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research results for

“ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE FUTURE”

presented

to:

jindu

group

/

presented

by:

china

vision

project

/

march

5, 2007


目录 1

名单

2

行政总结

3

A1 节 能 装 置

6

A2 能 源 开 发 系 统

9

A3 节 能 用 水 系 统

10 A4 可 持 续 的 加 热 和 制 冷 传 统 13 A5 隔 热 保 温 材 料 15 A6 再 生 材 料 19 A7 高 级 玻 璃 幕 墙 系 统 23 A8 高 级 智 能 系 控 制 内 部 环 境 25 A9 健 康 监 测 系 统 29 A10 人 工 照 明 31 A11 自 然 光 照 明 33 A12 可 持 续 设 计 内 饰 材 料 39 A13 可 持 续 的 景 观 系 统 41 B1 示 范 住 宅 43 B2 视 觉 设 计 项 目 45 B3 绿 色 建 筑 48 C6

现代中国建筑 LEED认证


TABLE OF CONTENTS CREDITS

1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2

E N E R G Y S A V I N G D E V I C E S A1

3

E N E R G Y G E N E R A T I N G S Y S T E M S A2

6

S U S T A I N A B L E W A T E R S Y S T E M S A3

9

S U S T A I N A B L E H E A T I N G A N D C O O L I N G S Y S T E M S A4

10

I N S U L A T I O N A5

13

R E C Y C L A B L E M A T E R I A L S A6

15

A D V A N C E D G L A Z I N G S Y S T E M S A7

19

A D V A N C E D I N T E L L I G E N T S Y S T E M S F O R I N T E R I O R E N V I R O N M E N T S A8

23

H E A L T H M O N I T O R I N G S Y S T E M S A9

25

A R T I F I C I A L L I G H T I N G A10

29

N A T U R A L L I G H T I N G A11

31

I N T E R I O R M A T E R I A L S F O R S U S T A I N A B L E D E S I G N A12

33

L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E A13

39

P R O T O T Y P I C A L H O U S I N G B1

41

V I S I O N A R Y P R O J E C T S B2

43

G R E E N B U I L D I N G B3

45

C O N T E M P O R A R Y C H I N E S E L E E D P R O J E C T S C6

48


CHINA VISION PROJECT C lient

T eam

j i n d u r e a l e s tat e g r o u p

Yongmin Shen Zhongquan Wu Yuelong Yu

board chairman president ceo

chinese architect

Cheng Tai Ning Architectural Design & Research Institute

p r i n c i pa l s

Paul Lukez Brooks Mostue Jue Zhan

massachusetts institute of technology harvard graduate school of design zhejiang university

design team

Mike Gibson harvard graduate school of design Ben Gramann syracuse university Jiangxian Huang massachusetts institute of technology Kimberly Huestis wellesley college Leslie Lok wellesley college

research team

Rachel Gealy Corey Hopp Melissa Shin Anna Szybowski

massachusetts institute of technology tufts university massachusetts institute of technology harvard graduate school of design

c o n s u lta n t s

Simpson Gumpertz and Heger Inc., Structural Engineer Paul E. Kassabian, P.E., C.Eng cambridge university Mark Webster, P.E., LEED 2.0 AP university of california, berkeley Vince Cammalleri, AIA mcgill university Hickory Consortium, Green Engineer Mark E. Kelley, P.E.

1

Design Initiative, Interior Designer Mary Ann Agresti Stephen Rose, LEED AP

rhode island school of design

C2 | Studio, Landscape Architects Scott Carman Jane Choi

harvard graduate school of design harvard graduate school of design


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY F ebruary 24, 2007 This dossier of green building ideas and products has been prepared for the Jindu Development Company (Jindu) by the China Vision Project (CVP). The dossier is intended to provide only a few highlights from a much more detailed overview conducted by the CVP of some of the most advanced green technologies, systems and services available in the marketplace at this time. This detailed overview and the background research from which it has been extracted has been submitted to Jindu in the form of PowerPoint presentations and several volumes of research. The highlights contained in this dossier are not intended to be comprehensive in scope, but are intended to address areas that may be of specific interest to Jindu in creating new housing that is more environmentally sustainable and healthy. These highlights contained herein reflect a global awakening to the importance of building living environments that are sensitive to the environment and are cost-effective and healthy to inhabit. This dossier is divided into two sections. The first and larger section contains examples from eleven research categories that were requested by Jindu for investigation: Energy Saving Devices, Energy Generating Systems, Sustainable Water Systems, Sustainable Heating and Cooling Systems, Insulation, Recyclable Materials, Advanced Glazing Systems, Advanced Intelligent Systems for Interior Environments, Health Monitoring Systems, Artificial Lighting, and Natural Lighting. CVP has included two additional research categories: Interior Materials for Sustainable Design and Sustainable Landscape Systems. The first page of each category contains a brief Overview paragraph and a list of the subsections that were the Research Focus for that topic. Most examples contain an introductory description, along with preliminary pricing information and internet links where available. The examples in this first section variously represent cutting edge technologies, products or systems that may lend themselves to Jindu’s proposed Visitors’ Center, or items that are futuristic in appearance and may have a consequent marketing appeal. The second section of this dossier contains examples from four types of precedent setting projects: Prototypical Housing; Visionary Projects; Green Buildings; and Contemporary Chinese LEED Projects. These examples are intended to illustrate the breadth and diversity of work being conducted in sustainable architecture. They also illustrate the seemingly unlimited possibilities for combining the technologies detailed in the research findings. While the sampling of highlights in this dossier focuses on products and structures, it is important to note that significant work is also being done in the area of sustainable programming and processes. While not within the scope of our research, these areas address efforts to adapt existing structures and reuse on-site materials, reduce transportation and other infrastructure costs, minimize negative environmental impacts during construction, encourage healthy lifestyles, improve air quality, and ensure that building systems function as intended. Global interest in green design is young but growing rapidly. It is exciting to see the range of creativity evidenced by the examples in this dossier. CVP anticipates that Jindu will be able to be at the forefront of China’s activities in this area, and that the largest possible view of sustainability will be reflected in the final design of the Hangzhou Visitors’ Center.

2


A1

ENERGY SAVING DEVICES

O verview An Energy Saving Device functions as something that will be more eco-friendly. It will regulate and save on energy consumption while allowing for a more cost-effective living standard. It shall provide more efficient production of that which is demanded: be it energy, regulating water consumption, having the ability to allocate how and where your water supply is being delivered, or having an automated intelligent response system. It should improve upon the living experience.

节能装置将起到保护生态环境的作用. 节能装置在控制和节约能源消耗的同时考虑到降低生活费用支出. 节能装置还可以满足更多的高效生产的需求. 例如, 节约能源, 控制水的消耗量, 能够控制供应水的方式 以及水供应地, 或者使用自动化智能反应系统. 节能装置应该随着我们生活环境的提高而改进.

A 1.1

e ff i c i e n t f i b e r o p t i c s

Fiber optic lighting is an option that provides illumination away from the light source, thus removing the heat output that is generally associated with common lighting. This may be beneficial for gallery lighting where climate control is important, as well as for lighting in a grocery store freezer section. This type of lighting can also be useful for lighting stairs or providing an alternative decorative illumination in water fixtures.

纤维光学照明设备是为在远离光源的情况下提供照明的一个选择. 纤维光学 照明设备提供的照明不产生普通照明设备所产生的热量输出. 这一特点可能 对对温度控制要求很高的画廊以及超级市场的冷冻区域的照明很有益. 这种 类型的照明也可以用在照亮楼梯或者照亮水池(水龙头) 的装饰性照明.

3


ENERGY SAVING DEVICES

c o m m e r c i a l / h o m e a u t o m at i o n

A1

A 1.2a

Wireless building automation makes facilities comfortable, safe, and highly cost and energy efficient. Automation technology can save up to 40% in building energy costs by remotely controlling and regulating energy consumption. Auto-respond features can be set to open garage doors and turn kitchen lights on. “The standards battle now starting up between ZigBee and Zwave, in the control portion of the CSI space: This battle resembles in many ways the historic battle between Ethernet and ARCnet. Zwave has a two-year commercial head start and is currently cheaper than ZigBee/802.15.4. Zwave is also less capable than ZigBee, for example operating at 9,600bps in a single channel around 900MHz versus ZigBee’s 250Kbps spread spectrum around 2.4GHz. But most importantly, Zwave is a proprietary PRODUCT of Zensys, while ZigBee/802.15.4 is a de jure STANDARD, with all the committee meetings that entails.” - Bob Metcalfe, Ember Chairman.

无线自动化(应用于建筑方面)的应用使活动场所舒适,安全,同时大大地节约费用以及能源.Ravi Sharma, Embe公司的市场总监说. ZigBee 和Zwave之间正在展开关于CSI空间控制比例的标准的争论。这种争议与历史上的Ethernet 公司和ARCnet公司之间的争议类似。Zwave比ZigBee早两年进行商品化生产,所以其产品价格比 ZigBee/802.15.4. 低。Zwave 同时也没有ZigBee公司的能力强。 比如,ZigBee在单频波段控制范围 在900MHz, 9600bps运行, ZigBee波段控制范围在2.4GHz, 250Kbps运行。 但是,最重要的是Zwave的 Zensys公司的首选产品, 同时ZigBee/802.15.4 是所有委员会会议要求的de jure标准 Bob Metcalfe, Ember公司总裁说。 科技能节约高达40%的建筑能源成本, 远程控制和管理能源消耗. 设置自动反应功能, 例如, 如果车库 的门开着, 那么厨房的灯就会自动打开. Z-Wave 技术很适用, 并且设计初衷就是为家庭自动化所使 用。Zigbee 技术超过了家庭使用的需要, 适用于大型自动化控制所使用。 c o m m e r c i a l / h o m e a u t o m at i o n

A 1.2b

Safety and security are the biggest benefits to a home automation system. Lighting and sound/motion sensors are connected to a computer program that tracks activity 24 hours a day, and notifies you and your local police or fire department if anything is wrong. An optional web-enabled system allows you to monitor your home over the Internet while at the office or on vacation. Wireless systems are taking over the market, requiring no complicated wiring or even knowledge of computers. The ability to control thermostats and lighting can save energy as well.

安全和防盗是家庭自动控制系统的最大受益者. –灯光, 声音和动作感应器是与跟踪一天24小时活 动的一个电脑程序联接的. 一旦家里有任何意外发生, 电脑会发信息通知主人, 警察局或者消防 局. 如果预算允许的话, 你可以选装一个网络监控系统. 通过这个监控系统,当你在办公室或度假 时, 你可以通过互联网监控家里情况. 无线系统,不需要复杂的布线, 甚至不需要电脑知识, 正在 开始占领市场, 这是目前家庭特别好的一个选择. 尽管价格50美元的具有程序控制功能的暖气开关 也可以自动提高或者降低房间温度和照明控制器可以降低能源费用. 但是无线系统在具备安全和防 盗功能的同时, 也能控制暖气以及灯光的功能也可以节约能源.  

4


A1

A 1.3

ENERGY SAVING DEVICES

shading systems

Shades may be adjusted in accordance with the solar angle and BTU load. A shading system may daily track the sun’s angle as it rises from a winter low angle to a high summer angle and back; plus, it can track the sun’s hourly angle and may adjust automatically to provide the best day lighting. A shading system helps to protect people as well as interior furniture from direct sunlight.

遮阳系统可以根据日光的角度和热量负荷变化而调整. 遮阳系统可以每日追 踪太阳距地平线的高度, 冬天太阳距地平线低, 夏天太阳距地平线高, 依此 循环. 并且, 遮阳系统还可以追踪每小时太阳角度的变化, 然后自动作调整 给房间供应最合适的日光.

A 1.5b

e n e r g y s av i n g a p p l i a n c e s

-

wat e r l e s s wa s h i n g m a c h i n e

Air Wash is a waterless washing machine, which uses negative ions, anti-bacterial deodorants and highly pressurized air to clean clothes. Air passes through an ionic filter and is compressed for the intelligent air jets to clean the clothes through cross-action, pulsation and sweeps. Wearing the clothes after air wash, one is drenched with negative ions, which has proven health benefits such as improved blood circulation and anti-depressant properties. Air Wash provides a new means to clean clothes in a gentler but effective way, eliminating water wastage and detergent use while preserving the quality and color of clothes. It is especially relevant for jeans, jackets, wool and non-washable textiles. Marrying technology and an emotive user experience through an intuitive button-less interface, it aims to humanize the washing machine into a symbol of holistic living.

空气洗衣是应用无水洗衣机, 即使用负离子--具有抗菌,除臭功能的高压空气清洗衣服.其原理为空 气通过一个离子过滤器,利用空气经过高压再经过一个智能空气喷射器,利用空气交叉喷射, 震 动,扫射来清洁衣服. 穿着经过空气清洗的充满负离子的衣服, 已经被证明对健康有益处, 例如具 有提高血液循环和抗抑郁的特性. 空气洗衣提供了一种新的柔和而有效的洗衣方式. 既减少了水的浪费以及洗涤剂的使用又保持衣服 的质量和颜色. 特别适用于牛仔衣服, 夹克衫, 毛料衣服以及不能水洗的纺织面料衣服.技术和通 过直感无按钮界面令人感动的实用经历的结合赋予洗衣机人性化是完美生活的标志。

5


ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

A2

O verview The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which in turn leads to global warming. Further, fossil fuels are a limited resource, and we are quickly depleting our supply. Using alternative renewable sources of energy is an essential aspect of sustainable construction. Although no system can be completely pollutant free, renewable sources are orders of magnitude better than conventional methods. In addition, with increased research and innovation in this area, sustainable power generation is becoming less costly.

化石燃料燃烧产生二氧化碳释放到大气中, 其结果导致全球变暖的温室效应. 此外, 化石燃料是有限的资 源, 而且我们正在很快的消耗我们的资源. 可再生能源资源的利用是保持可持续性发展的一个很重要的方 面. 尽管哪一个系统也不会百分之百的无污染, 可再生能源要比传统的能源方式强多倍。另外, 随着在再 生能源领域的研究和改革创新的深入, 可持续电能的开发成本变得越来越低。

pv thin film cell

A 2.1a

When a silicon film is deposited on glass or another material, the result is called a thin film solar cell. The thickness is a mere one-thousandth of a millimeter. Because less high-grade silicon is used in production, this type is less costly than the more common monocrystalline arrays; however, the efficiency is only in the 5-7% range. Although the power output is lower, thin film tends to absorb diffuse and reflected light better than monocrystalline cells, which is advantageous for certain climates. The flexible nature of the cell enables a variety of applications including glazing, sunshades, and flexible panels.

薄膜太阳能电池是将硅膜粘贴在玻璃或另外一种材���上制成的. 薄膜太阳能 电池的厚度仅有千分之一毫米. 因为生产用料不需要高级硅, 这种电池要比 更普及的单晶硅太阳能电池成本低. 然而, 效率仅有的5-7%. 尽管能量输出 低, 但是薄膜电池一般比单晶硅电池在吸收扩散和反射光方面效果好. 这一 点可能对特定气候地区有利. PV 薄膜电池的这一灵活性使其能够在玻璃幕 墙, 遮阳设施和可移动挂板上使用。

6


A2

A 2.1b

ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS

pv thin film cell

-

r o l l t o r o l l m a n u fa c t u r i n g

A manufacturing process called roll to roll is further reducing the cost of thin film PV modules. In high-volume manufacturing plants solar cells are deposited on rolls of stainless steel that are a mile-and-a half long. An amorphous silicon alloy processor deposits the nine thin-film layers of the triple-junction cell on six rolls of stainless steel at a time. The use of a flexible, stainless steel substrate and polymer-based encapsulates, PV products utilizing this technology can be very lightweight, flexible and durable. Applications include portable PV rolls and tents.

滚动生产工艺正在进一步降低PV薄膜电池模块的生产成本. 在高产量的生产企业 里, 多块太阳能电池被粘贴在成卷的1.5英里长的不锈钢板上面, 一个无序的的 硅合金处理器一次将九层三联路口电池的薄膜粘贴到六卷不锈钢卷上。 灵活的 不锈钢衬板和聚合物基灌封在PV生产工艺上的使用使PV产品质量非常轻, 灵活性 好, 耐用. 产品应用包括便携式PV薄膜太阳能电池卷和帐篷.

A 2.4

pv spherical cell

Because of the shape of this PV cell, the need to find a fixed optimal position for PV arrays or to implement an automated sun-tracking system is eliminated. The cell captures light from all directions, which means it can use both reflected light diffused light, a major advantage in cloudy or pollution affected conditions. Dome-shaped solar cells and “flexible” solar cells, aligned on soft film substrates, can be manufactured as well as PV glazing. In a process similar to that of the historic shot tower, cells are made by dropping molten silicon from a height of 14 meters. Surface tension causes the spherical shape to form. The cells are subsequently p and n doped, and produce electricity like a traditional solar array.

由电池的形状而得名. 不象PV排列电池需要安装在固定的理想的位置, 也不需要执行自 动太阳跟踪系统。球星电池可以从各个方向扑获到阳光。球星电池可以既接收反射光也 可以接收散射光,其最大的优势就在于在阴天或者大气污染的地区也可以使用。 圆顶形 状的太阳能电池和“灵活的”太阳能电池排列在软膜衬底上也可以生产PV玻璃幕墙。 工 艺与古老的射击塔相似, 将熔化的硅由14米的高处扔到地面, 表面张力致使表面形成 球形的形状。电池的阴阳级交替排列, 跟传统的太阳能电池排列一样产生电能。

7


ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS p v c e l l c o m pa r i s o n

urban wind turbines

-

aerovironment turbine

A2 A 2.1 - 2.6

A 2.7

Aerovironment, a US producer of unmanned aircraft, has developed a small, modular wind turbine system designed for installation on buildings in urban and suburban areas. The system eliminates the support tower required by traditional wind turbines, reduces noise and vibration, and is sold as a modular unit that installs quickly and easily onto buildings. More units can be installed as needed. Aerovironment是一家美国生产无人飞机的公司,

已经开发了一种专门安装在城市和 市郊建筑物上的小型的风力发电机组系统. 这个系统免除了传统风力发电机所需用的 支撑塔, 降低了噪音和震动. 以机组为单位销售, 便于安装. 此系统也可以添加, 可 以根据需要添加机组.

urban wind turbines

-

aeroturbine

A 2.7

The unconventional shape of the aeroturbine enables it to be constantly effective regardless of wind direction and speed. The units are self-starting, self-regulating, slow moved, and friendly to wildlife. The standard turbine is 5’ by 10’ and preliminary data indicates a 1,500-watt output in 30 mph wind. Units are additive and be added to the system as needed for additional power generation.

航空涡轮机的非常规形状保证其在无论任何风向何等风力的情况下都能保持 效率. 该装置自动起动, 自动调节, 移动幅度小,不影响野生动植物. 标准 的涡轮是5’ X 10’, 初始数据显示风速在30英里/小时时 输出电能1500瓦. 装置可随时添加, 可根据发电力需要添加装置.

8


A3

SUSTAINABLE WATER SYSTEMS

O verview A Sustainable Water System will function as something that will reduce, regulate and provide on-site re-allocation for the amount of water used. The system will save water consumption, contribute as a collector of water through storm-water management, and/or provide alternative distribution options for the re-use of water within the building construct or the landscape. This will in turn allow for a more cost-effective living standard. It should improve upon the living experience. It shall be the new standard in water recycling systems.

可持续的水系统将有降低水的消耗,调节水的使用和提供现场给水的职能. 这个系统将节约水的消耗, 通过 收集雨水/雪水, 为建筑工地或者园林内部水的循环利用提供分配比较选择方案, 这些反过来会给我们创造 一个低成本的生活方式. 这些技术应该随着生活的提要而提高, 成为水循环利用系统中的新标准.

A 3.1b

toilet systems

-

wat e r l e s s u r i n a l s y s t e m s

Saves 100% of water going through urinals and has a very low maintenance cost; there are no moving parts and no flushometer. No hard water runs through the drain system, so there is no calcification. Cartridge changes are needed three to four times a year.

无水小便池系统使用便池可以节约水100%的水, 维修费用也很低。没有配 件也不需要冲水阀。因为没有硬水通过排水系统,所以也不需要钙化处理。 芯每年需要更换3-4次。

A 3.4

i r r i g at i o n c o n t r o l l e r s

Controllers automatically adjust irrigation schedules based on landscape needs and local weather conditions. The result is higher property values, lower water bills and a healthier environment. The controller connects to home broadband or cell-phone radio for wireless automation. It gathers data from the local weather station and operates automatically based on weather data received.

“灌溉控制器根据绿化的需要和天气条件自动调节灌溉时间,这样既提高了 地产的价值,也 降低了消耗水的费用,还保证了更健康的环境。” 根据收到的天气数据自动运作。 系统从当地的气象站收集数据。 可以与家庭的宽带网或者手机电台联接实现无线自动化。

9


SUSTAINABLE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

A4

O verview Traditional methods of heating and cooling are often harmful to the environment because they consume electricity or rely on the burning of carbon dioxide producing fossil fuels. This section outlines a variety of alternative methods. Many of these techniques are useful because they preheat or precool water and air. Although a secondary means of heating and cooling is still needed, these systems decrease the amount of energy needed, for example by feeding warm, instead of cold, water into a water heater. The second half of this section, which includes green roofs and vertical gardens, is included primarily because each of these systems reduces the urban heat island effect. This term refers to the increasing of urban temperatures due primarily to the replacement of vegetation with asphalt paving and heat-absorbing roofs. By covering those surfaces with vegetation, soaring urban summer temperatures can be moderated.

传统的加热和制冷方式,由于消耗电能或者依赖燃烧二氧化碳产生化石燃料,通常对环境有害。 这一部 分概括了一系列的替代方式。这些技术因为对水或者气进行预热或者预制冷所以对节约能源都很有帮助。 尽管仍需要辅助的制热或制冷, 但是这些系统降低了所需要消耗的能量。 例如给热水器加入温热的水, 而不是冷水, 那么再加热所消耗的能量就大大降低了。

e va c u at e d t u b e s o l a r c o l l e c t o r s

A 4.1

This type of solar heater is made of a series of modular glass tubes surrounding a second absorber tube. Sunlight passes through the outer tube and heats the absorber. The vacuum between the two prevents captured radiation, which is converted into heat, from escaping. The heat is then transferred and used to either heat the home or for domestic hot water. This type of collector is more expensive than the flat plate type, but has corresponding higher efficiency.

这种太阳能集热器是由一系列玻璃真空集热管模块环绕里面一层吸收管制 成。阳光通过外面一层真空管加热里面的热量吸收管。 这两层之间的真空 起到防止吸收的热量散失的作用。然后可以用 这些热量进行房间取暖, 或 者供应热水。 这种 集热器与板式的比较价格更贵一些, 但是效率更高一 些。

10


A4

A 4.4a

SUSTAINABLE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

deep geothermal

Deep geothermal is a method of harnessing geothermal energy at great depths for power and heat supply. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) method consists of at least two depth drillings and one subterranean heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of natural joints in plutonite rock, which are extended and connected to each other with the help of water pressure (hydraulic simulation). Additional bore holes, extended system joints, and larger volumes of circulating water will allow increased capacity if needed.

深层地热是利用深层地热资源发电和供应热水。热干石(HDR)技术包括至少两个深钻和一个地下的热交换器。热交换器与 深层岩连接,深层岩在水的压力下互相连接。如果需要的话, 利用深层岩的孔洞,延伸连接和提高循环水量都可以提高系 统能力。

A 4.4b

g e o t h e r m a l r a d i a n t wa l l s

The Zollverein School of Design, designed by SANAA Architecture, is located at the site of a former mine. The architects used the deep, unused mine excavations, which already existed, to pump water with a steady 28 degree Celsius temperature to the surface and though a network of tubes embedded in the structural concrete walls.

由SANAA设计事务所设计的Zollverein设计学校建筑其所在位置的前身是一个矿。设计师 利用地形的深度和已有的弃用的矿坑来把地下的28度稳定的地下水泵到嵌入在混凝土墙 里面的管道网络提供室内取暖。

A 4.5

green roof

Green roof systems counteract urban heat island effect, protect the roof membrane, and reduce storm water runoff. These roofs can detain over 50% of rainwater from a typical storm, which reduces the loads placed on sewers. Multilayered green roof systems are thicker than conventional roofs, ranging from 9 to 24 inches depending on the type of vegetation desired. A green roof includes a drainage, aeration, water storage, and root barrier layer, topped with a soil medium and vegetation. Vegetation reduces building heat gain and absorbs carbon dioxide.

绿色屋顶系统可以解决城市热岛效应,保护屋顶底层,降低雨水流失。这种屋顶可以截留50%的雨 水,减少了排水系统的排放量。多层的绿色屋顶系统比传统的屋顶要厚一些。厚度范围在9到 24英寸,具体根据植被的需要决定。一个绿色屋顶包括排水系统,排气系统,储水系统和植被根 层,最上面的一层是 土壤层和植被。植被降低建筑物吸收的热量并且吸收二氧化碳。

11


SUSTAINABLE HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS

Extensive Roof System: •3 to 8 inches of soil •Vegetation includes grasses, sedums, and mosses •Minimal maintenance required Intensive Roof System: •9 inches to 3 feet of soil •Vegetation can include shrubs, trees, and water features •Require intensive maintenance •Intended for human access and use

A4

green roof types

A 4.5

v e rt i c a l g a r d e n

A 4.6

简单的屋顶系统 3-8寸厚的土壤 植被, 包括草,青苔,苔藓类。 需要很少的维护 复杂的屋顶系统 9英寸至3英尺厚的土壤 植被可以包括灌木, 树,水景。 需要大量的维护 人可以进入并且使用

A vertical garden takes the concept of a green roof and rotates it 90 degrees. These green walls are constructed in two ways. The first option, which requires no soil, is to grow plants on a felt covered metal lattice, which is attached to the facade. Plants are fed with mineral infused water. The second option is to construct a vertical lattice of planters. The main environmental benefit of a vertical garden is carbon dioxide reduction. This technique can also be employed indoors.

空中花园与绿色屋顶概念相同,但就是旋转了90度。 这些绿色墙有两种建 造方式。 第一种方式不需要土壤。植物种在附在墙上的金属格子里面。植 物从矿物质水吸收养料。 第二种方式是建造一个竖直的供种植植物用的金 属栅格。空中花园的益处是降低二氧化碳。 这种技术也可以应用到室内。

12


A5

INSULATION

O verview Insulation is a material that prevents or slows down the movement of heat. Lining the building envelope with any type of insulation saves energy by keeping heat in during the winter and keeping heat out during the summer. The effectiveness of insulation is measured by its resistance to heat flow, referenced as its R-value. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating ability. Correct installation is crucial to insulation performance because gaps in the material allow air to flow, transferring heat through convection. Many different materials can be used as insulators, including fiberglass, mineral fiber, cellulose, rigid foam, and expanded foams.

隔热保温材料是一种防止或者降低热量运动的材料。衬隔热保温材料的建筑物,冬天隔热保温材料将热量 保留在室内, 夏天将热量隔绝在室外,达到节约能源的作用 。一片隔热保温材料的效能是通过R-值来衡 量的。R-值显示隔热保温材料的阻热性。 R –值越高, 隔热保温性能越强。 正确的安装对隔热保温效果 是至关重要的, 因为材料之间的缝隙允许空气流动,热量可以通过对流流失。 很多不同的材料可以用作 隔热保温材料,包括玻璃棉, 矿棉,硬泡沫板 ,纤维素和发泡隔热材料。

A 5.1

aerogel

Aerogel is a solid-state material derived from gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with gas. The result is an extremely low density solid with several remarkable properties, most notably its effectiveness as an insulator: it is the lightest weight and best insulating solids known today. It can be translucent or transparent in nature and is now used architecturally as a glazing insulator, increasing the R-values of glass beyond those achievable with the typically used argon gas.

凝胶体是将凝胶中的液体成分提取掉再以气体来取代液体的一种固体材料。其密 度极其低并且有几个其他明显的特性:最显著的特性是隔热保温的功能:凝胶体 是当前所知的质量最轻的,隔热保温效果最好的固体材料。本质是半透明的或者 透明的,当前用在建筑上的玻璃窗的隔热高温层,比传统使用的充氩玻璃阻热值 高很多。价格根据R-值需求以及应用不同。应用规格和价格参见A11.4通过天窗 应用扩散光, A7.3隔热保温玻璃窗。

13


INSULATION

s o y - b a s e d s p r ay f o a m

A5

A 5.4

This product is a soy-based polyurethane spray foam insulation manufactured from soybean oil. When sprayed into a cavity, it expands to create an airtight seal. The insulation is waterproof and mold proof.

此产品从大豆油中提取的大豆基聚氨酯制成的喷射泡沫保温材料。 当喷到 墙上时,这种材料通过扩展产生一个空气密封。 这种保温材料防水防霉。

va c u u m pa n e l s

A 5.5

A vacuum, the absence of matter or air, is a perfect insulator because it prevents heat transfer by convection, the movement of heated particles, and conduction, the transfer of heat from particle to particle. Traditionally, vacuum insulation is used in smaller scale applications including shipping containers and cryogenic applications including liquid nitrogen. Potential architectural applications being explored include insulation for hot and cold water piping. Vacuum insulating glazing may also be available in the future.

真空因为可以阻止热量对流,热分子的运动和传导,所以是一个完美的隔热保温材料。传统上,真 空保温在小范围应用包括集装箱保温和冷藏保温包括应用液体氮。 正在开发潜在的建筑应用,包 括热水和冷水管道的隔热保温。真空隔热保温玻璃窗也正在开始流行。

14


A6

RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

O verview Included in this section is research on materials that are made from recycled materials and/or are recyclable. Some products in this section are made from material that has been separated from the waste stream, reprocessed into a new product, and then sold as a new item. Salvaged and reclaimed materials are also included here. The savings can be substantial when using reclaimed building material.

针对由再生材料作为原材料制成的材料和可循环利用的材料的研究。

A 6.1b

co2 absorbing concrete

There is a direct link between concrete buildings, roads, and other structures and global warming. Porous CO2 absorbing concrete absorbs sound and acts as sponge, soaking up greenhouse gases. Porous pavement allows the earth to breathe and take in water. Stone and soil underneath the pavement acts as a reservoir and cleans runoff water like a filter. Exposure of crushed concrete to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere triggers a chemical reaction that sequesters the gas and keeps it from leaching out. Through this reaction, which converts calcium hydroxide to limestone, porous concrete gets stronger. It can be utilized as castin-place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry.

高活性氧化镁水泥。 现浇混凝土, 预制混凝土, 混凝土砌块。 吸收温室气体, 工业废气。

15


RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

i n s u l at e d c o n c r e t e f o r m

A6

A 6.1d

Insulated concrete forms are large building blocks with a grid of internal channels that serve as a stay-in-place wall form. Once an insulating core is set in place, the channels are reinforced and concrete is poured to achieve any desired strength. Insulated concrete forms are capable of withstanding earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.

用在有很多隔间的大型建筑物内的固定墙板。一旦颜色确定后,加强隔 热泡沫板隔板,然后按照强度要求浇混凝土。能抗震, 抗龙卷风等。

r e c y c l e d a l u m i n u m s o l i d s u r fa c e

A 6.2a

Recycled aluminum solid surface is created from recycled composite material, and is composed of postindustrial scrap aluminum and polymeric resins. It may be sanded/buffed to a matte finish and shaped/ cut with conventional woodworking tools. It is most commonly used for countertops, cabinetry, bar fronts, and horizontal/vertical interior surfaces.

由工业废料铝和聚合树脂合成的再生复合材料。可通过打磨成压光效果,再用传统的木工工具削 型。用作工作台面,橱柜,酒吧台,水平与垂直内贴面。

r e c y c l e d a l u m i n u m s o l i d s u r fa c e

A 6.2b

Aluminum foam panels are suitable where sound absorption, electromagnetic shielding, structural damping, flame resistance, or decorative surface is required. It is lightweight (roughly 5 times lighter than pure aluminum) and is 100% recyclable.

用作消音,防电磁,结构阻尼(是利用内部摩擦材料震动能量转换成热 能)防火,装饰台面。重量轻,(是纯铝的五分之一)。百分之百可再 生。

16


A6 A 6.2d

RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

l i g h t w e i g h t r e c y c l e d m e ta l c e i l i n g pa n e l s

Lightweight recycled metal ceiling panels are offered in a variety of profiles and depths to create a highly distinctive 3D ceiling treatment. Panels can be combined to create intentional patterns or installed randomly to add dimensional variety to ceiling space. Panels contain 90% recycled content.

板材用不同的形状和厚度, 可拼接成完全不同的立体形状。 采用不同的组合可以组装出不同的图 案,可随意安装以增加变化感。 分之九十的成分可回收利用。

A 6.3a

pa l m f l o o r i n g a n d p ly w o o d

Palm flooring and plywood is made from coconut palm found abundantly in Asia. It is created from felled timber, a by-product of palm plantations, when the coconut palm can no longer produce nuts due to height. Utilizes reclaimed lumber.

用亚洲盛产的椰树作原料制成。椰树地板和胶合板使用椰树的倒木,当椰树长到一定高 度不再产果,椰树地板和胶合板是椰树的副产品。 属再生木材。

A 6.4b

i n s u l at e d g l a s s u n i t w i t h t u b u l a r p o ly c a r b o n at e c o r e

A 6.4c

recycled glass

Recycled glass is comprised of 100% recycled glass material. It can be used as a replacement for natural stone, cement, and ceramics, and are aesthetic rivals to granite and marble.

由百分之百的再生材料制成。可用作天然石质, 水泥,陶瓷的替代品。可与花岗岩和大理石媲美。

17


RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

r u b b e r m o d u l a r s i d e wa l k pav i n g s y s t e m

A6 A 6.5a

High-density paving tiles are made with recycled California tire crumb rubber and combined with polyurethane binder and colorant, then molded with heat under compression. The result is a strong, durable product that meets all requirements for sidewalk construction.

用可再生加州产轮胎碎橡胶和聚亚安酯粘合剂和着色剂,加压加热浇铸 制成的高密度铺料。 可满足各种人行道建设需要的强力,耐用。

f l e x i b l e p o ly p r o p y l e n e h o n e y c o m b pa n e l s

A 6.6b

Flexible polypropylene honeycomb panels are a fusion of thousands of closely packed polypropylene tubes on one end to form a flexible honeycomb. It can be made out of plastic recycled drinking straws, and used for lighting, interior room dividers, ceiling panels, sculptural installations, and functional objects.

上千个紧密聚乙烯管熔接成一个灵活的蜂巢形状 。由再生塑料吸管和可降解的日用品制成。可 用于照明,房间内分割,天花板,雕刻物的安装和功能型物品。

t e r r a c o t ta fa c a d e pa n e l s a n d e l e m e n t s

A 6.7a

Suspended rainscreen facade system made from terra cotta, a 100% natural clay. Large, precisely crafted ceramic elements, designed to be ventilated from within the wall cavity, shed water while allowing the cavity to breathe, thus maintaining a consistent air pressure between the cavity and the exterior. All materials are100% recyclable, and its use increases the building’s energy efficiency.

悬挂式的雨屏是由百分之百的天然的陶土制成 。陶土面板上大量的, 精细的孔隙有利于通风 。在允许水流落的同时, 陶土的孔隙可以透气,保持墙内和室外的空气压力一致。百分之百可回收,提高建筑物的能效。

c l i m at e r e g u l at e d fa c a d e

A 6.9

The climate can trigger envelope materials to adjust their position relative to one another, thus allowing lighting and views to be regulated. The double-layered system has two perforated panels made out of different metal alloys. The perforations will contract or expand at different rates depending on the temperature. At extreme heat, the panels will block light by de-aligning the openings. At colder temperatures the panels will re-align. Different alloys are required depending on the climate of the building.

使密封材料随着气候的变化而调节, 从而调节内部光线和景象。双层系统具有由不同金属合金制成的双穿孔 板。穿孔板会在不同温度下以不同速度收缩和扩展。 在很热时, 面板会关闭孔道阻止光线射进, 在气温较低 时,面板会重新开启孔道。 不同的合金用于不同气候条件的建筑。

18


A7

ADVANCED GLAZING SYSTEMS

O verview Glazing is an essential element in daylighting strategies. Although the careful use of glazing can reduce the need for energy consuming and heat producing electric lights, it can also increase cooling loads if too much solar radiation is collected as well as lead to unwanted heat loss and gain if not properly insulated. Advanced systems balance these factors using technologies, many of which are just coming onto the market. Systems can be divided into two categories: active and passive. Active systems allow occupants to control the amount of light admitted to the interior, while passive systems usually respond to environmental conditions such as light and heat levels.

玻璃幕墙是日光策略的一个基本因素。虽然玻璃幕墙可降低能耗和热量,但如果太多的太阳辐射被玻璃吸 收就会增加制冷的负荷,同时如果隔热保温不好的话,也会导致被动的热量散失和吸收。高级的玻璃幕墙 系统应用高科技,很多技术才刚刚进入市场,来平衡这些因素。此系统分为主动型和被动型两种类型。主 动型系统允许使用者控制进入市内的光量,被动型系统通常对环境因素的变化作出自动反应,(比如可见 光或热量因素)。

A 7.1

photochromic and thermochromic glazing

These types of glazing are considered passive since the devices respond directly to an environmental variable(s): light for photochromic windows and temperature for thermochromic windows. Photochromic technology is already widely used in sunglasses and is useful architecturally because in its tinted state it blocks glare and prevents excessive heat gain. Thermochromic glazing uses gels sandwiched between glass panels which change from a clear state when cold to a white reflective state when hot. This type could be especially useful for skylight applications where visibility through the glass is not a concern.

这种玻璃窗因其玻璃接对环境变化做出反应,如光对光变致变色窗,温度 对热致变色玻璃窗, 属于被动型.。光变致变色技术已经广泛用于太阳镜生 产,因其玻璃的涂层可阻止闪烁光并阻止过多的热能,在建筑材料方面很有 用。热致变色玻璃窗在两层玻璃面板之间胶状夹一种胶, 当天气较冷时, 这种胶呈透明状,当天气较热时,胶呈现白色反射太阳光。这种玻璃特别适 合于不需要考虑日光可见度问题的天窗照明的应用。

19


ADVANCED GLAZING SYSTEMS

electrochromic glazing

A7

A 7.2

Electrochromic glazing is considered active since the device can be directly controlled in response to occupant preferences or heating and cooling system requirements. An electrochromic coating is typically made of five layers of nickel and tungsten oxide deposited on glass. When electricity is applied the movement of ions switches the glass from its clear state to a tinted blue state which blocks glare and reduces heat gain. The glass can be adjusted to an intermediate state, and also integrated into a sensor system, which automatically adjusts the tint based on detected light levels.

电致变色玻璃于主动型,因使用者可根据其偏好设置加热和冷却系统。典型的电 致变色玻璃一般有五层镍和氧化钨的涂层。当连接上电源时,电离子运动将玻璃 便从清晰状态变成蓝色涂层状态以阻止闪烁光射入和降低热能的吸入。这种玻璃 可调整成中间状态, 也可结合感应器使用, 这样可以根据光线强弱自动调节玻 璃颜色。

i n s u l at i o n f i l l e d g l a z i n g

A 7.3

This type of glazing consists of a highly insulating material, usually Aerogel, sandwiched between layers of glass. The microscopic cells of the Aerogel trap air and prevent convection while the size of the cells, smaller than the mean free path of air molecules, reduces conduction. It is possible to produce transparent Aerogel insulation, and small samples have been made with Ufactors as low as .05. Currently however, most commercially available glazing in this category is translucent.

这种玻璃窗填充一种高效能隔热保温材料,通常为凝胶体填夹在在玻璃 中间。凝胶体的 微小细胞阻止空气对流,凝胶体的细胞小得比空气分子 还要小,阻止空气分子自由运动减少传导。生产透明的凝胶隔热材料已 经成为可能。已经应用U-因子制成了样品,可视度低到0.05。 但是目前 市场上的填充隔热保温材料的玻璃多是半透明的。

20


A7 A 7.4a

ADVANCED GLAZING SYSTEMS

b u i l d i n g i n t e g r at e d p h o t o v o lta i c s

-

c ry s ta l i n e s i l i c o n e p v g l a z i n g

BIPV refers to the application of PV cells to the building skin: walls, roof, and glazing, as opposed to installing PV arrays on the rooftop. PV glazing is made by sandwiching PV cells between the two layers of glass in an otherwise traditional window or curtain wall panel. Crystalline silicone cells are arranged in a grid-like pattern, which allows light to enter the building through the voids. In addition to producing electricity, the PV cells create a shading screen, which reduces heat gains.

BIPV 是指将 PV电池应用于建筑的表面:墙, 屋顶,和幕墙, 它和在屋顶安装PV 系统不同。PV涂层玻璃是在 双层玻璃之间添夹PV电池,传统玻璃窗或者玻璃幕墙都可以安装这种玻璃。晶体硅电池以网格式排列, 此结构 可允许光线通过空隙进入建筑物内部。PV 电池除了产生电能,还可用来制造遮阳帘降低热量摄入。

A 7.4b

b u i l d i n g i n t e g r at e d p h o t o v o ta i c s

-

thin film pv glazing

Thin film PV glazing refers to glass that uses amorphous silicon. This type creates an aesthetically more uniform building skin than the crystalline version. Although thin film silicon is not as efficient, it is less costly to manufacture, less wasteful of high-grade silicone during the production process, and collects diffuse and reflected light better than crystalline silicone. Photocells which assess the daylight level can be integrated into both types of PV glazing and connected to interior lighting systems so that electric lights are dimmed or brightened as needed.

薄膜PV涂层玻璃是指使用非晶硅的玻璃。这种涂层可制造出比晶体硅从审美角度更加均一的效果。虽然薄膜硅效率较 低, 但制造成本低, 在制造过程中不要求高级硅,比晶体硅能更好的收集散射光和反射光。 光电池可与以上两种PV涂 层结合,通过与内部照明系统连接跟据需要自动调解照明的亮度。

A 7.5a

d o u b l e s k i n c u rta i n wa l l

-

b u ff e r fa c a d e

A double skin curtain wall is a pair of glass skins separated by an air corridor ranging in width from centimeters to a meter or more. The main layer of glass acts like part of a conventional structural wall or a curtain wall, while the additional layer, usually single glazing, is placed either in front of or behind the main glazing. The double skin is advantageous because is acts as a thermal and sound insulator. Additionally, shading devices inside the cavity can control thermal gain and are more easily adjusted and better protected from the elements than devices on the exterior of the building. In the oldest typology, the buffer facade, both skins are sealed, and air circulates from the bottom to the top of the air space. This type of double skin has existed for over 100 years, and a modern example is the Occidental Chemical Center (Hooker Building) in upstate New York.

双层玻璃幕墙两层玻璃之间有几厘米到一米甚至更宽的距离中间充满空气的中空玻璃。玻璃幕墙的主玻璃层可以当作传统结构的墙或者 幕墙,另外一层一般是单涂层玻璃通常会被安装在在主玻璃层的前面或后面。双面玻璃幕墙还具有隔热保温个隔音的优势。另外,安装 在室内的遮阳设备可控制热量的吸收,便于调节,比安装在建筑外部的遮阳设施更能得到保护。 老式的的缓冲外墙板两面都是密封的, 空气在内部在底部与顶部之间循环。 这种双层幕墙已有100多年的历史,近代的范例是位于纽约 的欧美化学中心 的Hooker 楼房。

21


ADVANCED GLAZING SYSTEMS

b u i l d i n g i n t e g r at e d p h o t o v o lta i c s

-

pv glazing

A7 A 7.4c

The following images show a variety of applications for PV glazing: windows, curtain walls, skylights, awnings, louvers, and shading fins are all possibilities.

下面的图像中显示了PV涂层玻璃的用途:玻璃窗,玻璃幕墙, 遮阳板, 和遮阳片。

d o u b l e s k i n c u rta i n wa l l

-

天窗,

e x t r a c t a i r fa c a d e

A 7.5b

The extract air facade is useful in especially noisy or polluted environments, and consists of an insulated outer and single glazed inner envelope. In areas where operable windows are not an option, this system enhances the building ventilation by working with the HVAC system to mechanically exhaust stale warm interior air upward through the cavity. Shading devices may be installed in the air space. Disadvantages include the inability of occupants to adjust their own environments. An example of this type is the Helicon Building in London.

中空外墙面板最适合在有噪音和污染的环境下使用, 它是由隔热保温的外壳和单涂层内层组成 的。在无法使用可可开关窗户的地方, 这种系统 与 HVAC 系统 一起 工作通过面板的内腔自 动 排放废气 改善建筑物内部空气流通。遮阳设施也可安装在中间, 中空外墙面板的缺点是使 用者无法自行调节。 伦敦的Helicon 楼房 就 使用的 这种 系统。

d o u b l e s k i n c u rta i n wa l l

-

t w i n fa c e fa c a d e

A 7.5c

The twin face facade, first built in the 1980s, is now the most common type of double skin curtain wall. The conventional insulated curtain wall is the inner layer and single glazing of the outer layer. The outer skin blocks the wind, which allows operable windows at the inner skin. Thus, fresh air is available to the occupants, who have more control over their environment. Examples of this type include the Debis Tower in Berlin, the Telus/Ferrel Building in Vancouver, and Das Dusseldorfer Stradttor in Dusseldorf. Hybrid systems combine characteristics of the three types. Examples include the Tjibaou Cultural Center in New Caledonia, ING Headquarters in Amsterdam, and Arup Headquarters in London.

双面面板最早是在 80年代 开始 生产的 , 现在 已成为双面墙种最为 普通的 一种。常规的隔热幕 墙作为内层,单涂层玻璃作为外层。外层可阻止风的进入允许内层可以安装可开关的玻璃窗. 因此 使用者可通过开窗获得新鲜空气. 柏林的Debis塔,温哥华的Telus/Ferrel 的建筑, 在杜塞尔的Das Dusseldorfer Stradttor建筑都是这种技术的范例. 这种综合系统结合了以上三种形式的优点. 新 喀里多尼亚的Tjibaou确文化中心, 位于阿姆斯特丹的ING总部, 和在伦敦的Arup总部均使用的这种 系统。

22


A8

ADVANCED INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTS

O verview Smart systems rely on sensors and/or instructions to produce automated outcomes, namely changes in form or activity. In the most efficient systems, the controls for each sensor and outcome are integrated such that adequate response results from interpreting a multitude of simultaneous signals. Intelligent systems (not yet on the market but sometimes available from inventors) can self-adjust to the behavior of the inhabitant.

智能系统依靠感应器或者设备自动输出结果,也就是说,改变形式或者活动。 在最高效的系统里, 将每 一个感应器和每一个结果的控制集成在一起, 这样的话系统可以从翻译的许多同步信号中做出准确的反应 智能 系统(市场是没有, 但是有时可以在投资者手里买到)可以根据使用者的行为自动调节。 可以根据使用者的行为自动调节。

A 8.1

m i t e n v i r o n m e n ta l s e n s o r s

Object-usage detection: Temperature, Current sensing, Movement, Light, Proximity* *developed in collaboration with Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs (MERL) Five wearable sensors (medium to high bandwidth): On body acceleration, RFID reader wristband, Ultra-violet radiation exposure, heart rate, location beacons. The sensors can be used simultaneously with a single receiver in the same environment. This website contains the hardware and software specifications for MIT environmental sensors as well as instructions for their manufacturing. The site also presents the evaluation of some of the sensors and their performance characteristics.

物体使用检测: 温度, 当前感应,动感,光线, 和周边环镜. *与Mitsubishi电子研究实验室合 作研制 。 五种可随身携带的传感器 (中频到高频): 脉搏仪, 紫外光曝光仪, 心率仪, 位置识别仪. 多 个传感器可同时使用单个接收器在同一环镜使用. MIT的网页有MIT软硬产品的使用和生产的 介绍. 网络还对一些感应器以及它们的表现性能作出评估。

23


ADVANCED INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTS

pressure sensors, environment control, and robotics

A8 A 8.4b

Networks of pressure sensors can be distributed throughout a surface, such as a floor, wall, stairs, etc. The network is hooked up to a computer, where the sensory information is processed and programmed, and output is generated. Pressure sensors can be used to regulate lighting, security systems, etc. in response to human activity (for example, laying, walking). The surfaces may also contain Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, which act as electronic guidance systems for appliances (vacuum cleaners, robots, etc.) with RFID readers.

压力传感器网路通过对表面如地板, 强和楼梯等的压力做出反应。网路与处理感应信息和产生程序输出的计算机 相连。 压力感应器可用于调节照明和安全系统,以对人的活动 (走动,躺下)做出反应。 表面也可能包含频率识别 (RFID)标记。

k i n e t i c s u r fa c e s

A 8.5

Surfaces that respond via real-time movement to parameters set by an individual. Movement is achieved by pneumatic arms embedded in the structure, and are regulated by computer. The computer is programmed to send signals in response to information received from different types of sensors, such as human movement or wind strength sensors, which may be embedded in the structure or in the surrounding environment.

这种表面对由个人设定的实时运动范围作出反应。运动是由计算机调节的结构内置空气臂实现的。计算 机发出信号以对不同感应器做出反应,如人的移动或风力感应,这种结构可是内置的也可以是独立的。

s e l f - c l e a n i n g s u r fa c e s

A 8.6

Self-cleaning surfaces are useful for concrete, glass, toilets, tiles, wallpapers, countertops, fake plants, and even disposable cups. New technologies are employed: 1) Titanium dioxide coating on surfaces, when exposed to UV light and air, breaks down (oxidizes) toxic compounds, dirt, and kills bacteria. The coating is hydrophobic, so water, together with dirt, runs off of the coated surfaces. Only organic dirt (not rust) is treated. The oxidizing activity persists in material when it is disposed, so the material is potentially dangerous (breaks down helpful microbes in dirt and water). 2) Super-hydrophobic surface results when “large” grooves are created in water repellent material. Grooves are made by laser bombardment, or selective removal of a component of a material mixture. Does not require light; does not rely on oxidation (not catalytic).

水泥, 玻璃, 卫坐便器, 瓦砾, 墙纸,台面, 假植物,一次性纸杯。应用几种技术:1)氧化钛表面涂层,当暴露 在紫外光和空气下时,分解 (氧化)毒素成分, 污物, 杀死细菌。涂层具疏水性能, 因此污水会流过被涂过的表 面。只有有机污物(非锈的)可被处理。氧化一直在被分解的材料反应, 因此材料有潜在的危险(分解水和污物中有 用微生物)。 2)当疏水材料中大凸槽水位上升时,超级疏水表面产生,凸槽激光对混合物成分选择性去除。不需光 照, 也不依赖于氧化(无催化)。

24


A9

HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS

O verview Health monitoring systems are sensors embedded in the building or furniture and hooked up to computers with algorithmic capabilities to relay particular human behavior, or gadgets that people wear/use and are either automatically or personally connected to internet to relay detected information for recording or computing. Increasingly, health monitoring is using wireless technology to relay information. Mobile wireless technologies can assist rehabilitation by improving communication, access to information, health monitoring, and location finding. Mobile wireless cell phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants support voice and text communications. Health management and rehabilitation information resources that are now widely available on the Internet are also available through wireless Internet connections. Medical sensors for monitoring vital signs and other health measurements can use mobile wireless networks, allow continuous monitoring of patients as they return to work, or move throughout the community. Mobile wireless devices can also help caregivers locate people who are at risk of wandering away or getting lost.

监测系统内置在建筑内或家具的感应器和具有计算功能的计算机相连, 依赖于人的行为和人们穿着和使用的配件。 这些东西自 动或通过个人与互联网连接以传输记录和计算监测到的信息。健康监测传输感应信息正向无线技术方面发展。

A 9.1

h o m e e m b e d d e d h e a lt h m o n i t o r i n g

Daily Living Activity Monitoring – on/off pressure or motion sensors deployed throughout the home that communicate with a base station. The base station is connected to a remote computer set up with an algorithm to analyze an activity, such as “asleep,” or “opened medicine cabinet,” as well as to alert about potential emergencies like “stove left on.” The system can “learn” about activities of a particular user to better identify anomalies. More advanced sensors/systems also detect vital signs. The information analyzed by the server is confidential but retrievable by a permitted party, usually a family member or a commissioned medical service. Systems are designed for the possibility of additional components and user installation.

日常生活活动监控—安装可与总工作站交流的有/无压力和运动感应器。 总工作站与有运算功能的遥控计算机计算分析某一活动, 如睡眠,打开 药柜,同时对潜在安全隐患, 如炉灶未关, 给予警告。 此系统可“学习”某一特定使用者的活动以更好的发现异常的人或物。 高级感应器/系 统也可以监测到主要标志。服务器分析的信息虽然是保密的, 但经过许可例如家庭成员或医疗服务机构可重新获取。 此系统的设计也允许使用 者安装其它设备。

25


HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS

m e m o ry m i r r o r

A9

A 9.2b

Memory mirror reflects a period of time (e.g. 24 hours of a day). As we use an item, it is visually posted to a mirror and recorded in a history log. If an item has been already used, an episode mirror reflects details of the previous number of usages. The memory mirror also warns of items that have yet to be returned. The memory mirror system uses RFID (radio frequency identification) technology. Each household item (e.g. medicine bottles, food containers) has a RFID tag on the bottom, and the designated storage area (e.g. medicine cabinet, key tray) has a RFID reader on the top. Each item is photographed and entered into the system’s inventory. With this setup, the memory mirror system tracks the removal and return of each differently tagged object to and from the storage area. – Dr. Quan Tran and Dr. Elizabeth Mynatt

记忆镜可记录一定时间 (如:一天24小时)。当我们使用一个物品时,这个物品就会象图1 所示的那样被贴到镜 里,记录在历史日志中。如果这个物品已使用过了,情景镜会反射之前使用的多少。 记忆镜也会警告你尚未使用 的物品会丢失的可能性。

overview

-

w i r e l e s s t e l e r e h a b i l i tat i o n a n d m o n i t o r i n g

A 9.3

Mobile wireless technologies can assist Telerehabilitation by improving communication, access to information, health monitoring, and location finding. Mobile wireless cell phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants support voice and text communications. Health management and rehabilitation information resources that are now widely available on the Internet are also becoming available through wireless Internet connections. Medical sensors for monitoring vital signs and other health measurements can use mobile wireless networks allow continuous monitoring of patients as they return to work or move throughout the community. Mobile wireless devices can also help caregivers locate people who are at risk of wandering away or getting lost.

可移动无线技术可通过改善通信, 信息获取途径,健康监控, 和位置找寻来协助远程康复. 移动电话, 寻 呼机, 个人数字计算机支持声音和文字通讯. 在互联网上的健康管理和康复信息资源同时也可通过无线 连接查找. 监控重要标志和其它健康指标的医用感应器可允许继续检测已离开社区或返回工作的病人的 状况. 移动无线监控设施可帮助护理人员寻找丢失或处于危险的游走病人.

26


A9

A 9.3a

HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS

r e m o t e v i ta l s i g n s , l o c at i o n , a n d t e m p e r at u r e m o n i t o r i n g a n d m e d i c a l i n f o r m at i o n s h a r i n g

The Personal Safety and Location System by the Digital Angel Corporation performs location and vital signs monitoring. The system includes a watch that transmits vital signs and location data to a beeper sized clip-on monitor. The monitor then transmits the data to a web accessible server. The server monitors the information and can send alerts based on set limits. It performs position tracking (using GPS) and ambient temperature monitoring. Digital Angle Corporation is planning to add capabilities to monitor and transmit vital signs including: Pulse, 3-lead ECG, blood pressure, blood chemistry (oxygen) and body temperature. Plans are also to include a fall down alert. The wearer’s location and information can be tracked on the web. Alerts can be sent out by the Digital Angel center, based on vital signs or location, via email to any device that can receive it (e.g. cell phones, pagers, personal computers, PDAs). The system also has an emergency alert the wearer can activate. The system requires CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) wireless network coverage so it is important to verify that there is service available. This is the network provided by AT&T Wireless. This product is primarily marketed toward patients with memory loss or cognitive impairment who are at risk of wandering away or getting lost.

由Digital Angel 公司 生产的个人安全和定位系统主要用于定位和重要标志监控. 此系统包括传输重要标志的监测表和将 位置数据到传呼机大小的监测器.监测器然后会传输数据到可从网上浏览的服务器. 服务器监控信息并根据系统限制发出警 告. 系统还进行位置跟踪 (用GPS)和周围环境温度监控. Digital Angel 公司准备增加产品功能以监测和传输重要标志如: 脉搏, 三导联(3-lead ECG), 血压, 血管成分 (氧)和血温度. 计划还包括摔跤警示.佩戴者的位置和信息可传输到网上.可 由Digital Angel 中心通过邮件发送 警示信息到任何设施 如 (移动电话,寻呼机, 个人电脑, PDA 等)。 系统也 具有 供 佩戴 者 使用的救紧设施。系统 要求 CDPD 无线 网络覆盖 ,所以 要确定有这种服务。AT&T无线 生产这种网络。 这 种产品 最初主要用于失忆 和认知缺陷容易 走失的病人。

A 9.3b

r e m o t e v i ta l s i g n s m o n i t o r i n g a n d m e d i c a l i n f o r m at i o n s h a r i n g

Welch Allyn’s Micropaq is a wireless patient-wearable device for monitoring heart rate, ECG and pulse oximetry. It has a nurse call feature as well as patient alarms for all parameters monitored. This device will continue to monitor vital signs, but it cannot send data when the patient moves outside the range of the wireless local area network (LAN). Flexnet is the Welch Allyn LAN for patient monitoring. It is an 802.11b network with access to a server. It can be accessed by PDAs, IP phones for voice and patient monitoring devices such as Micropaq or Propaq portable bedside monitor.

Welch Allyn’s Micropaq 是 一种无线 随身 携带的设施,可监测 病人的 心跳, ECG和 脉搏测氧法。具有传 呼护理人员和 病人警报性能。 设施可监控重要标志,但病人在可无线监控的范围之外是将无法传输数据。

27


HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEMS

r e m o t e v i ta l s i g n s m o n i t o r i n g a n d m e d i c a l i n f o r m at i o n s h a r i n g

A9

A 9.4a

QRS Diagnostic delivers completely portable medical devices. The products include complementary patient management software for PC’s to simplify the management of physiological data.

QRS诊断发送器是一种便携式的医用设施。 的管理。

此产品包括附加病人计算机管理软件以及生理数据

r e m o t e m e d i c a l i n f o r m at i o n s h a r i n g

A 9.4b

Allows sharing of medical records between doctors’ offices and patients via PC’s and wireless networks in reliable and confidential manner, better protected from the elements than devices on the exterior of the building. In the oldest typology, the buffer facade, both skins are sealed, and air circulates from the bottom to the top of the air space. This type of double skin has existed for over 100 years, and a modern example is the Occidental Chemical Center (Hooker Building) in upstate New York.

允许医生和病人之间通过计算集合无线网络以可靠和保密方式分享病人档案咨询。

28


A10

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

O verview Although a well-designed building can be illuminated effectively with natural light, most systems must be supplemented with artificial fixtures. New lighting technologies are far more energy efficient than traditional incandescent bulbs, which emit more energy in the form of heat than in the visual range of the spectrum. This section includes CFLs and LEDs, two energy efficient and long life technologies, which are replacing traditional incandescent bulbs, as well as more radical solutions such as hybrid and PV powered lighting.

尽管设计合理的建筑能有效地利用日光源,多数系统仍需补充人工照明。新型发光技 术的能源利用比传统的白炽灯更有效,比白炽灯散发更多的热而不是可见光谱。本节 包括两种取代传统白炽灯的节能长命技术 - 密集荧光灯(CFL) 和 超亮LED灯, 以取代 传统的白炽灯以及使用更加革新的办法, 例如混合型和PV 驱动式。

A 10.1

hybrid lighting

Hybrid lighting is an emerging technology, which uses optical fibers to bring sunlight into a building. A parabolic sunlight collector with a sun-tracking device is mounted on the roof. Polymer optical fibers pipe the light to fixtures on the interior. Sensors monitor the daylight levels and augment the illumination with electric lighting as needed. Higher frequency wavelengths are filtered, so only the visible part of the spectrum enters, preventing heat gain.

混合照明是利用光纤维将太阳光导入室内的新型技术。 将抛物线形能跟踪 太阳光的太阳光线接收器安装于屋顶, 用聚合光纤管将光导入内部。传感 器检测光强度,必要时用电照明扩大光照度。 高频率波谱被过滤, 只允许 可见光进入,避免过热。

29


ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

hybrid lighting

A10

A 10.1

The images below show the sunlight collector and interior fixture. Currently, the system functions best when used on the top floor of the building. Whereas photovoltaics convert sunlight to electricity at a 5-30% efficiency rate, hybrid lighting technology by passes the conversion step entirely by using the sunlight directly and thus has a higher efficiency.

混合照明是利用光纤维将太阳光导入室内的新型技术。 将抛物线 形能跟踪太阳光的太阳光线接收器安装于屋顶, 用聚合光纤管将 光导入内部。传感器检测光强度, 必要时用电照明扩大光照度。 高频率波谱被过滤, 只允许可见光进入, 避免过热。

fiber optics

A 10.2

Fiberstars Efficient Fiber Optics system is comprised of an illuminator, optical, fiber, and fixtures. Light from a 70 watt metal halide lamp passes through up to eight 10mm large core fibers into each fixture. In addition to its high efficiency, Fiberstars product emits little heat. This US based company distributes internationally to 29 countries, including China.

纤星 (Fiberstars)的高效光纤系统由发光体,光学,光纤,装置 器组成。光经由70瓦的金属卤化物灯通过八个10-毫米大核纤维传 人装置器。Fiberstars 产品不仅高效,而且很少散发热量。其美 国公司为包括中国在内的29个国家供给产品。

pv powered led

-

solar brick

A 10.6

This product’s photovoltaic cells absorb solar energy during the day, and use it at night to power a colored LED. Each unit is self-contained and completely off the grid, meaning it never needs to be attached to an external power supply.

本产品的光伏电池白天吸收太阳能,晚上用其驱动彩色 LED (发光二极管)。每个单元自成一体,与电网无关, 无须外接电。

30


A11

NATURAL LIGHTING

O verview The use of daylight to illuminate the interior of a building reduces the need for energy consuming artificial lighting. Direct, diffuse, and reflected sunlight can be utilized. Sizes and locations of windows, skylights, and shading devices should be carefully studied to maximize the amount of daylight entering the building while simultaneously avoiding glare and heat gain. In addition to reducing energy consumption, many studies suggest that daylight and the circadian cycle have a positive effect on building inhabitants. This section goes beyond established strategies such as building orientation to explore new technologies designed to use solar energy.

应用日光源提供室内照明降低人工照明的能源消耗需求. 直射光, 扩散光和反射光都可以使用. 应该对窗户的大小和位置, 顶部采光和遮阳 设施加以仔细研究, 使进入建筑物内的日光量最大化同时避免眩光和热量吸收. 除了可以利用日光源降低能耗外, 很多研究还发现日光和生 物循环周期对居住环境有积极的作用. 这一部分不仅将介绍公认的利用日光源的方法如建筑朝向, 还将介绍新开发的利用太阳能的新技术。

A 11.1

h e l i o s tat a n d p r i s m at i c l o u v e r s

The Genzyme Building in Cambridge, Massachusetts uses a series of roof-mounted heliostats (mirrors) that track the sun’s movement across the skylight to fixed mirrors. The fixed mirrors further reflect the light to a series of prismatic louvers located at the top of the atrium. The louvers also move with the sun’s path and elevation and reflect glaring, and direct sunlight back to the mirrors, allowing diffuse light to enter the atrium. Once in the atrium, the light is further reflected to the floors by a system of hanging prismatic mobiles, reflective panels, and a reflective light wall on the inner surface of the atrium. On the outside glass walls, horizontal, reflective, motorized blinds reflect light up to reflective ceiling panels (the first two in the ceiling grid), which in turn reflect the light through glass inner walls deep into the floor plate.

位于马萨诸塞州Cambridge市的Genzyme世界中心在楼顶上安装了一系列日光反射镜. 这个装 置可以收集太阳移动的信息传送到固定镜片上, 这些固定的镜片再将光反射到一系列的安装 在中庭上方的聚光多棱镜上. 多棱镜也随着太阳的移动轨迹和日光照射角度而移动并反射眩 光和直射光到固定镜片, 允许散射光通过中庭. 反射到中庭的日光又通过一个悬挂的可移动 的多棱镜,反射板和中庭内侧的反射墙将散射光反射到地面。在室外玻璃墙上横向安装的可 自动调节反射遮阳帘再将散射光反射到天花板上, 再由天花板将光通过中庭玻璃墙反射到室 内地面。

31


NATURAL LIGHTING

light shelf and sloped ceiling

A11 A 11.2

Rinker Hall at the University of Florida, finished in 2005 manipulates shading devices and ceiling geometry to increase daylighting. The window is divided into a “vision portion” and a “shaded portion”. The “vision portion” provides and unobstructed view to the exterior, while the shading is created by light shelves. Light shelves are horizontal interior louvers which bounce direct sunlight toward the ceiling the prevent glare. These devices combined with the angled geometry of the ceiling bring daylight deep into the classroom, decreasing the need for heat producing and energy using electric lighting.

在2005年完工的佛罗里达大学Rinker Hall礼堂巧妙利用了遮阳装置和应用几何学设计的天花板 提高日光源采光. 窗户分成两部分, 一部分透明, 另一部分做遮阳处理. 透明的部分可以看到室 外,没有任何障碍. 遮阳部分是通过日光板实现的了。日光板是一个横向的可自动调节的反射遮阳 板组成的(与百叶窗结构类似),这样日光板将直射光反射到天花板防止了眩光。这些装置结合 有角度几何图形的天花板可以将日光引入到教室各个角落, 降低供热需求以及电灯照明。

sun pipe

A 11.3

Sun pipes effectively bring sunlight to interior spaces. The system consists of a prismatic diffuser at ceiling level, a highly reflective rigid tunnel, and flexible inserts to allow bending of the pipe. One pipe can light up to 400 sq ft.

光导管有效的将太阳光传递到室内. 光导管系统包括一个安装在天花板 的日光折射装置,一根高反射率的光导管和一个灵活的光导管内壁衬里. 一根光导管可以供应400平方英尺的照明。 i n t e l l i g e n t k i n e t i c s y s t e m s : o pa c i t y s c r e e n a n d r e s p o n s i v e s k y l i g h t s

A 11.5

Intelligent kinetic systems are architectural spaces and objects that can physically re-configure themselves to meet changing needs. Opacity Screen is a double-layered system of two panels made out of different alloys of perforated metals. They will contract or expand at different rates depending on the temperature. At extreme heat they will block light by de-aligning the openings. In colder temperatures they will re-align. Deferent alloys are required depending on the climate. Responsive Skylights is a networked system of individually responsive skylights, which work together to optimize thermal and daylighting conditions. Components of the skylights include photovoltaic cell paneling, shading film, tension cables, and sensor devices.

智能系统是指建筑的空间和设备能够按照自然规律自动调整满足自然变化的需求。 吸光面板: 吸光面板是一个双层系统具有由不同金属合金制成的双穿孔板。穿孔板会在不同温度下以不同 速度关闭和张开。 在很热时, 面板会关闭孔道阻止光线射进, 在气温较低时,面板会重新开启孔道。 不同的合金用于不同气候条件的建筑。 感应天窗: 网络系统与自动反应天窗共同工作实现最优化的采热和采光. 感应天窗包括光伏电池板, 遮阳 膜, 受拉绳和感应装置。

32


A12

INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

O verview A sustainable approach to design extends beyond a building’s exterior envelope and mechanical systems, and through to the interior finishes. By specifying green products that promote healthy interior environments and recognize human factors, projects contribute to reducing the impact on the environment and enhancing work performance and quality of life. The US Green Building Council, with its LEED program, initiated a separate set of requirements for commercial interior projects, LEED-CI, which isolate issues having the biggest impact on interior spaces. This standard sets out to certify high-performance green interiors that are healthy, productive places to work and live, are less costly to operate and maintain, and reduce environmental footprint. The manufacturers and products in this section are considered to be at the forefront of sustainable design.

可持续设计手段从建筑的外部设计, 机械系统延伸到内部装饰. 通过使用绿色产品促进健康的室内环境并使室内和谐美观. 项目致力于减 低人为因素对环境的影响,加强性能和提高生活质量. 美国绿色建筑委员会的LEED认证体系制定了一整套对商业项目室内设计的要求, LEED-CI 体系将对室内环境和空间有重大影响的问题分离 出来。这一标准的设定是承认给人类健康,高效的生产和生活环境,低运行维护成本,和降低对环保影响的高质量绿色环保室内环境。 可持续设计手段从建筑的外部设计, 机械系统延伸到内部装饰. 通过使用绿色产品促进健康的室内环境并使室内和谐美观. 项目致力于减 低人为因素对环境的影响,加强性能和提高生活质量. 美国绿色建筑委员会的LEED认证体系制定了一整套对商业项目室内设计的要求, LEED-CI 体系将对室内环境和空间有重大影响的问题分离 出来。这一标准的设定是承认给人类健康,高效的生产和生活环境,低运行维护成本,和降低对环保影响的高质量绿色环保室内环境。

A 12.1f

flooring: rubber and non-pvc resilient flooring

Rubber tile flooring is one of the most versatile flooring materials available today. This rubber tile flooring provides uniform color, non-laminated surfaces, and lasting wear qualities. Rated as sustainable and environmentally friendly, It is exceptionally durable, resilient, and resistant to scuffs, scratches, and indentations. Easy to install and maintain, the surface finish provides remarkable slip and stain resistance. Free of PVC (polyvinyl chloride), halogens, plasticizers, chlorines or asbestos and emits NO VOC’s (volatile organic compounds) into the environment.

橡胶地板是当前多最样化的地板材料. 橡胶地板颜色统一, 无贴面很耐磨. 以极其耐用,无溶剂,耐磨,防刮无凹凸等特点被评为可持续和环保材料。安 装维护容易,表面经过处理,防滑和防污渍。 不含PVC,卤化物,增塑剂,氯化物或石棉, 不向环境排放VOC。

33


INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

f l o o r i n g : c a r p e t t i l e m a n u fa c t u r e d f r o m n at u r a l f i b e r s

A12

A 12.1i

Carpet tile allows users to repair only areas stained or worn over time, instead of total replacement, grossly reducing material sent to landfills or needing recycling. Natural fiber carpet tiles are recommended because the materials are renewable as well as recyclable. Two examples are: Coir2 ™ / Earthy with a sophisticated air, equally at ease in living spaces and dining rooms. Chunky ribs of irregular natural fibers from coconut husks. Natural fibers can be absorbent, but FLOR tiles swap out for easy replacement if stained. Terra™ / Irregular stripes in a natural palette for bold rugs and runners. Loopy rows of weave. Terra is radical eco-power — 34% of its content is made of PLA, a highly renewable corn-based resource. Stripes are random; no two tiles are alike.

地毯砖允许使用者可以局部更换或修理,不需要整体更换,大大降低资源浪费和回收。天然纤维地毯砖因为其材 料可再生和可回收利用所以被推荐。 举两个例子: Coir2/天然高档,既适用于客厅有适用于餐厅。由椰壳纤维制成,天然纤维吸水,但是FLOR地砖/毯可以单片更换。 Terra/天然不规则条形图案用于制作色彩艳丽的块毯和过道地毯。结绳编织。Terra是完全的生态产品-34%的成 分是PLA。PLA是一种高再生玉米基资源。条形图案无规则,图案具有独一无二的特点。

r e c y c l e d a l u m i n u m s o l i d s u r fa c e

A 12.1j

Wool carpeting is a healthy non-toxic alternative to standard nylon, olefin or other synthetic carpets that off-gas toxic chemicals, don’t last very long and are not biodegradable. Wool carpets are: odor-free, renewable, longer lasting, fire-resistant, air purifying, softer, and biodegradable. Wool carpets and rugs are fire safe. Wool absorbs contaminants in the air, improving the indoor air quality and helping you breathe easier. Shaw Contract Group introduced EcoWorx Performance Broadloom, the commercial carpet industry’s first fully sustainable, cradle-to-cradle carpet backing for broadloom carpet products. With broadloom carpet comprising approximately 70 percent of the entire commercial floor covering market, the introduction of EcoWorx Performance Broadloom plays a significant role in reducing the amount of carpet sent to landfills after its useful life. A Walk in the Garden: The William McDonough Design Portfolio. Is a “cradle to cradle” new line of carpet tiles, released in the fall of 2006, which offers patterns inspired by photographs McDonough took on a trip to China, subtle and organic patterns with a distinctive textural quality and natural and vivid colors.

毛地毯健康无毒,是尼龙,丙纶和其他化纤地毯的替代品。尼龙,丙纶和化纤地毯有化学成分,不耐用不可降解。羊毛地毯具有 无味,可再生,经久耐用,防火,净化空气,柔软和可降解的特点。毛地毯吸收空气中的杂质,可以改善室内空气质量有利健 康。 Shaw Contract Group 推出了EcoWorx生态型宽幅地毯,是商业地毯产品行业的第一个可持续,衬里可再生的宽幅地毯产品。由于 宽幅地毯占整个商业地毯市场的70%左右的份额,EcoWorx生态型宽幅地毯的推出为减低地毯达到使用寿命后的废物处理起了重要 作用。 “走在花园里”是William McDonough设计公司的一句广告词。是一种可再生的地毯新产品,2006年秋季刚刚上市。可以买到 McDonough先生去中国时带的照片里的设计图案。图案设计微妙,结构质量与众不同,颜色自然生动。

34


A12 A 12.1

INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

f l o o r i n g : n at u r a l f i b e r r u g s a n d m at s

Mountain Grass is grown in the highland fields of China. Because of the drier growing conditions, Mountain Grass has a rich, deep shade of brown and a texture similar to Seagrass. Mountain Grass rugs are also known as hemp rugs. Seagrass has an excellent neutral color consisting of light-brown and beige hues with a green tinge. Seagrass fibers are reed-like and smooth to the touch with a slight natural sheen. Thick Seagrass forms a rug with beautiful texture and long lasting durability. In addition to paper countertops - durable products woven from paper are available on the commercial market. For example Merida manufactures a 100% paper woven carpet.

高山草生长在中国高原地区。 由于干旱的环境,高山个草结构与海草相似,颜色呈漂亮的深棕色。 山草地毯也被俗称为麻地毯。海草颜色呈中性色包括浅棕色,米色和淡绿色。海草纤维与芦苇相 似,手感光滑带有淡淡的天然光泽。厚海草编织成的地毯结构精美,经久耐用。 市场上可以买到纸编制的耐用产品。 例如Merida生产的100%纸编制地毯。

A 12.2a

p r e fa b r i c at e d wa l l s a n d pa rt i t i o n s

EPW Environmental Protection Wall / Presto Wall, Advanced Building SystemsBoth Presto Wall and EPW utilize a natural and renewable resource, wheat straw, as the main material. EPW is manufactured in Shaanxi, China. Wheat straw is a natural by product of the harvest. These panels have been designed to replace the standard drywall and lumber construction process for both the residential and commercial markets. They can be used as a non-load bearing wall, interior partition wall, heat insulation layer etc. for all kinds of building, both residential and commercial. EPW has a hollow structure for running electrical and plumbing services. It is lightweight, only 33kg/M2. It can be sanded and finished, reducing the amount of plaster required. Through a manufacturing process that is free of chemicals and produces no toxic waste, Prestowall panels are extruded with heat and pressure to create a high-density, durable, and fire-resistant product. The panel is naturally fire resistant due to the compactness of the straw, and has excellent sound insulation. The panels are finished by applying a recycled, moisture-absorbent linerboard, suitable for the application of wallpaper, paint or other finishes. The ease of installation and prefabrication reduces construction costs and labor time.

Presto墙和EPW都是使用天然和可再生材料麦秸作为主要材料制成的。EPW产在中国陕西省。麦秸是农产品的副产品。 这种墙板是为替代普通的胶合板墙和木结构工艺设计的,既适合民用住宅也适用于商用建筑。适合民用住宅和商业建 筑用作不承重墙,室内隔壁墙和隔热保温层等。 EPW的中空结构可以排电线和水管。质量轻,只有33kg/m2。可以打磨和上漆,降低石膏的用量。生产工艺无化学原 料,不产生有毒废物。 Presto墙板是热挤压成型的,产品具有高密度,耐用和防火的特点。墙板由于麦秸的紧密结 构,具有天然的防火功能和卓越的隔音隔热功能。墙板表面使用可再生的吸潮衬板,适合贴墙纸,上漆或者其他的表 面处理。安装容易和预制的特点降低建筑成本和人工费用。

35


INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

c o u n t e rt o p s a n d s u r fa c i n g m at e r i a l s

A12

A 12.5

shektaSTONE is a revolutionary product that has a 100% sustainable life cycle, made from 100% recycled paper without any binders or adhesives. Products that are produced from shetkaSTONE are manufactured from pre and post consumer waste paper and rely on using none of the Earth’s resources. IceStone® durable surface material is made from recycled glass and concrete. This product is produced by an environmentally friendly manufacturing process. IceStone was recently awarded the prestigious Cradle-toCradle Certification by sustainability pioneer William McDonough’s firm, MBDC PaperStone Certified, an FSC-certified environmentally sustainable bio-composite surface made with 100% post-consumer recycled paper. Its manufacture takes far less energy and uses renewable resources unlike traditional materials.

shektaSTONE是一种在整个生命周期内100%可再生的革命性材料。由100%回收纸不加任何粘结剂或胶制 成的。shektaSTONE生产的产品全部由废纸制成,不使用任何地球资源。 IceStone®耐用的表面材料是由回收玻璃和混凝土制成的。这种产品的生产工艺很环保。不久之前, IceStone®获得了很有威望的William McDonough’s公司的再生产品认证(Cradle to Cradle 认证) 经PaperStone 认证的,一种FSC认证的环保可持续生物复合表面材料是100%由废纸制成。 其生产工艺 比传统材料的生产工艺消耗更低的能源并且使用再生材料。

recycled glass tiles

A 12.6

Products are made from 100% recycled glass, mostly post-consumer material, which is otherwise destined for landfills, each tile takes less than one-half of the energy to produce than ceramic tile.

产品由100%的回收玻璃制成。大多是如果不回收利用就被当 作垃圾扔掉的废旧材料。 制造一块玻璃砖消耗的能源是瓷砖 的一半。

36


A12 A 12.9

INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

textiles

-

fa b r i c

Fabrics are not excluded when it comes to selecting sustainable materials for interior environments. Many companies are developing fabrics that use recycled fibers, natural fibers, certified organic fibers as well as reducing use of toxins, pesticide free materials and reduced emissions of VOCs. And to close the loop - ensuring materials are recyclable and/or biodegradable. These types of products are being developed for use as upholstery fabric, panel fabric, wallcoverings and draperies. Herman Miller developed Kira, a durable high-performance fabric made entirely from corn, a 100% renewable source. Kira can be composted, and it contains no petroleum products. KnollTextiles developed a new Environmental Collection - fabrics with recycled content, All made of recycled and recyclable polyester, with no added backings or finishes. KnollTextiles offers a range of fabrics with recycled content or natural fiber, and more than 95% of the line is certified by the GREENGUARD Environmental Institute for low chemical and particle emissions.

当为室内环境选择可持续材料时,纺织品没有被不包括在内。 很多公司正在开发使用回收纤维制成的织物。 经过 认证的有机纤维和降低毒素的使用。 无杀虫剂材料和低VOC排放的材料。为了保证循环, 保证材料可回收利用和可 生物降解。这些种类型的产品正在被开发用做室内装潢纤维材料, 纤维板, 墙壁材料和窗帘。 Herman Miller开发了Kira,一种耐用的高性能的纤维织物完全是由玉米制成。100%的可再生资源。 Kira 可以腐烂 做成肥料, 不含任何石油产品。 Knoll纺织品公司开发了一套新的环保系列产品-含有再生材料成份的布料, 完全由回收的和可回收利用的聚酯制 成, 没有衬背或者处理。Knoll 纺织品公司提供一系列的含有再生材料成份或者天然纤维的布料。 95%的产品经过 GREENGUARD绿色环保机构认证的低化学气体和颗粒排放的产品。

A 12.10

furniture

Pet Lounge by Turnstone: The Pet Lounge chair is made from the same material used in recyclable plastic bottles. Every Pet Lounge chair can use the equivalent of up to thirteen 16 oz. plastic bottles. It’s a perfect solution for design-savvy companies that are dedicated to sustainable practices. Pet Lounge is GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality Certified. Think is the chair with a brain and a conscience. It’s intelligent enough to understand how you sit and adjust itself intuitively. It’s thoughtful enough to measure and minimize its lifelong impact on the environment. In fact, the Think chair is the first product to ever receive Cradle-to-Cradle TM Product Certification from McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry’s (MBDC). Designed by Glen Oliver Low.

Turnstone的室外家具. Pet Lounge椅子材料与可回收塑料瓶的材料相同. 每一个椅子可 以使用相当于13个16oz塑料瓶的材料. 对于致力于探索可持续设计的设计公司来说这是 一个完美的解决方案. Pet Lounge是经过GREENGUARD室内空气质量认证. THINK是有大脑和思维的智能椅子. 智能椅子足够智能以至于会根据你坐的习惯自动调 节, 设计考虑的足够周到可以测量其使用寿命其间对环境的影响并使影响最小化. 实际 上, THINK智 能 椅 子是第一个从MBDC公司接受Cradle to Cradle TM产品认证的产品。 由Glen Oliver Low设计。

37


INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

interior lighting

A12

A 12.11a

Herman Miller Leaf: This organically shaped table lamp from Herman Miller uses several LED lights and a vertical blade to let you create a variety of lighting conditions. Designed by Yves Behar, the Leaf Lamp ($450) also has a heat distribution system to keep things cool, and its LEDs use less than 12 watts of power, 40% less energy than a compact fluorescent light. It’s available in red, white, black, silver or polished. In addition, Leaf was developed according to Herman Miller’s demanding Design for the Environment (DfE) protocol, emphasizing sustainable processes, materials, and recyclability. Leaf’s environmental impact is perhaps most profound through its use. On average, Leaf’s LEDs consume approximately eight to nine watts of power, carry a lifespan up to 100,000 hours, and cut energy use by 40 percent compared to compact fluorescent bulbs.

Herman Miller 树叶 这个Herman Miller的五官造型的台灯使用几个超亮LED灯头和一个纵向的叶片形状的灯罩创造多种灯 光效果. 由Yves Behar设计的, 叶片台灯还有一个分热系统防止过热. LED灯头使用低于12瓦的电-比 同样的荧光灯节电40%. 颜色有红色, 白色, 黑色,银色或抛光的.

interior lighting

A 12.11b

Designed by Materious, this lamp is created from a discarded PVC pipe and plays with our old ideas on the relationship between beauty and waste. The Bone Lamp is beautiful yet functional, waste product turned into useful art form.

由Materious设计的, 是利用废弃的PVC管制造的. 应了变 废为宝的老话. Bone灯不仅外形漂亮功能性也很强, 将废 物转化成了具有功能性的艺术形式.

38


A13

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

O verview Sustainability in landscape design is targeted in several areas. • Promote native plantings which reduce the need for high-cost maintenance • Water conservancy through the reuse of rainwater and gray water for irrigation • Reduce storm water runoff and pollution with bioretention and increasing pervious surfaces with green walls and porous pavers • Reduce the urban heat island effect with green roofs, green screens, and high albedo paving (which also reduces lighting need) • Use recycled materials and materials with less embodied energy • Employ energy efficient / solar-powered site lighting

雨水通过开放式的排水系统处理比如水沟,洼地, 湿地。开放式排水系统管理和处理污染的雨水使可以再使用例如用于灌溉。这些设施正常情况下 收集雨水,然后通过地下土壤层过滤,或者将水在地下保持一定长的时间让污染物沉淀,也可也两种方法结合使用。在土壤渗透性或者雨水流量 不适合使用开放式排水系统时,可以采用机械水土保持和处理系统。

A 13.1

b i o r e t e n t i o n / s t o r m wat e r m a n a g e m e n t

Stormwater treatment through open drainage systems such as vegetated swales or bioswales (gently sloped sides) and rain gardens (planted depression). Open drainage manages and treat runoff contaminated with pollutants. These devices normally work by capturing runoff and allowing it to filter into the ground (infiltration), holding the runoff long enough for pollutants to settle out (detention/retention) or some combination of these two processes. Where soil permeability or quantity of flows do not enable open drainage, constructed bioretention and treatment systems can be used.

雨水通过开放式的排水系统处理比如水沟,洼地, 湿地。开放式排水系统管理和处理 污染的雨水使可以再使用例如用于灌溉。这些设施正常情况下收集雨水,然后通过 地下土壤层过滤,或者将水在地下保持一定长的时间让污染物沉淀,也可也两种方 法结合使用。在土壤渗透性或者雨水流量不适合使用开放式排水系统时,可以采用 机械水土保持和处理系统。

39


LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE wa s t e wat e r t r e at m e n t

A13 A 13.2

An on-site wastewater treatment system is a logical alternative when located where water treatment capacity is limited and/or costly. The resulting effluent can be used for nonpotable uses such as irrigation. Options for on-site wastewater treatment include: open water constructed wetlands and subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. If space is limited consider vertical flow subsurface wetlands. Natural wetlands act as biofilters, removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water. Constructed wetlands are reliable, easy to monitor and operate, and are an economical and effective technology for waste decomposition and nutrient reduction.

现场污水处理系统可以在污水处理能力有限或者成本很高的情况下使用。湿地可以起生物过滤器的作 用,去除重金属之类的沉淀物和污染物。处理过的水可以用作非饮用生活用水,比如灌溉用水。现场污 水处理方式包括地面土壤结构型湿地,地下土壤结构型湿地。如果空间有限,可以考虑地下纵向结构湿 地。结构型湿地是一种可信赖,监测和操作简单,经济,有效并且美观的降解废物的技术。

g r e e n wa l l s

A 13.6

Green walls offer compelling alternatives to landscape structures of cast-in-place concrete, metal, or wood. A vegetated surface suits many aesthetic preferences; it deadens and diffuses noise, makes graffiti impossible, holds or slows rainwater, traps air pollutants, processes carbon dioxide, while providing food and shelter for wildlife. Most green walls use small, light elements, installed without heavy equipment. Many require reduced materials, no formwork, and for some types, no footings. Types of green walls include: plantable block, cell, grid/textile wrapped, and trough.

植物墙是浇筑混凝土,金属和木结构景观的替代。植被的表面不仅美观而且隔音,覆盖墙面使在墙上乱写乱 画成为不可能,可保持雨水,过滤空气,吸收二氧化碳,同时给野生动植物提供食物和栖息地。大多数的植 物墙采用小的,轻的结构, 不需要重型设备安装。很多植物墙使用材料不多,不需要结构有的甚至不需要打 地基。植物墙的种类包括:植物块(如块状草皮),可生长植物的浮石和植物槽等。

pav i n g

A 13.8

Paving has been implicated in a wide range of ecological problems. Most paving materials create surface stability by excluding water from the soil. Impervious surfaces increases runoff, causing erosion and flooding, depleting soil water, and contributing to siltation and water pollution. In addition to planning and designing reduced paving requirements, porous and partially porous paving materials allow infiltration to occur through the paving itself. Additionally, more reflective, or higher albedo, paving can help mitigate the urban heat island effect. Trees and vine-covered trellis also can provide useful shade to reduce heat increases.

铺路一直都牵连很多的生态问题。大多数的铺路材料通过吸收土壤中的水分来加强地表面的稳定 性。路面渗透性差容易被水冲坏,塌陷和水淹引起土壤中的水分流失和水污染等问题. 除了计划和 设计减少铺路需求外, 使用渗透性好的铺路材料使水可以通过路面渗透到地下. 使用反射率更好的 路面材料, 可以帮助降低热岛效应. 树和爬藤植物覆盖的阁架/亭子也可以起到遮阳作用降低热量 提高.

40


B1

B 1.2

PROTOTYPICAL HOUSING

bedzed

-

bill dunster architect

BedZED [Beddington Zero Energy Development] is the UK’s largest carbon-neutral eco-community and the first of its kind. BedZED is a mixed-use tenure development that incorporates innovative approaches to energy conservation and environmental sustainability. BedZED design concept was driven by the desire to create a net ‘zero fossil energy development’. Only energy from renewable sources is used to enhance the energy needs of the development – resulting in no net addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The design places strong emphasis on roof gardens, sunlight, solar energy, reduction of energy consumption and waste water recycling. Buildings are constructed from thermally massive materials that store heat during warm conditions and release heat at cooler times. In addition, all buildings are enclosed in a 300mm insulation jacket. BedZED houses are arranged in south facing terraces to maximize heat gain from the sun, known as passive solar gain. Each terrace is backed by north facing offices, where minimal solar gain reduces the tendency to overheat and the need for energy hungry air conditioning. It also eliminates the need for space heating. BedZED homes and offices are fitted with low energy lighting and energy efficient appliances to reduce electricity requirements. Meters are mounted in each home and office kitchen to keep track of their heat and electricity use.

贝丁顿生态村(贝丁顿零能源发展区)是英国最大的也是第一个碳平衡的生态社区. 贝丁顿生 态村是应用创新的手段保护环境和生态的可持续发展的既有公寓又有联排别墅混合型社区. 贝丁顿生态村设计理念是由创造一个”零能源发展区”的愿望驱策的, 就是利用再生资源生 产能源实现能源的自给自足. 只有利用再生资源制造能源才能满足高速发展的能源需求, 最 终达到没有多余的二氧化碳排放到大气层。 建筑由大块的厚重的材料建成, 材料在外界气温高时存储热量, 气温低时释放热量. 另外, 所 有建筑衬有300mm厚外墙隔热保温. 贝丁顿生态村丁顿生态村所有的公寓都是朝南设计的, 为的是最大限度地利用太阳光,俗称被动太阳能吸收. 每栋公寓都背靠朝北的办公室, 这样 的阳光获得降低,最小量的太阳光吸收降低房间过热的可能同时降低空调的使用.为了可以让 居民和工人跟踪他们热和电的消耗, 在每一套公寓的办公室和厨房都安装了测量计。

41


PROTOTYPICAL HOUSING

s o l a r d e c at h a l o n 2005

B1

B 1.3

The Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition that demonstrates energy-efficient and solar technologies that meet today’s residential energy demands. The Virginia Tech Solar House responds to the growing need for effective utilization of resources. Materials that are renewable, recyclable and reflect low embodied energy can be used in combination to decrease the level of adverse environmental impact. Plan: The house is comprised of a rectangular plan wrapped on three sides with a translucent skin. The plan is a generous, yet efficient engine that psychologically appears larger than its small footprint. A thick linear core defines a massive north wall and houses technical equipment -batteries, electrical, mechanicaland service functions -kitchen, laundry, storage, closets. A second core (bathroom) divides the space lengthwise into the public and private sectors. The unorthodox appearance of the roof belies the rationale of a form derived from pragmatic and symbolic criteria. The steep slope captures the sun’s energy at the proper angle. The corresponding underside creates rooms that provide intimacy yet appear much larger than the modest square footage. Rain is celebrated by directing the water to a fall line on the short sides of the house into storage tanks for grey water use . The hot water system is integrated with the space conditioning system and the building controls system. A water-to-water heat pump (WWHP) connected to an earth-coupled heat exchanger provides hot water. The photovoltaic array consists of 44 Sun power panels each generating 200 watts of electricity. Thirty-six are embedded into the roof profile. Six additional panels situated on the south wall are called into service during the coldest days.

太阳能住宅设计大赛是一个展示能效和能够满足当前民用住宅需求的太阳能技术的大学间的竞赛. 弗吉尼亚大学的太阳能样板房的设计应用了多学科技术, 是应用对研究的挑战。设计将精确的计 算与直觉结合,技术创新和建筑学表达结合,最优化的效能与普通材料结合,人的身体感觉与精 神感觉的结合。设计既考虑科技的应用又考虑到建筑结构. 每一项涉及到定量测定标准计算的决策 都又要考虑其对空间品质的贡献。应用新技术的新的建筑形式在节约能源的同时使生活更美好。 样板房一个三面由半透明材料包裹的长方形建筑. 该房子设计从外观看上给人感觉比实际面积大 的视觉效果, 但效率很高。厚厚的北墙直线型核心具有机械和服务功能,设备,电池,电线, 简 单厨房,洗衣间,储物间和衣橱全部在北墙里面。 北墙的设计确立了一种稳定感和持久性, 这一 点在与对半透明墙体对比时更加得以加强. 热水系统与局部空调系统和控制系统紧密结合.一个水-水连接热泵(wwhp)与一个地热能的热交换 器连接提供热水. 这个系统可以利用生活热水通过地板辐射供暖系统给房间供热. 光伏太阳能电池由44块太阳能电池板组成. 每块电池板发电200瓦. 36块嵌入屋顶, 另外6块安装 在南墙供在最寒冷的天气备用. 这一部分安装在视线水平上,给公众一种科技装饰的美. 下面通过 实例来解释850千瓦的太阳能发电装置: 装有换流器和其他设备的配电箱安装在北墙里, 储存在 20个密封电池里的直流电转换成交流电再通过配电箱给整个房子供应. 可以存储5天的用电量.

42


B2

B 2.2

VISIONARY PROJECTS

d u t c h pav i l i o n : e x p o 2000

-

mvrdv

The layered building reflects the country’s relationship with the landscape. The building is a monumental multi-level park, which symbolizes the forces of nature modified by man. The building explores the viability of stacking landscapes rather than spreading laterally. The pavilion can be described as an open structure consisting of several square planes representing the various typical Dutch landscapes; sand dunes, vegetation, real forest, ending with a lake and a roof garden at the top floor. The roof also supports the unavoidable wind generators that provide part of the energy for operating the building. The building is wrapped with an open staircase. The Dutch entry shows a mix of technology and nature, emphasizing nature’s make-ability and artificiality. MVRDV is taking material as indigenous to Holland as possible, and arranging them in layers to create different spaces that portrait the essence of Holland landscapes. Contemporary windmills flank the top level, and the water of the pond streams down the wall of the level that is below. On the way down, the water curtain becomes accessible to the touch and sight of people. The spectator is surrounded by the water curtainswhich refreshes the forest level below. The spare water is pumped back to the top level at this point. Already in a section analysis the designer literally starts to connect the first three levels by the use of water.

多层叠加的建筑设计体现了荷兰的自然风景特色. 荷兰是一个人口密度很高的国家, 几个世 纪以来一直打着与海洋争夺土地的战争. 建筑由多层公园堆叠而建成,代表人改造自然的力 量. 建筑采用了自上而下展示不同的景观, 通过这种方式表达例如人口密度增长问题, 自然以 及人类的脆弱本质. 荷兰馆可以描述为一个开放式结构包括几个代表典型荷兰的绿化景观: 沙丘、暖房、森林、湖泊和顶层屋顶花园的方形平面. 屋顶上不可缺少的安置了提供建筑部 分电能的风车. 其他设施, 例如展示厅, 商店, 售票处,问讯处等都设置在这些景观层里.室外 楼梯环绕在建筑外侧. 为建筑各层提供沟通的主要方式 用材料注重美感. 尽量使用荷兰本土材料, 分多层次创造不同空间。每层都是不同的荷兰特 有景观. 允许设计者使用带有荷兰特色的材料,例如荷兰馆的森林层, 创造空间是荷兰馆的一 个重要特点.

43


VISIONARY PROJECTS

editt tower

-

hamzah

&

yeang

B2

B 2.3

The design sets out to demonstrate an ecological approach to tower design. Besides meeting the Client’s program requirements for an exposition tower (i.e. for retail, exhibition spaces, auditorium uses, etc.). The approach is to re-habilitate with organic mass to enable ecological succession to take place. The unique design feature of this scheme is in the well-planted facades and vegetated-terraces which have green areas that approximate the gross useable-areas (i.e. GFA @ 6,033 sq.m.) of the rest of the building. Generally, buildings have life spans of 100-150 years and change usages over-time. The design here is ‘loose-fit’ to facilitate future reuse. Some features include: ‘Skycourts’ (i.e. convertible for future office use), removable partitions, and removable floors. Vegetation from street-level spirals upwards as a continuous ecosystem facilitating species migration, engendering a more diverse ecosystem and greater ecosystem stability and to facilitate ambient cooling of the facades. Solar energy use is addressed through photovoltaics that provide greater energy self-sufficiency. Design also has an in-built waste-management system in which recyclable materials are separated at source by hoppers at every floor.

设计初衷是展示一个摩天楼设计的生态手段. 除了达到客户使用要求(例如零售, 展览空间, 礼 堂用途等), 设计做了以下生态问题处理 显然项目的选址是一个城市”零文化”区域同时生态系 统从本质上遭到了破坏. 通过设计手段使用大量有机物从新恢复生态栖息地,使生态系统得的延 续. 此项目的一个很有个性的设计特点植物墙面和植物花园, 摩天楼的的大部分使用面积(大约 6,033平)将由植物覆盖. 总的来说, 一般大厦的寿命是在100-150之间, 并且随着时间的推移改变用途. 这里的设计使将来 的重新利用更具有灵活性. 空中庭院(将来可以用做办公室), 可移动墙, 可移动地板, 机械连接 材料(不是化学粘接), 这些都使将来再利用成为可能. 灵活的设计[例如最初作为多用途的展览建 筑, 未来可以用做办公室或者公寓(使用面积9,288平, 面积利用率达到75%). 植被从地面高 度盘旋向上生长, 持续的生态系统促进物种移植. 形成一个更多样化的更大的生态系统 稳定和促 进周围环境.

44


B3

B 3.1

GREEN BUILDING

g e n z y m e h e a d q u a rt e r s

-

b e h n i s c h & b e h n i s c h & pa rt n e r

Genzyme Center is designed to be one of the most environmentally responsible office buildings ever built in the United States. The LEED standard’s framework for environmental design is based around five core areas: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. Sustainable Site Development: Genzyme’s location transform a contaminated “brownfield” site into a thriving, mixeduse urban community. The building features a “living” vegetative roof, which helps reduce storm water runoff and heat island effects in the area. Climate control: The building’s interior climate is controlled through both passive and active strategies. Ventilation strategies cut down on heat gain in summer, and provide a climatic buffer in winter. A double facade system covers 50% of the building’s exterior. Daylighting for Energy Efficiency: Design an open floor plan to allow exterior daylighting to penetrate the interior. Water Savings: The building uses 34 percent less water than a conventional office building. The building achieves this water efficiency through a careful combination of design and water-saving technology. Dual flush toilets and waterless urinals cut down on water consumption inside the building. Energy and Efficiency: Energy costs for the building are 42 percent less than a comparable building. Concrete slab construction that helps to hold energy and moderate temperature changes in the building, a unique cooling system that uses waste steam from a nearby power plant to cool the building. The energy savings are also aided by the double-glass curtain wall that covers 32 percent of the building, which allows for both increased insulation and fresh airflow throughout the building. Furthermore, certain employee-friendly features – such as operable windows and an extensive natural light enhancement system that allows 75 percent of all employees to work using natural light alone – further reduce energy consumption. Materials Selection: Use sustainable and, whenever possible, recycled materials. Toward those ends, over 75 percent of all materials used in the building contain recycled content, and 50 percent of all materials came from local (within 500 miles) sources. More than 90 percent of all waste from the construction site was recycled or reused.

Genzyme世界总部的设计目标是成为美国最生态型的办公建筑之一. 从设计的初期阶段Genzyme很谨慎的确保达 到或者超过绿色建筑的最高标准, 项目选址的可持续性Genzyme经过了全面的调查,选择了Kendall广场, 因为其距离Genzyme工厂较近并且附近有 多种交通方式. Genzyme对这将一片曾受污染的土地改造成了一个繁荣的混合使用的城市社区而感到非常自豪. 该建筑的特色是绿色屋顶。绿色屋顶不仅有利于减少雨水流失还有利于控制所在地区的热岛效应. Genzyme估计Genzyme世界中心能源消耗比可比较的其他建筑低42%. 该建筑通过多个设计特点达到节能目的, 包 括混凝土厚板构造有助于室内暖气/冷气的保持和缓和室内温度变化. 一个很有特色的冷却系统利用附近一家 电厂的废气给建筑制冷, 以及部分费用由麻州再生能源信托基金资助的安装在屋顶的太阳能电池板. 另外覆盖建筑32%的双层玻璃幕墙也有助于节能, 这种玻璃幕墙不仅提供了隔热保温还保证了整个建筑的新鲜 空气换气. 此外, 还有一些为员工健康考虑的设计特点-例如可调控窗和提高大面积自然光采光系统, 75%的员 工可以在充足的自然光照明下工作进一步降低能源消耗.

45


GREEN BUILDING

b r i t i s h pav i l i o n ‘92

-

n i c h o l a s g r i m s h aw

B3

B 3.2

In 1989 Nicholas Grimshaw Architects designed the British Pavilion for the Expo ’92 in Seville. The design is characterized by structural clarity. It is a single volume building, designed as a kit of parts so that the structure is clearly expressed. The white painted tubular steel components are pin-jointed avoiding the need for on-site welding. The external skin of the structure varies to respond to climate conditions. The east facade supports a 65mx18m water wall, which cools the glass surface to reduce radiant heat into the building. Solar cells on the roof panels harness solar energy to drive pumps that supply the water. The Pavilion’s west wall is comprised of stacked steel freight containers that are lined with an impermeable membrane filled with water. They act as thermal store to moderate the extreme daily temperature range, by absorbing heat slowly during the day and cooling by night. The north and south walls are constructed using yacht technology. Curved steel masts, spreaders and rigging have translucent PVC-coated fabric stretched between them to allow soft light to permeate the interior space. The Pavilion contains three freestanding exhibition decks and two enclosed pods, positioned to the north and south, on a tubular framework. Circulation walkways are suspended from this frame on the east and west sides. The concourse forms the lid to the services and administrative facilities on the ground floor, with a ramp leading from the concourse to the restaurant courtyard.

1989年尼古拉斯·格雷姆肖设计事务所设计了1992年塞维利亚世界博览会英国馆。 设计以结构的 透明性为特点. 该设计为单体建筑, 设计以工具箱为理念清楚的表达建筑结构. 漆成白色的管道配 件铰接连接避免了现场焊接。 结构的外部涂层根据气候条件不同各不相同 在屋顶板上安装的太阳能电池利用太阳能驱动水泵供 水. 西面墙是由集装箱叠加而成,集装箱衬有充满水的不透性膜, 这样可以通过白天缓慢吸收热量 晚上缓慢的降温起到调节日夜极大的温差的作用. 朝北和朝南的墙结构采用了游艇技术. 弯曲的 钢质桅杆, 吊具和缆绳使用了参有半透明的涂PVC涂层的纤维材料有利于让阳光渗透到室内。 英国馆包括三层独立式的展示甲板和两个分别位于南面和北面建在一个管子结构上的锅形建筑。 通道是在结构东西侧悬浮式的. 通道为一楼的服务和管理空间形成提供了一个盖,一个斜坡通道 通道餐厅的院子。

46


B3

B 3.4

GREEN BUILDING

sanyo solar ark

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kajima

Large-Scale Solar Power Generation Facility: “Solar Ark“ The design of the Solar Ark was inspired by the vision of an ark embarking on a journey toward the 21st Century. Only four columns are used to support the entire structure, thus giving the impression of it floating in the air. 412 lighting units are mounted between the solar modules. Each unit measures 120 mm in diameter and consists of 51 red, green and blue LEDs. Water Design: The water is kept clean with the SANYO Aqua Clean system, a SANYO invention that is used in SANYO detergent-free washing machines. The system electrolyzes the water to produce hypochlorous acid, which cleans the water constantly in addition to preventing the growth of Legionella bacteria, a major cause of serious lung diseases.

大规模利用太阳能发电项目: Solar Ark太阳方(日本三洋公司建成的世界最著名的光 伏建筑物之一) Solar Ark 的设计灵感来自于驶向21世纪的方舟. 建筑只用了四跟 梁柱来支持整个结构, 因此给人以漂浮在空气的感觉. 在太阳能电池组件之间安装 了412个照明装置. 每一个照明装置直径约120mm,包括51头分别为红色,绿色和蓝色的 LED超亮灯. 整个系统由电脑控制,产生变化的图像, 视觉效果非常好.. 供水由日本三洋公司的Aqua水净化系统处理. Aqua水净化系统是三洋公司发明的应用 于三洋无需去污剂洗衣机的技术. 系统电解水产生次氯酸, 次氯酸不间断的净化水. 这一过程同时还阻止引起严重肺疾病的主要细菌和微生物生长.

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l e e d c e rt i f i e d b u i l d i n g d e m o n s t r at i o n

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The ACCORD21 Beijing Demonstration building houses 250 workers and has been occupied since February 2004.

北京生态能源建设示范楼250户2004年就已经完 全入住了。

s u s ta i n a b l e s i t e s

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Erosion & Sedimentation Control: Soil Retaining Measures; Dust Control Urban Redevelopment: The 257,606 sq foot per acre project is located in an area with a development density of 119,008. Alternative Transportation: located within .5 mile from a commuter rail/ subway station, 6 bus lines within a .25 mile radius of the site; 200 secure bicycle storage slots, 4 changing/shower facilities for 5% regular building occupants within 200 yards of building; 10 preferred carpool parking spaces are provided for 8% of building occupants. Reduced Site Disturbance: 50% of the site has been restored with native planting or vegetation both at-grade & on roof. Stormwater Management: Post-development imperviousness reduced by more than 25%; 80% reduction in the avg. annual post-development total suspended soils and a 40% reduction of avg. annual post-developmental total phosphorous (TP). Landscape and Exterior Design: At least 50% of the parking spaces are placed underground; The vegetated roof area constitutes 59.12% of a total roof area.

腐蚀和沉降控制: 保持土壤措施,尘土控制 城市再发展: 开发项目密度是257606英尺/亩 交通方案: .5英里范围内有火车站/地铁站 .25英里范围内有6条公交线路.200个固定自行车停放位置,200码范围内 有4个更衣室/浴室设施, 可以容纳5%的业主同时使用. 棕地开发完成后环境恢复: 现场面积23,672平方英尺,50%的面积包括地面和屋顶已经种植本土植物或植被恢复绿化 雨水管理:开发后雨水流失降低超过25%,开发后年平均水中的悬浮土壤含量降低80%,开发后年平均水的含磷量降低 40%. 景观和室外设计:至少50%的停车位是地下停车位,绿化的屋顶区域占全部屋顶面积的59.12%.

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CONTEMPORARY CHINESE LEED PROJECTS

wat e r e ff i c i e n c y

Water Efficient Landscape: The project team developed a rainwater capturing and storage system. No Potable Use or No Irrigation: Rain captured system can meet 99.5 tons annual water irrigation requirement. Water Reduction: Water use reduced by 62.82%. 1. The use of low-flow water closet 2. waterless urinal.

节水园林:项目的园林设计师结合了选择本地物种和收集雨水减 少避免使用饮用水浇灌, 减少饮用水消耗. 项目组开发了收集 和存储雨水系统。 不使用饮用水灌溉或者不灌溉:雨水收集系统可以达到每年99.5 吨的灌溉水需求. 降低用水量:用水量降低62.82%,应用的低流量盥洗室, 采用了美标的无水小便器。

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e n e r g y a n d at m o s p h e r e

Energy & atmosphere: Achieved 61% energy savings. Renewable Energy: 7.15% of the building’s regulated energy cost is provided by on-site renewable energy; The project has installed a Solar cell PV system on roof to support lighting power. Ozone Protection: Systems are free of HCFC’s and Halons.

能源和大气: 达到61%的节能 可再生能源: 7.15%的建筑可控制能源费用是由现场的 可再生能源提供。项目已经在屋顶安装了一个太阳能 PV电池系统用来支持建筑核心区域。 臭氧层保护: 系统不含HCFC 和聚四养乙稀。

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m at e r i a l a n d r e s o u r c e s

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Storage and Collection of Recyclables: Recycling receptacles in building. Local / Regional Materials: 27% of the total project’s materials (by cost) were manufactured within 500 miles of the project site; Of the 27% local materials, 100% (by cost) were also locally harvested or extracted.

可再利用资源的存储和收集:回收物资的位置应在建筑物内便于拿到的地方。 就地取材:的项目所用材料(按成本计算)是在距离项目工地500英里的区域 范围内生产制造的。在27%的本地材料中,100%(按成本计算)的材料是本 地收割的或提取的。

i n d o o r e n v i r o n m e n ta l q u a l i t y

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•Carbon Dioxide Monitoring •CO2 sensors are placed in each zone and in the outside air intake. •Low-Emitting Material •Daylighting & View •90.4% of critical visual task areas have a daylight factor of at least 2%.

室内环保质量 二氧化碳含量监测 在每一个区域内以及进气口处安装二氧化碳感应器 使用低排放的材料 利用日光源照明 90.4%的关键用光区域至少使用2%的日光源照明

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Jindu Research Book