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A programme funded by the European Union

Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning Adapted to Med. Countries “SUMPA-MED”

AOTs in Turkey, Jordan, Syria: situations & perspectives, few lessons from a regional project Dr Safak HENGIRMEN-TERCAN Director of Environment, MM Gaziantep, Turkey Coordinator of SUMPA-MED Regional Project www.sumpa-med.net

Eng. Bernard CORNUT – ADEME (Paris), Energy Efficiency & Environment Expert


SUMPA-MED Project’s Partners & Associates • • • • •

• •

Contractor Cordinator: Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality (Turkey) with 6 Partners : Aleppo (Syria) Amman & Irbid (Jordan) as pilot cities Marmara Union of Municipalities (Istanbul), Paris, Stuttgart as technical partners. & 5 Associates: Ministry of Environment & Forestry (TurkeyAnkara); Ministry of Municipal Affairs (Jordan-Amman), ADEME & Grand Lyon (FR), AUDI Arab Urban Development Institute (Riyadh) Budget: 812500€. Grant 650000€ Duration: 3 years (2010-2012) + extension to be requested!

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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Objective & Expected Results • Objective: To help the local authorities in Syria & Jordan to introduce environmental, energy & socio-economic criteria for developing sustainable urban mobility plans • Expected Results: • • • • • • •

A network of professionals. Transfer of know-how, experiences & best practices related to sustainable modes of transport, and organisational systems and more specifically: Aleppo: A cleaner environment in the Old City area Amman: Financing identified for a rapid implementation of the planned backbone of a Mass Transit System. Methodology of impact evaluation on reduction of vehicles and CO2 emissions Irbid: Authority obtained towards organising & regulating urban transport.

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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EU Project management issues (up-dated Oct. 2011)

• • • • • • • •

ISSUES 5 languages: EN, FR, TR, DE, AR No experience in EU projects in 3 pilot cities! SY & JO municipalities cannot make use of the future reimbursements of eligible costs Difficulties in managing last minute changes Difficulties in drafting simple but specific MoU with the Partners On-going civil troubles in several cities of Syria Difficulties to manage under complex financial rules of EU grant projects.

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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Why?: Urban Congestion, Air Pollution, Noise, Growing costs! AMMAN

GAZIANTEP

NEW-DELHI

ANKARA

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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Objective: Multi-Modal Sustainable Urban Mobility, to be developed by exchanging on best practices

for lower emissions, lower costs, easy access

Bursa Multimodal station Ankara CNG Bus & LPG taxis

Istanbul: largest sea passenger port EskiĹ&#x;ehir Multimodal Plan CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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ALEPPO (Syria). Priority: access to Old City, converting to clean mobility inside

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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AMMAN (Jordan): accelerated growth, need & plan to develop mass transport systems

1945: 25 000 Inhabts 2010: over 2 millions in Greater Amman

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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IRBID (Jordan). Priorities: getting full Authority on Urban & Peri-urban Mobility; Light rail to distant University; use of bicycles

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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Marmara Union of Municipalities (Turkey): over 20 millions; the world largest passengers port & longest BRT

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

AOTs in TR JO SY: situations & perspectives

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Mass Transit Systems, OK but… need planning, investment & integration

Tramway crossing, Strasbourg

Ankara, Suburban train CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

Bus Rapid Transit, Istanbul, 42km x 2 lanes

Modern funicular, Istanbul TaksimKabataş

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TURKEY: Situation & perspectives • For each of 16 Metropolitan Municipalities, there is a transport coordination board (UKoMe) including all stakeholders of transport. The Metropolitan Municipality has the full authority in the city center. • The President of this board is the elected Mayor of Metropolitan Municipality. • The license for inter-urban transport (passengers & freight) is delivered by the central government /DG Roads • For Municipalities, the budget, incl. for transport, is being planned according to the 4 years-strategic plan of the Municipality, then approved by the Municipal council. • Approved budget will be allocated from the central government. • Road Infrastructure is constructed by the Municipality. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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TURKEY: Situation 2 & perspectives • Bank of Local Authorities (iller bankası) can provide a loan for urban transport projects if needed. Reimbursements of loan will be deduced from the budget allocation of Municipality at Bank. A Municipality can not borrow above 150% of its yearly income. • All public transport modes can be operated by the Municipality or by private companies. • The UT operation licenses are taken from the Municipality. • Ownership for the busses can be municipal or private. • Laws permit built-operate-transfer models (BOT) & PPP. • The ticket income is belonging to owner of the fleets, without obligation to use it for transport projects. • As Municipalities are short of budget, it became usual that a private company pay for the e-ticketing system against receiving a % of the ticket income. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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TURKEY: Situation & perspectives • A new Law on Public Private Partnership has extended the possible duration (49) much over one municipal term. • Gaziantep M. Municipality acquired experience with PPP in other fields (use of landfill gas; medical waste processing). • Gaziantep M.M. & the National Railways Co (TCDD) aim to found a joint private Co for operating a suburban train line to the industrial zones, under construction. • For busses, Gaziantep has a rather negative experience about privatisation (2006). • Within its recent Energy & Climate Action Plan, reducing CO2 emissions & air pollution became a target. 50 CNG busses will be bought with EBRD loan. • Accessibility must be improved by Law before 2014. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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JORDAN: Situation & perspectives • The Ministry of Municipal Affairs still set the strategy, has the authority to plan, deliver licenses for urban transport, • Except for Great Amman Municipality & Aqaba • The new regional Authorities set the interurban tariffs. • A future Law has been announced in Spring 2011 for transferring this authority to other Municipalities, if recognized able to manage urban transport. • There is a limited competition for elections at Great Municipalities. The government has recently appointed interim Mayors. New Municipal elections prepared. • SUMPA-MED and Irbid organised a workshop on May31 & June 1, 2011 to explain & discuss AOT roles & rules. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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JORDAN: Situation & perspectives • In IRBID, transfer of full Authority and new financial resources are strongly expected. • SUMPA-MED has a budget line for a feasibility study. • Involvement of the civil society might bring the issue of Urban Transport modernisation into the electoral debate. • The presently sensitive political and media debates about the adequacy, feasibility & implementation of the Amman Transport Master Plan reveal the structural weakness of status & resources for the transition from low public action to high investment in mass urban transport. • Minister of Transport visited Lyon in June 2011 & observed the rules, roles & techniques of its strong AOT. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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SYRIA: Situation & perspectives • Status of Municipalities: direct elections of the Council but the Mayor is still appointed • Financial resources are very limited, especially for investment in infrastructures • There are bus fleets run by the Municipality and licenses delivered to many private minibus (no ticket, no statistics, no comfort!), to taxis & possibly to private bus. Little control of emissions. • In Damascus the Province (Mohafazat) has a Directorate of Transport managing planning studies and studies of new infrastructure (metro) • In Old Cities (Aleppo, Damascus), strict control of access for cars and vans (timing in-out, size, residents only). • Parking policy: usually free in residential areas; in city centres: formal/unformal fees, few saturated parkings CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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SYRIA: Situation & perspectives

• The Concept of independent metropolitan AOT still not considered at political level. Except Minister of Transport ? • After exposure to the SYTRAL concept, Damascus & Aleppo transport teams dream of a new status, including: • Public body with self rule, regular extra budgetary financial resources, large control over tariffs & access to loans, public ownership of infrastructures & fleets, possibility of competitive tendering for operation. • Low prices of fuels (#0,7€/l gasoline) & minibus tariffs (5-10 SYP/trip = 8-17 €cent), provide an opportunity for structural reform + new financing model. • The current civil troubles might hopefully lead to strengthen the elected local authorities! • Urban transport & metro studies ready for Damascus make a case for arranging a consistent package “ new status & resources, adequate tariffs, soft loan, tender for operation” CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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What happens without AOT? • Lack of integrated vision • Poor coordination (bus, tram, minibus, rail, urban planning) • Not adequate parking policy • No integration of fares/tariff • Too Administrative or too commercial control may both lead to lack of offer for low density areas & to poor response to the social demand. • Successful PPP models should be publicised. CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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What happens without financial support ? • If the fuels are rather cheap, cars, taxis & minibus share increases. Nearly no bus & heavy modes! Congestion & air pollution will grow ! • If fuels & car taxes are high, minibus & bus are numerous, but little chance for heavy modes in private competition… • If municipalities + State invest too much in heavy modes (tram, BRT, trolleybus), the financial burden limits the possibilities of complementary actions. • The balance among all modes must be finely tuned at AOT level! CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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What are the key suggestions for a sustainable urban mobility ? • At local urban level, establish a independent & democratically controlled AOT owning and investing, with a large scope (mobility+ parking) • See UITP recent brochure www.uitp.org • Establish at national legal level a stable financial resource for a « cleaner » sustainable mobility • Such as a “pollution fee” on fuels and/or gross salaries, at sufficient level • Organise mutual support & exchange of experience among AOTs/ Cities • Organise training, training & innovation CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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SUMPA-MED a project supported by EU Grant (CIUDAD programme)

CMI/ UD4 BARCELONA Oct. 18-20, 2011

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