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HIV and AIDS

Plan USA Youth Engagement Program 2011 Issue- Action Toolkit


Table of Contents 1. Educate

Learn the facts about HIV and AIDS What is HIV? What is AIDS? ………………………………………………….Pg 1 How does HIV spread? …………………………………………………….….Pg 1 How is AIDS treated? ………………………………………………………... Pg 2 Who is affected by HIV? ……………………………………………………....Pg 3 What is Plan doing to fight HIV and AIDS? ……………………………………Pg 5 A Story from Zimbabwe ….…………………………………………………Pg 6

2. Advocate

Find out what our government has done to address the disease, and how to encourage world leaders to take action in the future. Ryan White Care Act …………………………………………………………Pg 8 2010 Healthcare Reform ……………………………………………………. Pg 9

3. Raise Awareness

Host these activities in your classroom, YUGA Chapter, or awareness event to educate the community about HIV and AIDS. HIV/AIDS Around the World….……………………………………………...Pg 11 Hope Quilt ……………………………………………………………………Pg 12 HIV/AIDS in the United States ……………………………………………… Pg 13 World HIV and AIDS Mapping ……………………………………………… Pg 15 Sketching Science ………… …………………………………………………Pg 17 HIV/AIDS and the Millennium Development Goals ……………… ………… Pg 18 Raise Awareness in Your School ………………………………………………Pg 21


Educate

Denise, age 13, in a lesson at the local school. Denise and her sister Violet, age 15, live alone in Mbogo village. Their mother died in September after struggling for several years with the HIV virus.


What is HIV? What is AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The HIV virus prevents the immune system from working properly by destroying T-cells, which fight viruses and diseases in the body. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. If a person who has contracted HIV is not given medicine to control HIV, it will most likely progress to AIDS. AIDS can be determined by counting the number of T-cells remaining in the person's blood stream. If there are 200 or less T-cells in the body, HIV has progressed to AIDS. As a person's immune system weakens, illnesses as simple as the common cold can be life threatening. HIV is a dangerous virus not only because it is life threatening, but because it can go undetected for years. A person with HIV may look and feel fine, but they can still spread HIV through certain bodily fluids without even knowing it.

How does HIV spread? The HIV virus can be transmitted in three ways: sexual intercourse, blood-toblood contact with an HIV+ person, and from an HIV+ mother to her unborn child. HIV is most commonly spread through sexual contact with an infected partner. Although studies have found very small amounts of HIV in the saliva of some people who are HIV+, there is no evidence that HIV is spread to other people through kissing. However, there is some risk of contraction if the partners have sores or cuts in their mouths where blood-to-blood contact would be possible. HIV can be spread through direct contact with blood, which may occur through use of infected needles while injecting drugs or receiving treatment from an unclean healthcare facility, or through a blood transfusion. Of these methods of contraction, HIV is most often spread among users of illegal drugs, where shared needles spread HIV from one person to another. Today, the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion or in a healthcare facility is extremely low. Blood screenings thoroughly test for HIV, so the risk of transmitting HIV through a blood infusion is extremely low. HIV can also be spread from an infected mother to her unborn child. This can occur either during the pregnancy, or through her breast milk.

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Approximately 1/3 to ¼ of all untreated pregnant woman who have HIV will pass the infection to their child during pregnancy or birth. However, if a woman has access to an anti-HIV drug called AZT, and if delivery is through a cesarean section (c-section), the risk of infection can reduce to only 1-2%. HIV can not be transmitted through everyday contact. A person cannot spread HIV through saliva, tears, sweat, or from sneezing or coughing. HIV+ individuals can safely shake hands and hug others, swim in the same pool, and breathe the same air without spreading the virus.

How is AIDS treated? Currently, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. A person who has contracted HIV will always have the virus and can always spread it to other individuals. However, anti retroviral drugs, or ARVs, can prevent HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals from becoming ill. Antiretroviral treatments are taken to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level, which stops any weakening of the immune system and allows it to recover from damage that the virus has already done. There are several side effects from ARVs, including sickness, dizziness, rashes, and changes in body fat. These are often mild, but sometimes serious and on rare occasions can even be life-threatening. ARVs must be taken every day, and some must be taken with food. If an HIV+ person has limited access to food, taking medicine becomes even more difficult. Every missed dose increases the risk that the drugs will stop working. ARVs have been very successful in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. According to the latest report from UNAIDS, virtually eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV is possible with increased access to ARVs. In 2009, UNAIDS called for virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 2015. In 10 of the most severely affected countries, this is considered a “realistic aim.”1 While ARVs are helpful, many people who are HIV+ in developing countries are not able to access these medicines. In developing countries, 9.5 million people are in immediate need of life-saving ARVs- but as of 2010, only 5 million were receiving them. However, access to ARVs has steadily increased from 2004 to 2009, and has contributed to a 19% decrease in deaths. A new treatment method, which is still in its development phase, could prevent an additional 10 million deaths by 2025 if successful.1 Visit http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/AIDSinfo.htm for more information. 2


Who is affected by HIV and AIDS? HIV does not discriminate. Anyone, anywhere, can become infected. Quick facts about HIV around the world: •

• •

• •

Since the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, more than 60 million people have been infected with HIV. Nearly 30 million people have died of HIVrelated causes.1 About 67% of the people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa.2 Every nine-and-a-half minutes, another person in the United States becomes infected with HIV. This amounts to 56,300 new infections each year. 3 In 2009, there were an estimated 2.6 million people who became newly infected with HIV. However, this is nearly one fifth (19%) fewer than the 3.1 million who were newly infected in 1999.1 In 33 countries, the HIV incidence has fallen by more than 25% between 2001 and 2009. 22 of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. This reduction is in part a result of increased HIV prevention efforts.1 As access to services to prevent mother-to-child transmission has increased, the number of children born with HIV has decreased. From 2004-2009, 24% less children were newly infected with HIV.1 The number of AIDS-related deaths worldwide has been decreasing from the peak of 2.1 million in 2004 to an estimated 1.8 million in 2009. This decline reflects the increased availability of ARVs, care, and support for people living with HIV.1 At the end of 2008, experts estimated that of the 31.3 million adults living with HIV and AIDS, more than half are women. Some experts believe that 98% of these women live in developing countries. 4 More than 14,000 people with AIDS die each year in the United States. 3 By 2010, UNICEF estimates AIDS will orphan 15.7 million children. 5

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Women and girls are more vulnerable. Several cultural and biological factors make women and girls more susceptible to contracting HIV than men, which have resulted in more women than men living with HIV/AIDS today. Gender inequality in many societies increases a woman’s risk of contracting HIV, because she often has less power in her community and relationships. A woman is often unable to choose who she will marry, or make her own decisions about family planning. Often, a culture’s definition of ‘masculinity’ permits unfaithfulness in a marriage, increasing the likelihood that a husband will contract HIV and spread it to his wife. Women and girls are 2 to 4 times more susceptible to HIV infection than men and boys because of their body type. This, in addition to an often lower status than men, has led to an increased number of girls contracting the virus. As of 2006, three young women in sub-Saharan Africa were infected for every man. Adolescent girls aged 15-19 are 6 times more likely to be HIV positive compared to boys the “Rwanda can not stop the spread of same age.6 Gender-based violence, particularly during conflict, is also a serious risk factor for HIV. Women have much less control over decision making (for example, using a condom to prevent infection), and have less access to health and social services during times of war.6

HIV without addressing women and girls.” - First Lady of Rwanda, Ms Jeannette Kagame

Women and girls face gender inequality in education and employment which may also lead to an increased risk of contracting HIV. Without access to a quality education, many women are forced into risky jobs such as prostitution. This greatly increases her likelihood of contracting HIV or other STIs (sexually transmitted infections).

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What is Plan doing to fight HIV and AIDS? Education is one of the most powerful tools we have to prevent HIV and AIDS. Knowledge allows people to better protect themselves and others from transmission. Many people don’t get tested for HIV out of fear that they will be looked down upon in their community. Education about the virus can help increase tolerance for HIV+ individuals, and reduce stigmatization. A stigma is a mark of shame or discredit, which often results from misinformation or negative stereotypes. Providing education and information on HIV and AIDS to children and communities is just one way that Plan addresses the AIDS pandemic. Plan raises awareness of the disease through community campaigns, radio, television, theater and dance groups, and other community programs.

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” - Nelson Mandela

Assisting families Plan also provides care and support for children and families already affected by AIDS. In recent years, Plan’s AIDS programs have provided voluntary HIV counseling and testing, assistance to people living with AIDS, and counseling to support HIV-positive parents. Plan helps to take care of AIDS orphans by paying their school fees, providing emotional support, and giving them life skills to help them survive on their own. Families are encouraged to write memory books to help prepare the HIVpositive parent and children for the loss of the parent. Parents write down stories from their childhood, memories from their own lives, the children’s first years, and other meaningful milestones. This provides children with a family history and important information about their past when the parents have passed away. Reducing discrimination— raising support A post-test club is a unique way to encourage community members to be tested for HIV/AIDS. Detecting HIV early is important because the earlier the virus is detected, the better it can be treated. Members of the post-test club have access to a variety of Plan-supported services, including community gardens, village savings and loan programs, and vocational training. Members of the club don't have to be HIV-positive; they simply must be tested! For more information about Plan’s HIV/AIDS programs, visit http://www.planusa.org/maps/hivaids.php

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A Story from Zimbabwe

"Oh...life can be so unfair. What am I going to do now that my father and mother are dead? I have no one to look after me anymore. My friends say that because my father died of AIDS, this means he was an immoral person!" These were the words muttered amid tears by 12-year-old Nomalanga in Zimbabwe, who lost both parents to HIV/AIDS-related illnesses. This incident occurred during a Children's Participation workshop organized by Plan Zimbabwe. "Ubaba wako lomama wako babulalwa yiAIDS!" (Your father and mother died from AIDS!) Insults and other derogatory comments from some of the children were making Nomalanga very sad. She felt like she didn’t belong. When the other children were made aware of how they were making Nomalanga feel, they decided to perform a drama that focused on stigmatization. Drama, art, song and dance are just some of the methods we use to impart information about AIDS to children and adults to hopefully reduce the stigma of the illness. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare estimated that almost 25% of the adult population in Zimbabwe is infected with HIV/AIDS, with women accounting for 53% of those infected. If a parent dies, their children face many social and psychological problems, including stigmatization. An important element of caring for HIV/AIDS orphans is to reduce stigmatization so that orphans can begin to regain a normal life. By hosting dramas, songs, art, and other community projects about AIDS, we can help AIDS orphans feel included and important in the community.

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Advocate

17 year old youth counselor Fatima takes part in a discussion after watching a video about HIV at Chinandega Community Centre. Plan organizes learning sessions for youth counselors to help them understand the problems affecting young people in their community.


Ryan White CARE Program The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program is the largest Federal program focused exclusively on HIV/AIDS care in the United States. Legislation for the program was first enacted in 1990 as the Ryan White CARE (Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency) Act, and since then has been amended and reauthorized four times. Each amendment has addressed new needs of AIDS patients in order to improve care for those affected by the virus in the United States. The Ryan White CARE program was approved once again for 20092013. The program assists individuals living with HIV/AIDS who have no health insurance (public or private), have insufficient health care coverage, or lack the financial resources to get the care they need. Since 2008, the number of new cases of HIV has declined. An intentional focus on testing, education, and prevention has shown to have a positive impact in our country. One of the most important ways to keep our communities healthy and aware is to support and encourage HIV programs such as the Ryan White CARE Program. 7

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Healthcare Reform of 2010 On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, into law. Some aspects of the legislation directly affect people living with HIV/AIDS, and will be fully enacted in the near future. Individuals living with HIV will no longer have to wait for the virus to progress to AIDS in order to be eligible for Medicaid. Additionally, State AIDS Drug Assistance Programs will be funded by the government to cover out-of-pocket expenses that AIDS patients were previously required to pay on their own. Private health insurance companies will no longer be able to differentiate costs based on health status and gender. That means that a person who has HIV cannot be denied coverage by an insurance company. Obama’s healthcare reform will also devise a new benefits package that includes prescription drugs, preventative care, management for chronic diseases (such as HIV and AIDS), and substance abuse and mental health treatment. Subsidies for certain low-income families will also make health insurance more affordable for many who were previously unable to pay. Other potential improvements associated with the healthcare reform include: - investments in prevention and wellness initiatives, which may help reduce the number of HIV infections; - investments in sex education programs, which can raise awareness about how HIV can be contracted; and - increased access to community healthcare providers for people in low-income and medically-underserved communities. While the Healthcare Reform Act did not address some of the issues that HIV/AIDS activists had hoped, it certainly increases education and access to care for those struggling with the disease.

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Raise Awareness

A group of children in India who have lost one or both parents to AIDS. Plan works to provide assistance to AIDS orphans throughout the world.


HIV/AIDS Around the World Goal: To learn about the prevalence of HIV/AIDS around the world. To understand factors that may contribute to a country’s high rate of HIV/AIDS.

Activity length: 20 minutes Materials: Country Cards (see appendix), HIV/AIDS Rate Cards (see appendix), Answer Sheet (see appendix), tape, scissors

Activity: 1. Cut out the Country Cards and HIV/AIDS Rate Cards (available in the appendix). Tape the Country Cards on the wall all around the room. 2. As a group, decide which HIV/AIDS Rate Card matches with each country. Tape the HIV/AIDS Rate Cards next to the corresponding Country Card. 3. When you have finished, discuss why you think you made the assumptions you did. Which country did you think has the highest rate and why? Which country did you think has the lowest rate and why? 4. Check your answers on the Answer Sheet and move the HIV/AIDS Rate Cards to the correct country. 5. As a group, answer the following questions: How many matches did you get right? What did you find surprising in the answers? Why do you think some countries are affected by HIV/AIDS so much more than others? 6. To learn more about the global fight on HIV/AIDS, visit these websites: • UNAIDS: http://unaidstoday.org/ • The United Nations: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/aids.shtml • Avert: http://www.avert.org/aroundworld.htm • World Health Organization (WHO): http://www.who.int/topics/hiv_aids/en/ • CIA World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2155rank.html

Questions to Consider: 1. What factors can contribute to a country having a high HIV/AIDS rate? 2. What factors can contribute to a country having a low HIV/AIDS rate? 3. Why do you think certain regions of the world are more affected by HIV/AIDS than others?

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Hope Quilt Goal: To learn about the progress that has been made in HIV/AIDS awareness, prevention, and treatment in the last 30 years. To promote a feelings of hope instead of fear about HIV/AIDS.

Activity length: 45 minutes Materials: A large white bed sheet, acrylic paint, paint brushes, fabric markers, and a plastic drop cloth

Activity: 1. Look at the AIDS Memorial Quilt by the NAMES Project Foundation at http://www.aidsquilt.org/quiltfacts.htm. 2. Contact a local HIV/AIDS organization or support group to see if you can create a quilt for a specific client of theirs. You start by contacting some of the organizations listed here: http://www.thebody.com/index/hotlines/other.html 3. Learn about the life of the person who you will be honoring. Maybe the organization can provide some information, or you can try to talk to a family member or loved one. What were his/her interests? What did he/she really care about? What made him/her smile when things got difficult? 4. With a group, decorate the quilt by celebrating the life of the chosen client. Include inspiring quotes, words, and pictures relating to important places, people, and interests in his/her life. Make it as colorful and hopeful as possible! 5. See if you can donate the quilt to the HIV/AIDS organization, or if not, hang it in your school or local community center!

Questions to Consider: 1. What do you think were the scariest and most difficult times during the fight against HIV/AIDS for the person that you honored? 2. What challenges do you think he/she dealt with from friends, community members, and strangers? 3. What kinds of stigmas surround people with HIV/AIDS? What can be done to address these assumptions from the public? 4. Do you see enough progress being made in the fight against AIDS? What other steps could be taken to further combat AIDS?

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HIV/AIDS in the United States Goal: To raise awareness about the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Activity length: 15 minutes Materials: Space for participants to walk around and separate into three groups. Activity: Take turns reading some or all of the following statements. Designate three spots in the room as “Agree,” “Disagree,” or “Don’t Know.” After reading each statement, have participants walk to the part of the room that reflects what they think is the answer. After everyone has made their guess, ask a volunteer from each part of the room to explain why they chose their answer. Then, reveal whether the statement is true or false.9

Questions: More than one million people are living with HIV in the United States. TRUE One in ten people living with HIV/AIDS don’t know that they are infected. FALSE- One in five (21%) of those infected do not currently know. An estimated 56,300 Americans become infected with HIV each year. This rate has been drastically decreasing. FALSE- It has remained relatively stable. More than 30,000 people in the United States with AIDS die every year. FALSE- Around 18,000 people with AIDS die each year in the US. Many people are living longer because of earlier diagnoses and improved treatments. Sexually active gay men are at greatest risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. TRUE- Sexually active gay men face an increased risk because of the HIV/AIDS prevalence among their potential partners, and the risk of transmission from particular sexual acts. However, HIV/AIDS can affect anyone from any background, age, religion, sex, geographic region, or sexual orientation. While black Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they account for only 3% of people living with HIV in the United States. FALSE- Black men comprise almost half (46%) of people with HIV in the US The rate of transmission among Hispanic/Latino men is more than double that of Caucasian men. The rate among Hispanic/Latino women is almost four times that of Caucasian women. TRUE

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Each year, approximately 100 million people in the United States get tested for HIV. FALSEOnly 16 to 22 million people in the United States are tested for HIV every year. In 2006, the CDC began recommending that healthcare providers conduct routine HIV screening of all adults, adolescents, and pregnant women across the United States. TRUE People must wait two weeks for results after their HIV/AIDS tests. FALSE- Many clinics now offer rapid tests and provide results the same day. All HIV/AIDS screening tests are conducted by a blood test. FALSE- While blood tests are the most common type, tests can also be conducted by observing antibody levels in saliva and urine. HIV/AIDS tests are only available in hospitals. FALSE- Tests can be found in many other places, including local health departments, clinics, private doctors’ offices, and specific HIV testing sites. You can find the HIV testing site nearest to you by visiting the National HIV Testing Resources website at www.hivtest.org. The majority of HIV diagnoses are made for people between 30 and 50 years of age. TRUE The states with the highest rates of HIV/AIDS diagnoses are California, Florida, and New York. TRUE The states with the lowest rates of HIV/AIDS are Texas, Georgia, Maryland, and New Jersey. FALSE- These four states are ranked #4-7 behind California, Florida, and New York for the highest rates in the country. The states with the lowest rates of HIV/AIDS are Vermont, South Dakota, Wyoming, and North Dakota. Los Angeles has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS of any city in the United States. FALSEWashington, DC reported the highest infection rate of any other city. In 2009, the city's HIV prevalence was 3%, and jumped to 6.5% for black males.

Questions to Consider: 1. What did you learn from these statistics? What did you find most shocking or alarming? 2. What do you think is the greatest misconception about HIV/AIDS in the United States? 3. What else do you think can be done to increase awareness of the risks of contracting HIV/AIDS among youth? 4. How can you protect yourself from HIV/AIDS?


World HIV and AIDS Mapping Goal: To understand the global distribution of HIV and AIDS and compare it to the distribution of wealth and population. 9

Activity length: 30-45 minutes Materials: Large World Maps- enough for each person, or for small groups of 2-5 people; HIV/AIDS quiz, 1 per group (available in the appendix); HIV/AIDS Global Distribution Table (available in the appendix); 75 plastic chips for each map- 25 each of three colors (Use

candy instead of chips for a tastier activity- but don't eat them until the activity is over!)

Activity: Step 1: Pre-Activity Quiz Begin the activity by having each group take the HIV/AIDS quiz (provided in the appendix). Wait to give the correct answers until after the activity is finished.

Step 2: World Map Hand out one world map to each group, and 25 chips of each color. Explain that the 75 chips represent the world’s population, and each group’s task is to spread the chips across the continents to represent the global distribution of population, wealth, and HIV/AIDS. The first color represents the global distribution of people. Have each group spread the 25 chips across the world map to reflect where they think that the majority of people live. Once everyone has finished, have each group explain where they placed the most and least people. Then, reveal the correct population distribution. The second color represents the global distribution of wealth. Have each group spread the 25 chips across the world map to reflect where they think that the majority of the world’s wealth is located. Once everyone has finished, have each group explain what regions of the world they believed were the most and least wealthy. Then, reveal the correct wealth distribution. The third color represents the global distribution of HIV/AIDS. Have each group spread the 25 chips across the world map to reflect where they think that the majority of the people with HIV/AIDS is located. Once everyone has finished, have each group explain what regions of the world they believed had the greatest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Then, reveal the correct HIV/AIDS distribution.

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Questions to Consider 1.

What is the relationship between global population, wealth, and HIV and AIDS?

2.

Within the global community, is HIV and AIDS distributed evenly?

3.

How do you think HIV and AIDS came to be so prevalent in certain continents?

4.

How might the amount of people with HIV and AIDS in a society affect the amount of wealth in that society?

5.

How might continents with densely populated areas be affected by HIV and AIDS differently than less populated areas?

6.

What can be done about the unequal way in which HIV and AIDS is spread around the globe?

7.

Are continents with less people living with HIV and AIDS obligated to help the continents with more people living with HIV and AIDS? Why or why not?

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Sketching Science Goal: To understand how HIV affects the immune system and to replicate this process through an illustration.

Activity length: 45 minutes Materials: Paper, crayons, markers, and other art supplies Activity: 1. Research HIV online or in science textbooks to learn how it affects the body’s T-cells and immune system. 2. Draw an illustration of the HIV lifecycle in the body, from initial transmission through cell replication. 3. Gather in small groups to share and explain your illustrations. 4. Hang your illustrations in your classroom or school hallways to promote HIV/AIDS awareness!

Questions to Consider: 1. What is the immune system and how does HIV/AIDS affect it? 2. What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? 3. How is HIV/AIDS different than other viruses?

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HIV/AIDS and the Millennium Development Goals Goal: To understand the Millennium Development Goals, especially Goal 6, which focuses on combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. To learn about other conditions that might contribute to the impact of HIV/AIDS in a country. To become familiar analyzing data and researching countries around the world.

Activity length: 1 hour Materials: The internet, paper, and a pen; Country Data Tables (see appendix) Background: The Millennium Development Goals are a set of eight development goals to be achieved by 2015. In September 2000, world leaders came together at United Nations to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty.

Activity: 1. Read about the global fight against HIV/AIDS by reviewing Goal 6 of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals at www.un.org/millenniumgoals/AIDS.shtml. 2. The spread of HIV/AIDS has reached virtually every corner of the world. The countries listed in the Country Data Tables (available in the appendix) have been particularly impacted by a high rate of HIV/AIDS among the population. See ‘What do the Indicators Measure?’ below to help you analyze the information. With a small group, pretend that you have been asked by the United Nations to help design programs for three of these countries, in the hopes of attaining MDG #6 by 2015. Determine the overall state of each country by analyzing the World Bank data (“Country Data Tables” provided in the appendix). Identify the country’s most pressing problems, and as a group, create a long-term plan to solve these and future HIV/AIDSrelated problems in the country.

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What Do the Indicators Measure? Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (current US$)

Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

The GDP per capita indicates the amount of money each person in the country would get if the total country’s money were divided equally among the population. This can indicate the strength of a country’s economy and the approximate wealth its citizens. (All currencies converted to US dollars.) This indicates how crowded a country is by measuring the number of people per square kilometer. This measures the total number of people in a country. This measures the number of people between the ages of 15 and 49 that have HIV in a country. This measures the number of babies per 1000 that die before their first birthday. This can indicate the quality of the country’s healthcare system. This measures the number of mothers out of 100,000 that die as a result of giving birth. This can also indicate the quality of a country’s healthcare system. This indicates the percentage of people in rural communities who have access to a clean water source. Not having clean water can greatly affect a person’s overall health and can lead to malnutrition, cholera, and other diseases. The employment rate measures the percent of adults between the ages of 15 and 24 who have a job. This measures the percentage of girls who are in school compared to their male classmates. This measures the total percentage of the school-aged population that is enrolled in school.

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What are the Target Numbers for each Indicator? You might be asking yourself, so what are the “normal” rates for these indicators? What are the target numbers or percentages that would qualify a country as providing a “good” quality of life for its citizens? The difficult part about analyzing the well-being of a country is that there is no specific set of numbers that a country must attain to be considered ‘developed’ or ‘just.’ Every country around the world is made up of a diverse set of conditions- whether geographic, economic, political, historical, or cultural- that influence the level of human development of its citizens. It is widely believed, though, that improving unjust conditions around the world can help bring people out of poverty, thereby enabling them to live happier and healthier lives. Increasing currently low indicator rates in a country, in areas such as education, employment, and access to an improved water source, will raise the level of human development in those communities. Decreasing high rates of HIV/AIDS, infant mortality, and maternal mortality could very positively impact a country’s population. Because there is no ‘perfect’ number for each indicator, a good starting point may be using your own country of residence as a reference point. If you live in the United States, for example, you can compare the overall conditions in other countries with those found in the US. If your country is not provided, you can look up data on your country on the World Bank website listed above. The United States, like every other country, still has great disparities among its population, but using conditions in your country of residence and reflecting on your own life experiences may help to inform your analysis. The living conditions of people in the United States also vary greatly by geographic region, so you can find out more about indicators used to examine the US at http://www.measureofamerica.org/maps/.

Questions to consider: 1. What does each of these indicators say about the condition of the country? 2. What are the biggest problems facing the country based on these indicators? 3. What steps should the government take to address these problems? 4. How can fixing other problems in the country help to prevent the further spread of HIV/AIDS?

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Raise Awareness in Your School Looking for more ways to raise awareness of AIDS in your school? Try out one of the following ideas, or brainstorm other awareness ideas with your peers.

… Hold a poster contest to see who can make the best poster about HIV and AIDS. Hang up posters around your school during the month of December, and have a prize for the best design! … Wear red for World AIDS Day, December 1st! If your school wears uniforms, ask your principal for special permission. To raise money for AIDS relief, ask for donations of $1, $5, or other amount in order to participate.

… Make red ribbon pins for AIDS awareness. Sell them before school or during school lunches, or give them away for free! … Join the banner campaign to make AIDS history. Create a banner with your classmates and display it in from of your school. Let your peers and the community know that you’re taking action to stop the spread of HIV!

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Appendix

Violet (15) and Denise (13) live alone in Mbogo village. Their father died in the 1994 genocide, and their mother died in September after struggling with HIV.


APPENDIX

Country Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

El Salvador South Africa

France Thailand


APPENDIX

Country Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

Swaziland China The United States

Saudi Arabia


APPENDIX

Country Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

Ukraine Argentina Bolivia Libya


APPENDIX

Country Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

Haiti Namibia Cameroon


APPENDIX

HIV/AIDS Rate Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

15.3%

2.2%

0.1%

0.8%


APPENDIX

HIV/AIDS Rate Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

18.1%

0.6%

0.3%

0.6%


APPENDIX

HIV/AIDS Rate Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

0.5%

1.4%

26.1%

0.01%


APPENDIX

HIV/AIDS Rate Cards- HIV/AIDS Around the World

5.1%

1.6%

0.2%


APPENDIX

Answer Sheet HIV/AIDS Around the World Country

HIV/AIDS Percent of Population

Swaziland

26.1%

South Africa

18.1%

Namibia

15.3%

Cameroon

5.1%

Haiti

2.2%

Ukraine

1.6%

Thailand

1.4%

El Salvador

0.8%

The United States

0.6%

Argentina

0.5%

France

0.4%

Libya

0.3%

Bolivia

0.2%

China

0.1%

Saudi Arabia

0.01%


APPENDIX

World HIV/AIDS Mapping HIV/ AIDS Quiz 1. Which region of the world holds the least number of people living with HIV and AIDS?

2. True or False: More than 20 million people in Africa have HIV and AIDS.

3. The amount of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa is: a. 25% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV b. 40-50% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV c. Greater than 50% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV 4. True or false: Latin America has less people with HIV and AIDS than North America.

5. How many more people have HIV/AIDS in Asia than in North America: a. Twice as many people. b. Five times as many people. c. They have the same amount of people living with HIV and AIDS. 6. Estimate how many people in North America have HIV/AIDS.

7. Estimate how many people in the world have HIV/AIDS.


APPENDIX

World HIV/AIDS Mapping HIV/ AIDS Quiz Answers 1. Which region of the world holds the least number of people living with HIV and AIDS? Answer: Oceania 2. True or False: More than 20 million people in Africa have HIV and AIDS. Answer: True 3. The amount of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa is: a. 25% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV b. 40-50% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV c. Greater than 50% of the global population living with AIDS/HIV Answer: c. The actual amount is 69.3% 4. True or false: Latin America has less people with HIV and AIDS than North America. Answer: False 5. How many more people have HIV/AIDS in Asia than in North America: a. Twice as many people. b. Five times as many people. c. They have the same amount of people living with HIV and AIDS. Answer: b. Five times as many people have HIV and AIDS in Asia than in North America. 6. Estimate how many people in North America have HIV/AIDS. Answer: 1.2 million 7. Estimate how many people in the world have HIV/AIDS. Answer: 32.9 million


APPENDIX

World HIV/AIDS Mapping HIV/AIDS Global Distribution Below is a chart showing the global distribution of population, wealth, and population in the world. The information should be displayed on a large chart for the group to see. Cover all of the answers shown in red, and reveal them after each round to show the group the correct answers.

% of Global Population Living with HIV and AIDS 69.3%

# of chips out of 25

18.2%

5

59,000

0.22%

0

6

1.2 million

3.65%

1

23%

6

1.2 million

3.65%

1

4,299

7.7%

2

2 million

5.17%

1

55,500

100%

25

32.9 million

100%

25

% of World GDP

# of Chips Out of 25

Population Living with HIV and AIDS

4

Wealth (GDP in Billions of Dollars) 2,092

3.8%

1

60.3%

15

21,504

38.5%

10

22.8 million 4.7 million

37

0.5%

0

737.2

1.3%

0

Europe

739

11.0%

3

14,244

25.7%

North America Latin America World Total

344

5.1%

1

12,776

585

8.5%

2

6,892

100%

25

Region

Population (in millions) Mid-2010

% of World Population

# of chips out of 25

Africa

1,030

15.0%

Asia

4,157

Oceania

17

(Australia and Antarctica)


APPENDIX

HIV/AIDS and the Millennium Development Goals Country Data Tables Argentina Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 4729.82 14.15 38731603 0.5 15.40 70 80 35.40 103.83 98.51

Belize Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 3820.68 12.79 291800 2.10 18.70 94 94 41.70 98.19 94.62


APPENDIX

Central African Republic Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 329.16 6.58 4101484 6.40 115.40 910 50 58 48.13

Estonia Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 10328.57 31.76 1346100 1.30 5.70 23 97 28.70 99.99 94.67

Haiti Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 441.47 341.44 9409991 2.20 70.80 350 53 46.29


APPENDIX

India Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 764.85 368.15 1094583000 0.4 57.2 280 81 40.20 90.16 88.92

Swaziland Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 2244.71 65.37 1124410 26.40 69.10 440 56 26.70 95.19 74.66

Thailand Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 2674.20 129.08 65945675 1.50 14.10 51 97 49.20 100.88


APPENDIX

United Kingdom Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 37858.98 248.94 60226500 0.20 5.10 13 100 58.10 101.47 98.72

United States Indicator Name GDP per capita (current US$) Population density (people per sq. km) Population, total Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access) Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) School enrollment, primary (% net)

2005 42534.48 32.28 295753000 0.60 6.90 24 94 52.40 100.34 90.76


APPENDIX

References 1. UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010. Report. UNAIDS, 2010. <http://issuu.com/unaids/docs/unaids_globalreport_2010/5?mode=a_p>. 2. http://www.avert.org/worldstats.htm 3. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/HIVAIDSstrategy/ 4. http://www.unfpa.org/hiv/women/report/index.htm 5.http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Africas_Orphaned_and_Vulnerable_Generations_Childr en_Affected_by_AIDS.pdf 6. http://www.unfpa.org/gender/docs/fact_sheets/gender_hiv.doc 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) 'Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2008' Volume 20 8. Statistics obtained from the Center for Disease Control’s HIV/AIDS website, http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/default.htm; http://www.avert.org/usa-states-cities.htm). 9. World HIV and AIDS Mapping adapted from “Poverty and World Wealth,” http://www.rethinkingschools.org/publication/rg/RGPoverty.shtml World Population data from 2008 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau www.prb.org World GDP data from GEO Hive www.geohive.com/earth/ec_gdp4.aspx World AIDS/HIV data from 2008 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS http://data.unaids.org/pub/GlobalReport/2008/20080818_gr08_plwh_1990_2007_en. xls


HIV/ AIDS Toolkit