitate circular mobility?


with UNDP programmatic areas (specifically migration, human development, HIV/AIDS prevention, local development, environmental issues, gender, and violence). The initiative will target students at high schools and universities in the United States. 4.4 Projet SPES Sénégal - Piemont et Sardaigne : migration et codéveloppement – UNDP (2009-2010) Partners: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)*, Comunita Impegno Sviluppo Volontariato, ARCOIRIS, Amicale Socio Economique Sportive et Culturelle des Agriculteurs du Walo, Federation des Organisations Non Gouvernementales du Senegal (FONGS) The objective of this programme is to build ties between Senegalese diaspora organizations in the Sardinia and Piedmont regions of Italy and their country of origin. Through a partnership with the federation of non-governmental organizations in Senegal (FONGS), Senegalese national living in Italy will participate in the formation of local development strategies. 4.4 Syrian Expatriates for Development – UNDP (ongoing) The projects aims to facilitate linkages between Syrian expatriates and their home country, as well as to build the capacity of the Ministry of Expatriates to enable them to better serve the expatriates and meet their needs. The objectives of the project are to mobilize expatriate resources to support Syrian reform processes and to support capacity building within the Ministry of Expatriates (MOEX); and promote culture exchange through Syrian expatriates around the world. 4.4 Brain Gain: Engaging Diaspora for Albania’s Development – UNDP and IOM (2006-2009) Partners: Cabinet of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Interior - Department of Public Administration, Open Society Institute (Soros) The development and implementation of a comprehensive programme to facilitate a greater contribution of the Albanian Diaspora to Albania's socioeconomic development is the main goal of the initiative. Activities assist the government’s preparation of a policy framework on the diaspora's engagement with Albanian development and support academia, the private sector and other stakeholders to utilize the expertise of the Diaspora. An online database reinforces these efforts by registering eligible individuals to be part of the brain gain. The launch of a Brain Gain Fund, with contributions from international partners and the private sector, will provide public sector employment incentives for highly qualified returning migrants. Other mechanisms attract and channel resources to specific projects aimed at poverty reduction and the promotion of human development, especially at the local level. 4.4 Knowledge Networks for Connecting Jamaica and its Diaspora – UNDP (2009-2010) Partners: Mona School of Business, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica-KAJANS Women's Enterprise Limited (UK) Funding source: EC-UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI)* This project proposes to harness ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) to create sustainable networks among migrant communities. It will create an online hub to connect the Jamaican diaspora, provide a space for sharing of information and facilitate networking opportunities. The online database will capture the demographic configuration of diaspora networks so that these may be more effectively leveraged for the development of Jamaica.


University of Jordan / Abdel Baset ATHAMNEH 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics

- Talafha, Hussain, "Emigration and Wage Differentials Facing the Jordanian Workers", METU Studies in Development, Vol.12, No.3 & 4, 1985. This study used secondary resources to estimate an econometric model for Jordanians workers abroad. The study concluded that the main motive for those workers to migrate, especially to the Gulf States, is the real differences in wages between destination and Jordan. It also concluded a low elasticity of migration due to wage differences particularly the migration to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. - There was another study about the Jordanian emigrant labor (Shar'e, Monther, 1991). This study demonstrated the size, the distribution, and the characteristics of Jordanian expatriates. The study found most of the Jordanian labor abroad was skilled, highly educated, work in service activities, specialists and work in administration. One of the important finding of the study is the crucial role of the remittances of Jordanians abroad in reducing unemployment rate, adjusting the chronically deficit in the balance of payments, and encouraging investment especially in the banking system.

-

There is a joint Arab States project aims

at

documenting

registering the

-

Data collection about migration is

and

not only the task of sending

international

countries, but also the receiving

emigration for Arabs. The project

countries

comprises an establishment of an

national,

Arab

and

international bodies. This means

specialized agencies to carry out

that data should be collected by

the council's policies. A preparing

the

meeting took place in Cairo- Egypt

mentioned

in March 2009 at which experts

establishing technical partnerships.

from

Ministerial

council

five

Arab

regions

held

discussions

and

agreed

on

-

all

specialized

regional

collaboration

of

parties

and

above-

collaboration

procedures and time table to the

between

foundation of this project.

international

and

partnerships

governments

and

agencies

and

parties;

the

Jordan

Jordan started in 2005 appointing

government did that with the

labor attaches in the Kingdom's

O. M, UNHCR, migration centers in

embassies in the countries which

universities‌.etc.

are considered as destinations

-

I.

that discussed the different issues

States) so as to enumerate the

of migration and introduced a data

Jordanian labor abroad as well as

base for future scholars.

in general.

countries,

infrequent

surveys

migration

and

and

concerning demographic

transformations make it difficult to get data needed for researches and studies on the field of

1. Emphasizing researches

on on

conducting the

macroeconomic

long-run

impact

of

emigration on the economies of sending countries especially in the era

of

globalization

and

the

mobility of economic resources.

migration. 2. The impact of emigration on 2. Some studies use the records of boarders'

authorities

as

a

measurement of emigration size. But this method doesn't express the magnitude of migration in general. There are drivellers used to

cross

boarders

for

non-

migration

purposes

such

as

demographic transformations in sending

countries

became

an

important subject in light of some nations in the region is known today as an emigrated nations, and this is obvious in the case of Lebanon at which only about 30% of its nation are inside the country.

tourism, visits, pilgrimage‌.etc.

This encouraged a joint-research

(this procedure begins in Arab Gulf

to estimate Jordanian expatriates

developing

through

There is some examples of such

scientific -

and

1. The lack of regular censuses in

3. The role of emigration in the 3. Most of sending countries in the Arab

Region

have

modest

information about their emigrated citizens due to the absence of specialized

bodies

in

these

countries to communicate and follow emigrants' affairs.

investment in human capital in sending

countries

became

a

growing research need because education

and

training

is

considered as important potential for emigration.


2. RECEIVING

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

-Athamneh, Abdel Baset and Ali Zaghal, The Refugees Studies Center at Yarmouk The So-economic Actuality of the Labor University (Irbid – Jordan) intends to Market in Irbid and Azmi Al-Mufti conduct in next summer a survey abut

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Refugee Camps, Deanship of Academic child labor inside Palestinian Refugee Research/ Yarmouk University, 2004.

camps in the Kingdom.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

- There are some difficulties in conducting such research projects due to the absence of preliminary data about migrants as a result of the shortage in secondary data which assumed to be issued periodically

from boarders authorities about the This study aimed at explaining the socio- This project will be administrated by Prof. migrant's numbers, final destinations and economic characteristics of the labor Ahmed Shiyab, the director of the center distribution, and characteristics. force inside two Palestinian refugee and Dr. Abdel Baset Athamneh from The - Most of the research projects about camps as well as at determining whether University Of Jordan. migration management concentrates on these characteristics are cross-section to The study aims at determining the real cross-sectional data analysis as they motives behind the phenomenon of child the rest of the Jordanian society. usually base on surveys and use un labor inside camps, measuring the The study found similarities between the probabilistic sampling techniques. This magnitude of working children, exploring residents of refugee camps and the rest makes scholars and policy makers unable the exploitation the face, and suggesting of the Jordanian society in terms of most to generalize the outcome of these such protective policies to restrict any variables related to employment and projects. more child employment. unemployment.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

1. Migration

projects

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

used

to

1.

rehabilitate the research staffs in

concentrate on questionnaire, and

the field of migration through

rarely did on an interview, which confronts

the

credibility

training courses as a priority

of

integrated

research results as it is exposed to 2.

in

deep

for

some

long time periods, such as the

specialty of migration research

forced migration of Palestinians to

projects and of the differences in (guest

research

migration cases which lasted for

the field is not always aware of the

categories

other

There is a need for a time-series analysis

2. Some research staff who works in

their

to

priorities.

a value judgment from individuals of the sample.

It is rather than important to

Jordan, Syria and Lebanon in

labor,

1948.

refugees, tourists, ‌)

And

there

is

another

example of the foreign labor in

3. Most of the research projects

the Gulf States which called for

about migration use traditional

foreign workers since more than

and recurring quantitative method

fifty years. Some of them stayed

to explain the relations between

in these States for more than

the variables related to migration

thirty years.

and to imply policies therefore. 3.

Another important priority in migration management research for receiving countries is to tackle the developmental burden of hosting migrants.


3. RETURNING

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Socio-economic

Characteristics

of

Jordanian Returnees from Gulf States

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

"The Impact of World Financial Crisis on the Jordanian Labor Abroad".

(Shakhatrah H. and Victor Belleh) 3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

The This study aimed at explaining the

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

motives behind the return of about 300 thousands to their homeland after the Gulf War (1991) which increased total

The study concluded that This increase imposed

additional

pressure

on

infrastructure and public services and increased unemployment rates in all sectors. Therefore it recommended adopting

rehabilitation

policies

to

engage them in the labor market as well as to benefit from the skilled workers of returnees.

Observatory

at

the

University of Jordan plans to conduct a

1. There is a significant need now to

returning migration is a continuous expected at the end of any temporary

establish an early warning system

phenomenon, but it was massive in three migration

to anticipate migration in all world

times:

the Gulf States and particularly in the

Consequently

1991; 2. After the war on Iraq in 2003; and

witnessed later especially in the real states and banking sectors, at which more than 30 thousands from Jordan work there. It expected when the study finished will analyze the effect of this crisis on the employment in Jordan and its prospects in the future.

policy

it

duration.

makers

and

and after.

areas. This could be a research projects

here

and

there

as

indicators on monthly or even annual

observatories for any expected

bases.

human movements resulted from

3. After the financial crisis in 2008

both But, state of things as they are is some thing

stable

and

unstable

conditions.

different taking into consideration

2. The impact of returning migration

So there is a problem in data divergence the huge influence of politics, wars,

should be multi-dimensional and

about returning migration in Jordan, unexpected crisis on the returning of

consider

which constrained researchers to derive expatriates to their home. This includes

consequences

the missing data. But the problem of labor returnees and forced immigrants at

migrants

extreme

observations

the which we can't easily separate and classify

psychologically,

returnees'

figures

the groups of returnees.

socially‌.etc.

Such study became significant after the severe crisis that the Emirate of Dubai

regardless

1. Directly after the Gulf War in researchers can deal with migration

study about the new wave of expected returnees from Jordanians who worked in

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

The experience of Jordan concerning Returning migration is assumed to be

United Arab Emirates.

population of Jordan about 10%. 3.4. Other Topics

Economic

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

about

especially

in

abovementioned intervals hindered some of their efforts.

that,

how

researchers

used

on

the returning

themselves economically,

3. It could be important to study receiving

rehabilitate Despite

carefully

states

returnees

can

through

an

rebuilding their capacities and

advanced statistical analysis to join the

reintegrating them in the labor

relation(s) and the causality between

market as well as in their society.

demographic and economic variables. Logit, probit and simultaneous equation models were used.


4. CIRCULATING

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

"The Long-run Macroeconomic Impact The Ministry of Labor and the Department of Labor Migration: An Econometric of

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Statistics

intend

to

conduct

sectoral and geographical distribution, wages, qualifications, occupations,‌etc.

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

This study aimed at explaining the This project aims finally to determine in

this topic resort to the number of annual labor contacts to estimate the size of this migration. But in fact there are immigrants work in the destination illegally and

impact of labor migration on the which economic activities or/ and places macroeconomic

4.4. Other Topics

1. Most studies of circular migration

2006". (Athamneh, Abdel Baset and in Jordan and will concentrate on their Bashir Al-Zu'bi).

variables

and

it policy makers can adopt a policy of foreign

developed a simultaneous equation labor

substitution

and

crossed boarders for different purposes

need for specialized survey in this kind of

both supply and demand sides.

Jordanians, which in turn will contribute in

The effects of supply side was through decreasing unemployment rates in Jordan. the participation of foreign labor in the

migration taking into consideration the

traditional sending states to the final

employment in hosting country, while the remittances of emigrated labor had an important role in economic growth. The study concluded that most of labor

destination as well as the overlapping in

This could be obvious in case of sending

migration today in the Arab Region is known as circulating migration as it is determined in contracts for specific durations.

and receiving countries that don’t state conditions in visas between the people of each other.

to

MENA region".

macro levels and rarely did on micro level. The impact of this

2. "A projection for labor migration

migration on household sectors in

and labor markets in the MENA

sending areas is an important

region".

topic which needs further analysis 3. "Labor contracts, migration and distortions in labor market: the 2. There is a need for deep research in sending countries about how to

expected and unexpected circular emigrants. This became important during and after the economic and financial crisis which most of the

classifying each category of emigrants.

observatory

aspect and particularly on the

plan for manpower in light the continuous mobility of population from

an

measure circular migration in the

in a multidimensional manner.

impact of migration was estimated on professions that are occupied by non-

1. "Towards

concentrated on the economic

therefore but not working. Consequently there is a

model for the Jordanian economy. The encouraging national labor to work in

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Statistics concerning circulating migration

a are not always precise because surveys on

Analysis for the Case of Jordan 1973- comprehensive survey about foreign labor

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

traditional receiving states in the Arab region suffered from.

case of Jordan".


University Paris Dauphine / Mouhoub EL MOUHOUD 2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer)

Determinants of remittances : new survey and new results Miotti L. Mouhoud E.M, Oudinet (2009) DETERMINANTS AND USES OF REMITTANCES TO SOUTHERN AND EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES: INSIGHTS FROM A NEW SURVEY”. Submitted WBER.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

The phenomenon of repeat migration an Intra EU and extra EU Migration and labor under studied concept in migration markets in Europe. research. The Eurostat LFS survey highlights a drop Mouhoud E.M. and Oudinet J. in less qualified immigrants originating “Inequality and Migration: from southern and eastern Mediterranean What different European patterns of countries which is offset by an increase in migration tell us”, International Review of migrants coming from Central and Eastern Applied Economics, 2010. (in print) European countries. A double trend concerning migrations in Mouhoud E.M., J. Oudinet (2006) Europe – the growing role of the southern « Migrations et marché du travail dans European countries in the reception of l’espace européen », Economie migrants and the development of repeat Internationale, CEPII, Paris. migrations – can be explained by a closer analysis of the labour characteristics of Mouhoud E.M. et J. Oudinet (2007) (eds) migrants on the different job markets. L’Europe et ses migrants. Ouverture ou Intra- and extra-EU mobility within the repli ? L’Harmattan. European Union is thus characterized by migrants who are rather highly educated Labor Force Survey from EUROSTAT and seek service sector jobs. The European Labor Force Survey (LFS) , which gives data on the country of residence and on the nationality of the migrants, allows us to distinguish between European Union migrants and non-European Union migrants We use a structural model4 which allows to look at disequilibrium in labour markets. Two types of behaviour regarding labour market variables can be distinguished according to the category of migrants (EU/non EU)on the one hand and to the location (peripheral /non peripheral) of host countries on the other. The position of the host country also plays a role: the peripheral countries of the European Union tend to use migrations as an adjustment variable to r their labour market.

New micro data and new results We analyze the determinants and the final use of remittances of migrants settled in France sending remittances to the 4

See Mouhoud and Oudinet, 2006, for a detailed exposition of the model

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Regularization and reclassification of qualified migrants in the European job markets to avoid brain waste and increase equity in the host country. Régularisation et reclassement des migrants qualifies sur les marches du travail européens pour des raisons d’efficacité (éviter le brain waste dans les pays d’accueil) et d’équité.


southern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African countries using two microdata sets.5 . Using these two microdata sets, we examine the likelihood to remit across the different waves of immigrants, the motivations to remit and the intended final use of remittances to highlight behavior differences between the different waves of immigration on the one hand, and on the other hand, the importance of looking beyond classical variables to better understand remittance behavior and its changing nature. Our first result: shows that, subjective variables such as attachment to the home country, history and the institutional context of emigration play a determinant role in explaining remittance behavior. Our second result shows that migrants, who are in France for a long time and who have low education levels, also send remittances in order to invest in their home country.. By contrast, the migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa send money for current expenditures rather than for investment. The obligation feeling seems to be the important motivation for remit Economic policy implications Economic policy is linked to the question of the risk of depletion of these remittances in the future: the new immigration waves, in a context featuring a restriction of migration flows and a strategy of lowering emigration costs, are translated by a self-selection effect of the most highly skilled, who are less likely to remit.

Research using microdata is very scarce in this region; we rely on a specially designed survey (2MO) we conducted in 2007-2008 of 1,000 people who remit to the three Maghreb countries, to Turkey and to the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. We also use a second survey conducted by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (DREES) which includes a sample of 3,500 people from the regions we are interested in. The DREES microdata set enables us to understand who is more likely to remit (extensive margin). 2MO microdata allows an analysis of remittance behavior amongst those who remit (intensive margin) including sum and reported final use of remittances (housing, investment, current expenditures). 5


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

3.1. Voluntary Return Assistance Programs

3.2. Entrepreneurship Support

3.3. Portability of Social Benefits (Pensions and Health)

3.4. Other Topics

Impact des transferts de fonds des migrants sur la pauvreté et les inégalités : une comparaison Maroc-Algérie”. Two new surveys currently being conducted in Morocco and Algeria (1200 households). Algeria is one of the least analyzed countries in preceding studies. The study is in line with the wider question pertaining to income convergence and poverty convergence. It looks at remittances and their effect on inequalities on the receiving end, both at the family level and the regional levels.

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management


4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

4.3. Paid Traineeship Schemes and Skills Development

4.4. Other Topics Evidence in our research using Eurostat Labor force survey data shows another new phenomenon “repeat migration”. Migration is said to be repeated when the migrant carries out a second emigration: he /she leaves his or her home country in the East or South, to settle in a large European immigration country, after a having spent some time in another European country. The study also shows that non-European migrants have higher mobility than European migrants inside the European space. (see Mouhoud and Oudinet, 2006 and 2007).

1. (2007-2008) Responsable de l’étude « migrations et transferts de fonds dans la zone Euroméd » convention avec la Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations et la Mission Recherche de La Poste (CEPN-CNRS Paris 13 et EURISCO Paris Dauphine) 2. (2006-2008) Responsable de la thématique 4 « European Intergration and migration » dans le consortium Européen INEQ “Inequality : Mechanisms, effects and policies” Strip Specific Targeted Resarch On Innovation Project Framework 6ème programme cadre européen. Direction du Working Package « Intégration européenne et migrations : l’UE et les pays du Sud de la Méditerranée »


University of Saint Joseph, OURSE / Completed by Choghig KASPARIAN 4 PHASES OF THE MIGRATION CYCLE Policy Areas under each Phase

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Absence d'informations sur le marché de l'emploi en relation avec l'émigration.

1- Recherche sur les avantages et les inconvénients de l'émigration (plan économique et social). 2- Recherche sur l'impact des remises sur le développement et les niveaux de vie des ménages.

(Title, Type, and short Description) 1. SENDING

1.1. Pre-departure Training and Information (including Language Training and Expectation Management)

1.2. Skills Development for Matching Demand in Receiving Countries (all Levels of Skills)

Informations pouvant être tirées de deux enquêtes nationales concernant les émigrés entre 1975-2007 ("L'entrée des jeunes Libanais dans la vie active et l'émigration des Libanais, 19752001" et "L'émigration des jeunes Libanais entre 1992-2007 et leurs projets d'avenir"), en plus d'une enquête spécifique sur le devenir des diplômés des promotions 2000-2004 de l'Université, Etudes effectuées par l'OURSE.

1.3 Orderly Departure (Regulation of Overseas Recruitment )

1.3. Other Topics


2. RECEIVING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

2.1. Facilitation of Labor Market Integration

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description) Informations sur les besoins du marché en travailleurs étrangers.

2.2. Skills Recognition, Skills Adaptation, Skills Acquisition

2.3. Family Reunification and Economic Opportunities for Family Members

2.4 Other Topics (e.g. facilitation of Remittances’ transfer) 1-Manque de données exhaustives sur les réfugiés tels que les Palestiniens, Irakiens. 2-Manque d'estimations fiables sur le phénomène de migration irrégulière.

Enquête socio économique sur la situation des réfugiés.


3. RETURNING

Migration Management Projects Completed

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

(Title, Type, and short Description)

(Title, Type, and short Description)

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Caractéristiques des migrants de retour entre 1975 et 2007.

4. CIRCULATING

Migration Management Projects Completed (Title, Type, and short Description)

4.1. Seasonal/ Temporary Migration Schemes

4.2. Contracts and Residence Permits for Circular Migration

Migration Management Projects Under Preparation

1- Manque d'informations sur les migrations forcées suite à la crise financière. 2- Aucune estimation fiable sur les retombées des retours sur le marché de l'emploi local.

Migration Research and Data Collection to Inform Policy Design

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

Urgence d'une enquête pour combler ce manque (l'OURSE est actuellement à la recherche de financement pour effectuer à partir de ces bases de données une recherche dans ce domaine).

Perceived Key Knowledge Gaps in Migration Management

Proposed Priority Research Areas to Improve Migration Management

(Title, Type, and short Description) Manque de statistique sur les travailleurs frontaliers.

1- Enquêtes auprès des travailleurs saisonniers. 2- Enquête auprès des entreprises agricoles et du bâtiment.

/SELM3_MigrationManagement_Matrix  

http://www.cmimarseille.org/_src/SELM3_MigrationManagement_Matrix.pdf

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