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IMPLICATION OF 3D PRINTING FOR AFTER-SALES SERVICE LOGISTICS NILS KNOFIUS

Supervision: Dr. Matthieu C. van der Heijden Prof. dr. W. Henk M. Zijm


3D PRINTING: WHAT IS IT? “Process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer”

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3D PRINTING: WHAT CAN BE DONE?

Organics Large scale print

Micro print

Size Materials Metals

Nano print Normal size print Ceramics

Polymers 19/1/16

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3D PRINTING: WHAT ARE POSSIBLE DESIGN BENEFITS? Superior part characteristics: 1)

High design complexity possible

2)

Uncomplicated design changes

3)

Reduced weight

4)

Better heat distribution

5)

Reduced flow resistance

6)

Straightforward part customization

90% disturbance force reduction by flow optimization with 3D printing

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS PRINT ON DEMAND

Production strategies: ETO

MTO

ATO

MTS

DFS

(engineer-to-order)

(make-to-order)

(Assemble-to-order)

(Make-to-stock)

(Deliver from local stock)

Engineering

Manufacturing

Assembly

Push Forecast driven

CODP

Distribution

Pull Order driven

Consequences of moving the CODP with 3D printing:  Less inventories  Reduced obsolescence risk  Customer order lead time is usually not influenced negatively 19/1/16

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS PRINT ON LOCATION

Motivation print on location:  Less inventory  Increased flexibility  Short response times  Expensive (emergency) transportation can be reduced

Combat zones Oil platform

In space Frigates Mining industry

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS SUPPLY CONTINUITY

Regained supply continuity:  Reduced obsolescence risk  Reduced stock-out risk  Reduced costs  Reduced complexity

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS TEMPORARY FIX

Starting point:  Critical part  Long order lead time

Chances of a temporary fix:  Reduce safety inventories  Reduce system downtime

Concept US Army’s Mobile Parts Hospital

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS REPAIR FAILED PART

Achievable benefits:

Case gas turbine fuel burner:

 Improve sustainability  Reduce downtime  Reduce Inventory  Reduce acquisition costs

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS 1) Print on demand

4) Temporary fix

2) Print on location

5) Repair failed parts

3) Supply continuity

6) Print consolidated part

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IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING ON AFTER-SALES SERVICE SUPPLY CHAINS PRINT CONSOLIDATED PART

From an after-sales perspective following aspects are promising:  Reduced time to failure  Reduced total manufacturing costs  Reduced lead time  Reduced supply chain complexity

Print multiple components in one piece

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ASSOCIATED CHALLENGES

1)

Process variability / Quality

2)

Process reorganization

3)

Piracy / Intellectual property

4)

Liability

5)

Certification

6)

Missing standards

7)

Limited materials

8)

CAD file availability

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RESEARCH DIRECTION


MODEL OPTION 1 – SINGLE ITEM SOURCING DECISION Starting point:  Specific spare part can be sourced with traditional and additive manufacturing

Key aspects:  Different failure behavior  Different logistical & economical parameters

Possible outcomes:  Continue with traditional manufacturing  Change to additive manufacturing  Dual sourcing concept 19/1/16

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MODEL OPTION 1 – SINGLE ITEM SOURCING DECISION Points of interests: 1) Derive part profiles interesting for additive manufacturing

2) Obtain threshold value for required reliability of printed part 3) Extension to Dual Sourcing literature by considering different failure behavior

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MODEL OPTION 2 – PART CONSOLIDATION OPPORTUNITY Starting point:  Additive manufacturing allows to consolidate assembly to one part

Typical key benefits:  Increasing mean time to failure  Reduced manufacturing costs & lead time  Reduced supply chain complexity Expected disadvantages:  No repair by component replacement  Inventory at higher indenture-level 19/1/16

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MODEL OPTION 2 – PART CONSOLIDATION OPPORTUNITY Points of interests: 1) Obtain insights about the total costs and sustainability of consolidation

2) Relate Level of Repair Analysis (LORA) to inventory theory Model extension:

Allow partial consolidation

Multi-item problem with communalities between sub-components

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MODEL OPTION 3 – MULTI-ITEM CAPACITY PLANNING Starting point:  Investment in additive manufacturing equipment is considered for multiple parts

External sourcing might be undesired:  Confidentiality & Quality  Higher variable costs  Lead time restrictions Justifying the investment:  Pooling effects  Reduced variable costs 19/1/16

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MODEL OPTION 3 – MULTI-ITEM CAPACITY PLANNING Points of interests: 1) Understand when to invest in additive manufacturing capacity

2) Building block for supply chain layout with additive manufacturing capacity 3) Related to limited capacity (M/G/c) repair shop literature

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IDENTIFYING PRINTABLE AND PROMISING SPARE PARTS


IDENTIFYING PRINTABLE AND PROMISING SPARE PARTS Starting point:  Tens of thousand of spare parts  Limited data availability  No proof of concept existing Identify most promising spare parts:

Start procedure

Definition of spare part population

Scoring procedure

Ranking of spare pars

Data availability

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IDENTIFYING PRINTABLE AND PROMISING SPARE PARTS Scoring based on:

1) Spare part profiles Technical criteria

Economic criteria

Logistical criteria

Part size

Purchasing costs

Demand rate

Material

Design ownership

Order lead time

etc.

etc.

etc.

2) Desirable value for each criterion (e.g. demand rate < 5 per year)

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EXPERIENCE WITH THIS METHOD IN PRACTICE During three case studies we found that:

 Company goals need to be included in scoring method  Data availability requires a stepwise approach

 Top-down analysis needs to be supplemented by bottom-up approach

Clip in Access Hatch

Limitation:

 Part information upstream the supply chain  Design improvements are not considered Fitting-Stud D20496

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THANK YOU!

12 knofius (2015) presentation isir summer school  
12 knofius (2015) presentation isir summer school  
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