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In this issue
Volume 28, No 199
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A S l A’ S L E A D l N G m aga z l ne f o r the plastlcs and rubber lndustry
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18 汽車工業:車輛的燃油效率始于設計階段 20 Automotive Dr Christof Krogmann of Lanxess offers insights on how lightweight designs in automobiles enable green mobility
22 Pipes/profiles There is a high demand in the pipeline for the industry; Rajoo-Bausano provides an update to the joint venture’s business to date
26 Recycling Plastic scraps travel a long journey from the source to the recyclers. To complicate things further, the scraps are now labelled, graded and politicised, says Angelica Buan in this report
28 Corporate Profile Austrian manufacturer of woven PP bag machines, BSW, has expanded its facility to meet the growing demand of its equipment
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10 Machinery News
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12 Composites News
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Supplements 副 刊 BASF has entered the market of composite semi-finished parts for the automotive sector Several sustainable and practical uses for used tyre-derived rubber have emerged
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Due to the global megatrend of mobility, pollution levels are increasing and endangering the environment. Thus, firms like Lanxess and BASF are innovating materials for lightweighting vehicles
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Frigel to enhance Asian capacity with increase in Ecodry sales
rocess cooling equipment supplier Frigel Asia Pacific expects sales for its adiabatic Ecodry system to soar. In anticipation of this, Thailand-based Frigel Asia is setting up a new facility in Bangpakong (in the Free Trade industrial zone). Currently operating from a 1,000 sq m facility in the vicinity, the firm will move to a larger 8,000 sq m plant by next September, said Benjamin Sutch, President Service and Sales Asia, Frigel Asia Pacific. “We are investing US$3 million in this plant,” he added. “Since the distributorship was set up (by Frigel in Italy), we have achieved US$6 million sales and aim to hit US$10 million by this year," he went on to say. He was speaking at a joint open house Benjamin Sutch says Frigel’s organised by Frigel process control and cooling and Austrian injection is a sustainable process moulding machine maker Engel recently. “The system is a sure bet as it helps plastics manufacturers improve cycle times, reduce water and energy consumption.” Ecodry instead of cooling towers The Ecodry system is aimed at replacing cooling towers. It operates as a closed system and uses airheat exchange as the method of heat rejection as opposed to the open system-cooling tower that uses water evaporation as a method of heat rejection. During the presentation, Per Skjevik, Sales Director, provided some impressive comparisons. While a cooling tower with a 450-tonne cooling capacity evaporates 32,000 cu m/year of water; the Ecodry does the same using only 326 cu m/year of water, which is 1% of a cooling tower. He also explained that ambient air passes through the patented adiabatic chamber before reaching the finned coils; wetted air drops the temperature to a value required to keep the process water's temperature below the maximum set point, and a microprocessor controls the variable-speed fan motors and the amount of water sprayed to keep the value constant. “Excess moisture is accumulated in the Ecodry system's evaporative filters and the finned coils remain dry and clean. The system is self-draining
Frigel’s chillers were showcased with an IML technology on a 160-tonne Engel Emotion, Japanese auxiliary maker Matsui’s PET system; Belgium-based Verstraete’s labels and robots/IML automation from Italian firm Campetella
and can operate with or without the use of glycol,” said Per. The system is targeted at large injection moulding machines and blow moulders. Per also provided an account of a client in Thailand that reduced its energy bill by 8 million baht a year and paid off the cost of the Ecodry over two years. And while the Frigel officials agree that cooling towers are low priced and simple, they add that the disadvantages outnumber the benefits. These include: calcium/solid build up in pipes and the heating elements; algae/bacteria growth; continuous maintenance; big temperature variations; high energy/water use, and a larger contamination risk of Legionella bacteria, the cause of legionnaires disease. Frigel, established by the Dorian family in Italy in 1960, set up an exclusive distributorship in Thailand two years ago, with ex-Husky Injection Molding senior executive Marcus Sutch and his son Benjamin Sutch. Frigel Asia Pacific’s target markets are Australia and Japan, accounting for a third of sales each, in sectors (food/beverage processing and hospitals) other than plastics since it can also be used in HVAC/air conditioning systems. Globally, Frigel has about 5,500 Ecodry installations in more than 20 countries and operates three manufacturing sites in Thailand, Italy and the US. It will have a turnover of EUR40 million this year. At the open house, Frigel’s chillers were showcased with an IML technology on a 160tonne Engel Emotion, together with an SCS mould; Japanese auxiliary maker Matsui’s PET system; Belgium-based Verstraete’s labels and robots/IML automation from Italian firm Campetella.
INDUSTRY NEWS Dieter Maes of Verstraete (left) and Per Skjevik of Frigel
Meanwhile Belgian printing company and IML technology provider Verstraete is planning to open an office in Southeast Asia by the year end, to cater to the market. “We have not decided if it will be in Singapore or Malaysia,” Business Development Manager Dieter Maes told PRA. The firm claims a 35% market share globally and has a turnover of EUR90 million, only in IML. “We print 40 million labels/day and ship 30% outside Europe,” said Maes, adding that the firm first produced in mould labels in 1990. Maes also added that the IML technology is “useful in Asia, since quick design changeovers are required as in Asia forecasts are difficult to make. This means that decorating in the mould makes it easier to change from one label to another.” Some innovations include in-mould labels with an oxygen barrier for increased shelf-life; with a light barrier to maintain the food flavour without the need for preservatives; Superclear IML “that looks like there is no label”; and a metallic effect “for differentiating the product.” Maes also highlighted the double-sided printed label, which allows the possibility of adding information on the reverse side of the label, and a peelable label that increases the reusability of the packaging container.
PU and styrenics growth to come from Asia Styrenics consumption is estimated to be 35,007 kilotonnes in 2013 and will grow by 4.81% annually and will be worth US$108,510 million till 2018. The increasing demand of styrenics in Asia Pacific, especially in China, and growth in end-user applications such as construction and automotive industry are key factors driving the global market, says a new report from Market and Markets. Asia Pacific is driving the market contributing more than 50% of the global demand. Due to cost and performance advantages, UPR is widely used in the manufacturing of wind blades, rotors and ventilators, thus ensuring high growth in wind energy applications. Similarly, tyre labelling regulations, being adopted by different countries such as Germany and Japan has led to an increased SBR demand worldwide, especially in the automobile industry. Meanwhile, against the backdrop of continuing affluence, PU demand is continuing to shift towards Asia Pacific, due to saturated industrialised markets in Western Europe and the US, says a new report from Ceresana Research, adding that Asia Pacific is the largest market for PUs at 44%, outpacing Europe and the US.
Industry News 6
More Asians at K show this year A clear indication of the on-going changes in the global market is that the number of exhibitors from Asia and the overall area booked by Asian companies have increased significantly at the upcoming K2013 show in Düsseldorf, Germany, to be held from 16-23 October. The exhibition area of the largest five Asian countries of China, Taiwan, India, Japan and South Korea has grown by almost one third, more than 25,000 sq m in 2013, compared to 18,000 sq m at the 2010 show. This was highlighted at the K2013 preview by Werner Dornscheidt, President/CEO of show organiser Messe Düsseldorf. He also noted that Germany still leads the exhibitors slot, having booked 43% of the overall exhibition area of 170,000 sq m. Trailing behind are Italy (26,000 sq m), China (9,600 s qm), Austria (8,100 sq m), Switzerland (6,400 sq m), Taiwan (6,100 sq m), and India (5,300 sq m). Meanwhile, Turkey will display its products and services in almost 4,000 sq m of net exhibition area, which is 1,000 sq m more than three years ago. However, Dornscheidt pointed out the economic situation in Europe is still not rosy. “Many countries are confronted with the Euro crisis and AUGUST 2013
Latest plant set-ups
Werner Dornscheidt says the K2013 will be held against a slower growth in Europe
declining output rates in the automotive industry, slackening construction business, rising energy and raw material prices.” Despite the uncertainties, Ulrich Reifenhäuser, President of K2013, is carefully optimistic. “Some global regions such as Japan show significant growth, others like the US, are experiencing a slight recovery and China is anticipating a 7% rise of its economic growth in 2013.” Reifenhäuser anticipates a stable year, with at worst, a slight decline and is convinced that the K2013 will revitalise the industry. Traditionally, machinery suppliers make up the largest exhibitor group and this year, they will take up 119,000 sq m of space, more than two-thirds of the overall exhibition space and 4,000 sq m more than 2010. The next largest group comprising raw materials, semi-finished goods and industrial components, will take up an area of 37,500 sq m, almost 3,500 sq m more than 2010. Overall, 3,100 exhibitors from 60 countries will participate in the triennially-held show.
• Germany-based Evonik has started up production for the Elatur CH phthalate-free plasticiser 1,2-Cyclohexa dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester at Marl Chemical Park with a capacity of 40,000 tonnes/ year. Investment was in the doubledigit million euro range. • Solvay Specialty Polymers is investing in a series of global supply chain initiatives to expand the availability of its KetaSpire polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and AvaSpire polyaryletherketone (PAEK) products, including the production of the resins in China and the creation of new distribution centres for the resins in vital regions of the world. In China, production of PEEK and PAEK compounds has commenced at Solvay’s Changshu production site. • Polyolefins maker Borealis has inaugurated a EUR100 million catalyst plant at its Linz facility in Austria. It will produce catalysts utilising the proprietary Borealis
Sirius technology. Catalysts enable a precise alignment of plastics properties with varying demands and help determine the hardness, plasticity and/or elasticity of end products. • Global provider of packaging solutions Sidel is opening an office in Dubai and a regional HQ in Frankfurt, Germany. A modern new facility will operate as Sidel’s Dubai HQ, serving its customers in the Greater Middle East and Africa, while in Frankfurt, it will serve customers in Europe and Central Asia. Both offices will be fully operational by September 2013. • Saudi Organometallic Chemicals Company (SOCC), a 50-50 joint venture between Saudi Specialty Chemicals Company, a manufacturing affiliate of Sabic, and Albemarle Netherlands, has started up a 6,000-tonne/year aluminium alkyls facility in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The tri-ethyl aluminium (TEA) is used as a co-catalyst in the plastics industry.
Latest M&As • Austrian recycling equipment supplier Next Generation Recyclingmaschinen (NGR) has acquired 100% equity in Britas Recycling, which develops filtration systems for heavily contaminated plastic melt streams. • After more than 25 years of collaborating with Italian winder manufacturer Nuova Protex, Germany-based extrusion machinery maker Reifenhäuser has acquired the firm. Nuova Protex specialises in designing and manufacturing take-up winding systems for synthetic fibres such as monofilaments, multifilaments, raffia, flat tape and strapping tape as well as supplementary components. • Germany-based supplier of process and packaging technology Bosch Packaging Technology is acquiring French blow moulding machinery maker Tecsor Machines et Systèmes. Set up in 2005, the company generated sales of EUR2 million in 2012. • US compounder A. Schulman is acquiring Network Polymers, a US niche engineered plastics compounding and distribution business, for US$50 million. The transaction is anticipated to close within the next few months. • US-based supplier of pressure sensitive materials Bemis has acquired all of the common stock of Foshan
New Changsheng Plastics Films (NSC), a speciality film manufacturer located in China. Financial details of the transaction were not disclosed. The company said the acquisition is not expected to affect its earnings projections for 2013. • Australia-headquartered global packaging manufacturer Amcor is acquiring Chinese firm Jiangsu Shenda Group’s flexible packaging business for RMB350 million. The latter has sales of RMB440 million/ year and two plants in the Jiangsu province in Eastern China. Two thirds of its sales are to the pharmaceutical, snacks and culinary end markets. • US-based Graham Engineering Corporation has acquired the assets and assumed certain liabilities of sheet extrusion solutions provider Welex Incorporated. This follows the Graham Group’s acquisition of majority interest in American Kuhne in October 2012, furthering Graham’s investment in plastic processing technologies. • With a view to expanding its business in the US, German pipe corrugator machine maker Unicor has acquired majority ownership of Canadian firm Adescor, which develops, downstream equipment for the production of corrugated pipes: saws, cutters and bell in-line trimmers. In October 2012, the GAW Group from Graz, Austria, took over the majority control of Unicor.
• Germany-based International Process and Packaging Technologie (IPPT),a portfolio company of Deutsche Beteiligungs (DBAG) and owner of the Romaco Group, has purchased Kilian, a subsidiary of the Italian IMA Group. Kilian supplies tablet press machines for pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries and laboratories. It had sales of EUR45 million in 2012. • Swiss speciality chemicals firm Clariant and Wilmar International, an Asian agribusiness group, have received the relevant merger clearances for the establishment of their 50-50 joint venture. Headquartered in Singapore, the global amines company will produce and sell fatty amines and selected amines derivatives. • US-based chemicals firm Huntsman is buying another US supplier Oxid to expand its PU foam insulation business. Oxid's Terol polyols can be used in the production of energy-saving PU insulation products found in residential and commercial construction. The transaction is expected to close during the third quarter 2013. Terms were not disclosed. Oxid generated US$86 million of revenue in 2012. • US-based Nordson Corporation has acquired Kreyenborg GmbH, that manufactures screen changers and melt filters, and BKG Bruckmann & Kreyenborg, which offers pelletising technology, from Germany-based Kreyenborg Group.
• Switzerland-based Wifag-Polytype has taken over the shares of OMV Machinery (Verona, Italy) including all intellectual properties, products and assets, from the former owner ISAP Packaging (Italy). OMV founded in 1963 specialises in thermoforming equipment, allowing its new owner to add the technology to complement its decoration equipment. • US-based PolyOne Corporation is closing six plants and laying off 250 staff, in connection with its March 2013 acquisition of Spartech Corporation. These actions are expected to be completed by the end of 2014 and will generate pre-tax savings of approximately US$25 million/year in 2015. • US-based composites supplier Cytec Industries is closing down its joint venture in China and will also retrench 120 employees, having integrated the former Umeco distribution product line, which it bought for US$8.6 million. The purchase is expected to result in a second quarter pre-tax loss of US$12.5 million. • Styron Europe is selling its EPS business to RP Compounds, a subsidiary of Ravago, for an undisclosed sum. The sale includes the EPS facility in Schkopau, Germany, as well as related intellectual property and the SCONAPOR brand. AUGUST 2013
GREEN Materials News
Capping with green materials Europe is getting serious about its biobased sector; while an Indonesian plant will cater to biobased plastics and commercial products like coffee capsules and caps, made of biobased plastics, are additions to the packaging sector. Europe to invest in a biobased economy The European Commission and 48 companies have joined forces to set up a EUR3.8 billion public/private partnership (PPP) and accelerate the deployment of biobased products in Europe. The European Commission will invest EUR1 billion and the industry EUR2.8 billion, from 2014 to 2020, to boost market uptake of new biobased products that are “made in Europe”. The partnership promotes the use of various sources of sustainable biomass and waste to produce everyday products such as food, feed, chemicals and fuels. The use of local biomass and waste will generate growth and jobs in rural areas across European regions, while reducing the EU’s reliance on fossil fuels, thereby offering sustainable alternatives to oil-based products and enhancing energy and food security. Novozymes is part of this initiative alongside 47 leading European companies in the biotech, chemical, energy, agro-food and pulp and paper sectors. Elevance/Wilmar Indonesian plant started up US-based bioplastics technology firm Elevance Renewable Sciences and Singapore-headquartered agribusiness group Wilmar International have started shipping commercial products, including novel speciality chemicals, to customers from their first world-scale joint venture biorefinery, located in Gresik, Indonesia. The biorefinery is the first based on Elevance’s proprietary metathesis technology. The firm says it has now turned its attention from construction and start-up to working with partners, such as Arkema and Stepan Company, to meet product demand and accelerate rapid deployment and commercialisation of the high-performance chemicals. The commercial-scale manufacturing facility produces novel speciality chemicals, including multifunctional esters such as 9-decenoic methyl ester, a unique distribution of biobased alpha and internal olefins including decene and a premium mixture of oleochemicals. It has a capacity of 180,000 tonnes/year with the ability to expand up to 360,000 tonnes/year of products. The chemicals will be used in personal care products, detergents and cleaners, lubricants and additives, engineered polymers, and other speciality chemicals. The monomers for biobased polymers and engineered plastics include long chain polyamides, polyurethanes and polyesters. The new plant is located within Wilmar’s integrated manufacturing complex in Gresik. The biorefinery will initially operate using palm oil, but it is capable of running on multiple renewable oil feedstocks, including mustard,
soybean and, when they become commercially available, jatropha or algal oils. Elevance, formed in 2007 as a spin-off from Cargill, has raised more than US$300 million in financing to date. Rooting for biobased acrylic and PBT BASF, Cargill and Novozymes are on the road to jointly producing acrylic acid from renewable raw materials by successfully demonstrating the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in pilot scale. 3-HP is a renewable-based building block and one possible chemical precursor to acrylic acid. The companies also have successfully established several technologies to dehydrate 3-HP to acrylic acid at lab scale. This step in the process is critical since it is the foundation for production of acrylic acid. In August 2012, BASF, Cargill and Novozymes announced their joint agreement to develop a process for the conversion of renewable raw materials into a 100% biobased acrylic acid. Acrylic acid is a high-volume chemical that feeds into a broad range of products. German chemicals firm BASF is the world’s largest producer of acrylic acid and has substantial capabilities in its production and downstream processing. BASF plans initially to use the biobased acrylic acid to manufacture superabsorbent polymers. Presently, acrylic acid is produced by the oxidation of propylene derived from the refining of crude oil. Superabsorbent polymers derived from biobased acrylic acid will be a groundbreaking new offer to the market. Diapers made of such superabsorbent polymers could meet the demand of a significant and growing group of consumers in mature markets in particular. They also may allow diaper producers to meet consumer demands, differentiate their products and contribute to their sustainability goals. Meanwhile, Italian firm CDA de Novamont has developed bioplastics with both monomers based on renewable resources by using azelaic acid and other acids derived from vegetable oils to combine with 1,4 butanediol derived from sugar fermentation. The butanediol is made by a process developed by US firm Genomatica. Novamont said it plans to build a dedicated plant to make the butanediol monomer through its MaterBiotech subsidiary and will partner with Italian firm ENI Versalis for the azelaic acid process. The new polymers can be used to make flexible and rigid films, coatings, extruded parts and thermoformed goods. In other news, Lanxess and Genomatica have started the first production of biobased polybutylene terephthalate
Green Materials News
Lanxess used its world-scale production plant in Germany to make biobased PBT from Genomatica's process technology
(PBT) in Lanxess's world-scale 80,000 tonnes/year capacity production plant in Hamm-Uentrop, Germany, using 20 tonnes of biobased 1,4-butanediol (BDO) made with Genomatica’s commercially-proven process. According to Lanxess, this BDO has fully complied with its stringent specifications for petro-based BDO, allowing a direct feed of 100% biobased BDO into the continuous production process. Genomatica’s BDO process technology converts sugars – a renewable feedstock – into the major chemical BDO in a patented, “direct” fermentation process. Lanxess says this provides it with a “tremendous step forward in its future plans to offer its high-tech plastic Pocan in a biobased version, too. Due to its unchanged properties Pocan compounds based on biobased PBT can directly be used in established application fields such as automotive or electrical/electronics areas ". Biobased coffee capsules and caps BASF’s Ecovio compostable plastic has found its first production application in a system solution for packaging. The Swiss Coffee Company’s coffee capsules beanarella consist of the new injection moulding grade Ecovio IS1335; at the same time the multi-layer composite system for the aroma-tight outer barrier packaging for the capsules is also Coffee capsules made from BASF’s Ecovio
Ecovio-based. The capsules not only protect the product and brew coffee in high-pressure coffee machines, yet may still be composted; along with the barrier packaging. The product was said to have been jointly developed in 13 months. In mid-May, the Swiss Coffee Company received the IDEE SUISSE "Golden Idea Award 2013" innovation prize for this product concept in Zürich for an "innovative contribution to the sustainable strengthening of the Swiss economy". Meanwhile, Swiss carton producer Tetra Pak has signed an agreement with Brazilian maker of biobased LDPE, Braskem, to use its renewably sourced material in all of Tetra Pak packages produced in Brazil. This breakthrough initiative, which will be limited in scope to Brazil only for the duration of the trial, is scheduled to start during the first quarter of 2014.
Sugar cane-based LDPE from Braskem will be used by Tetra Pak for its carton packaging in Brazil
The planned move to biobased LDPE means that 100% of Tetra Pak packages produced in Brazil, about 13 billion, will have up to 82% packaging material from renewable sources. Braskem will use ethanol derived from sugar cane to produce ethylene, which will then be converted into LDPE. The firm says the LDPE made from renewable sugar cane has the same technical properties as LDPE made from fossil sources, and the environmental benefits of being from a renewable source. Braskem biopolymers are known under the trademark “I´m green”. Tetra Pak is also the first liquid food packaging supplier to use biobased plastic in its packaging, launching Tetra Brik Aseptic packages with StreamCap 1000. The company has also launched a biobased version of LightCap 30, which uses HDPE made from sugar cane. T I N E , a d a i r y p r o d u c e r, distributor and exporter, based in Norway, is the first brand in Europe to use these biobased caps. TINE will use the biobased caps for milk packaging that will be packaged in the Tetra Brik Aseptic Edge with the biobased LightCap 30 AUGUST 2013
Machinery Industry News
IMC capabilities for cutlery
anadian firm StackTeck has a new range of mould capabilities for In Mould Closing (IMC) of injection moulded parts. IMC has been offered for many years for flip-top closures, to fold the part over a living hinge and close the flip-top part before releasing it from the mould. The primary advantages of this approach included precision of the closing
motion, as well as the opportunity to fold the living hinge while the plastic is still hot, thus enhancing the durability of the hinge. Key developments associated with this technology have focused on using multiple, separate motions of the closing arms, while optimising the control of closing force – particularly for high cavity moulds. The compact
Winder for roofing membranes upgraded
anadian film and sheet extrusion machinery supplier Macro Engineering & Technology has upgraded its heavy sheet winder used primarily in the production of roofing membranes comprised of TPO, PVC and EPDM. To increase production output, the winder’s automatic roll transfer sequence has been shortened from 75 seconds to 50 seconds, allowing the extrusion line to operate 50% faster. In addition, the winder can now accommodate finished rolls from 200 mm to 700
mm in diameter and up to 3.5 m wide. A tucking mechanism eliminates the use of glue, tape or staples to fix the sheet onto the core. The winder is also equipped with a slitting station for creating multiple rolls and an accumulator that provides 2 minutes of contingency time during process changeovers, sample cuts and routine maintenance. The finished rolls are taped with automatic taping heads before being unloaded with an automatic roll cart. New cores are loaded on the
SML’s latest stretch film line
ustrian extrusion machinery supplier SML has introduced the SmartCast, a 3 m wide (6-up) machine concept for the production of enhanced stretch film. A modular system with four pre-configured extrusion units offers outputs ranging from 1,700 to 2,400 kg/
hour and the choice between five or seven layers. Using the optional edge encapsulation system, production speeds of up to 750 m/ minute are feasible, which provides an output on the winder of over 1,500 kg/hour of 12-micron film.
design of the closing arms allow for maximum cavity in any given press size, and the minimised stroke distance required for closing enables the fastest possible cycle time, says the firm. A recent innovation using IMC technology is for plastic cutlery, in which a living hinge is used to make a foldable part. Clasp mechanisms can be used to lock the part in both the open and closed positions, thus making it possible
to ship and pack cutlery in a smaller, more manageable size. The consumer can straighten the part and easily lock it in the open, useable position. IMC makes it possible to fold these parts and lock them in the closed position, prior to ejection from the mould. The closing arms provide precise movement with a well controlled closing force that is consistent between all of the mould cavities.
winder automatically. Macro built its first TPO winder in 2006
and has since installed several winders in the US.
Macro’s upgraded roofing winder
Apart from a new generation of standard and highspeed extruders, SML has also upgraded the chill roll unit by adding additional functions, avoiding vibrations and making operation easier. The line is complemented by the newly developed W4000-4S winder,
the so-called "multitalent" in SML's winder portfolio. It offers machine and jumbo rolls on 3-inch cores; hand rolls on 2-inch cores; coreless and thin core technology. The firm will show the line in operation at the K2013 in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Mercedes and BMW use laminating machines
oth the new BMW 3 series and the new Mercedes C-Class feature a complete door-interior trim manufactured worldwide with forming and laminating units supplied by German supplier Kiefel. A specific challenge arising from these major orders was the fact that the vehicles are produced in various parts of the world. The machines, therefore, had to be adaptable to the different requirements of the production countries involved. In the case of BMW, Kiefel has developed seven laminating machines, which are used to make the door interior trim of the new 3 Series produced in Germany, South
Africa and China. Each of these machines takes 80 seconds to produce a complete set of door interior trim components for a car, says the machine supplier. BMW’s worldwide operation manufactures 2,500 3 Series cars/day. Meanwhile Mercedes, in cooperation with its Tier One supplier JCI, ordered six laminating units, which it uses to produce the door interior trims of the new C-Class. All of these machines have been equipped with an in-mould-graining tool developed by Kiefel. Mercedes will soon be producing 2,200 vehicles/day of the new model in its factories in Germany, South Africa, China and the US. The new C-Class will be available from 2014.
THE NO. 1 FOR WORLD PREMIERES: K 2013 Get ready for your most important global business and contact platform. On a net exhibition space of more than 168,000 sqm, some 3,000 exhibitors from over 50 countries will be presenting innovative solutions and visionary concepts in the areas of machinery and equipment, raw materials and auxiliaries, semifinished products, technical parts and reinforced plastics. Plan your visit now. Welcome to your K 2013.
International Trade Fair No. 1 for Plastics and Rubber Worldwide
k-online.de Door interior trims in the vehicles are made by laminating machines
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Asian markets advancing in composites The key players in the EUR83 billion global composites market may well be the US, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. Advancements in matured economies may have bolstered demand for composite materials but it is the Asian region, despite its fragmented mix of developed and emerging economies, that has generated 36% higher revenues, compared to 34% and 23% for the US and Europe respectively. Asia also accounts for 41% of the total volume of global composites against 32% and 24% from US and Europe respectively, according to Angelica Buan in this report.
he global composites industry underwent modest growth until 2012 when the US composites market performed strongly in the key sectors of aerospace, wind energy, construction and transportation, according to a latest industry report of market research firm Lucintel. The company says that the Asia Pacific markets had previously staggered with a modest rate of 5% through 2009. But China and India helped the regional market to hold up until momentum kicked in. Lucintel forecasts that the global market will reach an estimated US$34.1 billion in 2018, with a CAGR of 5.1% over the next five years (2013 to 2018). Linking the supply chain in Asia France-based composites industry organisation JEC recently concluded an edition of the annual JEC Asia Composites Conference & Show in Singapore, which this year highlighted carbon, aeronautics, thermoplastics, transportation, bio-based materials, marine & offshore and wind energy. With more than 300 participating firms and 5,200 visitors, the exhibition is considered as the only event in the region where a majority of the key players in the global composites industry value chain converge. According to Frédérique Mutel, JEC’s President/CEO, “JEC Asia is a custom-made event for the region. It is meant to attract key players and allow professional people to mingle together. The content and the setting of the event are totally adapted to the local needs.” At this year’s show, Japan was recognised as the country of honour, with a showcase via a dedicated pavilion as well as with specific content in the conferences. Moreover, JEC Asia and Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM) Asia jointly presented the Innovative Composites Summit, which showcased the latest business intelligence and technical content pertaining to the use of composites, with focus on carbon aeronautics. The JEC Innovation Awards cited several international companies from Asia Pacific and the Middle East: • Aeronautics: National Aerospace Laboratory in India was awarded for its 14-seater civil aircraft • Raw Materials: Australia-based Composites Consulting Group clinched an award for its fire retardant resin and gel-coat system that can be used in infusion processing of high-speed fast interceptor craft • Biocomposites: UK/Malaysia-based University of Nottingham presented what is said to be the first of its kind sustainable natural fibre-reinforced composite small wind turbine blades • Recycling: UAE-based Smithline Reinforced Composites won the award for the use of FRP waste in concrete mixtures • Design: Taiwan-based Gaius Automotive was awarded for its carbon fibre isogrid-stiffened automotive suspension arm • Process: South Korea’s Lotte Chemical developed a woven and long glass fibre-reinforced rear bumper back beam, using the press and injection moulding process • Non-Destructive Testing: Germany’s Suragus got awarded for its EddyCus CF • Automotive: South Korean firm Hyundai was awarded for its lightweight bumper beam developed with an innovative technology that incorporates
Composites skeletal reinforcements in the form of 3D-Tow into GMT (glass mat thermoplastic) structures • Civil Engineering: India-based Everlast Composites awarded for its 60-tonne load capacity composite manhole cover • Defence and Protection: Australian VCAMM awarded for its high curvature armour systems Composites in flight Infiniti Research has forecast that the global aerospace composites market could reach US$3.95 billion by 2016. The report attributes the growth to factors such as increased utllisation of composites in aircraft design. Although, demand from general aviation is gaining heights, certain regulatory requirements (on materials use) could also challenge the market. The increasing preference for composites in the aviation industry is due to the material’s comparable light weight and ease of assembly. Compared to traditional construction materials like steel, aluminium or titanium, composites have better stiffness and strength despite its light weight. Research specialist Freedonia, meanwhile, specifically forecasts that the increased production schedule for Boeing’s new 787 Dreamliner will drive the bulk of the growth in demand, while Lucintel said that the aerospace sector is expected to yield the strongest growth rate with Asia Pacific and the US driving future growths in this segment.
ASC Process specialises in autoclaves
JEC exhibitor US-based ASC Process Systems anchors in the exponential growth of the aerospace sector, having 80% of its customers in this sector. Paul Parsons, Managing Director, told PRA that the emerging markets are in Asia. “Here at JEC, we have a number of potential customers from Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, so we are here to meet with existing customers and to develop any new leads for new projects. In Asia, our China office covers the Asian market. There are lots Chinese suppliers here but we are looking for Indian visitors and those from Southeast Asia, from Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, which is an emerging market. The Japanese and US markets are already established so we are really looking at mostly the Southeast Asian markets,” he emphasised.
Parsons explained that the company is engaged in thermo process engineering with its autoclaves, which he likened to a pressurised oven or cooker. “What we do is basically more of heating and cooling of composites, which is curing the resin systems within time and temperature limits while controlling that process.” For composites in aerospace, he said that control in the heating and cooling is required to come up with a product that is strong. “Aerospace composites make use of autoclaving to construct parts that are under stress. Autoclave does heating and cooling under pressure. As the temperature rises and the resin becomes liquid, the autoclave process releases the air or gas bubbles to produce a product that is stronger,” he said. With the advent of the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner and A350 Airbus, which contain a high percentage of composites, the requirement for composites has increased dramatically along with the requirement for the processing of such composites, he added. Meanwhile, another JEC participant, the Association of Aerospace Industries (AAIS), a non-industry body dedicated to promoting competitiveness within Singapore's aerospace industry, also finds the sector turning upbeat. This is based on gauging foremost from the growing membership, which it expects to increase from the current 114 member companies to 130 in the near term, according to Thomas Kennedy, Interim Chief Executive of AAIS. Flaw-proof market Frost & Sullivan, in its latest study on composites, plots one segment that it projects to expand in the near term. While advanced composites are becoming a material of choice, safety and quality checks for the material creates a bottle neck for its continuous upsurge. According to the research group, while composites are increasingly utilised within the aerospace, automotive, oil and gas, and wind energy sectors, particularly in critical structural applications, where structural integrity is essential, composites also subject to scrutiny, since the material is susceptible to flaws. Non-destructive testing (NDT), which ranges from ultrasonic and radiography to thermography and shearography testing, detects the presence of internal irregularities in the composite material, without affecting its physical integrity and subsequent service. Frost & Sullivan says that safety regulations being imposed on composite applications are driving demand on
AGC Matex was awarded for its Fibre-Reinforced Plastics (FRP) solar power mounting frames and bases AUGUST 2013
Composites composite-focused NDT methods and inspection services. Nevertheless, the NDT segment is faced with lack of trained operators as well as limited knowledge about the structural complexity of composites, thus hindering market growth. Robotic systems, and software and hardware-based automation processes are currently being introduced and developed to fill in the scarcity as well as facilitate real-time damage detection in composites. German NDT firm Suragus, a JEC participant and awardee in the NDT catergory for its non-coupling NDT systems for carbon fibre products (dry fabrics and composites), uses electrical conductivity. “We call ourselves innovative, because the method we use is unlike any other NDTs,” claimed Richard Kupke, Project Manager. “We use these attributes to characterise fabrics as well as carbon fibre plastics so that gives us the unique advantage to already start early in the production chain to analyse whether the quality of the product is acceptable or not. Our method infuses electro magnetic fields into the material, then this is measured and some images are generated. These will show the distribution of the fibres and if there are gaps, misalignments or distortions,” he explained to PRA. Suragus’s distributor in Asia is Gala Science. It has offices in Singapore, Malaysia and Suragus supplies non-coupling NDT systems Indonesia. TPCs to drive the automotive sector The global thermoplastic composites (TPCs) market is expected to post a CAGR of 4.9% over the next five years (2013-2018), and reach an estimated US$8.2 billion in 2017, with the transportation segment as the its largest market, said Lucintel’s report. Again, TPCs exhibit properties that spell advantages to automotive manufacturers - weight and fuel savings as well as other high performance benefits. Costs (of the TPCs) remain to be a limiting factor for developing new applications, according to the report. First-time JEC exhibitor, Mitsubishi Engineering Plastics (MEP) showcased its continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastics at the show. The Reny Tape, a proprietary moulding compound based on mainly polyamide MXD6 that has been reinforced with glass fibre, carbon fibre or special minerals, could be applied as structural parts or a metal substitute for several applications, such as automotive, electronic/electrical, construction, machinery and sporting goods. Kazunobu Maruo, Marketing Manager for MEP, said that the participation at the JEC was to meet potential customers, as well as target automotive markets based in Europe, Japan and the US.
MEP was cited for its contribution in the new methodolgy of reinforcing columns and beams with carbon fibre
Energy/defence sectors emerging JEC also put the spotlight on the energy and defence sectors for composites applications. Australia-based Victorian Centre for Advanced Materials Manufacturing (VCAMM), was promoting Carbon Nexus, an R&D facility for carbon fibre materials, at the show. Brad Dunstan, CEO for VCAMM and adjunct professor for Carbon Nexus at Deakin University in Australia (which is developing the facility), said that the A$34 million facility for carbon fibre research is now complete and has been handed over to Despatch Industries and Furnace Engineeering for the installation and commissioning of the 20-tonne/year carbon fibre line. He also said that the centre will soon incorporate a single-tow research line in addition to a range of fully equipped research laboratories. Meanwhile, at JEC, VCAMM signed an MOU with MAI Carbon from Germany, aimed at working together to explore ways to improve international collaboration to meet the global challenges for the mass production of carbon fibre composites. In other news, JEC’s special Japanese Innovation awardee AGC Matex, awarded for its fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) solar power mounting frames and bases, displayed its FRP products at the show. Managing Director Koshiro Hayashi said the firm is strengthening its presence in the Southeast Asian markets, having already established a base in Japan as well as in Thailand where the company also has a factory. The company makes tubes to protect power cables and optic fibres. This Japan-developed technology is made using its pultruded FRP material PLALLOY. “Our products’ core characteristics are strength and durability,” said Hayashi, adding that while the company is optimistic of market prospects for its products, it is currently focusing on Japan, Vietnam and Thailand as its main targets. The high curvature armour system from VCAMM
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朗盛赫倫工廠的 Keltan EPDM 合成橡膠的最 大生產線已經採用 ACE技術。該生產線的年 產能是 9 萬 5 千噸 AUGUST 2013
Vehicle fuel efficiency begins at the design stage Today, there are about 900 million cars in operation worldwide. By 2050, there will be an estimate of 1.7-2.7 billion cars on the road. One of the main concerns brought about by the global megatrend of mobility is that of increasing pollution levels and its resultant harm on our environment. Dr Christof Krogmann, Vice President, Asia Pacific, High Performance Materials business unit, Lanxess, offers insights on how lightweight design in automobiles enables green mobility.
Dr Christof Krogmann says that just like marathon runners, automakers have to ensure that the weight of a car is kept to a minimum for lower fuel consumption
The weight of a car has a direct relationship with fuel consumption levels since the greater the mass of the car, the more fuel is required to power the vehicle
he weight of our cars has a direct relationship with fuel consumption levels – the greater the mass of the car, the more fuel required to power the vehicle. This is a worrying trend as fossil fuels are depleting. In 1959, a Mini Cooper weighed 650 kg. Today, a new model weighs in at over 1,000 kg. With expanding safety requirements and new drivetrain concepts such as electro-mobility further adding to the weight of vehicles, it is time to start cutting down the weight efficiently. Getting weighed down A rule of thumb when it comes to fuel efficiency is that a reduction of 100 kg in weight of a mid-range car can mean savings of 0.5 l of fuel over a distance of 100 km and 11.65 g less CO2 per km travelled (Green mobility – a comparison of measures for reducing CO2 emissions by Prof. Dr. Horst Wildemann, Munich Technical University). Just like marathon runners, the name of the game for automakers is therefore to ensure that weight is kept to a minimum. Increasing demands for comfort and safety cause the average weight of vehicles to spiral upwards. New drive concepts such as electric cars also add on to the weight of vehicles with battery packs. Lightweight design compensates for the negative consequences of new drive concepts and enables better adherence to safety regulations. Lighter materials that reduce the proportion of metal in vehicles also reduce overall weight. A lightweight design ensures that cars remain economical yet safe. Without lightweight design, modern mobility would be unthinkable. Lighter cars increase fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, thereby contributing to “Greener Mobility”.
Automotive Cutting down where it matters Weight reduction has to be implemented for the smallest of automobile parts to achieve overall weight loss. Lanxess’s expertise in thermoplastic lightweight construction solutions builds in part on the plastic/ metal hybrid technology used to fabricate, for example, front ends, brake pedals and pedal brackets. Hybrid components are usually 20 to 30% lighter than their pure steel counterparts while offering the same performance. This is achieved by combining the specific benefits of lightweight plastic with the strength of metals such as sheet steel and aluminium. This plastic/metal hybrid technology, along with many other innovative solutions from Lanxess, has been successfully implemented by leading automakers like, Audi BMW, and many more, to shed the pounds in parts such as: • The world’s first polyamide brake pedal reinforced with continuous glass fibres is approximately 50% lighter than comparable steel brake pedals, yet is equally strong, mechanically • Roof frames are 30% lighter when made with hybrid technology, and cost around 20% less than their metal counterparts • Hybrid front ends made in plastic/metal composite technology can reduce weight from 10-40% • The use of high-tech plastics for structural components of the chassis, such as the steering rod, offers weight savings, cost-effectiveness and reliability • Passenger airbag housing weight can be reduced by roughly one-third, compared to a conventional injection moulded design without compromising on stiffness or strength • Cross-car beams with a hybrid construction provide substantial benefits, enabling cable and air ducts or brackets for the steering column to be easily integrated • The engine oil pan made from polyamide 66 weighs around a kg less than a steel component solution and is also around 50% lighter than an aluminium version
Passenger airbag housing weight can be reduced by roughly one-third compared to a conventional injection moulded design
Hybrid front ends made using the plastic/metal composite technology can reduce the weight by up to 40%
Sealing the deal with CAE and application testing The actual development of an improved automotive part typically takes up to five years from the time of material introduction, through simulation and prototype production/ testing to mass production. Apart from being able to collaborate and innovate lightweight construction with hybrid technology, predicting component behaviour is equally important. This gives manufacturers greater insight and better decision-making capabilities as to which materials to put through the simulation and testing process in the first place. Being able to efficiently test the feasibility and durability of materials used in automotive parts are equally important. These services are part of HiAnt, our competence brand under which we have pooled our expertise in materials, design, simulation and process engineering. The customer service associated with HiAnt includes material selection support, manufacturing cost estimation, CAE (computeraided engineering) calculations, mould filling, warpage (dimensional distortion in a plastic object after moulding) minimisation, mould construction, component testing and assistance in starting up full-scale production. With innovative technologies such as HiAnt, Lanxess is able to develop high precision design of structural components using the most modern CAE tools, for various developments integrative simulation. Key material data can be determined for important load scenarios for thermoplastic materials such as fatigue, crash and creep (the deformation of a material that occurs over time due to the presence of a constant load). Hence, at Lanxess test centres, we are able to simulate the different environments and scenarios automotive parts will be exposed to. Tests can be carried out in climatic chambers where temperature and humidity levels can be altered to simulate conditions in which automotive parts will be exposed to. Moving on to greener pastures Mobility in the future needs to be more sustainable and with lesser consumption of resources than it is today. Individuals need to be aware of the impact they are having on their own environment and make conscious efforts to ensure they have sustainable mobility. Manufacturing companies are starting to take steps to develop materials and technology to enable lightweight designs to increase the fuel efficiency of vehicles. This is testament to the increasing awareness of the benefits of cost savings and environmental sustainability that is possible with lightweight design and green mobility. AUGUST 2013
High demand in the pipeline Research firm Freedonia, in its latest report, unfurls a bright forecast for the 7.5 billion m world plastic pipe industry, which will increase 6.2% to 23 million tonnes/year by 2017, driven by growing development in Asia, says Angelica Buan in this report.
BASF will launch new Ultramid grades at the K show
Construction/Asia to drive the growth Freedonia’s report points at construction applications as a major growth driver, which is also akin to gains from the recovering US construction industry. Based on the low-cost, easy installation and performance, preference for plastic pipes has increased against materials made of steel, copper or ductile iron, that are traditionally used in construction applications. UK-headquartered consultancy Timetric also indicated a revenue spur in the global construction industry this year to the next, in its updated industry forecast. It said that India’ s rising infrastructure development in housing, roads, ports, aerospace and energy makes the country a key emerging market for the construction sector. Other countries such as Brazil, UAE, China and Saudi Arabia are also identified in the report as growth potential markets for 2014, whilst the US, Singapore, Australia and the UK as primary growth markets. However, France, Italy and Spain are expected to show weak performance in this segment. Market research institute Ceresana, in its 2012 report, points to the cable protection and agriculture sectors as additional growth drivers for plastic pipes. Forecasting total global revenues of more than US$80 billion in 2019 for the pipe industry, Ceresana sees Asia Pacific as a key sales market for plastic pipes, with the region accounting for more than half of the total global demand and increasing to 60% by 2019. Meanwhile, Beijing-based ResearchInChina, in its 20122015 industry report maintains that China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of plastic pipes. The country’s output reached 10 million tonnes in 2011, with year-on-year increase of 19%. PVC tops the materials list Material wise, PVC is the most widely used resin, accounting for 55% of the entire plastic pipe demand, according to the Freedonia report. Ceresana said that various types of pipes are used depending on requirements such as PVC, which is comparably cheaper and used widely in the sewage, potable water and cable protection applications. While PVC reigns supreme for now, it is just a matter of time that HDPE will overtake PVC in potable water distribution applications and as crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) becomes more common in many regional markets, said Freedonia. HDPE pipes with improved resin formulations are also finding growing usage in the oil and gas segments, where exploratory, well drilling and pipeline construction activities are generating increased consumption of pipes. Soon to gain importance are PP, PE, PB-1, PA and ABS for ceiling cooling, compressed air systems, heating installations as well as automobiles and naval vessels.
Pipes/profiles ResearchInChina said that PVC accounts for 55% of the total output in China, making the country, the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest producer and consumer of PVC pipes. However, environment-related policies are creating a market shift in favour of PE and PP pipe market growth in the country. Nylon grades for oil/gas pipes Since German chemicals firm BASF introduced the first glass fibre-reinforced PA610 injection moulding grades of Ultramid S Balance at the K2010 show, the material has found use in numerous applications. Because of the current demand in the market, BASF has decided to expand its portfolio. At the K2013, it will introduce two unreinforced flexible grades, Ultramid S4Z5 Balance and Ultramid S4Z4 XS Balance, that are suitable for extrusion of pipe and tubing intended for use specifically in the automotive and machinery sectors as well as for oil and gas lines. The two long-chain polyamide compounds are characterised by low moisture uptake, good resistance to chemicals and stress cracking as well as low-temperature impact strength. They will be available in sample quantities as of November 2013. Seismic reinforcement and trenchless technique for water pipes The world has re-learned its lessons on earthquake proofing (and retrofitting) structures after the fatality magnitude of the Haiti quake that hit the headlines in 2010, followed by the huge quakes in Japan, China and Indonesia in 2011. Materials that exhibit flexibility as well as resistance to surface damage are gaining preference. New seismic PE pipes exhibit such flexibility and even when dislocated, the pipes, because they bend and thrust with movements, will not be easily damaged. As such, the US state agency, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is embarking on a US$4 million project that will install an HDPE piping technology used in New Zealand to safeguard the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water supply, which crosses the San Andreas earthquake fault line. This move could mitigate water supply disruption should an earthquake occur. Meanwhile, a global marketing partnership between Dow Chemical and Switzerland-based trenchless technology supplier RS Technik is promoting a solution for self-renewing pressure pipes. Co-operating with US-based Inland Pipe Rehabilitation, the companies will be marketing their NSF/ANSI 61-certifiied pipe-in-pipe system. The trenchless RS BlueLine pipe renewal technology from RS Technik consists of a fibreglass composite tube, made using Dow custom-formulated resin, which is installed in damaged water and transmission mains. A new pipe is created inside the existing pipe by means of cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology. This saves time and money over the usual option of excavation and full replacement. RS BlueLine is certified to NSF/ANSI 61 by NSF International, the independent global public health
RS BlueLine is a cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) system for the renovation of pressure pipe systems
and safety certification organisation, and German DVGW regulation W270. This means it can be used in the renewal of all potable water pipes, including drinking water distribution mains and transmission lines from 150 mm to 1.2 m diameters. The static ability of the system can carry a long-term inner pressure up to 16 bars without the support of the existing pipe, and replaces the existing pipe with all its functions. The first project started in Canada in June, followed by a large installation project in the US. Other large projects are being executed in Brazil and Singapore, following the successful introduction of the product in the last two years in Central and Eastern Europe. Green extrusion line In a recent open house, Austrian machine maker Battenfeld-Cincinnati demonstrated, jointly with Denmarkbased Labotek and Middle East materials maker SABIC, 30% energy reduction with its latest-generation PO pipe extrusion line. The firm claims that with a production time of 7,000 hours/year, about EUR300,000 can be saved in electricity costs alone. The co-extrusion line shown was producing a twolayer pipe for pressure pipe applications, which reached an output of 750 kg/hour and a line speed of 0.93 m/minute. Battenfeld-Cincinnati will introduce the gearless single-screw extruder at the K show
At its recent open house, Battenfeld-Cincinnati displayed a line that saves 30% energy
Battenfeld-Cincinnati has revised its helix VSI-T pipe dies, with a special focus on energy consumption. The core component is a cooling basket installed between the spiral mandrel and the lattice basket. The EAC internal cooling system blows in cold air for internal pipe cooling and subsequently transfers the heated air to the Labotek material drying system. This internal pipe cooling system also improves pipe quality; the sagging effect (uneven wall thickness distribution) is significantly reduced especially in large-diameter pipes, says the firm. The third component contributing to the overall energy
ndian extrusion machinery maker Rajoo Engineers entered into an equal equity joint venture with Italy-based pipe machinery maker Bausano in 2010 to manufacture and market pipe/profile extrusion lines in India, with special emphasis on the African, Gulf and SAARC markets. PRA spoke to Sandip Bhuva, CEO of Rajoo-Bausano Extrusion Sandip Bhuva, CEO of Rajoo (RBE) to get an update of the Bausano Extrusion firm’s progress in the market. PRA: Provide an update on RBE. Sandip: We recently successfully commissioned CPVC and RPVC pipe lines both in the Indian and overseas markets. Some of the features of the supplied lines are parallel screw, 30 L/D, multi-drive, screw thermocontrol unit, load cell for back pressure and many more. The lines are targeted for SWR pipes, column pipes, sewage & drainage pipes, pressure pipes and hot & cold water pipes. We also had a live demonstration of a CPVC pipe plant, high output RPVC pipe plant and round drip irrigation line in India’s first ever multi-product open house held in February 2013 in Rajkot. Over 180 professionals from
savings is the Green Pipe downstream equipment with its “green cooling” system. It operates with frequencycontrolled vacuum and water pumps. This cooling system also operates with a water volume flow cut by almost 90%. This is achieved by pumping the cooling water into the last tank and then passing it on from one tank to the next in the opposite direction to the extrusion process. Meanwhile Labotek, jointly with Battenfeld-Cincinnati, has developed an EAC variant of its combination dryer, which was shown with the line. The drying system operates with two separate drying zones. The hot air drawn from the pipe die is blown into the top zone. The bottom zone is laid out as a conventional drying zone with a dry air drying system to ensure the necessary degree of dryness for the material. The dryer is said to consume 11 kW for drying 1,500 kg/hour of granulate, compared to conventional dryers that need 92 kW, resulting in energy savings of up to 89%, according to the firm. SABIC has developed a new PE compound Vestolen A-Rely 5924 R 10.000, which it says, compared to a conventional type of PE-100, requires less energy for melting and processing in an extruder. Meanwhile, at the K2013, Battenfeld-Cincinnati will introduce the gearless GL version of its solEX extruder series. It features a new drive system that consists of a high-torque motor, with claimed higher energy efficiency compared to the motor-drive combination used so far. Other benefits are a low noise operation and vibration levels and a compact footprint (with no gearbox).
90-plus companies, both within and outside India, attended this. Some of the major breakthroughs achieved this year: We exported India’s first ever RPVC pipe line (with an outer diameter of 500 mm and 1,100 kg/hour output) to Africa; exported a high output CPVC pipe plant to Bangladesh and launched machinery for PVC granulation/compounding, UPVC and WPC profiles. PRA: In an interview in 2011, RBE forecast a growth in demand for pipes in the Indian industry. Sandip: The pipe and agriculture markets in India are growing at a healthy rate. The government continues to give a boost to the infrastructure sector, which is the major end segment for pipes. The growth in the pipe sector for the financial year 2012/2013 was 14%, which is more than double the GDP of the country and thus is encouraging. In an economy of 1.2 billion people, water distribution, irrigation and the housing sectors are going to increase exponentially as the country progresses. PRA: Early this year, RBE launched a machine that produces the widest PVC pipe in India. Has it taken off in the Indian market? Sandip: More than 100 Indian prospects witnessed the first ever live demonstration of India’s widest PVC pipe
Pipes/profiles plant at RBE, thus firmly establishing RBE’s foothold and technological superiority. It was sold to South Africa. The major applications of such pipes are in sewage, drainage, gravity and pressure water mains, irrigation and industrial pipeline systems and we expect it to take off in India since PVC pipes in sewage and drainage sector are growing rapidly. PRA: Provide an update on the new flat pipe manufacturing unit for drip irrigation line. Sandip: Three flat drip irrigation lines are already in production based on the confirmed orders from yet un-named Indian customers. They will be ready for trials at the end of September. The maximum line speed of the machine is 150 mpm and output is 270 kg/hour, which once again will be the first time in the country.
PRA: What are the features of RBE’s machines? Sandip: RBE machines are fully built with Bausano’s design technologies. The lines are incorporated with a multi-drive system, longer L/D ratio, screw thermocontrol unit, load cell to measure back pressure, safety system, touch screen control panel for complete plant with PLC, unique die design for single and double exit, vacuum sizing tank with calibrator, double chamber vacuum tank, multi-track haul-off with long contact length. Other features like online power measuring system, special coating on screw, automatic diameter and thickness control system, online belling system can also be incorporated. Basically, its world class technological products at affordable price levels. PRA: What is RBE’s future outlook for the industry?
PRA: How is the market for the wood plastic composites in India? Sandip: Wood plastic composite boards/panels/sheets find uses in doors, kitchen cabinets and other furniture and are replacing MDF, plywood, solid wood and particle boards in India. WPC decking and profiles are upcoming markets in India. RBE is ready for this market since our partner, Bausano of Italy, is already well established in this business.
Sandip: We expect the growth in PVC pipe and profiles will continue; the increase in the acceptance of UPVC profile and WPC products by Indian builders/ architects will boost the market. The building and construction sector has a demand potential of 730 kilotonnes/year for PVC products and there is a huge potential in water, irrigation sector and housing sectors. Furthermore, Bausano has a strong presence in Asia, which will be beneficial for RBE.
Going around the Green Wall of China If you think segregating household scraps in colour-coded bins is enough to give breathing space to the environment’s congested landfills, think again. The plastic scraps travel a long and tedious journey from the source to the recyclers. And to complicate things further, the scraps are now labelled, graded (low or high) and politicised, says Angelica Buan in this report.
Experts view China's Green Fence Operation as a greater opportunity for legitimate recyclers, domestic growth and less waste generated
orting plastics waste is not the end all and be all in saving Mother Earth and ultimately, in a breeze attempt to cork that gaping hole in the ozone layer. Keeping the increasing tonnage of plastic waste at bay requires sound infrastructure and facilities to recycle more than what would end up in landfills or clog the drains. Too many countries, from the emerging to matured economies, are faced with deficient solid waste management practices, even on a municipal level. On a global scale, the plastic waste route from source to recyclers is bottlenecked. For instance, China has put up a “green fence” to keep out “low grade” post consumer plastics from countries like the US and UK. Keeping the lid on in China China’s Operation Green Fence (OGF), launched in February this year, requires that import/export of wastes are checked for quality, public and environment safety. Authorities may also bar noncompliant low grade waste from entering the country, especially waste that is unlawfully imported. The policy also ensures parallel monitoring of landfills and locally generated waste and contaminated materials (coming from local waste collectors and recycling facilities that mix plastics with other materials in one container, and henceforth contaminate the bales). China is inundated with its own post-consumer waste, hence it refuses to open its gates wider to more trash. It is also mulling over refusing unwashed plastic scraps. In Hong Kong, some 843,000 tonnes of plastic waste was collected in 2011; 99.5% of this was exported to China and Vietnam for recycling. This was stated in a Hong Kong waste reduction report, which also spelt out factors that constrain plastic waste recovery, such as comparably high land and labour costs, lack of financial incentives to reduce waste and space limitations. The report said that contaminated plastic waste, when co-mingled with household waste, results in a higher cost of cleaning and lowers the market value. China has created a strong domestic recycling infrastructure to support its spiralling demand, creating a worldwide network of brokers constantly seeking scrap and waste streams to sell to Chinese processors. The country, thus, has become a major destination for the world’s plastic scraps from the US, Japan, Germany, and the UK. For instance, the UK ships around 100 containers/ day of recovered plastics to China, according to the British Plastics Federation (BPF), which is promoting the use of recycled plastics in domestic manufacturing. London-based information provider CBI China anticipates recovered plastic demand in China to surge to 29 million tonnes by 2015. China’s five-year plan inculcates that the country’s environmental protection sector, focusing on recycling and energy-saving, should be given serious attention. According to the UK-based Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP)’s 2011 market report, China’s packaging sector accounts for more than 40% of the recovered plastics demand that is channelled to making PET bottles and bags (PP, rPET, rPE). This was followed by the construction sector, which drives 20% demand for 70%-recycled content of rPVC, PE, rPP in pipes; and rEPS/rPS boards. Newer applications have emerged such as wood-plastic and aluminum composites, which contain recycled tPE and rPP.
Recycling US and Europe still lead in recycling The global demand for recovered plastics is likely to increase three-fold to 85 million tonnes by 2020, according to the Belgium-based Bureau of International Recycling (BIR)’s Plastics Committee. In the US, there are more than 1,800 businesses engaged in recycling post-consumer plastics. According to data from the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), the value of plastic scrap exports was over US$1 billion in 2011. Full year shipments in 2011 went up by 4% over the previous year and volume increased 4% to 2.1 million tonnes. The top destinations were China (US$547 million), Hong Kong (US$240 million), Canada (US$94 million), India (US$48 million) and Mexico (US$17 million), according to ISRI. Meanwhile, Mike Biddle, Founder of American recycling firm MBA Polymers, which operates a recycling facility in Guangzhou focused on recovering electrical/electronic equipment waste, says that if developed nations continue to export recyclables to countries such as China, this reduces domestic recycling and associated job opportunities. It also lowers the availability of affordable recycled materials for domestic manufacturers. MBA Polymers compounds and pelletises the recovered plastics to be used for various purposes
MBA Polymers views the US market as a pot of gold and hence will set up a pilotscale 43,000 sq ft plant, whilst relocating its R&D facility from California to the UK, where it says it operates the world’s largest and most advanced recycling facility of post-consumer plastics at Worksop, Nottinghamshire. The £30 million plant has a capacity of up to 80,000 tonnes/year. Accounting for around 50% of the global share of waste and recycling industries is the European region, with 50,000 facilities, according to the European Commission (EC), which also says there are challenges, such as “barriers to market development”. Janez Potoˆcnik, European Commissioner for the Environment says legislation has been a driving force in catalysing competition to recycle waste and waste reduction in Europe. Although some countries are blazing a trail in recycling, including Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany, around nine EU countries are lagging behind and still landfilling more than 75% of their waste. For instance, in the UK, some 40% of household waste is now being recycled, according to the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), yet in 2012 it was reported that 240,000 tonnes of plastic bottles were sent to landfills by UK households with access to kerbside plastic recycling collection. Challenges to recycling in Asia Pakistan, another recycling hub, is also wrestling against
the influx of sub-standard plastic scraps. Over the past three years, the country has reportedly imported more than 110,000 tonnes of waste amidst the absence of a sound recycling infrastructure and monitoring capability. This practice is allegedly putting at risk the health and safety of residents in areas where the scraps are stored in traditional set-ups. With the lack of safeguarding equipment, the recycling process employed also exposes the public to toxic substances such as lead, benzene and hydrocarbons, especially during the chipping and melting of the plastic waste. Although the country has a regulatory policy on importing plastic scrap, this is generally ignored. Moreover, the recycling standard requirement for plastic wastes to be sorted (into PET, HDPE and others), washed (to rid of contaminants) and pelletising before re-using is not followed, not to mention the violation of national and global standards prohibiting the use of imported scraps for the manufacture of pressure pipes. Meanwhile, India’s recycling industry is also growing vertically with 2 million tonnes/year of plastics being recycled. Gujarat recycles nearly 25% of the country’s total plastics waste, according to research firm Recycle Trade India. The Centre for Bio-Polymer Science and Technology (CIPET) is also opening an incubation centre to provide training in plastics recycling. Bangladesh’s plastics industry, which is forecast by the United Nations’s Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to generate a turnover of US$4 billion/ year by 2020, has yet to strengthen its infrastructure, waste management and skills development. But nevertheless, although the country only boasts a 2 kg per capita consumption of plastics (compared to the world average of 80 kg), it has major recycling centres in the capital city of Dhaka, as well as around 300 small recycling facilities with capacities of about 138 tonnes/day. Vietnam dumps 50,000 tonnes/year of plastic waste, says the country’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s Pollution Control Department. Ho Chi Minh City produces 7,000 tonnes/day of rubbish, of which 70-80 tonnes comprise plastic waste. As such, Hanoi-based waste treatment Urban Environment Company (URENCO) has hatched a project for recycling plastic bags into fuel oil. With its two incinerators, it has a total capacity of 15 tonnes/day and has produced 6,000 litres of fuel oil. The company plans to install ten more incinerators by year end to increase capacity to 75 tonnes/day. Where recycling fails Apart from infrastructure deficiency, material design can also limit recyclability of materials, according to the European plastic recycling association Plastic Recyclers Europe. Plastic packaging, for example, is required to be designed responsibly, says UK-based Recycling Of Used Plastics (Recoup), an authority on plastics waste management. Recoup has published recently the “Recyclability by Design” guide. It covers all forms of rigid plastic packaging including plastic bottles and rigid plastic containers, which must be recyclable at the end of life. Meanwhile, the UK government has listed a few pointers for designers of packaging, starting with a reminder to follow environmental regulations when designing. These include using at least 50% of organic materials that are able to be burnt and a balanced combination of recyclable materials and polymers. AUGUST 2013
Market edge is in the bag Since it started in 2005, Austria-based Bag Solutions Worldwide (BSW) has manufactured and developed machinery for the production of flexible packaging made of woven PP in Prostejov (Czech Republic), whereas the head office, sales, service and R&D are located in Vienna, Austria. Now, it is on a mission, which is to expand its markets in Asia.
BSW’s new factory building with increased space was inaugurated in May this year
Flexibility in purpose Staying true to being versatile, woven sacks made from PP material are a preferred packaging solution for handling and transporting industrial and consumer-related bulk solids – even under the toughest environmental conditions, according to BSW, a member of German machinery group of Windmöller & Hölscher (W&H). BSW makes a wide range of machines, either in single groups or complete units, for the production of block bottom valve bags known as AD proTex bags, raffia bags and FIBC´s. Growing in Asia In 2010, BSW established a regional office in Malaysia, sited in the premises of its local agent Rieckermann Malaysia, and together with the Bangkok-headquartered office of W&H the ASEAN market is covered. “Demand for BSW’s machines is increasing year by year in Asia Pacific and China. The two countries that have acquired the highest number of our machines are Indonesia and Thailand,” said Regional Sales Manager René Winkler, who covers sales in Asia Pacific and China. He said that 2012 was the best year in the history of the W&H group in Asia “because it hit an order intake worth René Winkler EUR100 million.” says that due to the good order “The close cooperation of BSW and W&H is a big benefit situation, BSW for all our clients, as flexible packaging is our world, while has increased extrusion, printing and conversion are our passion,” he said. its production Included in the W&H group range are woven bag capacity processing machines; and W&H’s film processing machines (blown/cast film lines); paper converting machines, and FFS packaging systems; as well as both firms’ offerings that include, flexographic and gravure printing presses and surface finishing machines. New gateway for more output Early this year, BSW expanded its 8,000 sq m-Prostejov operations with a second factory. The new building has a 5,000 sq m floor space and 1,000 sq m office space that accommodate increased volume of assembly work, a visitor centre and a fully equipped woven sack technology centre. The opening of the facility coincided with an in-house exhibition of the latest range of BSW machines and applications, which was attended by 120 visitors from 24 countries. “W&H developed the first pinch bottomer called AD Converpinch for coated woven PP with sealable film, instead of glue, which saves on expensive glue costs,” shared Winkler. Winkler also said that the production of AD proTex bags (block bottom valve bag) is also increasing. “This also means that the number of W&H converTex machines being bought across Asia is increasing every year.” Other updates showcased at the open house are as follows. At the new facility, the entire spectrum of woven sack machinery can be tested.
Corporate Profile • AD nowoTex: a newly developed 2 ply block bottom valve bag, produced with a patented adhesive-free production process. Advantages for this bag can be compared with BSW’s well known AD proTex bag, adding on longer shelf life time and better stacking capability. • tiraTex 1600 tape stretching line and a new generation filaTex winder with working speed up to 530 m/minute. • EcoTex 1600 extrusion coating line. • ecoTex LC: a coex coating/ lamination machine for tubular and flat woven fabrics with a working speed up to 250 m/ minute. It is especially designed to produce coated fabric and high-quality laminates of woven-fabric with BOPP film or other materials. A number of ecoTex machines have been sold already to the ASEAN market, said Winkler. • W&H AD CONVERTEX SL100 conversion line that produces up to 100 AD proTex block-bottom valve bags/ minute with a patented adhesive-free production process. • advanTex circular looms that include advanTex CL, which is designed for the production of AD proTex cement bags, advanTex 1200, and advanTex 2250 suitable for producing fabric used for various kinds of bags as well as technical fabrics. • servoTex 6C six-colour roll-to-roll flexographic printing machine designed to print PP- circular-woven or flat fabric, coated or uncoated, with up to six colours on both sides in one single process step. • POLYTEX tuber, which is suitable for single ply coated woven PP applications. According to Winkler, the modular design of this high end tubing machine enables an upgrading to 2-ply flat tube (outer ply woven fabricinner ply paper), as well as tubing of films. Using an optional, integrated laser perforation unit, the POLYTEX tuber is also part of the production process for the new developed AD Converpinch bag. The AD Converpinch for coated woven PP uses sealable film, instead of glue
Essential markets for PP sacks According to BSW, the high durability of the PP material combines optimal protection with minimal resource consumption. “Only 80 g of PP is required to produce a sack strong enough to transport 50 kg of cement from the manufacturer to the consumer,” says Winkler. The cement industry is a major consumer for the woven sacks that feature robust cross bottom valve bags made from coated PP woven fabrics. Using existing packers, they are as easy to fill as traditional paper bags, according to Winkler. Pinch sacks made from high-quality printed and BOPP laminated woven fabrics are used for industrial and pet food packaging due to their good optical properties and unmatched durability. Working alongside BSW, W&H has contributed key developments to the machinery side of this evolving market, adds Winkler.
Since the production of AD proTex bags is increasing, the number of W&H converTex machines being bought across Asia is also on the rise
New sealing technique The development of joining woven fabrics using hot air instead of glue has ushered in new applications, said Winkler. With laser perforation, the company has initiated the production of sophisticated woven sack structures based on stepped-end tubes. “Both BSW and W&H complement in their work to innovating woven sack production process and outcomes,” he adds. While BSW specialises in systems for fabric manufacturing and finishing, W&H contributes its know-how in the design of converting machinery. Amongst BSW’s clients is Cherat Packaging (CPL) in Pakistan that relies on the group’s combined expertise to sustain its reputation of being the country’s largest producer of multiwall paper sacks. Its current capacity runs to an estimated 265 million pieces/year. According to CPL, it started production of hot air-sealed PP valve bags in early 2010, in an aggressive bid to serve the requirements of a group-owned cement plant located in Nowshera, near Peshawar. “For this project, we were looking for not just a supplier of the machinery, but for a strategic partner. Our goal from the beginning was to play a leading role in the PP woven sack market in Pakistan, just as we do in the paper bag side,” said Amer Faruque, CEO of CPL. The project has come a long way since then, kicking off further in mid-2011 when W&H and BSW supplied the factory with equipment. Included are a TiraTex 1600 tape stretching line, a number of AdvanTex circular looms, an EcoTex 1600 extrusion coating line as well as two ConverTex SL valve bottomers, ensuing a busy full production plant that delivered its first AD proTex bags by the end of the year. CPL said that it has been able to top the output of 200,000 bags/day with the quality of the tapes and fabrics. Consequently, the company has become a showroom for the AD proTex cement bag production and is undertaking a feasibility exercise to expand the facility.
EcoTex 1600 extrusion coating line AUGUST 2013
Injection Moulding Asia Industry News
process gives a smoother filling, reducing hesitations and sharp changes in velocity.
Engel sets up subsidiary in Thailand
ustrian injection moulding machine maker Engel is placing its confidence in Southeast Asia with the recent set up of a subsidiary company in Thailand, said Gilles Lefevre, Managing Director, Engel Machinery (Thailand). Speaking at a recent open house organised jointly by Italy-based process cooling equipment supplier Frigel and Engel, Gilles said the firm has a complete organisation in Asia. “We have two subsidiaries now, in Singapore and Thailand, to manage the business in Asia.” Previously, Engel operated a representative office in Thailand. The decision to set up the fully owned subsidiary in Thailand is to “support customers in the region”, said Gilles. Further support is provided by four process engineers, dedicated to the packaging market, he added. “We will add on a technical sales engineer by September along with three service engineers as the market is growing. And by September also, we will have a host of spare parts supply in Thailand,” he elaborated further. In Indonesia, Engel is represented by Adijaya Buansantosa, an association the firm has had since 2012, while in the Philippines its agent is C Melchers and in Vietnam, Nhat Viet Technology. “The Asian area generated 18% of the total turnover last year. The market share in Asia based on this turnover is 5%
Altanium family expanded with controller
Gilles Lefevre says the company now has a complete set up in Asia
Husky Injection Molding Systems has a new addition to its family of hot runner temperature controllers with the launch of Altanium Delta3. Bridging the gap between the functionality of the existing Neo2 and Matrix controllers, Delta3 offers an integrated, intelligent platform for two to 128 zones of control and helps customers achieve increased part quality and improved uptime. Delta3 is equipped with a variety of enhanced features such as an improved, highly intuitive navigation method coupled with a large, full colour touchscreen to shorten the learning curve for new users. Automatic storage and recall of set-ups ensure the same processing parameters are used for a mould without operator intervention. Multilingual support increases user adoption while historical event auditing and enhanced process monitoring enables faster troubleshooting. Delta3 has advanced monitoring capability to further eliminate the risk of bad parts entering the downstream process. Integrated mould protection prevents material degradation and addresses issues before part quality is compromised to decrease downtime and reduce risk during operation. Meanwhile, real-time
and this is the reason why we are making attempts to provide a proper infrastructure and support for our machine sales.” In terms of sector growth, the firm views strong growth in the packaging sector, especially in Indonesia, as well as in the automotive sector, which partakes 40% of its global business.
New valve gating system
S-headquartered hot runner maker Synventive Molding Solutions has introduced the SynFlow two-speed sequential valve gating system. The technology gives moulders more control over plastic flow and solves common defect problems on large parts, such as automotive bumpers and instrument panels. These include pressure alteration marks, opposite direct gating marks, sink marks after coating and reduced adhesion of finishes. SynFlow is a pin control system for cascade or sequential valve-gated hot runner systems. The initial opening speed of the valve pin is reduced to prevent an explosive rush of pressurised plastic. The valve pin then opens for the remainder of its stroke, at maximum speed to fill the part. That two-speed
power deviation monitoring enables Delta3 to automatically detect signs of plastic leakage and impending heater failure, mitigating damage to the mould. In addition, Delta3 has been designed on a platform that supports network connectivity and closer integration with other Husky products for a more complete system, including remote monitoring capabilities using the Altanium dashboard application.
Micro machine for high volumes
anadian Mold Hotrunner Solutions has launched the M3 micro injection machine, capable of producing 32-cavity precision runnerless parts. Optimised for cleanroom production, the M3 is a tiebar-less machine with a clamp force of 4 tonnes. It uses four modular inserts, each containing eight micro cavities, which the company says completely does away with the traditional injection mould structure. The inserts use the same parameters as the prototype moulding process and simplifies mould design. Up to eight different part designs can be injected in each cycle, allowing a 5-second cycle time with shot weights less than 10 mg. Gating to smaller subrunners can increase each cycle yield to 128 cavities.
MHS’s new micromoulding machine
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Injection Moulding Asia Automotive
First composite parts plus application service German chemicals firm BASF has entered the
The second component of the Ultracom package consists of the overmoulding materials that have been developed specifically for use with these laminates. These materials are also from the Ultramid and Ultradur product lines, this time in the form of compounds. By using them in combination with the laminates and tapes, it is possible to injection mould complex parts that have very high mechanical reinforcement by use of continuous fibres at precisely defined locations, while simultaneously incorporating specific functions as the result of overmoulding.
market of composite semi-finished parts for the automotive sector. In this presentation by Dr Andreas Wollny, Marketing Lightweight Composites, Engineering Plastics Europe, he explains the complete Ultracom service package BASF has developed for composite parts.
First commercial Ultracom packages t the K2013, BASF will showcase the first commercial Ultracom product packages. For customer projects requiring parts of high stiffness, the package consists of an Ultralaminate based on polyamide 6 (or an Ultratape if highly directed reinforcements are needed) in combination with Ultramid G12 COM with 60% glass fibre reinforcement as an overmoulding compound.
he weight saving trend in the automotive sector is becoming increasingly important as the year 2020 approaches â&#x20AC;&#x201C; this is when the CO2 emissions of European automobile manufacturers must comply with significantly more stringent requirements. Thermoplastic materials, with both short and long fibre reinforcement, have made a major contribution to lightweighting today, replacing innumerable metal production components. In the meantime, these plastic components and materials are starting to reach their limits. The next big advance in metal substitution in vehicle construction will succeed only with a technological leap, namely, using continuous-fibre reinforcement of injection moulded structures, ie. with thermoplastic composites. Once fully established, thermoplastic and thermoset composites will account for a market volume of about EUR2 billion in the long term. New line of semi-finished laminate and tape products or this reason, BASF is now expanding its activities in the field of engineering plastics to include Ultracom. This is a package comprising continuous fibre reinforced semi-finished products, adapted overmoulding compounds and the complementing engineering support. The key innovations in this new approach are laminates based on woven fabrics and unidirectional (UD) tapes that are fully impregnated with Ultramid or Ultradur, the polyamide and PBT materials from BASF. These thermoplastic composites are being enhanced in a development cooperation together with TenCate, a fibre-reinforced composites manufacturer, and Owens Corning, a supplier of glass fibres.
At the K2013, BASF will showcase the first commercial Ultracom products
For crash loaded applications with a special need for impact strength, BASF offers a package, which is optimised for high energy absorption. This package consists of Ultralaminate and Ultramid ZG7 COM. In this case, Ultratape exists for local reinforcement, for example as required in seat structures. It can be overmoulded with the same Ultramid ZG7 COM. For the time being, the orthotropic Twill-2/2 structure, familiar from technical textiles and polyamide 6, will be used for the laminates. 2
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Injection Moulding Asia Automotive Simulation, process support and testing laboratory he third component of the Ultracom package covers the engineering support provided by BASF. This includes not only assistance in the form of designing the part on a computer with the aid of the universal simulation instrument Ultrasim, but also support when it comes to processing the material and manufacturing the part. For this purpose, BASF has added a fully automated pilot line combining an injection moulding system with automated laminate feeding at its technical centre. The engineering support, is not just an option that can be used when necessary, as it was in previous lightweighting projects. It is an essential component of all customer projects. Without the ability to optimise design and production and to describe the behaviour of the composite materials and the parts numerically via integrative simulation as in the case of the conventional short and long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics, a successful full scale market launch would be difficult to achieve.
Fits like a glove n the material side it is a prerequisite and at the same time a challenge to ensure an optimum combination of fibre and polymer on the one hand and tape or laminate and overmoulding compound on the other hand. They must match each other perfectly like a lock and key. The fibres must have a surface sizing formulated for the specific polymers that they are impregnated with and vice versa. Overmoulding materials, in turn, must satisfy the typical requirements for injection moulding while simultaneously permitting optimum bonding/adhesion of ribs to the laminates in a fast process.
Joint learning curve â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the best of two worlds t present, the greatest technological obstacle is the development and introduction of highly automated and robust process technologies, which will also lower the process costs. Currently integrated systems consisting of injection moulding machines, moulds, automatic positioning equipment and heating structures are not available off the shelf, neither are the individual elements matched to one another. When they become available, thermoplastic composite parts reinforced with continuous fibres will, in the near future, provide the best possible combination of weight savings, cost efficiency and performance for body and chassis components. Fibre laminates or tapes permit production of moulded parts that are reinforced locally along the existing load paths while simultaneously incorporating additional functions and modularisation via conventional injection moulding. The two different types of semi-finished products (laminates and tapes) fulfill different functions. While thermoplastic laminates are fibre fabrics impregnated with thermoplastics, unidirectional tapes require layered arrangements that must first be produced from the fully impregnated fibre tapes to create structures. Thermoplastic laminates are thus better suited for quasi-isotropic hybrid parts with a large surface area, while tape-based inserts are more suitable for local reinforcement of moulded short glass fibre-reinforced parts with anisotropic properties. Working together with customers in the automotive sector, the experts at BASF are giving themselves three years to develop production concepts for thermoplastic composites with continuous-fibre reinforcement for body and chassis parts. All partners in the industry must build up know-how together to develop the materials, the process technology and the market. For its part, BASF intends to spend a high two digit million euro sum on R&D in its composite activities in the next three years. Some customer projects are already ongoing. BASF is ready to contribute its expertise in the formulation and processing to additional customer projects.
The production system installed by BASF at its facility in Ludwigshafen has been used to produce multifunctional composite test specimens by means of in-mould forming/overmoulding. The cell comprises a six-axis robot with specific gripper arm for insertion of the laminate into clamping frames, a heating station and a hydraulic machine. With this simultaneously working composite manufacturing cell, cycle times of 1 minute can be achieved
In recent years, the Ultrasim has made it possible to develop and design many new parts such as transmission cross beams, engine mounts, engine supports and metalfree front ends. Laminate or tape-based thermoplastic composite parts will be a viable solution for high-volume production only if integrative simulation is supplemented by new material models and underlying experimental findings. The first Ultramid production application on the basis of overmoulded thermoplastic laminates, at that time, still produced externally, appeared in 2012 in the form of the seat pan for the Opel Astra OPC. For this application, it was already possible to use the expanded capabilities of Ultrasim. They are now available to all customers in the context of joint development projects. 3 AUGUST 2013
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Rubber Journal Asia • Japan-based Sumitomo Rubber Industries (SRI) is taking over Apollo Tyres South Africa for US$60 million. Meanwhile, Apollo Tyres is acquiring a 100% stake in US-based tyre maker Cooper Tire & Rubber Company for US$2.5 billion. • South Korean tyre maker Hankook is investing EUR313 million to expand capacity at its Hungarian plant to 17 million tyres/year from 20132015. • US speciality chemicals firm Cabot Corporation is purchasing the remaining 60% equity of its Mexican carbon black manufacturing joint venture, NHUMO, S.A.de C.V. for US$105 million from Grupo Kuo S.A.B. de C.V. (KUOB.MX). The plant has a capacity of 140,000 tonnes/ year and is located in Mexico. • Singapore-headquartered rubber producer Halcyon Agri Corporation is acquiring Malaysian firm Chip Lam Seng for RM63 million. Chip Lam Seng’s current two 180,000 tonne/year-natural rubber factories in Ipoh will double Halcyon’s capacity to more than 300,000 tonnes/ year. • French tyre maker Michelin and Indonesian PT Petrokimia Butadiene Indonesia, a wholly-owned subsidiary of PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical, are in a joint venture to produce synthetic rubber in Indonesia. • Germany-headquartered Anvis, a maker of automotive anti-vibration products, will be bought by Japanese firm Tokai Rubber Industries from HIG Europe. Meanwhile, Tokai has completed the purchase of Brazil-based Produflex Minas Indústria de Borrachas.
• Malaysian glove maker Rubberex has bought another glove producing firm, Alliance Rubber Products, for RM113 million. • A consortium of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), Titan International, one of the world’s largest manufacturers of agricultural and industrial tyres, and One Equity Partners (OEP), a global private equity fund and a subsidiary of JP Morgan Chase, are buying a controlling interest in Russian agricultural and industrial tyre manufacturer VoltyreProm. • Contitech Conveyor Belt has acquired US-based conveyor belt manufacturer Legg, as part of its expansion move to the US. • Speciality chemicals company Lanxess has converted its largest production line for the Keltan-branded EPDM synthetic rubber at Geleen, the Netherlands, to the ACE technology. • India-based TVS Automobile Solutions and US-based Myers Tire Supply International have formed a partnership to mutually promote their products in Asia. • Malaysian glove maker Kossan Rubber Industries is investing RM100 million to build three new plants to boost its nitrile glove production capacity to 22 billion pieces/year.
Industry News The largest production line for the Keltan EPDM synthetic rubber at the Lanxess Geleen site is now using ACE technology. The line has a capacity of 95,000 tonnes/year
• Lanxess subsidiary Rhein Chemie has opened its first Russian facility to produce Rhenogran (pre-dispersed, polymer-bound additives) for the rubber processing industry. • Chemicals firm BASF is increasing by 50% its production capacity of Kerosin phenolic resin used as a tackifier for tyre manufacturing, at Ludwigshafen, in Germany. • Malaysian agriculture and agri-commodities company, Felda Global Ventures Holdings, is setting up a natural rubber processing plant in Myanmar this year. • US traded, China-based Asia Carbon Industries has completed its speciality carbon black production facility in Shanxi, China’s highest coal producing province. • German firm ContiTech has broken ground on the 4,000 sq m expansion of its plant in Dolné Vestenice, Slovakia. • Vietnam’s Da Nang Rubber has opened a US$141 million radial truck tyre plant, with a capacity of of 600,000 units/year.
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Rubber Journal Asia Materials News
Bioelastomers green the earth Round up of a technique for biodegrading
The partner companies are EFJM, EMAC, KSB, Geffica, Sacred, ITC Élastomères, Wattelez, Michelin and Hutchinson.
rubber; new biobased EPDM grades from chemicals firm Lanxess and bio-feedstocks for
Five bio-sourced EPDM grades ermany-based synthetic rubber specialist Lanxess will be adding not one but five new grades to its portfolio of “green” EPDM (Keltan Eco) before the end of 2013. This will lead to a further significant increase in the range of applications for this synthetic rubber using ethylene from a state-controlled, biobased source. The five new grades are “drop-in” variants of conventional EPDM rubber grades from Lanxess that are already in widespread use. If all goes according to schedule, they will be commercially available in the second half of 2013. The first Keltan Eco variant, which is now marketed under the name Keltan Eco 5470, is made from biobased ethylene at Lanxess’s Triunfo site in Brazil. It is a general-purpose, medium-viscosity grade with a diene content of around 5% that is suitable for a whole host of applications. The new additions include amorphous grades with a high molecular weight and high diene contents for rapid vulcanisation, a high-Mooney variant with a medium diene content and two low-Mooney variants with especially good flow properties. Keltan 6950 Eco and Keltan 9950 Eco (around 9% diene), for example, are suitable for the manufacture of solid and foamed automotive glazing seals – still one of the most important applications for EPDM. Applications for Keltan 8550 Eco (around 5% diene) include the production of window seals in the construction sector, while Keltan Eco 3050 and 0500R, with their particularly low viscosity and no termonomers containing double bonds, are special grades for oil additives. The firm says it focused on Keltan variants that are already used to “successful effect in the conventional form, thus making it easy for users of these products to switch to the new grades.” The ethylene used to produce the new Keltan Eco variants is made from sugarcane in Brazil. All five new Keltan Eco grades contain around 50% ethylene from this sustainable source.
Biodegradable rubber, a way forward he increasing amount of landfilled rubber and latex waste is an imperative concern for government entities and environmentalists worldwide. As such, US firm Enso Plastics has introduced Restore, an additive technology that accelerates the natural biodegradation of synthetic rubber in landfills. Plastics have traditionally received most of the attention regarding waste with programmes such as recycling, biodegradable, compostable and renewable solutions being offered. Unfortunately rubber waste, although just as important, has not received the same attention. This is until now, says Enso, an environmental plastics solutions company with proprietary biodegradable and biobased solutions.
Nitrile and latex treated with Restore biodegradable additive
Enso’s Restore increases the biodegradation of synthetic rubber within natural microbial and municipal landfill environments. Independent laboratory testing shows nitrile treated with Restore biodegrading 16.9% in the first 20 days, compared to nitrile showing no biodegradation during the same time period. Similar accelerated biodegradation results are seen in polychloroprene, polyurethane and other synthetic materials when treated with Restore, says the firm. Bioproof to ensure supply ince 2000, the demand for natural and synthetic rubber has increased by 50%. This fact, combined with rising raw material prices especially for crude oil, has prompted French companies to launch the BIOPROOF project. The aim is to strengthen industry’s competitiveness by using biobased or recycled materials. The project started in April 2013 and is planned to run for five years. Activities undertaken for the BIOPROOF project include testing of the new materials in laboratories and test facilities by materials specialists who will primarily examine the materials for ecological compatibility and economic efficiency.
One of the most important applications of EPDM is automotive seals
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Rubber Journal Asia Reclaimed Rubber
The rubber road to growth A number of studies have suggested several
Asphalt rubber is a growth market, according to a US tyre recycling firm executive. Jeffrey Kendall, CEO of Liberty Tire Recycling, said that the recycled rubber market has sprung up amidst a weak economy and that asphalt rubber can loosen up the purse strings. He said that an overall acceptability for use of asphalt rubber has been spreading throughout the US and Canada over the years, and thus shows growth potential in the recycling market. Tyre maker Bridgestone Americas has also shown support in diverting used tyres for rubber asphalt in roads. Last year, it launched the “Spent Tire Program”, which ensures that for every one tyre sold, a spent tyre is sent to facilities that offer options for valuable use, and asphalt rubber is one option that, the company says, has a strong added value.
sustainable and practical uses for used tyrederived rubber, with the conclusion that these discarded tyres, or at least a large percentage of them, are prevented from making their way into landfills or being burnt. Recovered rubber has found several applications, with increased campaigns for more products with recycled content (except for manufacturing new tyres), says Angelica Buan in this report.
n end-of-life tyre (ELT) study undertaken by US-based World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (an association made up of member company CEO’s or their representatives) estimates that the global quantity for ELTs is 1 billion/year, with one passenger tyre/person discarded each year in the developed world. ELT recovery can divert around 4 billion used tyres from being sent to landfills and stockpiles worldwide. Recovered ELTs can augment raw/virgin materials to provide costeffective and sustainable energy for several Industries. Tyre derived fuel (TDF) is a key output for recovered ELTs and is mainly used in cement kilns (as a supplementary fuel), thermal power stations, pulp and paper mills, steel mills and industrial boilers. Tyres are a higher source of energy compared to most solid fuels, states WBCSD, adding that reused tyres can also be used for civil engineering projects, to replace ground or crumb rubber that is also used in rubber roads. The US and Japan are the major users for TDF from ELTs, and energy recovery is about equal to material recovery in Western Europe and the US, the report said.
Bridgestone Americas’s tyre recycling programme can benefit rubber asphalt schemes
Over 280 million scrap tyres/year are generated in the US, of which, more than 60 million are placed in stockpiles, according to the South Carolina-based Clemenson University, Department of Civil Engineering. The university says that between 500 and 2,000 scrap tyres can be used in each mile of a pavement. RTR can also be used to modify the properties of the asphalt in highway construction. For instance, size-reduced RTR can be used either as part of the asphalt rubber binder seal coat, cap seal spray or joint and crack sealant, or as an aggregate substitution (rubber modified asphalt concrete). But asphalt rubber’s limitations include being temperature sensitive. Also, it cannot be applied in cold or extreme hot weather. The recommended temperature for concrete pavement surface for the material to adhere well is between 85 to 145°F. According to the US-based Rubberized Asphalt Foundation (RAF), new standard specifications have been developed that allow the use of RTR to make the PG 76-22 asphalt that meets temperature requirements and traffic flow. The research foundation says that RTR binders can
A smooth driving opportunity iscarded rubber tyres have found applications in the engineering sector. Asphalt rubber, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, is the largest single market for recycled rubber tyres (RTR), using approximately 12 million tyres. Countries such as the US, Australia, UK, China, Brazil, Spain and Germany have started building rubber roads using asphalt rubber. It is made by crumbling used tyre rubber, which is then added to bitumen and ground stone. This technique renders a quieter road, bringing down traffic noise by 25%, and features shorter braking distance.
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Rubber Journal Asia Reclaimed Rubber be used in place of polymer-modified binders, such as SBS, and achieve the same performance-graded results. The RTR material is relatively cost effective compared to a polymer binder, and is not subject to chemical production variations and issues with supply/demand.
India and overseas, but the longer service life the technique renders makes its use cost-effective. The IRB, together with the Kerala Highway Research Institute, has been advocating rubberisation of roads since 1974, with about 50 km of roads in various sites already rubberised to observe performance of the material. Meanwhile, TIFAC has also been actively promoting the benefits of asphalt rubber. It says that, firstly, low regard against retreaded tyres and their products must be eliminated. Whole used tyres, which are not suitable for retreading may be used as tree guards to prevent erosion; or these can be shredded and crumbed for use as asphalt modifiers for road construction or athletic and recreational fields and as a modifier of polyurethane. Moreover, it strongly suggests that R&D activities in useful recycling and disposal of scrap tyres must be initiated by the industry and the government.
Testing it out in India he Asian civil engineering sector may not have been aggressive in implementing rubber asphalt on a larger scale but studies relating to this are underway. In India, about 8-15% of tyre rubber crumbs are utilised in the construction and maintenance of roads, according to a rubber recycling study conducted by Delhi-based Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC). The study recognises that crumb rubber improves the visco-elastic properties of bituminous mixes. This then renders various advantages such as improved skid resistance, better crack reflection control, increased flexibility, toughness, tenacity of road surface, reduced noise level of traffic and improved performance under extreme temperature conditions. Nonetheless, the use of crumb as asphalt modifier in India is at an experimental stage, it said. Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s advantage is the ample local supply of reclaimed rubber and it does not need to import, says TIFAC, adding the other advantages: existing economic reforms, comparably cheap labour and the presence of highly qualified and experienced reclaimed rubber manufacturers. The India Rubber Board (IRB) has also found, based on its study on reclaimed rubber, that rubberised bitumen (with proper blending of about 2-4% of natural rubber into the bitumen) is an excellent binder for rubble and sand. The rubberised bitumen lowers the incidence of permanent deformation due to overloading on roads, and is found to be unaffected by changes in atmospheric temperature. The report also indicated that the use of rubber-modified bitumen in road construction results in as much as 33% savings in repairs and maintenance. Nonetheless, the board estimates that the additional cost for construction of rubberised roads is between 15-20% more compared to bituminous roads, based on commercial trials conducted in
Innovations in rubber recycling eanwhile, uses for scrap rubber are continually being discovered to replace new materials and prevent a supply rundown or to mitigate the high costs of availing the latter. One technology by the German Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology comes in the form of repurposing rubber residues. It recently set up RUHR Compounds that focuses on commercialising an elastomer powder modified thermoplastic (EPMT) that it has developed. The new material exhibits the desired properties for use in the manufacture of high quality products such as wheel and splashguard covers, handles, knobs and steerable casters. Three basic EPMT recipes have been developed to date. The rubber residues, which vary in length, are granulated to 3 mm-size particles, then cooled with liquid nitrogen and ground into elastomeric powders. These are then combined to the melt-mix process with thermoplastics (such as polypropylene) and additives. The new compounds, which can contain up to 80% residual rubber, can be processed in injection moulding and extrusion machines. Moreover, the end products containing EPMT may also be recycled when they reach the end of their useful life. Sports shoe manufacturer Nike is collaborating with Fraunhofer for its new EPMT-based products. Meanwhile, in the US, a team of polymer researchers from the University of Akron, with funding from the National Science Foundation, NASA and several industrial companies, has developed a new rubber recovery technology for industrial use. It uses an ultrasonic devulcanisation extruder to enable the recovery of rubber materials from tyres and rubber soles, which are difficult to reprocess due to rubberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vulcanised or crosslinked nature. The patented technology, which has taken 15 years to develop, devulcanises the sulphur crosslink bonds in the rubber compound, allowing the scrap rubber to be reprocessed and reused.
India uses rubber-modified bitumen for its national roads
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