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Pratt Institute School of Architecture

} THE ARCHIVE Phuong Mai Do

{ RETHINKING

Thesis Research

Fall 2018


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Dành tặng cho bản thân, chúc mừng vì đã không từ bỏ và hoàn thành đồ án. Dành cho bố, mẹ, chị Trang, Nana và gia đình ở nhà. Dành cho các bạn cùng nhà, cùng trường, cảm ơn đã bên nhau lúc đau đầu áp lực. Dành cho các bạn từ xa, ở VN, ở Pháp, Anh, Indo, Trung Quốc đã ho tro Mai trong spirit. Cảm ơn thầy cô giáo đã không give up on me in my hard time.

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Student Phuong Mai Do

Section Professors Tulay Atak Ostap Rudacevych

DPAC Advisors Jonathan Scelsa Demetrios Comodromos

Cource Title DP Research: Architecture and Atmosphere

Pratt Institute School of Architecture Fall 2018

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TABLE OF CONTENT \\ concept \\project statement \\ site \\ program \\ precedents (air flow related) \\ materiality \\ precedents (material related) \\ models \\ sketches

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CONCEPT STATEMEN T CONCEPT STATEMENT The research explores the relationship between architecture and memory. Architecture is understood through experiences and differences – in time, in emotions, in climatic conditions, etc. Spatial memories bases on senses to register space and shape the user’s experience. Henri Lefebvre talked about space created by occupancy in his writing ‘The Production of Space’: space lived by someone is space of representation (real space/ physical space we live in) while the representation of space (mental/ abstract space/ space of the philosophers) is what architects designs. The project will look at spaces that focus on constructing interactions, unpredicted events, and connections between people and to society through factors such as scale, forms and through relationship with nature in term of materiality, light, air and views. Modern hospital designs sacrifice the sensory aspect and stripped much of them away for efficiency of treatment. Fresh air and natural lighting are replaced by HVAC and lessen the need of windows. A stay at the hospital hence becomes more suffocating rather than enjoyable. The project looks at hospital as typology with Alzheimer’s patients as the users of space. As an environment for people with memory loss, the project looks at how to restore these senses to bring back the ‘healing’ purpose of the space. The site locates in Tokyo, Japan where the trend shows a rapid aging population along with an extreme isolation of the 6


along with an extreme isolation of the elderly group from the rest of the general society. The project looks at hospital as typology with Alzheimer’s patients as the users of space. As an environment for people with memory loss, the project looks at how to restore these senses to bring back the ‘healing’ purpose of the space. The site locates in Tokyo, Japan where the trend shows a rapid aging population along with an extreme isolation of the elderly group from the rest of the general society.

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Forgetting

Attention

SENSES

IMMEDIATE MEMORY Forgetting

Encoding

EXPERIENCE EVENT Consolidation

Storage

MEMORY

SHORT-TERM MEMORY = RAM

Forgetting

LONG-TERM MEMORY = HARD DRIVE Retrival

- IMPLICIT MEMORY (habits, skills)

- EXPLICIT MEMORY + Episodic memory (events happened to you) + Sematic memory (general knowledge)

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Fig. 1 How memories are formed.

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Drawing of how productive age in society sensing space through role of building - institution– self role predetermined by space they are in vs unproductive age memory difference – sensing space through intuition

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PROJECT STATEMENT

In modern hospital designs, to prevent disorientation, lost and off-track wandering (a common symptom to the later stage of Alzheimer’s), senior patients’ living environment could easily make them feel trapped in a locked structure. The architectural inquiry intents to manipulate architectural elements to remove this invisible gate. Forms, materiality, light, air will act as their visual compass, guiding them from one space to another. The site presents a variance of climatic conditions that allow the user’s maximum experiences of senses. Natural ventilation and light will be restored and utilized as the main systems within the project, exploring the awareness of interpersonal connection in space though the moving air. The physical spaces would involve the senses simultaneously. The project will look at hybrid of programs. The site of Tokyo is filled with buildings that hybridize different unrelated programs into one structure due to functional needs and a lack of urban space. (Made in Tokyo/ Atelier Bow-Wow). Following the city’s existing fragmente d cross-programmed typology, the project hence proposes the hospital to be merged with the kindergarten on site. This will encourage intergenerational interaction between the elderly and the children, as well as promote the reintegration of elderly back to society.

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Spaces will become places that people store new memories (Spatial recall: Memory in architecture and landscape/ Marc Treib): “They will become the indices for the users to remembering programs and experiences by letting patients feel connected with spatial proximity/scale like social relationship between their previous neighbors from their old homes that they created�. Memories and architecture have a dependent relationship: through memories, one makes and remakes architecture from the knowledge they have learnt from the previous generation but also through the ritual of making and remaking, memories are preserved and kept alive. This creates a renewable system to architecture; always the original and new. The project will look at the importance of non-tangible (voids, absences and memory) as well as tangible elements (form, materiality) in the making of architecture. By having multi-age groups participate in the making or re-making the form, it is a way of physically connecting and making memories. This would in turn aid both elder patients and children in preserving memory.

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1:10,000 1:100

1:1000

KICHIJOJI 1 KM x 1KM

14 RESIDENTIAL ZONE MIXED - USE


SITE STATEMENT

Spaces will become places that people store new memories (Spatial recall: Memory in architecture and landscape/ Marc Treib): “They will become the indices for the users to remembering programs and experiences by letting patients feel connected with spatial proximity/scale like social relationship between their previous neighbors from their old homes that they created�. Memories and architecture have a dependent relationship: through memories, one makes and remakes architecture from the knowledge they have learnt from the previous generation but also through the ritual of making and remaking, memories are preserved and kept alive. This creates a renewable system to architecture; always the original and new. The project will look at the importance of non-tangible (voids, absences and memory) as well as tangible elements (form, materiality) in the making of architecture. By having multi-age groups participate in the making or re-making the form, it is a way of physically connecting and making memories. This would in turn aid both elder patients and children in preserving memory.

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MENTAL HEALTH CLINIC

SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL (PEDIATRICS)

SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL (INTERNAL MEDICINE)

BOOK STORE

ART CENTER SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL (SURGICAL/ CHECK UP CENTER) PRIVATE CLINIC ART GALLERY BREAST CANCER PREDICTION CENTER MENTAL HEALTH CLINIC

PRIVATE CLINIC

LIBRARY

MENTAL HEALTH CLINIC

THEATRE

SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL (HEMODIALYSIS/ KIDNEY)

CENTRAL TOKYO

KICHIJOJI STATION

MITAKA

INOKASHIRA PARK - ZOO

N CENTRAL TOKYO

GREEN SPACE

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METRO STATION

COMMERCIAL ZONE

MAIN TRAFFIC ARTERIES

HOSPITALS

CALM TRAFFIC STREETS

ART/ CULTURAL SPACE

SCHOOLS


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SMELL

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SOUND

SIGHT

TASTE

TOUCH


CONVENIENT STORE

GALLERY

FABRIC STORE

WOOL STORE

CHOSEN SITE

HAIR SALON

QUIET RESIDENTIAL ZONE

FI C

LM

CA L

IC

M

F AF TR

TR AF

CA

CIAL ZONE COMMER

INOKASH

MIXED - USE BUILDINGS

CA

LM

TR

AF FI C

IRA PA RK M CA L

AF TR

C FI

EXISTING KINDERGARTENT

CA LM TRAFFIC

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PROGRAM STATEMENT

Currently in an era of individualism, the lacking social bonds became a norm and architecture could play a major role in intensifying it. The project looks at the hybridization of hospital and kindergarten. By combining the young and the old, the program promotes the liveliness of a mixed-age environment, enforcing the sense of community in the architecture and the reintegrate of the elderly into society. As the project explores the idea of architecture and memory, the hospital will look at Alzheimer’s patients as user. How to create a ‘space of representation’ for the people with memory loss, for young children and for them to be together? Alzheimer’s causes brain tissue to shrink, hence these elder’s patients often act like children at their later stage. In a sense, these elders have a spirit and mind of a child. The architecture would be in turn designing for both types of “children”. The younger children would in turn learn to be more compassionate and be comfortable around the “older” children. Since children also tend to not judge and mind signs of dementia, they would treat these patients like normal people. The diversity of generations is a natural relationship that was long overlooked and should be brought back into current society.

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Million 127.8 million (2004)

140

Projection

Population

120 100 80

100.6 million (2050) 64.1 million (2100)

35 million (1886)

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Aged Population

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Productive-Age Population

20 0

1886

Child Population 1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

Year

2020

2040

2060

2080

2100

People reporting loneliness or social isolation People not reporting loneliness or social isolation

Having few people to rely on

77 % 44 %

Dissatifaction with the number of

meaningful personal connection they have Family

40 % 10 %

Friends

45 % 10 %

Neighbors

57 % 24 %

Among people reporting loneliness/ social isolation: Amount of time that they feel this way ? > 6 months 3- 5 years

6% 7%

16%

6 months- less than 1 year 6-10 years

18%

14%

1- 2 years More than 10 years

35% 21


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Book

Patent

Poem

Song, chant

Petition

Newspapers

Tapestry

Prints

Photograph

Alphabet

Wood-carving

Poster

Speech

Historical discoveriy

Library

Map


Letter

Video, Film

ts

Architectural drawing

Children book

er

Disc

Seal

chant

p

Fig. 1 Human methods of archiving memory through physical documents. UNESCO Memory of the World

Stone

Portrait 23


AM GATE

Jasmine Plant

Fig. Drawing of my first memory at age 3-4. A scent of jasmine flower and ten o’clock flower triggered my memory of this house . Each flower scent reminds me of a part of the house, hence reminding and guiding me back through my spatial experience. Smell is one of the senses that archive human’s earliest 24


Ten O’clock Flower

PM GATE

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HAVE TO BE LIKE SYLLABUS !1 YOU HAVE TO QUESTION WHAT IS VENTILATION NOT FROM DICTIONARY1!!

ventilation /ˌven(t)əˈlāSH(ə)n/ noun 1. circulation of air 2. the provision of fresh air to a room, building, etc.: intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.

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wind /wÉŞnd/ noun 1. the perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction. synonyms:

breeze, current of air;

2. relating to or denoting energy obtained from harnessing the wind with windmills or wind turbines. 3. used to suggest something very fast, unrestrained, or changeable. 27


Fig.1 Cylinder box: Strong and high sped current of air splits into two parts to wrap the cylinder shape, showing some backward offset waves of air. As air moves towards the back, smooth flow swirls slightly then become strong turbulent eddy flow.

STUDY OF AIR FLOW To understand how air moves, a study of air visualization was conducted: testing air flow on various surfaces and how air circulates around an object. Objects tested on are a curved mouse, an indented square box and a cylinder box. Fig. 1

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Fig.2

Fig.3

Indented box: Strong and high sped current of air creates a small amount of smooth flow in the center then air was bounced back, showing strong eddy turbulent flow.

Curved mouse: As the air moves down along the curved spine of the mouse, air split into two sides, showing some swirling movement then quickly wraps around the curved shape, showing smooth laminar flow.

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

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SMOOTH LAMINAR FLOW TRANSITIONAL, SWILING FLOW EDDY TURBULENT FLOW

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PRECENDENTS : HOSPITAL TYPOLOGY AND AIR FLOW STUDY \\ Le Corbusier - Venice Hospital \\ Filippo Brunelleschi - Ospedale degli Innocenti \\ Alvar Aalto - Paimio Sanatorium

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VENICE HOSPITAL

The hospital is a mat building type that

use a grid system to locate each unit. Use: Hospital Location: Venice, Italy Size: Unknown Date complete: Unbuilt - 1965 Architect: Le Corbusier

The project starts with a unit of bed

then aggregate to a unit of care which consist of 30 beds. Four units of care would make up one building unit which

is then spread out horizontal on the Venice

water:

Interconnected

modules

that clustered around square courtyard.

Ground floor for admin and reception, top floor for patients, inbetween floors for all other medical use. 32


CAMPI (PUBLIC SQUARE) - PATIENT ROOMS CALLI (STREET) -CIRCULATION CHIESA (CHURCH) - NURSE STATION

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BED UNIT

CARE UNIT (30 bed units)

BUILDING UNIT (4 care units)

Right. Airflow study The air in Venice Hospital is ventilated from the top where air circulates from the small roof window. there are no window on the side so air tends to condensed in plan.

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VENTILATION/ AIR FLOW Venice Hospital

ISOLATED ROOM

1-BED ROOM CORRIDOR

2-BED ROOM

4-BED ROOM CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

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VENTILATION/ AIR FLOW Ospedale degli Innocenti

COURTYARD

PAIMIO SANATORIUM

The project is an example of hospital

with a humanist view during its period, Use: Hospital Location: Paimio, Findland Size: Unknown Date complete: 1933 Architect: Alvar Aalto

a combination of charity/ orphanage and

hospital/ care center. The project acts like

the

parents

for

the

abandonned

children as it prepares them for their

future (up until the point where they grow up and get married/ deciding career).

The project acts as a home, a school, a hospital, a playground for the children.

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Airflow study Ospedale degli Innocenti use courtyard ventilation, where air flows and exchanges from the ground level.

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PAIMIO SANATORIUM

The project is an example of hospital

with a humanist view during its period, Use: Hospital Location: Paimio, Findland Size: Unknown Date complete: 1933 Architect: Alvar Aalto

a combination of charity/ orphanage and

hospital/ care center. The project acts like

the

parents

for

the

abandonned

children as it prepares them for their

future (up until the point where they grow up and get married/ deciding career).

The project acts as a home, a school, a hospital, a playground for the children.

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VENTILATION/ AIR FLOW Paimio Sanatorium SUN TERRACE

SUN ANGLE 34 DE

2-BEDS PATIENT WARD

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DECONSTRUCTION/ RECONSTRUCTION Paimio Sanatorium

ORIGINAL

PATIENT WARD

DISTRICT HEATING PLANT STAFF DORMITORY

RECONTRUSTED

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SERVICE AREA


PATIENT WARD

DISTRICT HEATING PLANT STAFF DORMITORY

SERVICE AREA

According to ‘Spatial recall: Memory in architecture and landscape’ by Marc Treib, the need of having indices for the users to remembering programs and experiences can be done by letting patients recreating a memory. Like the social relationship between them and their old neighbors, they use the idea of spatial proximity/scale as indices. The drawing explores the possibilities of using natural ventilation (cross ventilation) as indices for patients to shape guidance through spaces. Programs chosen to be naturally ventilated are patient wards and communal space. Programs that require me41


SMOOTH LAMINAR FLOW TRANSITIONAL, SWILING FLOW EDDY TURBULENT FLOW

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MATERIAL STATEMENT

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kid

d

According to Floating Signifiers: The Plural Significance of the Grand Shrine of Ise and the Incessant Resignification of Shinto by Fabio Rambelli, the idea of reconstructing Ise Shrine every 20 years allows renewing mind and faith in the deities and ensure the continuity of traditional Japanese culture and skills would be passed on to the next generation. It is way to conserve heritage, memory and rituals of recreating. Rituals therefore help preserving memory. The drawing shows idea of both types of users involve in rituals of ‘making and remaking space’/ transforming space where they can physically connect and make memories. Both patients and children involve in ritual of remaking/ transforming space to make memries. Unfolding from simple panel slides into an inflatable structure. 45


ISE SHRINE

The project is an example of hospital

with a humanist view during its period, Use: Shrine Location: Ise, Japan Size: Unknown Date complete: 4 BCE Architect: No architect

a combination of charity/ orphanage and

hospital/ care center. The project acts like

the

parents

for

the

abandonned

children as it prepares them for their

future (up until the point where they grow up and get married/ deciding career).

The project acts as a home, a school, a hospital, a playground for the children. 46


NINGBO MUSEUM

The project is an example of hospital

with a humanist view during its period, Use: Museum Location: Ningbo, China Size: 30,000m2 Date complete: 2008 Architect: Wang Shu

a combination of charity/ orphanage and

hospital/ care center. The project acts like

the

parents

for

the

abandonned

children as it prepares them for their

future (up until the point where they grow up and get married/ deciding career).

The project acts as a home, a school, a hospital, a playground for the children. 47


LAS FALLAS INSTELLATION

A ‘falla’ with an indefinite shape that seeks to respond to a changing

Use: Interactive installation art Location: Valencia, Spain Size: Unknown Date complete: March 2018 Architect: Ntuniyo and Memosesmas 48

reality.


STUDY MODELS

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SKETCHES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: Feddersen, Eckhard, and Lüdtke Insa. Lost in Space: Architecture and Dementia . Birkhäuser, 2014. “The book talks about the importance of architecture in response to the dementia people. They discuss what kind of space does a person whose memory fades slowly everyday would need. Depends on the stage of dementia, loss and disorientation would be a problem and patients would constantly need to relearn and remember space to regain their sense and feel at ease. Idea of space that hold memory needs to be considered.”

HDG. “Ma, L’intervalle Créatif, Épisode 2 : Ma Et

Architecture > Hologene Design Gallery.” Hologene Design Gallery, 13 Feb. 2017, holocene-design-gallery.com/maet-architecture/. “The article discusses the concept of Ma (negative space in Japanese culture) and architecture. They talk about the space-time relationship of Ma, where Arata Isozaki claimed that this space would be perceive only in relation to the flow of time. He also defines his idea of Ma as interval space that reinforces perception of the environment and is used not only in architecture, but also in art, musique, theatre, Japanese garden.”

Jencks and Heathcote. The Architecture of Hope: Maggie’s Cancer Caring Centres. Frances 51


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The idea of void is captured differently in each of these contexts.”

Kaijima and Kuroda (Atelier Bow- Wow). Made in Tokyo: Guide Book. Kajima Institute Publishing Co, 2001 “This is a guide book about the Da-me Architecture (no-good architecture) which responses purely and solely to surrounding context and programmatic requirements, “without insisting on architectural aesthetic and form”. They divide the architecture found in Tokyo into two types where one is A-grade cultural building such as museum or library which injects an idea of culture and B-grade 52

buildings that are simply ‘physical’and flat such as car parking or warehouse. In dense cities such as Tokyo, mo no-programs often crosshybridize and merge into one single building and interesting multi-function buildings like roller coaster building, cine-bridge, coolroom estate, etc.”


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