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THE WORLD NUCLEAR university With support from

Presents a comprehensive curriculum for

Nuclear Workforce Development


Prepare your Employees for Growth in the Nuclear Industry Contents About World Nuclear University

2

Foreword

3

Projections of Manpower and Educational Need

5

The Value of WNU Programmes

6

Range of Available Topics

7

WNU Programmes At a Glance

8

Programme Details

9 - 46

About World Nuclear University Inaugurated in 2003, the WNU is a partnership built on four “Founding Supporters”: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD’s Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the World Nuclear Association (WNA) and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). The WNU partnership also encompasses key institutions of nuclear learning in more than 30 nations. The mission of the World Nuclear University partnership is to enhance international education and leadership in the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. Chartered as a non-profit corporation, the WNU pursues this mission through programmes organized by the WNU Coordinating Centre (WNUCC) in London. Relying on administrative support from WNA, the WNUCC oversees activities designed to harness the strengths of partnership members in pursuit of shared purposes.

2 | Nuclear Workforce Development


Foreword The expanding worldwide commitment to nuclear power as an essential clean-energy technology for the 21st Century has given rise to two crucial needs: (1) capable and visionary leadership in the nuclear world; and (2) a substantially enlarged global workforce of knowledgeable and skilled nuclear professionals. The WNU partnership has focussed on both goals. The WNU flagship is the WNU Summer Institute, held at Oxford University each July-August. This six-week course is designed to expand the horizons, and to inspire, mid-level nuclear professionals who have been identified by their organizations as possessing the potential to become senior leaders in the nuclear world. There are now more than 700 former WNU Fellows at work – and advancing – in nuclear organizations in more than 40 countries. Building on the success of the Summer Institute, the WNU has now focussed on workforce development. Many of these WNU initiatives are encompassed in the educational opportunities described in this brochure. We are proud to offer here a wide range of high-quality short-term training programmes designed to assist nuclear organizations in building the capable workforce teams they will need as participants in an expanding and fastglobalizing nuclear industry. We look forward to delivering these courses with confidence in the future of nuclear power and with pride in contributing to the expansion of a skilled worldwide nuclear profession. John Ritch President World Nuclear University Nuclear Workforce Development | 3


The wnu in action: beijing and oxford

The one-week WNU "Key Issues" Orientation Course in Beijing

The six-week WNU Summer Institute at Oxford University

4 | Nuclear Workforce Development


Projections OF Manpower and Educational Need Worldwide nuclear generation capacity today totals about 370 GW. The IAEA and the World Nuclear Association both project that global nuclear generating capacity could grow by as much as 180 GW in the next decade and by another 250 GW by 2030. Today more than 60 reactors are under construction worldwide. Even "low growth" estimates from IAEA and WNA foresee a dramatic nuclear expansion. Worldwide nuclear new-build at this expansive rate will require a corresponding increase in the nuclear industry's professional workforce. But important trends point in exactly the opposite direction. About 50% of today's global nuclear workforce is set to retire in the next 10 years, and studies by the IAEA and national industry associations project a widening gap between need and availability of professionals skilled in nuclear engineering, operations, maintenance and radiation protection. This gap must be closed by high-quality training in all aspects of nuclear generation and the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear Workforce Development | 5


THE VALUE OF WNU Programmes WNU programmes cover all aspects of: (1) nuclear science and technology; and (2) nuclear power projects. They are: t Presented by experienced industry experts. t Designed to facilitate both understanding and application. t Well-paced, providing for comprehension followed by discussion. t Delivered in an easy-to-understand format using examples and case studies. t Available in introductory and advanced level programmes.

6 | Nuclear Workforce Development


RANGE OF AVAILABLE TOPICS The WNU curriculum for Nuclear Workforce Development is designed to support established nuclear organizations and new entrants in training their employees across a range of topics spanning the entire nuclear supply chain. Drawing strength from the educational experience of PM Dimensions, the curriculum covers science, technology and management.

PURPOSE

NUCLEAR TOPICS

WNU courses:

Programmes cover these nuclear topics:

u

Equip participants with requisite knowledge in their chosen area

u Enable

practical applications

u Set

a base for further study and research

u Design

and engineering

u Radiation

safety

u Environmental u Operational

management

safety

u Maintenance

LEVELS

u Risk

management

WNU programmes are offered at:

u Accident

Introductory level

u Quality

Advanced level

u Decommissioning

management

management

Nuclear Workforce Development | 7


WNU Programmes At a Glance

Title

Duration

(1) Orientation programmes Nuclear Power Today Key Issues in the World Nuclear Industry Today

1 day 1 week

(2) Nuclear English Courses Standard Introductory Course

8 | Nuclear Workforce Development

3 days


(3) Workforce Development programmes Code

Title

Level

Duration

ENGINEERING DESIGN (ED) ED01

Introduction to nuclear reactors and reactor theory

Introductory

5 days

ED02

Nuclear power plant engineering

Advanced

5 days

ED03

Nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics

Advanced

5 days

ED04

Advanced programme on turbine generators

Advanced

3 days

ED05

Mechanical components and equipment for NPPWW

Introductory

5 days

RADIATION SAFETY (RS) RS01

Radiation protection in nuclear power plants

Advanced

5 days

RS02

Radiation protection and safety in medical applications of ionizing radiation

Advanced

5 days

RS03

Radiation protection and safety in industrial applications of ionizing radiation

Advanced

5 days

Introductory

3 days

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT (EM) EM01

Environmental impact of nuclear power plants NUCLEAR SAFETY (NS)

NS01

Introduction to nuclear safety

Introductory

5 days

NS02

Deterministic safety analysis of nuclear power plants

Advanced

5 days

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE (OM) OM01

Reliability centred maintenance

Introductory

3 days

OM02

Efficient and safe operation of nuclear power plants

Introductory

3 days

Introductory

3 days

Advanced

5 days

Advanced

5 days

Introductory

3 days

QUALITY MANAGEMENT (QM) QM01

Quality assurance for nuclear power plants RISK MANAGEMENT (RM)

RM01

Probabilistic safety assessment DISASTER MANAGEMENT (DM)

DM01

Emergency preparedness and response DECOMMISSIONING (DE)

DE01

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

Nuclear Workforce Development | 9


Orientation programmes

Nuclear Power Today

Duration: 1 day The prime aim of this intensive course is to equip participants with a sound understanding of the key issues underlying the development of nuclear power today, together with an appreciation of its likely expansive future. For those already with knowledge of some aspects of nuclear, it will broaden their horizons to the full range of issues that underlie it. For others newer to the field, it should open up many of the apparent mysteries and possible misunderstandings. The course is intentionally international in focus, based on WNU’s experience of running longer courses both in the UK and overseas countries. The format is for 10 half-hour units, each consisting of 15-20 minutes of presentation, followed by questions and class discussion. It is expected that groups will be no larger than 20.

Who Should Attend? People who would benefit from this course include any in nuclear companies seeking broader knowledge of the entire business, particularly new hires, staff in companies new to the nuclear sector and financial sector executives needing to gain detailed nuclear knowledge.

10 | Nuclear Workforce Development


Key Issues in the World Nuclear Industry Today

Duration: 1 week These events are designed to enhance the knowledge of how nuclear science and technology are applied in the world today, while encouraging an expansive view of where it is likely to go in the future. International experts lecture on a wide range of topics with the aim of offering practical knowledge, a global perspective and an exciting vision of the future, which should stimulate interest amongst attendees in pursuing further careers in this area. The overall aim of the course is to give attendees a comprehensive knowledge of the key issues in the world industry today, to enable them to place their own current role into perspective while also opening their eyes to the opportunities of the future. A related objective is to encourage different groups involved in nuclear within the country to communicate more closely with each other, to the benefit of all. Each course aims at attracting upwards of 70 attendees and 17 had been held up to the end of 2010, in developing nuclear countries such as Argentina, Brazil, China, Korea and South Africa. The course is flexible and can be shortened to 3 days or adapted to local requirements.

Who Should Attend? Participants may be masters-level university students in nuclear science and engineering, staff at nuclear research centres, professionals in the local nuclear industry and equivalent government employees, including regulators and energy planners.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 11


Nuclear English Courses

In today’s globalizing nuclear industry, proficiency in English is an essential asset for nuclear professionals. WNU’s intensive English-language courses help learners prepare for the Englishspeaking environment, enabling day-to-day communication with colleagues, the writing of effective reports, and participation at conferences. People should be motivated to learn English in a nuclear-specific context alongside fellow professionals from other countries. By attending the course, participants will be aiming to improve fluency, accuracy, and range of terminology, rather than mastering the basic aspects of the English language. Programmes feature a range of activities tailored to suit participants’ needs. In particular, there will be opportunities for simulated practice of situations typically encountered in professional life, such as meetings, presentations and interactions with the public. The textbook Nuclear English (WNU Press) provides an important reference throughout the course.

12 | Nuclear Workforce Development


Nuclear Workforce Development | 13


ED01 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors and Reactor Theory

Level : Introductory

Duration: 5 days

The nuclear reactor forms the heart of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Fundamental to a nuclear reactor are the subjects of nuclear physics and reactor physics which deal with the basic aspects of the physics design of nuclear reactors. This knowledge is essential for understanding the reactor behaviour during, both, normal operation as well as abnormal conditions. This programme is an introduction to the basics of nuclear reactors and deals with the fundamental aspects of physics related to them. The topics covered in this programme include: reactor criticality, design, dynamics, control and safety. An introduction to different types of reactors is also given. The various safety systems used in NPPs and the significance attached to safety are explained. Modules u

Nuclear physics – fundamentals, nuclear structure

u Radioactive

decay

and fusion processes, nuclear cross sections

u Fuel,

moderator and coolant

u Typical u

Neutronics and reactor criticality

u Fission

u Steady

u Interaction

u

of particles and ionizing radiations with matter

u

Nuclear reactor systems and components

u Functions

of the various reactor systems

14 | Nuclear Workforce Development

reactor control system

state and dynamic behaviour of reactors Various types of reactors

u Components u

and systems of an NPP

Nuclear reactor safety and safety systems


Engineering Design Attendees Will Learn About u Fundamentals

of nuclear physics, fission, fusion processes

Who Should Attend? u Organizations

planning to enter the

nuclear sector

u The

basics of the physics of nuclear reactors

u Organizations

u

Nuclear reactor criticality and simple methods of criticality calculations

u Consultants

u

Nuclear reactor components and systems

u

u

Nuclear reactor control and dynamics

Non-nuclear organizations that wish to broaden their knowledge

u

Different types of reactors

u

u

Various components and systems of an NPP

Government representatives from the environment and energy departments

u Representatives

u Importance

of safety and various safety systems in NPPs

interested in refreshing their knowledge of nuclear reactors attached to the nuclear

industry

from the energy and environment departments of organizations

Nuclear Workforce Development | 15


ED02 Nuclear Power Plant Engineering

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

An NPP has a large number of systems and components, including those essential for their operation, control and safety. Their proper functioning is a must for carrying on the normal operation and ensuring the safety of an NPP. It is necessary for every practicing nuclear engineering professional to be well acquainted with such systems used in various reactors. Such systems shall be dealt with in detail in this programme. This programme also deals with the reactor design aspects, inclusive of the safety analysis and assessment. The reactor behaviour under various conditions, such as, normal operation as well as transient and accident conditions is to be explained. The secondary system and the various auxiliary systems of the NPP will be also dealt with. Modules u Conceptual

u Secondary

design of NPPs

u Types

of NPPs and comparison of key parameters

u Influence

of reactor design on power conversion system

u Reactor

core design, components and

materials u Reactor u Reactor

u Reactor

control and protection systems

u Steady

state and dynamic behaviour of

NPPs u Reactor

auxiliary systems

u Introduction

fuel design and materials

Coolant components

coolant system and Balance of Plant (BoP)

System

(RCS)

16 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Safety

and

to reactor safety

systems for NPPs

u Reactor

auxiliary systems dees Will Learn About


Engineering Design u The

different types of NPPs and their systems and components

u The

basic design aspects of different types of NPPs, the functional aspects of different systems required for ensuring safety under normal operation as well as under different abnormal conditions, including postulated accident scenarios

u The

process systems, secondary system and the various auxiliary systems of NPPs

u The

reactor system behaviour under various states such as normal operation, transient and accident conditions

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. Therefore, to benefit from the programme, the participants should have a bachelor’s degree in science/engineering and basic knowledge of nuclear physics, reactors, engineering equipment etc. It will be advantageous to attend the programme ‘ED01: Introduction to Nuclear Reactors and Reactor Theory’ before attending this programme, though it is not a must.

u How

to assess the various designs of NPPs and carry out basic design studies of proposed reactor systems

u The

basics of reactor system dynamics, safety and safety assessment

Who Should Attend? u Senior

managers/engineers in organizations planning to enter the nuclear sector

u Organizations

interested in advancing their knowledge of NPPs

u Consultants

attached to the design of systems and equipment for NPPs

u

Nuclear equipment and suppliers

manufacturers

u Consultants

engaged in QA of nuclear equipment and systems

u

Government representatives from the environment and energy departments

u Representatives

from the energy and environment departments of organizations

Nuclear Workforce Development | 17


ED03 Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

Knowledge and application of the science of heat transfer and fluid flow, i.e., thermal hydraulics, as applied to nuclear reactors, is required to ensure effective heat removal under all conditions. The heat generated in a nuclear reactor should be removed effectively while maintaining the various temperatures (e.g., coolant, cladding, etc.) within specified limits, to ensure safety. The geometries as well as the phenomena encountered in nuclear reactors are very complex and the programme deals with various facets of this issue such as conduction, convection as well as radiation heat transfer (depending on the conditions) in nuclear fuels, thermal hydraulics of reactor coolant system and other systems. The topics of sub-channel analysis and hot-spot and hot-channel factors are introduced to account for the complex geometry and deviations from the nominal conditions. The phenomena of two phase flow and heat transfer, important from the point of view of accident analysis, are also covered in this programme. Modules u Introduction u Heat

u Conduction

heat transfer in fuels of different geometries

to nuclear reactors

generation in nuclear reactors

u Thermal hydraulic characteristics of power

reactors u Safe

energy removal from the reactor

core u Introduction

to heat transfer and fluid flow mechanisms

u Thermal

hydraulics

of

reactor

channels

18 | Nuclear Workforce Development

fuel

u Convective u Forced

heat transfer

convection heat transfer

u Thermally

induced flow and heat transfer

u Radiation

heat transfer

u Hot-spot

and hot-channel factors

u Sub-channel

rod bundles

analysis of fuel channels with


Engineering Design u Hydraulics

of reactor system loops and heated channels

u

Pressure drop and pumping power calculations

u

Parallel channel flow

u Two-phase

Who Should Attend? u Organizations

interested in advancing their knowledge of thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors

u Consultants

involved in thermal hydraulic design and analysis of systems and equipment for NPPs

flow and heat transfer

u Influence

of thermal hydraulics reactor design parameters

on

u Application

of thermal hydraulic principles to design and analysis of nuclear reactors

Attendees Will Learn About u The various thermal hydraulic phenomena

relevant to nuclear reactors u The

analysis of simple geometries of fuel channels and various temperatures such as coolant temperature, cladding temperature, etc.

u The

basics of forced convection and thermally induced flows in reactor systems

u The

application of special techniques of analysis such as sub-channel analysis and hot-spot and hot-channel analysis to fuel design

u

Nuclear thermal equipment designers and manufacturers

u

Governmental representatives from environmental and energy related departments

u Organizations

involved in energy and environmental work

u Senior

managers/engineers from organizations planning to enter the nuclear sector

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. Therefore, to benefit from it, the participants should have a bachelor’s degree in science/engineering and basic knowledge of heat transfer and fluid flow.

u The

analysis of pressure drop and pumping power requirements in reactor loops

u The application of basic thermal hydraulic

principles to the design and analysis of nuclear reactors

Nuclear Workforce Development | 19


ED04 Advanced Programme on Turbine Generators

Duration: 3 days

Level: Advanced

The role of a Steam Turbine-Generator (T/G) is pivotal in converting fission energy into electrical energy, and delivering it to the power grid. Appropriate functioning of the turbine is essential for the overall safety of the NPP. For it, the operation and maintenance staff of an NPP should have adequate knowledge of the T/G system, along with its control systems, operation and maintenance procedures, procurement and replacement of parts, when required, and so on. This programme aims at imparting in-depth information about the T/G, its proper operation, maintenance and inspection. Problems related to corrosion, erosion, vibration, etc., and their solutions are discussed. Ageing related problems and their solutions are also dealt with. Case studies are also presented for the benefit of the participants. Modules u Brief

introduction to T/G system and its components

u

u

Description of turbine control system including speed governor, speed load changer, steam pressure regulator, over speed trip device, vacuum trip devices, low speed switches Monitoring and trending of turbine parameters

u T/G

oil system monitoring, trending and maintenance

20 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Inspection

and maintenance of the steam turbine and its parts such as stop valves, control valves, bleeder trip valves, spill valves, bypass valves, T/G bearings, and turbine rotors

u

Problems caused by moisture such as blade erosion, diaphragm erosion, casing erosion and their resolutions

u Flow

assisted corrosion of turbine parts like bleeder trip valves, spill valves, extraction pipe, condensate pipe and steam trap lines


Engineering Design u Reasons

for turbine generating power lesser than that rated and the measures to rectify the problem

u Causes

of T/G vibration and solution of the problem; discussion of related case studies

u Replacement

of turbine parts, including procurement and quality assurance

u

Main condenser maintenance

inspection

u

Vibration of turbine/generator solution of the problem

u Issues

associated with the ageing of T/G and its components, and their solutions

Who Should Attend? u

Power plant engineers

u Supervisors

and senior technicians involved in the operation and maintenance of power plants

and

leak checking, air leakage checks, hydro test

u Tube

u

u Ageing related issues of turbine parts such

u Organizations

as rotor blades, diaphragms, couplings, bearings, steam seals and control system expansion bellows related issues of turbine auxiliaries such as oil pumps, condensate pumps, circulating water pumps, main condenser, heater, extraction lines and the like

u T/G

u Engineering

design consultants and technical service providers associated with the nuclear sector

Details of turbine control system and turbine oil system

u

Monitoring and trending of turbine and turbine oil system parameters maintenance of turbine and

its parts of turbine solutions to the problem

engaged in the design and manufacture of T/G equipment and auxiliaries

u

u

u Erosion/corrosion

u Organizations

u Environmental

details

u Inspection,

Personnel from the inspection and planning department of power plants (EPC, utility companies) planning to enter the nuclear energy sector

u Ageing

Attendees Will Learn About

parts;

and

protection agencies

Government representatives dealing with the energy sector

u Staff

of regulatory bodies

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. Therefore, the participant should have a degree/diploma in engineering. Experience in power plant operation and maintenance will be useful.

u Operation,

maintenance, inspection of turbine, related problems and solutions

u Turbine

under performance, reasons and solutions

Nuclear Workforce Development | 21


ED05 Mechanical Components and Equipment for Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 5 days

Level: Basic

Efficient functioning of the large variety of mechanical equipment used in NPPs is essential for the safe operation of the plant. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) equipment and components differ in many respects from PWR. This programme is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanical equipment and components used in different NPPs. The design, construction/installation, working principle, operation and maintenance, inspection and safety aspects will be explained at length. The specifications prescribed by codes, standards and other design aspects laid down by regulatory body will also be discussed in detail. Modules u Introduction

to components equipment used in NPPs

u Reactor

and

pressure vessel and internals

u Calandria

vessel penetrations and nozzles

u Reactor

shielding

u Reactor

coolant channels in PHWRs

Primary coolant system including pumps

u Fuel

handling system

u Steam u

Mechanical equipment in the balance of plant

u

Valves, pumps, pipes, tubes, sealing devices, compressor, vacuum pumps, bearings, etc.

u

Ventilation system

vessel in PHWRs

u Reactor

u

u

generator

Pressurizer/pressurizing system

u Equipment

in safety systems

22 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Turbine, u Life

condenser, feed heater

assessment management

u Codes,

and

maintenance

standards and specifications


Engineering Design Attendees Will Learn About

Who Should Attend?

u

u Organizations

Mechanical equipment used in different types of NPPs

u Classification

of mechanical equipment on the basis of the operating principles

u Basic

design aspects of equipment used in NPPs

u Construction u

(EPC, utility companies) planning to enter the nuclear sector

u Engineering

design consultants and technical service providers in the nuclear sector

mechanical

u Organizations

engaged in the design and manufacture of equipment

and installation aspects

Probable challenges during installation

u Environmental

u Operational

u

u Life

u Regulatory

and maintenance challenges and their troubleshooting assessment and maintenance management of equipment

u Applicable

codes, standards and specifications for equipment of all types

protection agencies

Government representatives dealing with the energy sector bodies

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an introductory programme. Therefore, to benefit from it, it will be useful if the participant holds a degree/diploma in engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 23


RS01 Radiation Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

The process of fission in a nuclear reactor generates a large amount of radioactivity and radioactive materials. It is, therefore, essential to ensure adequate radiation protection, particularly to workers in the plant. Thus, radiation monitoring and assuring radiation protection is an important aspect of safety. This programme deals with the various facets of the radiation protection programme in an NPP. The radioactive releases from NPPs, their hazards and biological effects are discussed. Details of radiation monitoring and measurement, protective equipment and radiation protection of personnel are dealt with. Issues such as internal and external contamination, emergency preparedness, and regulatory limits are also discussed. Modules u

Natural and man-made radiation sources

u Interaction

radiation with matter

u Radiation

units

u Radiation

hazards

u The

biological and genetic effects of radiation

u

Quantification of the effects of radiation on the human species

u Radioactive

releases from NPPs during normal operation and under abnormal and accident conditions

24 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Standards

of radiation protection

u

Protection of workers against radiation exposure

u

Personnel protection equipment

u Standards

for the intake of radionuclides

u Computation

of exposure, dose, field,

manrem, etc. u

Manrem budgeting and control

u Radiation

measurement

u Instruments u Radiation

for measuring radiation

monitoring and surveillance


Radiation Safety u

Measurement of the dose received by radiation workers emergency preparedness and handling of radiation emergencies

Who Should Attend? u

u Radiation u Surface

and internal contamination and

control

u Employees

limits

owning and operating

u Radiation

protection equipment designers and manufacturers

u Radiation

Attendees Will Learn About u Radiation

hazards and the biological effects of radiation units and measurement

u Radiological

releases and standards of radiation protection

u Radiation

monitoring and surveillance

u Radiation

dose, manrem budgeting and

control u Handling

radiation

of NPPs

u Organizations

culture

u Radiation

in

NPP

u Regulatory u Safety

Personnel engaged protection activities

radiation emergencies

u Contamination u Regulatory

control

issues

protection

equipment

suppliers u

People interested in advancing knowledge of radiation protection and safety in NPPs

u Representatives

of government departments designated for the implementation of radiation safety

u Staff

interested in advancing their knowledge of radiation protection and safety in NPPs

u Staff

of regulatory bodies

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. To benefit from the programme, the participant should have a degree in science or a degree/diploma in engineering. Basic knowledge of radiation and radioactivity will be useful.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 25


RS02 Radiation Protection and Safety in Medical Applications of Ionizing Radiation Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

Ionizing radiation is being used extensively in human healthcare programmes. Diagnostic radiology facilities using equipment incorporating X-ray generators, such as general radiography and fluoroscopy units, CT scanners, interventional radiography, mammography units, dental X-ray units, etc., are extensively used worldwide. While ionizing radiations play a significant and indispensable role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it may be harmful to the workers and general public, if used without due caution and care. This programme deals with the various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for medical applications. Safety in the handling of equipment and safe disposal of the wastes is particularly emphasized. The regulatory aspects are also dealt with. Modules u Basic

radiation physics

u Interaction

w Radiation therapy, including cobalt therapy, high-energy beam therapy and brachytherapy

w Nuclear medicine – diagnostic and therapeutic

of radiation with matter

u Radiation

quantities and units

u Biological

effects of radiation

u Operational

limits

u Radiation

detection and measurement

u Radiation

protection in:

w X-ray diagnostic radiology, including fluoroscopy, CT, mammography, dental X-ray and interventional radiography

26 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Radiation

hazard evaluation in:

w X-ray diagnostic radiology

w Radiation therapy

w Nuclear medicine

u

Disposal of radioactive waste

u Transport

of radioactive material


Radiation Safety u Radiation

accidents, case studies and lessons learned aspects of medical applications of ionizing radiation

Who Should Attend? u Staff

engaged in handling and using medical radiation equipment

u Regulatory u Emergency

response

plans

u Senior

level representatives from organizations manufacturing equipment for medical applications of ionizing radiation

and

preparedness Attendees Will Learn About

u

u

u Organizations

Different types of equipment used in diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, Computerized Tomography (CT), mammography and radiotherapy

u Radiation

protection and safety aspects in the handling of medical equipment

u Regulatory u Use u

aspects to be complied with

of radiation monitoring instruments

Measurement of radiation levels around medical equipment and in controlled areas

u Type

approval procedures for medical equipment

u

Physical security and radiation safety in using medical equipment

u

Physical security during transport, storage and decommissioning

u Safe

interested in advancing their knowledge of radiation protection and safety in the medical applications of ionizing radiations

u

Government representatives responsible for the implementation of radiation protection programmes in different radiation facilities for medical uses

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. To benefit from the programme, the participant should have a degree in science or a degree/diploma in engineering.

disposal of radioactive waste

u Causes

and exposure

u Best

Medical equipment suppliers

avoidance

of

potential

practices and safety culture

Nuclear Workforce Development | 27


RS03 Radiation Protection and Safety in Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

There has been a significant increase in the industrial applications of radiation sources globally and, as a result, the number of workers in this field is steadily increasing. Efficacy of radiation and radio-isotopes in promoting industrial growth without compromising safety and quality of the end product has been well established. Ionizing radiation gauging devices (nucleonic gauges) are used for online industrial process control of parameters. Radiography is one of the important Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques for ensuring integrity of equipment and structures such as vessels, pipes, welded joints, castings, etc. Use of high intensity and highly penetrating ionizing radiations for the sterilization of healthcare products is perhaps one of the most beneficial applications.. Radiation doses required to achieve the desired effect range from tens of Gy to several kGy. Since these radiation doses are detrimental to human health, utmost care needs to be taken during the operation of these facilities. Supervising and operating personnel in such facilities must possess in-depth knowledge of radiation safety, including the design and operational aspects of the equipment and facility. This programme deals with various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for industrial applications. The challenges associated with industrial occupational radiation protection, due to the large variety of work site conditions encountered, are addressed. Strong emphasis on worker training and consistency of operation (seeking best practices) for improved radiation protection is given. Particular emphasis is given to safety in handling and use of the equipment and safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The regulatory aspects are also dealt with. Modules u Basic

radiation physics

u Interaction

of radiation with matter

u Operational

limits

u Radiation

detection and measurement protection in:

u Radiation

quantities and units

u Radiation

u Biological

effects of radiation

w The use of ionizing radiation gauging devices and well logging

28 | Nuclear Workforce Development


Radiation Safety

w Industrial radiography, Destructive Testing (NDT)

Non-

w Gamma irradiation chambers

hazard evaluation & control in:

w The use of ionizing radiation gauging devices

w Industrial gamma radiography

w Gamma irradiation chambers

w High intensity electron, X- and gammaray radiation processing facilities

u

Disposal of radioactive waste

u Transport

and

dosimetry processing of products

X-ray

approval procedures for industrial equipment

u

Physical security equipment

u

Physical security during transport, storage and decommissioning

u Safe

and exposures

u

and

Attendees Will Learn About Different types of equipment used in nucleonic gauges, well logging, industrial radiography and radiation processing facilities

u Radiation

protection and safety aspects in handling industrial equipment

u

potential

safety systems processing facilities

in

radiation

practices and safety culture

Who Should Attend?

preparedness

u Use

of

u Best

aspects to be complied with

of radiation monitoring instruments

Measuring radiation levels around industrial equipment and in controlled areas

Personnel engaged in handling and using industrial radiation equipment

u Senior

managers / engineers of organizations dealing with manufacture of equipment for industrial applications

aspects of industrial applications of ionizing radiation

u Regulatory

industrial

avoidance

u Built-in

u Regulatory

u

using

operational safety in radiation processing facilities

accidents, case studies and lessons learned

plans

in

disposal of radioactive wastes

u Causes

u Radiation

response

radiation

u Effective

of radioactive materials

u Emergency

for

u Type

w Radiation processing facilities for the sterilization of medical products, food and allied products, cross-linking of wires and cables, vulcanization of rubber, wood-polymer composites, etc. u Radiation

u Radiation

u Industrial u

equipment suppliers

Government employees in radiation protection departments responsible for the implementation of radiation protection programme in different radiation facilities for industrial uses

u Regulatory

bodies

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. To benefit from the programme, the participants should have a degree in science or a degree/diploma in engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 29


EM01 Environmental Impact of Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 3 days

Level: Introductory

As a source of electrical energy, NPPs offer a special advantage in that they do not release any conventional pollutants into the environment. The main release of concern is radioactivity. This programme deals with the types of releases from an NPP and the steps taken to protect the environment. The activities in this regard start soon after site selection and continue through plant construction, operation and finally decommissioning and waste disposal. The environmental protection and surveillance activities are discussed in detail. The biological effects of radiation, dose assessment are explained. Various legislative and regulatory criteria related to environmental protection, environmental decision making processes and assessment of public perception are discussed at length. Modules u Introduction

to environment

u

Dispersion through surface water

w Physical environment

w Hydrological features

w Biological environment

w Site specific data

u

Need for environmental protection

w Hydrological modelling

u

Dispersion through sub-surface water

u Environmental

releases from NPPs

u

Dispersion through air

w Ground water characteristics

w General meteorology

w Hydrological investigations

w Site specific data

w Site specific studies

w Atmospheric modelling

u Environmental

w Unusual site conditions

w Environmental monitoring programme

w Pre-operational phase

w Environmental monitoring for operational phase

30 | Nuclear Workforce Development

surveillance


Environment Management u Biological

u Assessment u Land

Who Should Attend?

effects of radiation of radiation dose

u Agencies

involved in environmental assessment

and water use

u

Process making

decision

u

Government bodies involved in environment protection activities

u

Public perception and its impact on environmental decision making

u

Government bodies dealing with the energy sector

of

environmental

u Legislative

and regulatory criteria for environmental protection

u Representatives u Organizations

engaged in the design and manufacture of environmental protection equipment

Attendees Will Learn About u

Why environmental protection is of great concern today

u Environmental u

u Hydrological u

u Environmental

surveillance

during

various phases effects of assessment of dose

u

radiation

and

Public perception and environmental decision making

u Legislative

engaged in the design and manufacture of radiation measuring instruments and radiation protection equipment

u Engineering

design consultants and technical service providers associated with the nuclear sector

modelling

Generation of site specific data

u Biological

u Organizations

releases from NPPs

Dispersion through air, surface water and sub-surface water

and regulatory criteria

of regulatory bodies

u

Organizations (EPC, utility companies) planning to enter the nuclear sector

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an introductory programme for understanding the environmental impact of NPPs. To get optimum benefit from the programme, knowledge of radiation and its effects will be useful. The minimum qualification of the participants for attending the programme is a bachelor’s degree in science/engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 31


NS01 Introduction to Nuclear Safety

Duration: 3 days

Level: Introductory

The main objective of nuclear safety is the radiation safety objective, which calls for compliance with the internationally accepted stipulations on radiation protection. This is achieved by implementing the technical safety objective, which requires meeting the safety requirements in various phases of the plant as well provision of adequate accident mitigation and management measures. This programme is designed as an introduction to the various issues relevant to assuring the safety of an NPP. The importance given to safety during the various phases of the plant is explained. The various systems provided and their functions are discussed. The classification of the plant System, Structures and Components (SSCs) based on their safety significance is dealt with. The methodology of safety analysis, various nuclear safety criteria laid down by the regulatory bodies are also explained. The environmental impact of NPPs, issues such as emergency preparedness and response, and governmental organizations are discussed. Modules u Introduction u Conceptual

to nuclear reactors

design of NPPs

u Importance given to safety in NPPs – safety

objectives and defence in depth u Safety

considerations in various phases of the NPP, viz., siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, etc.

u Structures,

Systems and Components (SSCs) important to safety and their classification

u Engineered

Safety Features (ESFs) and their functions

u Initiating

events, Design Basis Accidents (DBAs), Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs)

u Accident

analysis and safety assessment

u Accident

prevention management

accident

u Inventory

and localization of radioactive materials in the plant

u Radiation

criteria 32 | Nuclear Workforce Development

/

protection

and

acceptance


Nuclear Safety u

Dispersion and health consequences of radioactive releases

u Environmental

Management responsibilities

u

Governmental infrastructure for ensuring safety

u Emergency

preparedness and response

Nuclear reactor systems and the internationally defined safety objectives for them given to safety nuclear power plant and the and procedures for ensuring throughout the life of the plant subsequent decommissioning

in a means safety and its

u Classification

of plant systems, structures and components based on their safety significance

u Initiating

events, DBAs and BDBAs

u Radiological

hazards in the plant and the radiation protection measures

u

Dispersion of radioactive materials and their health consequences

u Implementation

prevention and management preparedness and response

Who Should Attend? u Organizations

of quality assurance

u Importance

u Accident

u Emergency

Attendees Will Learn About u

analysis approaches

measures

impact of NPPs

u

u Importance

u Safety

of safety measures at nuclear power plants

(EPC, utility companies) planning to enter the nuclear sector u Engineering design consultants and technical service providers in the nuclear sector u Organizations engaged in the design and manufacture of equipment for NPPs u Organizations involved in the construction and operation of NPPs u Employees of operating NPPs u Environment protection agencies u Government agencies dealing with the energy sector u Regulatory bodies REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an introductory programme for understanding the concept of nuclear safety. To get optimum benefit from the programme, knowledge of nuclear reactor theory and plant engineering will be useful. The minimum qualification required for the participants is a bachelor’s degree in science/ engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 33


NS02 Deterministic Safety Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

Safety analysis forms a major part of the design and licensing process for nuclear power plants. Safety analysis is carried out to ensure that the various provisions for safety are adequate to maintain the plant parameters within acceptable limits under various postulated conditions including normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and accidents. This programme on ‘Deterministic Safety Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants’ introduces the different approaches to safety analysis, postulated initiating events and their categorization. The two approaches of deterministic safety analysis, viz., conservative deterministic safety analysis and the Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) analysis are explained. Consideration of the non-availability of systems and components (e.g. single failure criterion) and the effects of nodalization and plant modelling (user effects) are dealt with. The computer codes for LOCA analysis and their verification and validation are discussed. The application of DSA to safety analysis of NPPs and the regulatory review of DSA are also dealt with. Modules u Introduction to safety analysis

w Deterministic and probabilistic safety analyses

u

Different plant states of NPPs Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs)

w Grouping of PIEs – Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs), Design Basis Accidents (DBAs), Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs)/Severe Accidents (SAs)

34 | Nuclear Workforce Development

w Acceptance criteria categories of PIEs u Conservative

for

different

Deterministic Safety Analysis

(DSA)

and

w Credit for operator conservative basis

action

on

u Best

Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) analysis

w Why Best Estimate (BE) approach

w Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis


Nuclear Safety u Initial

and boundary conditions

u Availability

u Basics

of computer codes for LOCA analysis

of systems

w Application of single failure criterion

w Loss of off-site power

u

Nodalization and plant modelling

w User effects and user qualification

u Application

of DSA to safety analysis of

u Application

of DSA to a typical design basis accident

w Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA)

u Introduction

to computer codes for LOCA

analysis

w Code verification and validation

w Experimental validation

w Typical LOCA analysis

studies

for

code

u Introduction to analysis of Beyond Design

Basis Accidents (BDBAs) and Severe Accidents (SAs) u Regulatory u Relation

review of DSA

of DSA to

w Engineering aspects of safety

w Probabilistic safety analysis

analysis approach

u Identification

of

PIEs

and

their

categorization u Conservative

and BEPU approaches for deterministic safety analysis of NPPs

u Consideration

of non-availability of systems and the effects of nodalization and plant modelling

u Application

u Regulatory

to analysis of BDBAs

review of DSA

Who Should Attend? u

Nuclear safety advisors and consultancy firms u Engineering design consultants and technical service providers in the nuclear sector u Organizations (manufacturing, EPC, utility companies) serving and/or planning to enter the nuclear sector u Employees of NPPs u Personnel of NPP design, construction and operating organizations u Representatives from energy departments of the government u Environmental protection agencies u Personnel involved in the safety analysis of NPPs u Regulatory bodies REQUISITE QUALIFICATION

Attendees Will Learn About u Safety

Verification and validation of computer codes

u Introduction

NPPs

u

of DSA to a typical DBA such

This is an advanced programme on safety analysis of NPPs. To get optimum benefits from the programme, participants should have knowledge of nuclear reactors and power plants. Knowledge of the basics of two-phase flow and nuclear safety aspects will be useful. The minimum qualification of the participants for attending the programme is a bachelor’s degree in science/ engineering. It is advisable to attend the programme on ’Introduction to Nuclear Safety’ before attending this programme.

as LOCA Nuclear Workforce Development | 35


OM01 Reliability Centred Maintenance

Duration: 5 days

Level: Basic

A nuclear power plant has a large number of equipment, systems and components including those critical for operation and safety. The complexity of an NPP and the associated economics of plant operation and power generation demand that good engineering and maintenance practices be utilized for reliability improvement and overall cost effectiveness. An operating plant generally has a planned programme based on preventive/corrective maintenance activities. This programme deals with a systematic approach to the design, development and evaluation of a cost-effective maintenance programme that is based on case studies and international experience to enhance the maintenance planning capabilities. Modules u Introduction to RCM and background

u Benefits

u Reliability

w Improvements in reliability

centred maintenance

w Existing maintenance practices versus RCM

w Principles of RCM

w The RCM process u

Practical applications

of RCM programme

w Cost benefits

w Identification of ageing effects

u Case

studies and international experience in RCM

w System selection

w Case study involving Motor Operated Valves (MOVs) in an NPP

w Qualitative analysis – failure modes, effects and criticality analysis

w Field failure and maintenance data

w Trend analysis

36 | Nuclear Workforce Development

w International experiences


Operations and Maintenance Attendees Will Learn About

Who Should Attend?

u The

u

u

principles of RCM and the process

New maintenance planning techniques

u Selection

of systems for the application

of RCM u Failure

modes, effects and criticality

analysis u

Generation of failure and maintenance data from the field

u Trend

analysis and utilization of the data

u Incorporating

in

quality and reliability existing maintenance

u Improvement

in reliability and cost

concepts practices benefits

u Identification u Case

of ageing trends

studies experiences

and

international

Process and plant engineers working in NPPs u Operations and maintenance staff of NPPs u Personnel of industrial plants u Personnel of power plants u QA and reliability professionals in a broad spectrum of industries u Reliability consultants u Government bodies dealing with the energy sector u Regulatory bodies REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. To derive maximum benefit from the programme, the participants should have a diploma/ bachelor’s degree in science/engineering. This programme will be very useful to those involved in operation and maintenance activities.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 37


OM02 Efficient and Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 3 days

Level: Introductory

The efficient and safe operation of a nuclear power plant calls for well trained and qualified operating personnel. The training and certification of nuclear power plant operators is a long drawn process. This programme introduces participants to the best international practices adopted in the nuclear power plant operating organizations around the world. It details the organization of plant operations; and the responsibilities, functions and the required competency of the shift operating staff. The functions of various systems, inclusive of the protection and safety systems, are explained. An introduction is given to the operating limits and conditions and limiting safety system settings. The role of safety culture and the importance of incident reporting system are explained. The need for proper understanding and interpretation of the indications in the control room and taking appropriate corrective actions is emphasized. The use of emergency operating procedures for accident management and regulatory requirements are also dealt with. Modules u Introduction to NPPs and their operation u Standard

organization

for

u Responsibilities, functions and competency

of the shift operating staff u

training and certification

Various activities during the operating shift

38 | Nuclear Workforce Development

manuals

and

operating

procedures

plant

operations

u Operator

u Operational u

Working of different systems

u

Protection and safety systems

u Introduction

to operating limits and

conditions u Limiting

safety system settings


Operations and Maintenance u Review

and upgradation of the various operating procedures

u Interpretation of control room indications

w Detection of abnormal behaviour and taking corrective actions u Introduction

to safety culture at NPPs

w Emphasis on safety during all activities

u Emergency

operating procedures and accident management

u

Normal operation incidents reporting

u Station

and

abnormal

policies

u Regulatory

requirements

Attendees Will Learn About u

NPP operation and associated activities

u Operation

organization, roles and responsibilities of the operating staff

u Functioning

of various systems of the NPP, inclusive of protection and safety systems

u Operator

training and certification

u Operating

limits and conditions, limiting safety system settings

u

Detection of abnormal behaviour from control room indications and taking corrective actions

Who Should Attend? u Consultants

to the nuclear industry (manufacturing, EPC, utility companies) planning to enter the nuclear sector u Engineering design consultants and technical service providers in the nuclear sector u Employees of nuclear power plants u Employees of companies owning NPPs u Nuclear power plant designers u Government bodies involved in the energy sector u Regulatory bodies u Nuclear safety consultants u Organizations

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION The minimum qualification required for the participants is a bachelor’s degree in science/ engineering. To derive optimum benefit from the programme, it will be useful if the participants have knowledge of the basics of nuclear power plant and the various systems that constitute the plant. It is suggested that the participants attend the programme on ‘NPP Engineering, Control and Safety’ before attending this programme.

u Emergency

operating procedures and accident management

u Incident

reporting, safety culture and regulatory requirements

Nuclear Workforce Development | 39


QM01 Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 3 days

Level: Introductory

Nuclear power plants are designed to perform under stringent limits and conditions. High levels of quality are specified to ensure plant safety not only during normal operation, but also during abnormal and accident conditions. This programme on quality assurance for nuclear power plants deals with the various quality assurance measures specified for different plant activities during the life cycle of the plant such as design, procurement, manufacturing, transportation, storage, construction, fabrication, installation, operation, maintenance, inspection, repair and modification of the plant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs). Quality assurance records and audits, in-service inspection and condition monitoring and relevant codes and standards will also be dealt with. Modules Principles and Assurance (QA)

u

concepts

of

Quality

u

QA during different phases of the NPP

u

QA policies and programmes

u

QA organization

u

QA document control

u

Design QA

w Design interface control, verification, control of design changes

40 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u

Procurement control

w Supplier evaluation, inspection of material and manufactured items, handling, storage and shipping of material and equipment

u

QA during construction, installation and erection of equipment

u Inspection u

and testing

QA during commissioning, operation and maintenance


Quality Management u

Non-conformance control and corrective actions

u

QA records and audits

u In-Service

Inspection (ISI), quality control and condition monitoring

u Applicable

regulatory

codes

and

standards Attendees Will Learn About u Objectives

of quality programme for NPPs

u Introduction

assurance

to various quality assurance

principles u

Different phases of NPP and QA

u

QA organization and documentation

u

QA during design, procurement, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance

u

Non-conformance control, maintenance of QA records and audits

u Introduction

standards

to applicable codes and

Who Should Attend? u Organizations

engaged in the design and manufacture of equipment for NPPs u Engineering design consultants and technical service providers in the nuclear sector u Organizations (EPC, utility companies) planning to enter into the nuclear sector u QA specialists u Specialists from inspection and certification agencies u Environmental protection agencies u Government agencies dealing with energy sector u Regulatory bodies REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an introductory programme. To get optimum benefits from the programme, knowledge of plant engineering will be useful. The minimum qualification of the participants for attending the programme is a bachelor’s degree in engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 41


RM01 Probabilistic Safety Assessment

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

Probabilistic Safety Assessment/ Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PSA/PRA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate the risk associated with nuclear or other facilities, which have the potential for accident sequences whose consequences may spill into the public domain. PSA focuses on accident sequences that can damage the plant’s reactor core and also challenge the surrounding containment structures, since these pose the greatest potential risk to the public. It can be used to examine how NPP systems and operators work together to ensure plant safety. PSA level 1 study is extremely useful in design analysis and subsequent system design improvement, particularly if performed during the early design and development stages. This programme deals in detail with level 1 PSA. Details of level 2 and level 3 PSA analyses will also be discussed briefly.

Modules u Safety assessment of NPPs u Risk

analysis, acceptability

u

risk

perception

and

Different levels of risk analysis

u Level

1 PSA Methodology

w Analysis of dependent failures

w Human reliability analysis

w Data requirements including failure rate data

w Quantification of results – core/plant damage frequency w Importance, analysis

w Plant familiarization

w Identification and analysis of initiating events

w System analysis

u Containment/PSA

level 2 analysis

w Accident sequences/event tree analysis

u Consequence/PSA

level 3 analysis

w Common cause failures

u Application

42 | Nuclear Workforce Development

sensitivity,

of PSA to NPPs

uncertainty


Risk Management Attendees Will Learn About

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION

u Risk

This is an advanced programme. The participants should have a bachelor’s degree in science/engineering and preferably, knowledge of the basics of nuclear reactors and reliability engineering. Attending the programme ’Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, Control and Safety‘, prior to this programme, would be advantageous.

awareness, perception and aversion

u

Different levels of PSA

u

Data requirements and collection at a plant

u Component,

equipment, reliability analysis

u Human u

system

reliability analysis

Quantification of potential probabilities and risk

accident

u Importance

analysis and understanding various contributors to plant risk

u

Possibilities of improvement in safety by design

u A

better understanding of the contributions of engineered safety systems to safety/risk

u Application

of PSA to the quantification of risk from an NPP

Who Should Attend? u Senior

managers/engineers in organizations planning to enter the nuclear sector u Consultants involved in the design of system and equipment for NPPs u Personnel involved in safety assessment of NPPs u Personnel engaged in reliability and risk studies u Consultants engaged in QA of nuclear equipment and systems u Governmental staff in environmental and energy departments u Regulatory bodies

Nuclear Workforce Development | 43


DM01 Emergency Preparedness and Response

Duration: 5 days

Level: Advanced

Experience has shown that even though utmost care is taken for ensuring safety in the design and operation of a nuclear power plant, accidents cannot be completely ruled out. Hence, the need for emergency preparedness arose. This programme deals with an introduction to the emergency preparedness measures which should be in place to enable limiting the consequences following an accident situation and a consequent nuclear emergency. The details of various types of emergencies, the required response procedures and the designated response agencies are explained. The radiation protection measures to be taken are dealt with. The role of governmental infrastructure as well as the responsibilities and the role of the regulatory body are also explained. The need for considering emergency response aspects at the site selection stage itself and the need for periodic emergency exercises to ensure the proper functioning of the response machinery during an emergency are also dealt with Modules u An introduction to NPPs u

Design of an NPP to meet the safety requirements and prevention of accidents

u Safety

systems and physical barriers for the prevention of radiation releases

u Accident

management and emergency preparedness

u Emergency

preparedness in safety infrastructure for a national nuclear power programme

44 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Introduction

to emergency preparedness

and planning u

Plant emergency

u Site

emergency

u Off-site

emergency

u Emergency

preparedness and response organization

u Emergency

preparedness procedures


Disaster Management u

Documentation and records of emergency preparedness

u Responsibilities

of various authorities during emergencies

u

Governmental infrastructure for emergency preparedness and response

u Radiation

protection measures during emergencies

u Capabilities

for response to radiological emergencies

u Emergency

exercises and testing of emergency preparedness measures

u Regulatory

basis for emergency preparedness and responsibilities of the regulatory body

u Considerations

of emergency response in site survey and site selection for a nuclear installation

Attendees Will Learn About u Importance

of nuclear radiation protection

safety

and

u Safety

systems and physical barriers for the prevention of radiation releases

u Accident

mitigation, management and handling of emergencies

u

Different types of emergencies

u Emergency u

preparedness and planning

Governmental organization and infrastructure for handling emergencies

u Responsibility

of various response authorities

emergency

u Intervention

levels protection measures

and

radiation

u Emergency

exercises to test the effectiveness and availability of emergency response infrastructure and various provisions

u Role

of the regulatory body

Who Should Attend? u

Government bodies dealing with emergencies u disaster management organizations u Non-governmental organizations identified to play a role during nuclear emergencies u Consultants attached with emergency response agencies and organizations u Emergency response equipment designers, manufacturers and suppliers u Governmental staff in environmental and energy departments u Organizations involved in energy and environmental work u Doctors trained to treat radiation effects and injuries u Nuclear power plant personnel u Regulatory bodies REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an advanced programme. To benefit from this programme, the participants should have a bachelor’s degree in science/ engineering. It will be useful to have knowledge of the basics of NPPs, radiation effects and handling of emergencies.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 45


DE01 Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants

Duration: 3 days

Level: Introductory

The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant at the end of its life is a very complex task. Appropriate provisions and early actions to facilitate the decommissioning process will help in accomplishing this task, without major problems, at the end of the plant life. The purpose of this programme is to provide information on the basic steps in the decommissioning process, various factors to be taken into account and the issues to be considered. The elements included in the programme will assist in decision-making, planning, and implementation of the task. An assessment of alternative strategies will be useful. The programme covers various aspects such as project planning, organization for management and execution, dismantling, decontamination, waste management and so on. The environmental and safety concerns as well as the regulatory aspects related to decommissioning will also be covered in the programme. Modules u Introduction to decommissioning

u

Quality assurance

u Safety

u

Protection criteria

w Health and safety considerations

u

Decommissioning process/activities

u

Decontamination

u

Waste management

u

objectives of decommissioning

Provisions/considerations decommissioning

u Factors

Influencing decommissioning

u Strategies

and planning decommissioning project

u Organization

facilitating

for

a

for decommissioning

w Delineation of responsibilities and functions

46 | Nuclear Workforce Development

u Regulatory

aspects of decommissioning

u Environmental u

and safety aspects

Documentation and records


Decommissioning Attendees Will Learn About

Who Should Attend?

u The

u

need for decommissioning

u Basic

steps involved in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant

u

Planning, management and execution of a decommissioning project

u Responsibilities

and functions of the parties involved in the decommissioning project

u

Protection criteria

u Health u

and safety considerations

Decommissioning, decontamination and waste management

u Environmental u Regulatory

and safety aspects

issues

Nuclear facility operators and consulting firms dealing with the nuclear sector u Personnel engaged in radiation protection activities u NPP personnel u Employees of NPP owning and operating organizations u Decommissioning and radiation protection equipment designers and manufacturers u Decommissioning and radiation protection equipment suppliers u Government staff of departments designated for the implementation of radiation safety u Environment ministry staff u Staff interested in advancing their knowledge of radiation protection and safety in tasks that involve handling large quantities of radioactive wastes u Regulatory bodies u Engineering

REQUISITE QUALIFICATION This is an introductory programme on the decommissioning of a nuclear facility. To get optimum benefits from the programme, it will be useful if the participants have basic knowledge of nuclear reactors and power plants and radiation protection. The minimum required qualification of the participants attending the programme is a bachelor’s degree in science/engineering.

Nuclear Workforce Development | 47


Contact Information WORLD NUCLEAR UNIVERSITY COORDINATING CENTRE (WNUCC) 22a St James’s Square London SW1Y 4JH, UK +44 (0)20 7451 1520 www.world-nuclear-university.org Steve Kidd kidd@world-nuclear.org François Perchet perchet@world-nuclear.org

PM DIMENSIONS SUPPORT TEAM PM Dimensions is a multinational company headquartered in Mumbai and focussed on delivering workforce training and engineering services to major companies and institutions. PMD has brought its extensive experience to bear in shaping and supporting delivery of the WNU Workforce Development Curriculum. Alfred George M: +91 94 22 369 223 O: +91 22 67349827 Dr. Kaluba Chitumbo M: +43 6769319989 For further queries email at: wnu@pmdimensions.com


WNU Nuclear Training by PM DIMENSIONS