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Exploring Gender in the Early Childhood Care and Development programme


Exploring Gender in the Early Childhood Care and Development programme


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Ÿ Plan International Pakistan would like to thank the following individuals whose

The research team's commitment under several challenges and pressures deserves utmost appreciation. Their precision, adherence to objective principles of the research and above all a human rights and gender equality based approach made it possible; we can very humbly says “Thank you, it would not have been possible without you!” Alexander Munive, Shmyalla Jawad, Soofia Aziz, Maqsood and Imran Shami among Plan International Pakistan staff need special mention here for their continued support. Last but not least, we are indebted to management of ECE/ECCD centres who provided their space and time so generously andparticularly to caregivers for sharing their valuable thoughts with us, and making conversation with children possible. Special thanks are due to Shirakat – Partnership for Development for sharing their database and e-resource library, and providing technical guidance.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

efforts made this research report on gender and early childhood care and development possible: Ÿ Plan Finland Ÿ The research Team: Ÿ Imran Rizvi: Research Manager Ÿ Bilquis Tahira: Gender, Education and Research Specialist for designing the research; provision of overall guidance; analysis and report writing Ÿ Nasira Habib: ECE Expert – for supporting design of research tools and training of the researchers Ÿ Sissel Volan: Education and ECE expert – for reviewing the report Ÿ Samia Raoof Ali: Researcher for pre-test, field work and data collation Ÿ Hameeda Kaleem: Researcher for pre-test, field work and data collation Ÿ Soofia Waraich: Researcher for pre-test, field work and data collation Ÿ Nazia Taj Abbasi – Programme Coordinator, Shirakat: for data collation Ÿ Sikander Ali – Programme Associate, Shirakat: for data collation Ÿ and last but not least - Fahd Bajwa, intern at Shirakat for supporting collation of data


FOREWORD Plan's vision is a world in which all children, both girls and boys, realise their full potential in societies that respect people's rights and dignity. This commitment to gender equality is based on international standards established by the United Nations' Conventions on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Many violations of children's rights have their roots in gender-based inequality, exclusion, and injustice. This contributes to cycles of poverty that may affect communities over many generations. Girls who are not allowed to go to school or who are married when they are still children will not be able to effectively defend the rights of their own daughters and sons. Boys who are raised to be aggressive and to feel superior to women are at risk of growing up to be violent or abusive. Early years (0-8) are the most critical time of a child's life. The learning of this period has a long lasting impact on the behaviour and personality of the child. Early childhood education focuses on holistic development of girls and boys starting from an early age. Unfortunately, this critical time of children's development is often not a priority in Pakistan. The Ministry of Education in Pakistan took a lead in developing Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum; this is a step forward and follows from the ratification of Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there are gaps in the implementation of this curriculum: no ECE model has been officially adopted and no strategy or system is in place to initiate ECE in government schools. Plan International has been implementing the Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programme as its flagship educational intervention in Pakistan. In 2011-12 Plan developed an ECE syllabus in line with the national ECE curriculum. Realising the importance of gender-sensitive syllabus, Plan also undertook a study to review the syllabus from a gender perspective. I am very happy to share this study with you. I hope that this small step will contribute to reducing the inequality and discrimination which affect the lives of girls and boys all over Pakistan.

Rashid Javed Country Director Plan International Pakistan

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Message from the authors As gender discrimination begins at an early age – sometimes when a child is not even born. Efforts for rights based and gender sensitive approach towards life must therefore begin at a very early stage and age as well. Gender equality generates economic, social, psychological and emotional dividends essential for empowerment. National and international commitments for gender equality bear witness that there is a strong realisation of this fact at a global level although, sadly, even the existence of political will in some cases has not been effective in terms of translating policies and strategies into action.

Once any human being has gone through the process of socialisation, subsequent attitudes and responses to situations are modeled on the values acquired thus. We, the development practitioners then turn to remodeling behavior and changing thought patterns through behaviour change communication. Behaviour change, research tells us, takes a long time and longer and expensive concerted efforts to bring about. It is therefore critical that the gender equality process begins early – at early childhood. Children absorb messages at a great pace when their brain is developing; curiosity about the world around them is abundant and neural pathways are being established through experiential learning. This is also the stage when gender identities are being developed and gender stereotypes are absorbed. Hence the research. We have taken the human rights based approach and gender sensitive approach, building on the 4 CRC general principles of: a) the best interests of the child (Article 3); b) survival and development (Article 6): survive and fulfill their human potential; c) non-discrimination (Article 2): all rights apply to all children without exception, protecting children from any form of discrimination (whether based on race, gender, culture, religion, abilities, political affiliation of their parents along with initiating positive action to for promotion of their rights; and d) participation (various articles): protecting children's right to participate in their society and in the creation of the shared social fabric. Children have the right to have their opinions respected in decisions affecting them.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In most societies around the world socialisation is at the heart of gender discrimination that keeps reconfirming and perpetuating gender roles. A large number of behaviour change programmes bear witness that the realisation of linkages between gender equality and sustainable development is growing.


We expect that this research will generate action not only at the policy and strategy levels but also in implementation and delivery to ensure access to and exercise of rights by all in Pakistan. We firmly believe that women and men jointly can play a very effective and strategic role in changing the future for children in Pakistan. Imran Rizvi, Bilquis Tahira

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development VIII 1


ACRONYMS ADO AJK AKF ARNEC CEDAW

NER NGO NPA PEF SEF SMC UDHR UPE WCW WFP

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

CRC CSO DAD DEO DSD ECE EFA ECCD ESR FGD GCET HDI ICT INGAD MDGs MIED MoE MoWD NCCWD

Assistant District Officer Azad Jammu and Kashmir Agha Khan Foundation Asia Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Convention on the Rights of the Child Civil Society Organisation Development Assistance Database District Education Officer Directorate of Staff Development Early Childhood Education Education for All Early Childhood Care and Development Education Sector Reforms Focus Group Discussion Govt College of Elementary Teachers Human Development Index Islamabad Capital Territory Interagency Gender and Development Group Millennium Development Goals Mountain Institute for Educational Development Ministry of Education Ministry of Women Development National Commission for Child Welfare and Development Net Enrollment Rate Non-governmental Organisation National Plan of Action Punjab Education Foundation Sindh Education Foundation School Management Committee Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Primary Education World Conference on Women World Food Programme


Table of Contents

XIII 1 11 25 43 51 63 73 83 91 101 105

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Executive Summary The research on gender in early childhood care and development (ECCD) in Pakistan has been initiated by Plan International Pakistan in collaboration with Plan Finland with the following objectives: a) Provide a situational analysis of gender inclusion in ECCD in Pakistan and ascertain how ECCD can be used to promote gender equality, b) Develop a simple ‘tool box’ for the use of Plan Pakistan and its partners for the promotion of gender equity in ECCD, c) Provide ideas for working issues of inclusion and intersectional discrimination in ECCD centers and d) Recommendation and a plan of action.

The findings of research study revealed that the level of education of the caregivers ranges from Matriculation to Master's in Education or a master's degree. Among study sample 7% of the caregivers were Masters while 12% were Matriculate. By far the largest percentage, 32% were graduates (14 years of education), 22% were F.A. (12 years), 27% had received pre-service training. In government schools of Punjab all teachers received pre-service teacher training. Highly qualified teachers prefer to work in larger private school which are perceived to be more prestigious. A big percentage of caregivers, 53.7% never received any ECE/ECCD training. Thirty percent of the caregivers were married out of which 12% had children while 70% were unmarried. Two caregivers

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The research mainly used qualitative methodology. The geographic focus of this research was on two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Sindh. Two districts were selected in each province: Lahore and Chakwal in Punjab, and Thatta and Karachi in Sindh. Within the districts rural-urban divide was considered while visiting schools to assess ECCD facilities. In all districts, 5 urban and 5 rural schools (2 managed by the Government, 1 NGO managed and 2 private schools – one a part of a chain of up-scale schools, and one aimed at lower income families were visited. Eleven government representatives were also interviewed in Punjab and Sindh to receive information on the Government's current action and future plans on ECCD and five more were eventually interviewed including a senior government functionary in each district. A few NGOs were also contacted for assessing integration of gender concerns in their ECCD programmes. Thirty donors working on gender issues in Pakistan were contacted and the questionnaire on ECCD programs was shared with them twice through email. Only one response was received: from a donor not working on ECCD.


resented being married off at the age 17 –18 years. According to the caregivers, girls take interest in the same games which boys play but boys behave differently in school and after school. Girls don't have much stamina for physical games like boys while boys like to play outdoor games involving jumping and pushing; they are mostly moody, naughty and always ready to play. Caregivers stated that girls and boys behave very differently. If boys get into a fight they try to resolve it themselves, on the other hand, when girls get into a quarrel they complain to the caregiver and seek their interference. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Most caregivers (31) do not keep any gender disaggregated data. The rest mentioned that data can be made available from the attendance registers. Parent's involvement in the ECCD centers to see their children progress was not satisfactory. The results show that 50% caregivers don't invite parents on a regular basis for sharing feedback on child growth and development. The schools usually write to the fathers for meeting or any information. Thirty-eight percent centers reported that mostly mothers but sometimes fathers also attended the regular meetings with caregivers. In government run centres there is a proper system of monitoring the centres, particularly in Punjab where either the EDO or other officers such as the ADO visit every month. Monitoring is done using a specific format. In NGO managed centres in Chakwal, monitoring is undertaken systematically on a prescribed format. In private schools (29), verbal feedback is provided to the caregivers who integrate the feedback into their work. The government representatives also convey verbal feedback. Nothing is put in writing. The total number of children enrolled in these ECCD facilities was 1,063 – 496 girls and 567 boys. The average number of children in a facility is 27.2; however, the range of enrollment differs drastically from one institution to another – 11 to 159. Over half of the children (561: 310 girls and 251 boys) are provided ECCD/ECE facilities by 14 government schools. The majority of girls in government institutions indicate that parents are giving more importance to boys' education, sending them to private educational institutions, which are generally thought of as better quality. ECE facility in government schools is called 'Kids Room' and over 50% were established in year 2011 or 2012. The caregivers also

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informed that 24 children – 8 girls and 16 boys have dropped out of ECE facility this year but the system for follow up of drop-outs does not exist The caregivers were unable to provide any reason.

A system for professional development of caregivers must be made a priority and incentives need to be attached to professional development. For effectiveness it is recommended that the information is translated in Urdu as well as local regional languages and disseminated to all relevant stakeholders. It is suggested that all available documents be reviewed with a gender perspective and changes incorporated in the manuals, guidelines, any policies or strategies as well as into the national ECE curriculum. Involvement of fathers in care and development of children is essential and ECCD centers can play a very important role in this regard. Similarly, hiring more male ECCD trained caregivers can break through traditional barriers of women as the 'natural' care giver and nurturer, providing an alternate model to children.

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The study recommends that to begin with, a comprehensive regular program should be initiated to build caregivers' capacity on ECCD. However, it is critical that all such training programmes integrate gender equality concerns. Gender sensitisation is an essentially self-analytical process; therefore, any gender in ECCD initiative must consider capacity building of caregivers on gender equality and equip them with tools for self-reflection. Along with gender sensitive training modules on conflict management, effective communication skills for communicating with children and parents will make the training more meaningful.


Chapter

1

INTRODUCTION

Plan Pakistan's operations commenced in 1997 and the organisation currently implements programmes in 21 districts of all provinces of Pakistan. These include the districts of Chakwal, Vehari, Rajanpur, Layyah, Multan, and Muzaffargarh in Punjab; Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Thatta, Ghotki, Saanghar, Badin, and Khairpur in Sindh; Ziarat in Balochistan, and in 7 districts of Gilgit-Baltistan. In addition Plan Pakistan works in the squatter settlements of Islamabad, the capital city. Plan Pakistan strives to reach out to as many children as possible through programmes such as Enabling Environment for Good Governance, the Right to Quality Education, the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living, Right to Health and Health Services and Mainstreaming Child-Centred Disaster Risk Management. Globally, Plan works in partnership first and foremost with children and their families and with communities and their organisations, government departments and implementing partners. Plan is committed to the principles of non-discrimination and realises that gender inequality contributes to high infant and childhood mortality, to low educational achievement, and to failures to protect children from harm. Early childhood programmes can be a powerful means of reducing gender inequality. Girls who participate in such programmes are more likely to begin school at the right age and to complete primary school. In addition community-based ECCD interventions free older sisters, siblings and their parents from the task of tending preschoolers so that they can return to school. ECCD programmes can also be powerful tools to address gender inequalities

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The research on gender in early childhood care and development in Pakistan has been initiated by Plan Pakistan in collaboration with Plan Finland. Plan, an international non-governmental organisation envisions a world in which all children realise their full potential in societies that respect people's rights and dignity (ToRs attached as Annex A). Plan International's offices cover sixty-six countries worldwide working for the betterment of children and their families the world over.


within families, i.e. between mothers, fathers and other care-givers. ECCD programmes have the potential to positively influence the role of young mothers within a household or strengthen the overall role of fathers in child-rearing. The key findings of the 2011 Because I am a Girl report indicates both girls and boys benefit from a close relationship with their fathers.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Early foundations are key for achieving the full potential of children. It is well documented that many children start developing their gender identities and start to build gender stereotypes from very early ages. It is therefore of paramount importance that program designers and managers, and the caregivers responsible for very young children have a clear strategy for incorporating knowledge of gender concepts and 'gender-smart' practices. In addition, restrictive gender stereotypes can lead and limit children to experiment and learn new things. More over these stereotypes and ideas can remain in one's identity for a lifetime and for generations to come. To further the objectives stated above, Plan Pakistan and Finland hired RIZ Consulting to undertake a research on gender and ECCD with the following objectives: Ÿ Provide a situational analysis of gender inclusion in ECCD in Pakistan and

ascertain how ECCD can be used to promote gender equality. Ÿ Develop a simple tool box for the use of Plan Pakistan and its partners for

the promotion of gender equity in ECCD. Ÿ Provide ideas for working issues of inclusion and intersectional discrimination in ECCD centres Ÿ Recommendations and a plan of action. The research covers two provinces of Pakistan: Punjab and Sindh. Two districts in each province – Lahore and Chakwal in Punjab, and Thatta and Karachi in Sindh – were covered. It is also pertinent to mention here that the research is mainly qualitative and not quantitative in nature for several reasons, e.g. input from FGDs cannot be quantified as opinions expressed by more confident respondents tend to be repeated by others, particularly as parents belong to varied socio-economic

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background and level of confidence for expressing opinions may not be the same; children need time to have a relationship of trust where they can express themselves and the researchers only had one day in each centre to deliver five questionnaires. Research methodology: 1. Desk review

2. Design of research tools Four members of the team met on 19 April and 20 April 2012 in Lahore to design the research tools. These included: interview guidelines for ECE teachers (see Annex B); guidelines for discussion with girls and boys attending ECE centres (see Annex C); observation checklist (see Annex D); guidelines for FGDs with parents (see Annex E); interview questionnaire for parents not sending their daughters and sons to ECE centre (see Annex F); guidelines for interviews with government functionaries (see Annex G). The tools were shared with Plan, and the comments received were incorporated. The team would like to particularly appreciate guidance received from FLNO. 3. Training/orientation of the research team An extremely interesting process which brought together varied level of expertise and knowledge existing in the team. The meeting was held in Islamabad with the full team in attendance. The ToRs of the research and the proposal submitted was discussed to create a shared understanding of the task at hand. An overview on ECCD was provided by the ECCD technical Expert. All guidelines/questionnaires were thoroughly discussed. The universe of the research was also considered carefully. It was felt that visiting

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The team screened a number of documents (some provided by Plan Pakistan and FLNO). An extensive web research was also undertaken and documents shared with the team, which were reviewed and discussed (bibliography attached as Annex A).


two centres a day by each researcher (as planned originally) would be too ambitious, particularly with inclusion of perceptions of parents not sending their children to ECE centres (the team had already been thinking it over). All implications such as the quality of feedback expected, its impact on the analysis, etc. were carefully deliberated upon. It was finally decided that Plan should be consulted on whether one district in each province can be dropped as well as the exclusive ECCD institutions in urban localities.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Logistics and other physical arrangements were also discussed. Plan Pakistan had shared the contacts of its relevant personnel with the team for the meeting and the information was shared with the team. 4. Pre-test of the tools Each researcher undertook pre-tests of all the tools – with ECE teachers, parents and children. The guidelines for government functionaries and other NGO programmes were pre-tested also. Feedback from the team was continuously received during pre-test and discussed. The team met again on 17 May 2012 (with Karachi and Lahore on Skype) and went through the feedback on each research tool. Clarifications were made; issues were raised and resolved. The team was of the opinion that the tools worked well and were quite comprehensive as well as gender sensitive. The main concern raised was that the schools were hesitant about having researchers visiting the centre for fear of being monitored and judged on the quality of services provided. Therefore, it was decided that the first step in the visit should be a detailed meeting with the head teacher and ECE/ECCD caregiver to: a) explain the objectives of the research; b) to commit to confidentiality of the information/insights shared with the researchers; and c) to limit interference with their routine as much as possible. A letter was issued by the research team to explain the research to the ECE/ECCD authorities. It was also decided that the caregivers will be interviewed first so that they become familiar with the research and feel comfortable with the researcher so that children eventually can also accept the researcher in their midst. Children

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tend to reflect the moods and behaviour of the caregiver and parents. The conversation with the children followed succeeded by the observation. The opportunity to talk first to the children ensured that their curiosity about the researcher was satiated and they were not be as self-conscious about being observed as they might have been if they were not familiar with the researcher. FGDs with parents were conducted after these three tools were administered, giving time for parents to arrive as children left the centre. Interviews with parents who were not sending their children to the centre were undertaken afterwards.

After discussions with Plan, two districts from each province (Punjab and Sindh) were selected: Thatta and Karachi in Sindh, and Chakwal and Lahore in Punjab. While visiting schools in the districts the rural-urban divide was considered. In all districts, 5 urban and 5 rural schools (2 government–run, 1 run by an NGO, and 2 private schools: one belonging to a bigger chain and one targeted at lower income families were visited. The field work in each centre consisted of: 1. Interviewing the teacher – taking a few initial minutes to explain the research, putting her/him1 at ease by reassuring them that the purpose of the visit was not monitoring or assessing of their performance, and confirming confidentiality of the feedback received. at ease by reassuring them that the purpose of the visit was not monitoring or assessing of their performance, and confirming confidentiality of the feedback received. 2. Discussions/dialogue with children enrolled in the centre. 3. Observation of the learning environment within the centre and of safety and protection of children. 4. FGDs with parents who sent their children to the centre. 5. Interview with one mother and one father from the community who did not send their children to school.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Field Work


Pre-test has confirmed that this order of contact at ECCD/ECE centre works best. It is important to establish some rapport with the caregivers and/or the principal/head teachers so that they do not feel suspicious of the research team's motives or mistake them for a surprise monitoring team from the Department of Education. Additionally, once the teacher is comfortable with the researcher's presence the children will also not feel threatened as they tend to reflect the caregiver's feelings.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The field teams consisted of two members for each province. Eleven government representatives were contacted in Punjab and Sindh to receive information on the Governments' current action and future plans for ECCD. Five were eventually interviewed including a senior government functionary in each district. (see Annex) A few NGOs have also been contacted for assessing integration of gender concerns in their ECCD programmes. Thirty donors working on gender issues in Pakistan were contacted and the questionnaire on ECCD programmes was shared with them twice through e-mail. A presentation on the research was also made at an Inter-agency Gender and Development group meeting. Only one response was received from a donor not working on ECCD. Hence, Development Assistance Database of the Government of Pakistan was reviewed to gather information on donor initiatives. A complete picture of field work follows.

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Definitions used

This report uses Plan's definition of ECE/ECCD. Early Childhood Care and Development covers the period from pregnancy through the transition from home or early childhood programs into the early formal and non-formal primary school years (pre-natal to 8 years of age). Children in this age group experience the most rapid period of growth and change during the human lifespan in terms of their maturing bodies and nervous systems, their increasing mobility, communication skills, intellectual capacities and socio-emotional development, and rapid shifts in their interests and abilities. Young children's earliest years are the foundation for their future physical and mental health, emotional security, cultural and personal identity, and competencies. ECCD seeks to ensure that children are physically healthy, intellectually engaged, emotionally resilient, and socially competent, ensuring their overall well-being now and providing the foundation for their becoming socially responsible, intellectually vibrant and economically productive adults. Scope of the research It is important to note here that although the definition of ECCD by Plan encompasses pre-natal to eight years of age, Plan Pakistan is only working with children three to five years of age. Hence, the research is limited in scope as it has targeted that age group only. Furthermore, the research should be considered a qualitative trends analysis and not a rigorously quantitative exercise for the following reasons:

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Far from being confined to pre-schooling alone, early childhood activities encompass the holistic well-being and development of a child. Therefore, a great variety of terminologies can be found that are used in initiatives for early childhood provisions by different organisations. Terms such as ECE (Early Childhood Education), ECCE (Early Childhood Care, and Education) and ECD (Early Childhood Development) are often used interchangeably. ECE mainly denotes pre-primary education provided in schools, while ECCE and ECD signify health and nutrition provisions as well. The term ECD implies an additional emphasis on child and mother (post natal) care as well.


1. The sample is of only 4 districts out of 142 districts of Pakistan – which

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

cannot be considered a representative sample. 2. Only 41 ECCD centres were visited while the total number of primary 2 schools in Pakistan was 155,500 in 2010-11 , which include over 47,000 3 private schools as well. Out of this figure, 60,900 are girls' schools. All private schools include some level of ECCD facilities referred to as Kindergarten, Montessori, or Preparatory. Again, 41 centres out of at least 50,000 such facilities in Pakistan do not lend the analysis to be more than a qualitative case study. 3. Any frank conversation with children of ages 3-5 means spending much more time in the centres than the time planned – for interview with the caregiver, observation, conversation with children as well as FGD with parents. Hence, the conversations have been analysed more as trends and not as quantitative measurements. 4. Observation of caregivers' interaction with children was no longer than 40 minutes by each researcher due to the paucity of time. As observation methodology does have an inherent bias, again trends have been considered. Framework for gender analysis The following framework used by Plan for gender analysis has been used in the report.

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1. Generally, children are initially reserved with any stranger and open up after they have had longer interaction with new acquaintances. This held true for our interaction with children as well. The researchers found that some girls and boys were keen to share their thoughts while others held back. A longer time in the centre, at least two days, would have been ideal for in-depth conversation with the children. Therefore, the data on conversations with children cannot be quantified. It is suggested that an operational research undertaken by a team of child counselors be undertaken over a longer period of time for accurate enumeration of data. 2. Identifying ECE centres to visit in Lahore and Karachi was particularly challenging. Interestingly, NGO run centres have been very difficult to find in Lahore. The better known, larger NGOs involved in the Education sector are not working in Lahore: their interventions exist in Southern Punjab mostly. This is in direct consonance with foreign donor funding availability and priorities. Since 2009, a considerable proportion of donor aid has been routed to humanitarian assistance; Southern Punjab being one of the areas affected by disaster has

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Challenges and constraints


received more priority by donors. Hence, NGO operations have also focused on those geographical areas – again raising questions on aid effectiveness. The team has creatively used all personal contacts to eventually identify centres, used a mapping study, Education Foundations' websites and other resources. Plan staff in the field has also been very helpful.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

3. Getting any data on ECCD has been a challenge, particularly on out of ECE/ECCD facilities, since the census is almost redundant and figures in other documents are mere estimates. Additionally, in the absence of data on enrollment in ECE/ECCD in Pakistan, having a reliable figure on out of ECE/ECCD institutions is problematic. 4. Teachers as well as parents did not have any idea of rights based services, and gender equality, it seems, had never been a consideration for them. They genuinely seem confident of their fairness towards girls and boys and did not seem to think that gender issues either existed or mattered.

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Chapter

2

Overview of ECCD and gender in Pakistan

1. Pakistan's national and international commitments on ECCD and gender 1.1 International commitments

The UN General Assembly adopted the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1979. This document provides definitions for what comprises discrimination against women, and sets up an agenda for national action to end it. By acceding to the Convention in March 1996, Pakistan committed itself to execute a series of measures to eradicate discrimination against women in any and all forms 5. The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 1995 was the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace, organised by the UN in September of 1995, culminated in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. As a signatory of this document Pakistan is bound to the advancement of women and to ensuring that all its policies and programs at the national, regional and international levels are gender sensitive 6. Specifically, the Declaration calls for “people-centred sustainable development ... through the provision of basic education, life-long education, literacy and training ... for girls and women” (Article 27), and “equal access to and equal treatment of women and men in education” (Article 30)7.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Several national and international commitments have been made by the state of Pakistan for gender and education relevant to ECCD. Pakistan was one of the 48 Member States in the UN General Assembly to vote in favor of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in December of 1948. Article 26 of the UDHR states that “Everyone has the right to education… Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory”4.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The World Declaration on Education for All 2000 and the Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs (also referred to as the “Jomtien Declaration”) was a pledge made by delegates at the World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs, in Jomtien, Thailand, (March 1990). The signatories, including Pakistan, established that all individuals should be able to profit from educational opportunities, and called for an “expanded vision” of education which encompassed aspects such as universal accessibility of and equity in education 8. Then, in April 2000, 164 country representatives signed the “Dakar Framework for Action, Education for All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments” at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal. Pakistan was one such signatory, and thus accepted education as a fundamental right for all people, despite their gender or age; acknowledged the need for thorough efforts to eliminate gender discrimination; and committed itself to the implementation of integrated strategies for gender equality in education that appreciate the crucial necessity of 9 changes in attitudes, values and practices . Specifically, the document commits countries to ensuring that “in the learning environment, the content, processes and context of education must be free of gender bias, and encourage and support equality and respect. This includes teachers' behaviors and attitudes, curriculum and textbooks, and student interactions” 10. The Dakar Framework outlines the following EFA Goals: a) expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children; b) ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality; c) ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes;

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d) achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015,

Additionally, in New York, at the Millennium Summit (September 2000), the Millennium Declaration was adopted by 189 nations. Based upon this Declaration, eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were drawn up to respond to the world's main development challenges. All 192 UN Member States, Pakistan included, are to work towards reaching the MDGs by 2015 12. MDG number 2, “Achieve universal primary education,” and number 3 “Promote gender equality and empower women” commit member states to achieving gender equality in access to education13. The Government of Pakistan (Departments of Education, Education Foundations, National Commission on Child Welfare and Development) is not a member of Asia Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC), a network established to build strong partnerships across sectors and different disciplines, organisations, agencies and institutions in the Asia-Pacific region to advance the agenda on and investment in early childhood14. Plan International Regional Office for Asia is one of the key partners of ARNEC. 1.2. National commitments Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: formulated in 1973, Pakistan's Constitution declared the provision of education as one of the country's prime commitments. Article 37 states that “the State shall … (b) remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within the

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults; e) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; and f) improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognised and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills 11.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

minimum possible period; (c) make technical and professional education generally available and higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of merit�. Recently the Constitution was amended to include free and compulsory education for the children aged 5 to 16 years amongst the fundamental rights (Article 25a, Constitution of Pakistan) making non-access to education a th justiciable action. This provision of the 18 Amendment is well aligned with international standards such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)15. National Plan of Action (2001-2015): Developed to honour the international commitment made by signing the Education for All Dakar Framework for Action (April 2000), the Pakistani Government's National Plan of Action (NPA) on Education for All (2001–2015) aims to ensure access to education for disadvantaged rural and urban population groups, especially women and girls. Its objectives also include the promotion of community participation and ownership of basic education program and increased relevance and quality of the same16. National Education Policy (2009): Approved in September 2009, the new National Education Policy of Pakistan recognises that Pakistan has persistent gender and rural-urban disparities in access to education. It seeks the revitalisation of the existing education system and aims to enable Pakistan to fulfill international commitments such as the Education for All goals and the education related Millennium Development Goals. Moreover the National Policy (future uncertain because of devolution of the Ministry of Women's Development) is committed to women's social empowerment including access to education. The National Plan of Action for Women (formulated after the WCW Beijing) also focused on women's empowerment as well as the girl child 17. 2. Current situation: Pakistan has the largest number of children out of primary school in the world: over 5 million. Over 3 million of these are girls 18. Net Enrollment Rates for both sexes are amongst the lowest in South Asia, despite the relatively high HDI. The

14


NERs fell sharply in the educational year of 2005-2006, and though they have risen since, they have never fully recovered. They have consistently been higher for boys than for girls and for urban areas than for rural areas, over the past decade 19.

The feedback received from the government representatives highlights the paucity of data on the number of children using any ECE/ECCD facility as well as the number of children out of ECE/ECCD institutions 21. 3. Operationalisation of commitments: 3.1. Government initiatives Though the above mentioned declarations and resolutions are important first steps, they lack any significance if not implemented. The Government of Pakistan has taken many steps to keep this from being the case. For example, the Education Sector Reforms (ESR) came into being 2000 onwards as an attempt to transform national and international commitments and polices into ground realities. The ESR focused on the development of the Pakistani education sector as a whole. Centred particularly on the EFA goals, this was the first strategy implemented by the Pakistani Government to address ECE, alongside other goals of elementary

15

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan reports a total of 146,691 primary schools in Pakistan. 43.8 percent of these schools are for boys, 31.5 percent for girls, and 24.7 percent are coeducational. This trend of larger number of schools being all-boys is repeated at the provincial/regional level with no exceptions. The difference is much greater in rural areas than in cities. 53% of all primary school teachers in the country are male, further hindering girls' access to education, as often, they are not allowed to attend schools unless the teacher is a woman. While this trend holds true for most provinces, Punjab, AJK and the ICT are exceptions, with female teachers far outnumbering male ones. The number of female teachers is lowest in rural areas. These trends have led many to conclude that Pakistan will be unable to honour its international development commitments such as the Millennium Development Goals and the EFA goals 20.


education and adult literacy. ECE became officially accepted as “katchi� or preprimary. It was defined as both formal and informal, public or private, education services for children aged 3-5 years. However, the NPA's prioritisation of ECE only comes in third, following Universal Primary Education and Adult Literacy. The latter are given financial precedence in the education budget 22.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Despite its relatively recent prioritisation, the concept of ECE has long been a part of the Pakistani education in the form of the katchi (pre-primary) class. Formally integrated into the system in the early '70s, katchi is generally perceived as a way of easing children's transition into formal schooling through this initial informal setting. It is also meant to help ensure that the younger siblings of older students will also enroll in school when they reach the appropriate age 23. However, by the end of 1980s, katchi had gradually disappeared as a part of the official system. Where such classes existed, the quality of education provided was very poor. Antiquated methods of teaching such as rote memorisation were employed and encouraged. Classes were held by the teacher standing in front of a blackboard and thus instructing the class. Overall, the beginnings of education for young children were bleak and dreary. The data for the whole of Pakistan on dropouts from katchi to Grade 1 is not available, however estimates are that there is a huge drop-out of girls in katchi class 24. According to a study in six districts on Punjab in 2007 revealed that dropout rates between katchi and Class I are about 37% with 35% for boys and 39% for girls 25. The EFA movement spurred a renewed commitment to ECCD with the reintroduction of katchi classes into the formal education system. However, policy implementation leaves much to be desired. An EFA mid-decade Review was conducted in 2006 to evaluate the situation and to monitor the country's progress. The review looked at the number of students enrolled, number of formal preschool institutions, and number of caregivers or teachers employed in this field to gauge progress in ECE/ECCD. It only looked at direct Government initiatives or those taken by other actors in partnership with the State. On the whole, results appeared poor. It was found that in many cases ECCD services in the public sector

16


existed in the traditional form of the katchi class, where students of katchi sat alongside those of Class 1 and 2, whose teacher attended to them in any spare time she or he may have. In such a scenario no funds were specially allocated for ECE. However, in some schools the katchi class was given its own room alongside an adequately trained teacher and appropriate learning materials. No studies have been conducted on the differences in quality and impact between the two forms of ECE 26.

Another government initiative for the promotion and provision of ECE was the ECE Curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education in 2002, with technical input from the Teachers' Resource Centre. This curriculum was widely disseminated, and was meant to be implemented in the same year. The next year, teacher training material was developed, along with guides for katchi teachers. The curriculum was revised in 2007, again with the help of the TRC. Other Ministries such as those of Women's Development, Social Welfare and Special Education Wing also have set up day care facilities for children below the age of 3 years in some cities. The Ministry of Women Development (MoWD) has also set up the National Commission for Child Welfare and Development (NCCWD) that has done significant work on child rights and protection 28. Directorate of Staff Development (DSD), Department of Education, Government of Punjab has developed several documents and guidelines regarding ECE such as a Early Childhood Education Training Manual 2010 Based on National Curriculum 2007 as well as scaling up strategy for Early Childhood Education in Punjab and a booklet and 4 brochures: 3 English and 1 Urdu on ‘Reshaping Lives through Early

28

17 1

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In 2003, the NPA decreed that ECE be provided to at least half the relevant age group: a target of 8.1 million children, which required a doubling of the net participation rate. To achieve this 2,500 ECE centres/classes in the public sector and 1,500 centres in the private sector were to be opened annually. However, due to purported inadequate funding this plan never fully made it to reality. At the federal level, however, there has been greater success as the Federal Directorate of Education has worked on training teachers along with CRI, and opening up ECD centres in the ICT region 27.


childhood Education to meet the educational challenges’. DSD has also developed and presented a manual for scaling up the system, which has been approved by the Government of Punjab. 33 lab schools with GCET (Govt College of Elementary Teachers) have been established. DSD has also trained 132 master trainers on ECE, and 4000 teachers have been trained so far in public sector as a first step.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In accordance with the national curriculum, 4 schools in the vicinity of DSD have been furnished with all the required learning materials as have been 17 centres in flood hit areas of Dera Ghazi Khan, Kot Addu, Rahim Yar Khan, and Rajanpur. The Government of Punjab has also developed a PC1 (government format for proposals) for 1000 ECE centres and have allocated Rs. 200 million for enrolment, training, and materials. DSD will collaborate with Save the Children to conduct an assessment of learning outcomes of children participating in ECE programmes comparing pre ECE to post ECE education. ECE training is also being planned for all relevant teachers. The thinking around gender is still limited to number of female and male teachers though. Punjab Education Foundation, an autonomous statutory body established under an Act by provincial parliament, is supporting private sector educational institutions through a public private partnership methodology; this includes support to pre-primary programmes as well. PEF has 1767 partner schools in 29 districts of Punjab. The districts are Bahawalpur, Attock, Bahawalnagar, Bhakkar, Chakwal, Chiniot, D.G Khan, Gujrat, Jehlum, Khushab, Lahore, Layyah, Lodhran, Mandi Bahauddin, Jhang, Mianwali, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Nankana, Narowal, Okara, Pak Patan, Rajanpur, Rawalpindi, Rahim Yar Khan, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, and Vehari. Department of Education, Sindh has also focused on ECE/ECCD. However, the lead for ECCD in the province is that of Sindh Education Foundation (SEF), an autonomous statutory body established under an act by the Provincial Parliament. SEF has been running a 4 year Early Learning Program (ELP) under

18


Thatta district is following the national ECE curriculum and is working on ECCD with HANDS, an NGO, and UNICEF. As far as could be ascertained, there are no budgetary allocations for ECCD. The Governments of Khyber Pakhtunkhhwa and Balochistan are also being supported for ECE programming by AusAid. The Government has developed an ECE curriculum which is reportedly being followed by the provincial governments. There are two other manuals in existence as well. The curriculums as well as three manuals (one for government, one for Montessori, and one developed by Plan International Pakistan) have been reviewed with a gender lens. All have several gender gaps. A detailed gender analysis of the manual developed by Plan is attached as Annex . A dearth of data, statistics and research on the subject make a comprehensive analysis of the ECE/ECCD situation in Pakistan difficult. However, it is clear that significant contributions towards furthering the ECE agenda have been made by organisations such as UNESCO, UNICEF, and AKF. Despite all these efforts to improve ECD within the country’ there appears to be a lack of real political will to do so. Only 1.1% of the government's budget is allocated to the provision of primary education, a very negligible amount indeed 30. According to official data, Pakistan allocated 2.5% of GDP during 2006-

19

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

the Public Sector Development programme 2007-08 aimed at institutionalising Early Childhood Education (ECE) classes in 150 government schools across 5 districts of Sindh namely Tando Muhammad Khan, Badin, Khairpur Mir, Ghotki and Noshero Feroz. Interventions towards improving the physical and academic environment within public schools target katchi, 1 and 2, and reach out to 10,000 children, 450 ECCD teachers, and 150 teaching assistants as well as SMC members. The learning environment is being improved through academic interventions which comprise designing grade wise learning frameworks in line with the National ECE Curriculum, classroom activities, lesson plans, training modules for teachers, assessment plans for both children and teachers, learning support mechanism and teacher training follow-ups 29.


07, 2.47% in 2007-08, 2.1% in 2008-09 and 2.0 % in 2009-10 to the education sector which shows a persistent declining trend 31. No separate allocations exist for ECCD which is subsumed in primary education budget. 3.2 Civil society initiatives

tnempoleveD dna eraC doohdlihC ylraE ni redneG

Many CSOs in the country are working on ECCD, the majority of which are focusing on ECE. Many have set up centres for the provision of ECE services, and work to build the capacity and increase the quality of government ECE services. Some, such as Idaara-e-Taleem-o-Agahi and Mountain Institute for Educational Development focus on providing these services in disaster stricken areas 32 . They, alongside others, have also set up ECE centres in relatively more stable cities, slums, and villages. A good example of such an intervention is The Pakistan Girl Guides Association's ECE centre in the village of Mohra Nagyal. Other organisations that have set up ECE centres include Alif Laila Book Bus Society—which has also set up resource centres, and created manuals and other resources on ECD; HOPE—which also works on informal education of children, provides medical services to young children, and, after the 2005 earthquake, worked towards strengthening the nutrition of young victims; Mehnaz Fatima Educational and Welfare Organisation—which focuses its ECE service provision on children with disabilities, and works extensively on teacher trainings; Plan Pakistan—which focuses both on health and education; and HANDS—which works in Sindh and also establishes resource centres alongside its efforts at improving health services.33 Other organisations, such as Children's Global Network Pakistan, the Hashoo Foundation, Society for Community Support for Primary Education in Balochistan (SCSPEB) and Rozan work mainly on capacity building through trainings and the provision of other types of support. Still others, such as PAIMAN and PAVHNA focus primarily on early childhood and postnatal health 34 . Yet another key civil society organisation that works towards advancing the ECE agenda in Pakistan is the Agha Khan Foundation. Because it engages many of its 31 32

33

34

Ibid.

20 1


Pakistan Montessori Council 36 delivers caregivers' training on Montessori methodology to caregivers on a regular basis and has 200 affiliate schools that offer ECE/ECCD services. The modules do not include gender equality; however there is one module on environment, diversity, and peace. Under Plan Pakistan 178 ECCD centres are functioning in 132 communities in Chakwal, Vehari, and Islamabad. 30 of these have been moved into local public schools. 3,945 children (2,039 girls and 1906 boys) aged 3-5 attended an ECCD facility in 2011 and 1,693 children (864 girls and 829 boys) from ECCD centres were enrolled in formal schools in Grade I. 176 caregivers attended refresher trainings that enabled them to enhance their skills in providing young children an environment conducive to learning. Ten caregivers engaged in the pre-testing of ECCD/ ECE syllabus during FY11. All children in ECCD centres are provided with eye screening, de-worming and growth monitoring. If problems are diagnosed referral systems are in place to ensure remedial action 37. Training of caregivers based on the manual developed by Plan was held in Chakwal prior to the field work. Plan has also undertaken an evaluation of Directorate of Staff Development, Government of Punjab. 3.3 Donors' initiatives Both unilateral and multilateral donors have made significant contributions to the improvement of ECD in Pakistan. Providing funding and technical assistance, 35 36

Ibid. Ibid.

37

Interviewed in Lahore; Montessori training partially observed. 21

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

sub-organisations on the subject, the Foundation's work on ECCD is much more holistic, and extends beyond just ECE to research and provision of medical and health services. It has set up discrete ECE classes in all its schools and also works to improve the quality of ECE in government schools. It also provides ECD trainings and establishes resource centres such as the Teacher's Resource Centre (TRC) in Pakistan. The Agha Khan Health Service focuses its provision of health services upon mothers and children under the age of five. A substantive amount of research on ECD is also conducted at the Agha Khan University in Karachi. CSO interventions across the board have reduced school dropout rates for their respective targeted populations, and helped ameliorate infant and mother health 35. Bunyad is also running a few ECCD centres.


conducting advocacy and policy dialogues, and organising conferences and aiding information sharing, they have been key players in the advancement of the country's ECD agenda. One donor that has conducted all these tasks is UNESCO. WFP has also made significant contributions, particularly in terms of the provision of equipment, technical assistance, loans, and grants, as well as skill development. Save the Children has provided similar financial support as a donor in this case, and has also helped build the required infrastructure. The Dutch government has invested over 12 million Euros in Pakistani ECD 38. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

DAD reports AusAid working on ECCD through a project titled Early Childhood Care and Education, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The project (2011-2014, USD 11,078,158) aims to improve educational outcomes and access for children in government schools by increasing opportunities for learning and development, and improving transitions into primary school. The program is piloting an Early Childhood Education (ECE) model in four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with the intention of developing a cost-effective, community-based ECE model in government schools to be replicated in the future by the KP Government across the province. Similarly AusAid is also supporting Balochistan-Early Childhood Development Project (B-ECDP – 2010 – 2013, USD 3,081,327) through Department of Education, Government of Balochistan which aims to enhance the access, quality of early childhood education, increase the understanding and support for ECD among parents, communities and educators in Balochistan. ECDP is managed by the Aga Khan Foundation, Pakistan. The focus of the project is on expanded and effective ECD project delivery for katchi (pre-primary), Class 1 and Class 2, poor families–particularly to girls and underprivileged children, improved quality and relevance for Early Childhood Education, improved capacities and participation of key stakeholders to ensure children's overall well being, nurturing, respect, improved ECD advocacy, practices, and learning networks. 3.4 Challenges: A major shortfall of current ECD and ECE efforts is that gender equality concerns are not integrated in ECCD programmes. Only a few initiatives exist which claim to integrate gender concerns into programming. CGN has a module on gender 38

Ibid.

22


training of ECCD caregivers and UNICEF claims to have integrated gender issues in its ECCD programming. A major concern also is that any ECCD budgetary allocations are combined with primary education budgets, making it impossible to assess and analyse the financial situation regarding ECCD in Pakistan. Gender responsive budgeting of ECCD is a far cry.

The ECCD programming, as it is now, lacks serious and effective coordination and collaboration. There is significant overlap between the mandates and projects of multiple organisations, and many gaps that are left unfilled. No linkages are created between parallel efforts. This holds true for donors, government agencies, and CSOs. Another key issue is the lack of resources. For one, government schools lack physical space in which to set up a separate katchi class. Also, there is a shortage of adequately qualified and trained teachers—and teachers in general—in the country. Lastly, the amount of money being allocated to this area, especially by the Pakistani Government, is too little to make it possible for Pakistan to achieve the international standards to which it has committed itself 39.

39 Early

Childhood Development Initiatives in Pakistan: A Mapping Study. Publication. Karachi: Sindh Education Foundation, 2009. Print.

23

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Lack of gender disaggregated data on ECCD is also a major concern. The last population census was conducted in 1998. Therefore, any figures of girls and boys not receiving ECCD support will at best be estimates.


Chapter

3

: CAREGIVERS

ECCD caregivers can play a critical role in removing gender barriers and changing gender stereotyping in roles, as well as in division of work and public and private space. Furthermore, through their regular contact with parents, they are in a unique position to sensitise parents on gender equality—issues that prevent girls and boys from achieving their full potential.

1. Caregivers’ profile: Level of education of the caregivers ranges from Matriculation Certificate (10-11 years of schooling) to the university degree of Masters and Master inh Education. 7% have Masters Degree while 12% have Matriculation Certificate. By far the largest percentage, 32%, are graduates (14-15 years of schooling); 22% have F.A. Certificate (12-13 years of schooling), and 27% have received pre-service training. In Government schools in Punjab all teachers have pre-service teacher training. The highly qualified teachers prefer working in larger private school chains as private school teaching is perceived to be more prestigious

25

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Keeping this in consideration, 41 caregivers were interviewed by the research team to assess their understanding of gender equality concerns and their relevant practices. In 38 of the 41 centres visited there was only one caregiver at the centre. In the remaining three centres there were two; however only the senior caregiver was interviewed due to time limitations. Only one senior caregiver was a male – in an NGO run ECCD centre. The caregivers walked us through their own childhood experiences before discussing the current scenario. In some cases the former was a difficult exercise; however, with some encouragement, polite probing, and promises of confidentiality, they shared their childhood expectations and experiences. Since only one male caregiver was interviewed, the terms 'most' or 'a majority of' refers to women in the following paragraphs. Responses from the male caregiver have been reported separately.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

53.7% of caregivers have never received any ECE/ECCD training; 27% have received training spanning 3 to 15 days; 2.4% have been trained for a duration of 16-29 days; 4.8% for 1-2 months; 7.3% for 3 months; and 4.9% have 14-15 months Montessori training.

26


As mentioned in the graph above, 2.4% have received ECE training 5 times each; 2.4% have been provided training 3 times; and 4.9% were provided with 2 trainings. By far the largest number 36.6% did not receive a follow-up training after the first training. 68% of caregivers interviewed had no previous experience of managing an ECCD centre and report that they have learnt ECCD methodology on the job. The rest have had 1 year to 3 years experience with the exception of one who has 20 years of experience. 30% of the caregivers are married out of which 12% have children. The other 70% are unmarried.

27

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Percentage of Teachers

It is pertinent to mention the number of trainings for each caregiver as repeated trainings denote initial training plus refreshers. This indicates the technical support available to the caregivers as well as professional development opportunities.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

2. Caregivers' childhood Slaves of socialisation, human beings tend to refer to the neural pathways developed in childhood to assess and respond to any situation in life. It is critical therefore to reflect upon and analyse past experiences while working on the integration of gender concerns in ECCD practices. Gender sensitisation is essentially a reflexive process, therefore, any gender in ECCD initiative must consider capacity building of caregivers on gender equality and equip them with tools for self-reflection. 2.1. Expectations from parents A majority of caregivers wanted their fathers and mothers to love them and to be close to them. Getting attention from parents was one of their main yearnings; 18 caregivers reported that it was fulfilled. Seven caregivers shared that they wanted their fathers to care for them, however, their brothers' needs were a priority in their families. They reported discrimination such as restrictions on going out even as young girls, not being allowed to ride a bicycle, not having many friends (girls), and not having opportunities for higher studies available to them.

28


seven caregivers reported that they wanted their parents to love them and that they felt that mothers should not be strict. Many faced physical violence when young. One caregiver said: “mothers should be more patient with their daughters”. The comment in fact meant that they faced physical violence from mothers in their childhood.

The male caregiver does not remember any deprivation in his childhood. He was given a lot of attention and care by both parents: “I wanted a tricycle and my father asked me to wait for two days. I, however, insisted and he bought it for me the same evening”. 2.2. Expectations from teachers Most of the caregivers (27) expected teachers to be polite, caring, friendly and helpful in their childhood. They also wanted the teacher to appreciate them and encourage them. The unanimous opinion was that teachers must listen to the children as listening is empowering. There should be a relationship of trust and friendship with the teachers, so that children are able to confide in them and discuss issues that may seem trivial to adults but are very important to children. Some caregivers (6) reported that their teachers were strict disciplinarians and

29

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Two caregivers resented being married off at the age of 17-18. Two others reported that they wished their mothers had given them more attention. One said she would have liked for her parents to have taken her for picnics. Another reported that she wanted her mother to bring her more dolls. One woman voiced that she had wanted her mother to bring home sandals for her.


scolded them on occasion, sometimes even slapping them. They could still remember the sting and felt that teacher's behaviour had eroded their confidence eternally. The ones (7) who were acknowledged and appreciated reported that they developed a zeal for learning which continues to determine their path in life to this day. 2.3 Games liked as children Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

A multitude of games were mentioned as being childhood favourites by the caregivers, including playing with dolls (14 caregivers)), pretend home (1 Caregiver) , arranging fake marriages for their dolls (1 Caregiver pretend cooking (3), hide and seek (3), tag (3), racing (4), skipping (1), football (2), pretend to be a teacher (5), pretend to be a doctor (1), badminton (6), cycling (3), cricket (12), Jumping(1), making pots(1), playing with water (2), ‘Khokho’ (4), ‘kokalachapaki’ (2) (a game similar to duck duck goose), blind man's bluff (2), hopscotch (7), ‘pithoo garam’ (1), netball, (1), ludo (3), skiing, basketball (1), baseball (1), ‘gulli danda’(1), carrom (2), sewing clothes (1), volley ball (1), disc throwing (1), and shot put (1). One caregiver said she liked to play all the games usually children play. Two caregivers said they didn't play any games as child. The male caregiver reported having liked running and hide-and-seek. 2.4. Games allowed Playing with friends (girls) inside the house and playing with dolls was allowed (5).

30


17 caregivers said they were allowed to play anything that they wanted. Seven reported that they played almost every game, but when they reached the age of 11 to 13 they were stopped from any kind of play. Three caregivers reported that they were allowed to play any game inside their homes.

One reported she didn't play any game. She wanted to be with her mother all the time. The male caregiver wanted to play with marbles but was not allowed as he tried to swallow them. Caregivers remembered very clearly the games they were not allowed, the whole family monitored their obedience to the rules in this regard. For some it is a rankling memory – they remember resenting it and thinking of it as an injustice as children. 2.5. Role plays enjoyed Most of the caregivers (21) enjoyed role playing as a teacher in their childhood. One reported pretending to be doctor. Others enjoyed being elder sisters (5), lawyers (1), fairies (4), captain of the cricket team (4), angry big brother (1), a princess (2), a policeman (1). One caregiver said she liked the role of a news presenter. One caregiver reported a favorite play Mohammad bin Qasim, an army general; she pretended to be him and fought pretend sword fights with her brother. One said she did not role play as a child. The male caregiver said that he liked the role play of teacher.

31

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Seven of the interviewed caregivers were not allowed to play cricket. One was not allowed to play as a teacher. Another was not allowed jumping, while yet another was forbidden from swings. Two were not allowed to play badminton. One was not allowed to play pretend home. One was not allowed to play ‘pithoo garam’. One was not allowed to play ludo. One was not allowed to play kabaddi. Two were not allowed to play with marbles. And one was not allowed to play with a top. Two were not allowed to ride a bicycle because they got hurt often.


2.6. Characteristics of favourite teachers The caregivers' favourite teachers were all polite, loving, and soft spoken. They talked in a friendly manner, and did not scold (22). They listened to the children (4). Some said they hugged the children, smiled at them frequently, and gave attention to the children (2). They also explained things well to them and supported them in learning (8).

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In some cases the teacher was beautiful (1) and had long hair (1). Two said they liked their teacher's nice personality; three appreciated their good nature. Two others said they liked their teachers because they were unpretentious (i.e. wore no makeup), while one stated that she liked her teacher because the latter had good understanding of child psychology. One said that she liked her teacher because the latter provided the former with financial support in buying school supplies. One said she liked her teacher because she wore high heels; two professed to liking their teacher because they wore nice dresses. One caregiver said: “our teacher used to make stars for us”. Two reported their teachers giving them good advice for improvement (‘islah’). One said her teacher's face was innocent, while another spoke of the fact that her teacher used to help her in class work. In the caregivers' opinion, caring for children, encouraging them, and listening to them are essential qualities of a competent caregiver. 2.7. Behaviour not liked in teachers Strict disciplinarians – those who beat children with sticks and takhti (a wooden slab to write on) and had quick tempers–were not liked at all (30). Those who did not stay with the children and went away after giving them class work were also not popular (2). One said her teacher was unjust; when it was someone else's fault, she was blamed and punished instead. Two reported that their teachers used to make them clean their houses daily. One said her teacher had a few favourites and ignored other children. Another's teacher did not check homework and gave children no feedback. Five caregivers (one male) said they liked all of their teachers.

32


2.8 Motivation for becoming an ECE teacher Twenty–one caregivers stated the main reason of becoming ECCD teachers as they said they loved children and liked being with them. Three said that they wanted to teach children or to be able to make a difference in their lives. The rest did not use these terms categorically. Six wanted to pursue teaching as a career and enjoyed teaching children.

3. Difference in ECE training and previous perceptions of teacher's role Ten caregivers said that the ECE training did not include any components on gender equality. The concept was unfamiliar to them and it took some time to explain it. Eigght said gender means that boys and girls are equal. One had participated in a workshop by UNICEF in which the importance of gender equality in education was highlighted. 4. Any inclusion of gender aspects in ECE training received The ECE training did not include any components on gender equality. The concept was unfamiliar to them and it took some time to explain it. One hadh participated in a workshop by UNICEF in which the importance of gender equality in education was highlighted. 5. Useful elements of ECE training Learning through play(4), storytelling (2), and building blocks (2), flash cards(1), cartoons (1), pictures (1), education calendar(1), work exercise and energisers (1) are used as a means of learning. Involving children in all activities (3), showing them the things under discussion

33

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

One wanted to become a teacher as her mother was a teacher. Six had no other career choices so became ECE teachers. Four said they became teachers since this was the only livelihood opportunity available to them. One was inspired by her teacher. One said she found teaching interesting. The male caregiver said that he wanted to transfer his knowledge to others.


(3), understanding of children's issues (2) and other activity based methods were thought to be very useful. Two caregivers out of 42 also said they did not believe in modern teaching methods: “old methods were good enough for us and they should be good enough for them.” 6. Any refresher training opportunities Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Only seven reported some opportunities for refresher training – mainly workshops. 7. Existence of professional development system Although there are sporadic opportunities for ECE training and 11 caregivers reported to have some professional trainings there seems to be no systematic professional development system in place at the centres. 8. Caregivers' beliefs – do girls and boys behave differently in similar situations? The beliefs of caregivers were deeply stereotypical. They were of the opinion that in games girls and boys had different capacities and preferred playing different games e.g. girls played with dolls and boys played football.

Games: Girls: Ten said girls play indoor games (blocks, toys, dolls, hide and seek) and play peacefully. Two said boys and girls take interest in the same games. One said girls are patient during games. Four said there is no difference, or that they are too young. One said boys behave differently in school and after school. Another said girls don't hold boys' hands in the beginning but after some time they do not hesitate. A third said girls like to play with dolls. A fourth said girls don't have stamina for games unlike boys. Yet another believed girls take interest in games. One stated that girls are shy while boys don't

34


hesitate in games. One said girls fight with each other; sometimes they pull each other's hair. One said girls mostly complain. Boys: nine said boys like to play outdoor games involving jumping and pushing; they are mostly moody, naughty and always ready to play. Five said boys mostly fight during games. One said boys get angry during games. One said boys are naughty and noisy, and that they tease girls. One said boys are more competitive. Social Interaction:

Other comments were: Girls are weak and cannot handle any conflict situations by themselves. Girls have better social skills than boys and are better behaved. Boys have better leadership skills than girls. They are also more daring in exploring new things while girls are timid in experimenting. Nineteen caregivers said girls had better leadership skills.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

One caregiver said boys are shy and girls are bold. Four said boys mix with others more quickly than girls and greet people while girls are shy and confused. Three said girls are more obedient and loving while boys are more moody and arrogant. One observed that girls mix with other people. Fifteen said there is no difference, and that they are equal. Two held that girls are polite while boys are careless and don't have good manners. One believed girls are respectful while boys are naughty and hyperactive. Three said girls are more proactive in social interactions. One said girls are loyal while boys make friends for some material gain like toys and usually they change their friends. Another stated that girls are more sensitive than boys.


9. Any differences experienced working with girls and boys Caregivers stated that girls and boys behave very differently. For instance girls prefer playing indoors while boys like playing outside. If the boys get into a fight they try and resolve it by themselves sometimes using physical power. When girls get into a quarrel they complain to the caregiver and seek her interference. “Girls are more emotional and are shy while the boys are not. Boys are noisy while the girls are generally quiet and well behaved. Boys sometimes use foul language while girls do not.” “Girls get upset on little things while boys do not.” Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

“Boys are naughty and careless as compared to girls. They frequently beat each other up in a fight. They tend to get angrier than girls. Boys also get confused more easily as compared to girls”. 10. How are the differences managed by the caregiver? This question was very difficult for caregivers to comprehend. Mostly they do not see any issue in the gender stereotypes mentioned above. From this question, they could only comprehend difference as 'a difference of opinion'. Hence, all responses revolved around conflict situations. The caregivers stated that they mediated during a quarrel; explained to both girls and boys the importance of tolerance and patience. According to them, they usually listen to both sides and then mediate through dialogue. Record keeping 11. Record keeping according to the checklist for progress Children, like flowers, blossom at their own time and pace. Hence, the formal test process for monitoring their learning achievements has not been recommended. The caregivers need to observe children closely for cues around development and learning quietly or while participating with them in various activities. However, keeping a record according to a checklist, preferably the checklist provided by the curriculum on learning areas and expected learning outcomes will help caregivers to enhance support to individual children in areas where they fall behind.

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Most caregivers did not know of the checklist and none was developed by their schools except in 4 instances where caregivers stated that they followed the checklist. In some cases the school had issued instructions for recording progress; however there is no uniform checklist in ECCD centres. Three caregivers said they keep records on their diary; one gives verbal feedback to the head teacher off and on. However, all maintained a record of presence and absence of students.

12. Portfolios for children Again, the national ECE curriculum provides detailed guidance on how to maintain portfolios for children and the reasons for it. It was found that portfolios of childrens' work are not being kept. Only three caregivers reported maintaining portfolios for children which are shared with parents. One had just begun keeping portfolios. Some mentioned result cards and not portfolios. The rest did not keep any portfolios. 13. Compilation of gender disaggregated data for children Most caregivers (31) do not keep any gender disaggregated data. The rest mentioned that data can be made available from the attendance registers and their administration office. Interaction with parents/parents' involvement 14. Frequency of parents' invitation to the centre Parents and other family members are a child's first teachers and caregivers. Home exercises the most influence on the child. Therefore, they must be considered equal partners in all ECCD services. In particular, with reference to gender equality, the gendered messages received and imbibed by children right from birth tend to

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The duration of progress report is reported to be quarterly, six monthly, and annual. One caregiver mentioned a monthly test progress report. The above indicates that most of the caregivers are not familiar with the ECE curriculum developed by the Government, even in public schools, as the curriculum provides a checklist for record keeping.


limit their growth and development. Therefore, the ECE service providers and the parents need to work hand in hand to empower children to realise their potential. However, recent observations depict a picture that falls far short of such ideals. In reality, in the 41 centres visited 50% never invite parents on a regular basis for sharing feedback on child growth and development. Sixteen teachers reported that they call parents individually for meeting whenever the need arose. The other four teachers reported that they talk to parents daily when they drop or pick the children up. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Only fourteen of all caregivers interviewed invite parents for regular monthly meetings. One centre invites parents every week. Meetings with parents are held twice in a year in two centres. One centre calls parents for a meeting at the announcement of annual results, while three invite parents when annual papers are being given. The letter of invitation is generally sent to the person who signed the admission form of the centre for the child; fathers in most cases. 15. Who participates in the meeting? The schools usually write to the fathers or the person who has brought the child to the centre for admission (usually the father). The caregivers perceived and interpreted the word 'meeting' in different ways. For some, definition of 'meeting' was quite loose such as meeting a parent when the children are being picked up at the end of centre timings. Sixteen centres reported that mostly mothers attended the regular meetings, but sometimes fathers attended them. In 14 centres caregivers reported that they meet parents regularly when they are dropping or picking children up and hence do not feel the need for a formal meeting. In Thatta and parts of Chakwal, mostly fathers are present at these meetings; in Thatta this may be attributed to the many restrictions on the mobility of women. In a few cases it was reported that parents do not attend meetings even when invited specifically. Families from low income strata were reported to rarely come to the centre as they are focused on providing for their families and could not spare the time to visit the centre. Another reason may be that they are not confident enough to talk to caregivers.

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Male members of the family such as uncles, grandfathers, etc. very rarely attend such meetings. In a few cases aunts or grandmothers participate.

Monitoring 16. Frequency of monitoring and tools used

One government run centre at Thatta reported that a social welfare officer visits the school and talks to the children to check the level of learning achieved through dialogue. He is also reported to monitor whether any corporal punishment is given or not. In another government centre, again at Thatta, the Executive District Officer Education visits for monitoring. In centres in Chakwal run by MEID – a Plan partner–monitoring is undertaken systematically on a prescribed pro forma. In private schools and centres, there is no system of monitoring. The tools used for monitoring mostly depends on the head teacher. Twenty-five teachers reported that monitoring takes place through review work books, models, drawings, observing the class, and monitoring behaviour of the caregiver with children on a daily basis. In some cases feedback is provided to the caregivers. One teacher said that after every 15 days copies are rechecked and exam papers are checked. One reported teachers' behavior is checked. One stated lesson plans and teachers' diaries are checked. Three reported that there is no monitoring. The frequency of monitoring varies a great deal both in public and private schools from daily to weekly, monthly, quarterly, six monthly, and on an annual basis.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In government centres there is a proper system of monitoring the centres, particularly in Punjab where either the EDO or other officers such as the ADO visit every month. Monitoring is done on a specific pro forma.


17. System of feedback In private schools (29) verbal feedback is provided to the caregivers who integrate the feedback into their work. The government representatives also use verbal feedback; nothing is put in writing. One caregiver reported that the head teacher writes in their diary. Two reported that in their school they also maintain progress report for teachers.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In one case, in a government run facility, all feedback is written and shared with the caregivers. Five reported that there is no system of feedback. 18. Feedback on gender equality concerns In five centres, child rights and gender equality feedback has been reported where the head teachers have explained to the caregivers the importance of treating girls and boys equally and listening to both. In the rest of the centres, according to the caregivers, it is a non-issue as, according to them, they do not discriminate on the basis of gender and treat girls and boys equally.

19. Support available for integration of gender equality concerns No support was reported to be available for integration of gender equality concerns. Assessment 20. Any marked differences between boys and girls achievement in learning and development Learning achievements are better for girls than boys, mainly because, according to their caregivers (21), they seriously apply themselves to the tasks and are generally more responsible as compared to boys. Many caregivers (16) reported that they observed no marked difference. Four held that boys were naughty and

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not serious so they have to be strict with them. Another four reported that boys take less time for learning than girls. Five stated that boys are more attentive towards sports. Two perceived boys to be more intelligent. According to a few caregivers, learning patterns are also different for the two sexes: girls learn more easily and use less time in understanding a concept or a situation while boys usually pore over things and take more time. 21. Difference in learning areas between boys and girls

A large number of caregivers (19) stated that there was no difference in learning areas achievement between boys and girls. Boys are more interested in games than girls (5 caregivers) while girls are happier with poems and stories (2 caregivers). “It depends on the opportunities, and the care and nurturing given to the child,� stated one caregiver. Based on the generic nature of responses on learning areas it is safe to assume from the responses that ECE curriculum has not been shared with most of the caregivers. National ECE curriculum includes information on key learning areas, i.e. personal and social development, language and literacy, basic mathematical concepts, the world around us, health, hygiene and safety, and creative arts.

22. Self-assessment undertaken by the caregivers Thirty caregivers (approximately 80%) shared their own self-reflection process on their performance and shared that they identify gaps and try to overcome their own weaknesses. There is no self assessment guide available for caregivers. Of all the duty bearers, i.e. state, CSOs, community, parents, legislators and others,

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

General difference in learning areas reported was: boys learn mathematics faster while girl learn language easily. In some caregiver's opinion, boys learn principles of games much better.


caregivers are not only the frontline contact with the rights holders but also have the potential to influence children's access to their rights and the exercising of those rights. To enable them to play their role effectively it is essential that they be equipped with necessary skills and provided with professional development opportunities on ECCD to begin with, and supplemented by gender training. For this to happen political will and commitment are pre-requisites.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development 42


Chapter

4

The ECCD/ECE Facility/Institution A total of forty-one ECE/ECCD centres were visited, 10 each in Thatta, Chakwal and Lahore and 11 in Karachi, in rural and urban locations. Child population served by the centres: The total number of children enrolled in these facilities was 1,063: (496 girls and 567 boys.) The average number of Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

children in a facility is 27.2. However, the range of enrollment differs drastically from one institution to another – 11 to 159. Over half of the children (561: 310 girls and 251 boys) are provided ECCD/ECE facilities by 14 government schools. The majority of girls in government institutions indicates that parents are placing more importance to boys' education, sending them to private educational institutions, generally thought of as better quality. ECE facilities in government schools are called 'Kids' Room' and over 50% were established in 2011, 2012. Sixteen children, 9 girls and 7 boys, were reported to be above 5 years of age. The caregivers informed the team that 24 children, 8 girls and 16 boys, dropped out of ECE facility this year alone. Since the system for follow-up of dropouts does not

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exist, the caregivers were unable to provide any reason for this. Learning plans of caregivers per centre: in 54% of the centres weekly learning plans were being followed. Only three centres had two caregivers on board – two government facilities and one NGO run centre – all in urban Lahore. There was only one male caregiver, employed by an NGO in Lahore, who was being supported by a female caregiver Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Duration: The duration also varies across the board within a range of 3 to 6.5 hours. In the ECCD centres supported by Plan (run by MIED) the timings were 7.30 a.m. to 11 a.m.

There were two caregivers in the room – a ‘senior’ and a ‘junior’ one. A boy was crying and complaining that he had atomach ache. None of the caregivers bothered to respond to him. Both caregivers were checking homework at the time and were giving were out homework for the next day. Three boys and a girl were standing beside the caregivers' chairs having their homework checked. A few boys were talking to each other. Suddenly, one caregiver shouted, “Be quiet and put your fingers on your lips!” Two girls obeyed. The rest of them were silent for a minute or so and then began talking again. The boy who had a stomach ache was also smiling and began eating chips from his bag. The caregiver shouted at them again to be silent. The room was very small with no windows. With one fan not working due to power shedding, the children were sweating. The caregivers were giving individual home work to all children. They spent 45 minutes doing that. There were no learning corners; no toy or chart either. The room was very dirty and children littered it with wrappers and other trash. The caregivers did not take any notice. A boy was tickling a girl who was getting very upset and was trying to stop him. No reaction from the caregivers. The caregivers were more attentive towards boys. One of them slapped a boy and asked him to be silent. The caregivers seemed very upset with children and did not smile once at them.

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1. Assessment of infrastructure and facilities

2. Caregivers' interaction with girls and boys This section should be considered as a glimpse of the real situation as the researchers closely observed the interaction for 40 minutes to an hour at the most in each centre. Additionally, observation techniques tend to have an inherent bias as the people observed in most cases cannot maintain the normal behavioral patterns. 2.1 Conversation with girls and boys: In most cases no preferential treatment was noted towards either girls or boys. In one centre in Karachi it was felt that the caregiver was partial in making eye contact with boys. 2.2 Response to requests: The caregivers responded to all requests made by girls and boys such as opening their lunch boxes and packets of biscuits, etc. for them. Girls and boys both were permitted to go out to drink water Some girls wanted help in colouring and drawing and the caregiver responded very politely.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The availability of child friendly infrastructure varies generally, indicating that the government indicated minimum standards for ECE facilities are not being followed. In 19.5% centres the rooms were not well ventilated; in 22%, learning materials were not adequate: 17% did not have adequate furniture, 27% did not have safe drinking water, and some children were reported to bring water from home; in one, water is bought from a water tanker facility. In 15% of the ones that had arrangements for safe drinking water, water was not accessible to children. In 39% washrooms are not furnished appropriately for children; no separate washrooms for girls/boys were observed. Playing space is adequate in 88% schools and accessible to children in 83%. In 12% there are no guard rails with stairs, and the caregivers have to make sure that children do not climb the stairs. 27% do not have parapets on the roof; one accident in past year was also reported because of no parapets. In one centre (run by PODA) in Chakwal District food is also provided to the children attending the centre.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

2.3 Refusal of requests: The caregivers, in general, are supposed to follow weekly plans according to a certain routine. It was observed in six centres that girls were politely told that “this is not the time for singing”, and boys were told “we will play later”. However, in one centre, a boy had a stomach ache and the caregiver did not pay any attention to him despite the child's clear indication of his discomfort. Another boy wanted to recite a poem but the caregiver did not let him. 2.4 Equal opportunity for discussion: No discrimination in provision of opportunities for discussion was observed in centres except in two locations, where boys were in majority and were very vocal. The researchers observed that boys were given more attention than girls. 2.5 Equal opportunity for play: Within the room there was no overt gender discrimination around play. However, during break, boys mostly went out in the playground while the girls preferred to stay in the room. In some schools where ECE centres are located, the time for break for ECE coincides with the break for all children enrolled in the school. Boys as well as girls from the ECCD centres are hesitant to go to the playground as they are not given the space to play by older children. Most said they get pushed around and are afraid that they might fall and hurt themselves. 2.6 Handling of conflict: Small fights between girls and boys erupted in three centres during observation. The caregivers are reported to have handled them diplomatically, listening to both sides and defusing the tension. 3. Activities Observed The observation time was only an hour and the time during which the observation began depended on the way research unrolled in the centre hence the timing for observation differed in each centre. The researchers could only observe one, or at the most, two activities in each centre.

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3.1. Assembly/morning meeting: Observation of the morning meeting was undertaken in 4 centres (3 from Sindh, 1 from Punjab). Girls and boys greet each other and the caregiver as well as the principal/head teacher and usually shake hands with one another.

3.3 Achchi baat: This time is used for delivering useful messages to children – this was observed in three centres. The messages given to children were: “do not litter”, “throw used paper, wrappers and other trash in the dustbin”, “wash your hands before eating food” “use soap and water after going to the washroom”, etc. Girls and boys both seemed very attentive during this time and repeated the messages after the caregiver. 3.4 Story/poem: Listening to the stories and singing poems seems to be one of the favourite activities for children. Observed in 14 centres all girls and boys sang poems with the caregiver, listened to various stories ( about the alphabet, birds, a butterfly, and an elephant), and seemed very happy and excited about it. They also clapped their hands and jumped and gestured as the stories were being told. In one centre, however, the caregiver asked the children to sing poems one by one for their peers, and focused only on boys. The girls were getting very impatient and trying to catch the caregiver's eye to participate. 3.5 Snack time: This was a very organised activity in all 11 centres observed. The caregivers helped children wash their hands and recited dua before food. Some girls and boys shared their lunch, some did not. Children usually bring their lunch from home. The

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

3.2 Dua (prayer): Dua was observed in 10 centres. Both boys and girls recited Naat (praise for the Holy Prophet, PBUH) and dua. The contents for dua differ in each centre; however the focus is the same. Children recite dua with their caregivers. It was reported that girls and boys equally participated; in one centre only, a boy recited a poem very excitedly, in a clear, loud voice.


caregiver helped them open the food boxes and they were told to use dust bins for the waste. In one centre most of the children (girls and boys) had brought junk food. In some cases both girls and boys did not wash their hands after eating their food. 3.6 Art corner: Most of the children (girls and boys both) were enjoying drawing or colouring outlines in 11 centres observed for this activity. Two centres did not have any art corner. No gender discrimination was observed. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

3.7 Language corner:Out of 6 centres observed, two had no language corner. In one centre the language corner was well equipped with learning materials. In the other three, only a few picture books could be seen. 3.8 Presentation:Girls and boys got an equal opportunity to sing poems with gestures, show their drawings, and talked about their parents in the 6 centres observed. 3.9 Play time:In one centre, both girls and boys stayed indoors playing with building blocks and other toys. There was a water day in one centre – just before summer vacations – and boys and girls both enjoyed it. Boys went outside the centre to a ground nearby to play and girl stayed nearby; some sat on the stairs, some went to the swings, the rest stayed in the room playing with toys. In other centres, some played tag, some played hide and seek, and others played 'pretend train'. In most of the 11 centres observed girls and boys were unattended during this time. 3.10 Closing time:In some centres mothers or grandmothers came inside the room to collect their daughters and sons. Fathers also come to fetch children sometimes. In one centre the caregiver had the girls and boys form a queue, and helped them get into a commuter van specially hired by the parents for this purpose. In one case children walked 20-25 minutes to their homes in the next village accompanied by elder brothers or sisters. In one centre girls and boys ran out of the centre as soon as the bell rang. Closing time was observed in 15 centres.

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It was observed in two centres that girls were more particular in saying goodbye to the caregiver than boys. In both centres the girls stayed to say salaam to the caregiver while boys ran out immediately.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

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5

Chapter Girls' and boys' perception of the centre and their feelings Conversations with girls and boys were held in thirty–nine ECCD/ECE centres, two for girls only and 37 mixed gender. A total number of 1080 children – 508 girls and 572 boys – participated in these dialogues. One centre in Lahore did not grant permission for conversation with children as the school was conducting exams and did not have the time to facilitate the researcher.

A matter of grave concern must be reported here. In four centres visited, most of the girls and boys hesitantly shared that they would rather stay at home than come to 'school'. The reasons given were: a) that the 'teacher' gives them a lot of homework, b) that there was no playground and no toys to play with, c) that older boys tease them, d) that 'teacher' scolds and beats them when they make a mistake, and e) they were scared to come to school when they had not finished their homework. One girl shared in a very resigned manner that “I want to become

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

The insights from the children have been very valuable for the research although in hindsight at least two days should have been spent in one centre to give the researcher more time to build trust with the children. Sometimes children were not willing to share their feelings. At other times it was felt that they would echo the first comment made by a child. Overall though, the experience was enjoyable.


a doctor, so I have to attend 'school'”. 1. Reasons for coming to the centre

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Girls: The attention and care provided by the caregiver was the main reason cited by girls for liking the centre. Being able to enjoy the swings and playing with toys and other games, listening to stories and poems, being able to draw, colour, and sing are huge attractions. Some like the well decorated, attractive room. A few mentioned that they liked the corners. Making friends and spending time with them is also a big incentive. Some appreciated the learning opportunity – “I want to be a big girl – a doctor”said one girl at an observed centre. Boys: Again, the main reason provided was the caregiver's attention and care. Being able to play in the ground and meeting friends compete neck to neck being the second reason. Others include playing with toys, listening to stories and poems, watching cartoons, filling colours in outlines as attractions. Some also said, “Parhai achchi lagti hai” “(I like learning)”. A few said they get pocket money if they come to the centre. 2. Reasons for not wanting to come to the centre Girls: Several reasons were shared by girls for not liking the centre: the room was overcrowded, they were not allowed to play in other classes – caregiver and students both discouraged them, that their pencils and erasers get stolen, that the caregiver scolds them, that boys are noisy and tease girls, the caregiver does not allow them to play, and that there were no toys, cartoons, swings or a playground. A girl said “the teacher is very ‘saada’ (does not wear make-up)”. “When we go out in the ground to play older boys push us and do not let us play there”. Boys were more vocal than girls in expressing their complaints which were similar to those of the girls. They added that they did not like waking up early in the morning. Some do not like the commuter van; others do not like walking to the centre. Some said the classroom was too hot and crowded. One boy said his food gets stolen. Another commented on the caregiver's ‘danda’ (rod/stick) which was “thick and big”.

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3. Which part of the centre is liked best for play? Girls: Majority of girls preferred the playground to the room. Girls generally like swings, running around, playing tag, pretending to be a teacher, and hopscotch. Some like trees outside and playing in the shade. A few said they feel 'free' in the ground and nobody stops them from doing anything.

In some cases, the rooms were crowded and there wasn't enough space to play in the room. A few girls reported being teased by the boys and pushed around if they went outside. One girl said: “boys beat me if I do not give them my pencil or food�. Boys: Like girls, boys predominantly like to play in the play ground with their friends. They play with the ball, run around, play on swings and slides, play hide and seek, play with water, and play football. The rest like playing with toys and toy animals, watching cartoons and browsing through story books in their room. There is a very popular games room in one centre. In a centre in Lahore, the caregiver has made a 'dengue fever' corner as well to inform children of the necessary precautions and boys like to spend some time there as well . 40

Some boys like going to the roof to play there. Some like to go out to the canteen to buy things. 4. Which part of the centre is not liked for play? Boys shared that they did not like playing in the vicinity of staff room or the principal's office as they get scolded if they do that. When it is sunny the ground gets too hot so they do not play outside. Similar comments were shared by the girls as well. Some added that they would like to play in other classrooms but were not allowed. No comments were offered on disliking any part of the centre. However, some girls and boys mentioned that their space was not enough and that they preferred a larger room. 40

Lahore had many cases of dengue fever – and several people lost their lives.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Others said they prefer their room to play with toys, toy animals, blocks, drawing, coloring, and playing with the caregiver. Only a few mentioned 'corners'; science corner and art corner were liked best by some children.


5. Which part of the centre do children feel comfortable in? Most of the girls like the class because of the presence of the caregiver. No specific corner was mentioned but some preferred toys, others drawing, yet others games. The Computer room is a hot favourite because they can watch cartoons there. Some said they liked the place where they sleep.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Some girls said they like sitting at their table. However, others complained of the room being very hot as there was no fan in the centre. Some said they did not feel comfortable as the room was too small. Boys also liked being in class because of the caregiver's as well as their friends' presence. They feel comfortable in the computer room as well – and feel happy when they hear poems. The science corner was appreciated by boys. Some felt more comfortable in the playground and in the garden. 6. What part of the centre do children not feel comfortable in? It was difficult for children to express themselves well around this issue, however, girls said they felt uncomfortable in the principal/head teachers' room as they were afraid to be scolded; on the stairs, because older children rush up and down fast and sometimes girls get pushed aside; the playground in summers when it gets very hot. They also do not feel comfortable in dark places such as the store room. Boys also felt uncomfortable with authority (principal/head teacher's room). Although they indicated liking the playground, they feel uncomfortable when older children are playing as they are scared of being pushed. As with girls, the stairs are a challenge for them too. 7. Favourite games Girls mentioned hide and seek, tag, musical chairs, games that the caregiver plays with them, singing games such as ‘hara samunder’ playing with dolls, playing catch, skipping, pretend cooking, swings, ludo, jumping, hide and seek, pretend car racing, ‘kikli’, running, playing football, cricket, building the doll's houses, and

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playing with Barbie dolls. The favourite games for boys were: hockey, football, hide and seek, cops and robbers, games that the caregivers plays with them, playing with cars, playing with computers, video games, marbles, pretend train, toys in the science corner, jumping, ludo, ‘pithu garam’, flying kites, ludo, and playing with toy animals. 8. Games not liked

9. Which games/toys would you like to buy for the centre? Girls: More toys, computers, magic games, jumping castles, more doll houses, more swings, cycles, large teddy bears, clay, playdough, Barbie dolls, crockery, doctors play set, color boxes, cars, cats, elephants, doll's make-up set, ducks, airplanes, video games, and computers. Boys: cycles, airplane, cars, clay, video games, television, horses, motorcycles, computers, large playground, big slides, large teddy bears, foot balls, hockey sticks, pistols/rifles, and computer games. 10. Stories liked and the reasons: Children, girls and boys both, were quick to

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Games that girls do not like to play are: ‘gulli-danda’ (tip-cat) fighting games, pithu garam, football and cricket. Boys do not like ‘kokla chapaki’ (a kind of duck–duck–goose), ‘kikli’, fighting games, gulli-danda (tip-cat), kabaddi, playing with dolls, flying kites (for some), and pretend cooking.


identify stories that they liked, they however could not pinpoint the reasons easily. In a few cases their responses (received after much probing) have been mentioned. In other cases only the stories have been recorded. Girls liked the following stories:

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

1. Several girls mentioned stories of princes and ‘rajkumaris’ (princess) and said they enjoy them because they like to pretend that they are princesses too. 2. The parrot stories because the parrot is clever and good natured. 3. Fairy tales as fairies can fly and are free. 4. Cat and mouse stories, because the mouse is very naughty. 5. Cinderella, Snow White, Goldilocks, and other Urdu stories with girl as the main character are liked. 6. Many girls liked animal stories characterising lions (because they are brave):,elephants, fish, ‘kali kali bhairein’(sheep), monkeys, sparrows, pigeons, ants, nightingales, tortoise and the hare, butterflies (because they can fly), ‘machli ka bachcha’ (baby fish), bears, cats, and crowes. 7. A few girls like stories about Barbie as dolls are beautiful. 8. Some girls like stories about ghost and genies; “we like them although they scare us”. 9. ‘Daadi’ (paternal grandmother) stories are also popular as is the old woman of the moon. 10. Stories of flowers are also liked. 11. Religious stories from the Holy Quran and Bible. Boys also like the stories mentioned above except Barbie's stories. Additionally, they like stories of fights (bravery), stories around boys' characters e.g. Amjad, Ahmed, and others; and hunting stories. Boys are partial to Tarzan's stories and lion stories as they would like to be as courageous as a lion. Ali Baba and Forty Thieves is also a favorite as Ali Baba is very clever.

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11. Children's emotions An extremely interesting dialogue, however, it seemed that children are not used to expressing their emotions. Hence the time allocated for the conversation was extended. The sharing of their personal experiences has highlighted several emotional issues faced by girls and boys.

A grave concern has been that bringing children's emotions to surface with no recourse to psychological support may do more harm than good to the children's psyche (only one centre had a psychologist on board). Hence the anger and sadness emotions were discussed first and then happiness so children are not left with negative emotions. Anger/sadness These two emotions have been combined for analysis as they are two sides of the same coin–active and passive. Children get angry at an event or happening in their lives but feel sad and depressed when they feel helpless. The responses to these two questions “ I get angry when…." and I am sad if…”' were similar. The feeling of sadness where it is dissimilar has been analysed separately as well. Minimal gender differences were observed in conversation with girls and boys during this part of the conversation. Both girls and boys expressed that their physical space is not respected by their parents, siblings, older members of the family, and sometimes by the caregiver as well.

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Children sat in a circle with the researchers who played with them initially and then adroitly shifted the conversation towards their feelings and emotions. Girls' and boys' responses were recorded separately. Similar repeated comments have been mentioned only once.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Physical violence at home seems to be very common, more so at home than in the centre. A number of children complained of corporal punishment in the centre as well. At home, it seems that most of the people older than children e.g. older siblings, uncles, grandparents (women), mother, and father resort to slapping, beating and verbal abuse to ensure that children obey them. This makes girls and boys both angry and sad. Domestic conflict and violence also seems to recur in children's lives. Boys and girls report instances of violence against their mothers by their fathers with an alarming frequency. In five centres, girls and boys reported feeling sad and/or angry when their father hits their mother; this with their not being so familiar with the researcher denotes emotional disturbance and the focus that children put on conflict in the family. In some cases mothers leave the home to go to their parents, leaving children to handle the trauma and the feeling of insecurity as best they can. “I get very angry and sad when my father beats my mother”, “I am sad when my mother cries”. Girls and boys report frequent sibling quarrels, unnerving to young children. Respect for girls' and boys' belongings is also somewhat missing. A number of

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children get very angry when their belongings such as toys, colours, books, and stationery is forcibly snatched away from them at home or in the centre – but comparatively frequently at home. “I get angry when another child tears pages from my book”, one girl said.

It is also a matter of concern for girls and boys both when the caregiver does not encourage them or appreciate them. “When I don't get a star or 'good', I get very angry/sad” a number of children say. Putting limitations on girls' and boys' mobility also generates feelings of anger in girls and boys though these limitations seem to be applied more to girls' mobility than boys. “I get angry when my mother does not allow me to go out of the house to play”, several girls and boys shared. Getting involved in all the activities at home and feeling themselves as part of adult world is a desire expressed by girls and boys both. They report that frequently they are not allowed to accompany parents to the market or the mosque. Boys and girls also have a strong desire to run their lives according to their whims; they get angry when a parent insists on their eating food when they are stopped from what they want to do. Girls experience sadness when they are not allowed to play, either in the centre or at home when their toys break or when they are not given new toys or tidbits that they want. At the centre they seem to need a lot of individual attention and feel unappreciated by the 'teacher' if s/he does not pay them any attention or does not appreciate their work. They feel lonely and sad when their mother is not at home or is upset with them over something. A number of girls reported events like the death of an animal they liked such as a

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

In several cases, caregivers are reported to scold and 'get angry' with girls and boys (again no gender preference was noted); children get angry and sad over this. They strongly feel the lack or limiting of the caregivers' attention. They understand the concept of punishment and feel angry when they are punished by either “'not giving them a break at the centre” or by beating.


baby goat, chicken, sparrow or cat make them sad. Some are sad when the caregiver is on leave or when they cannot attend the centre for some reason. A serious reason for sadness was when they were late in being picked up from the centre, generating a sense of insecurity among them. Similarly when they are left home alone they become sad. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Being attuned to the mood of parents, girls said they feel sad when their father does not come home or when their mother cries. A few are sad when guests leave taking the excitement with them. When there is unequal treatment among sons and daughters at home it makes girls sad. “I am sad when my father brings things home for my brother and not for meâ€?, several girls report. Boys shared similar reasons for getting sad, however were more focused on not being allowed to play or go out with father, or not being allowed to play with toys such as guns or when they are not allowed to watch cartoons. Some said they were sad when their friends left. Fear I get scared if ‌. Girls and boys are scared when the father is violent towards their mother or is violent towards them. Similarly when they experience corporal punishment in the centres or the older students in school push them around fear wells up in them. The desire for survival is very strong and they feel insecure when exposed to violence. They are also afraid that they will not be picked up from the centre on time and will be left alone.

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Some girls and boys are afraid of animals such as lions, goats, cockroaches, cats, mice, scorpions, elephants, buffalos, lizards, snakes, and cows. Some do not like the noise that a peacock makes, or the donkey's braying or dogs' barking. Thunderstorms, darkness, clouds, and fire scares some. Others are afraid of doctors, tablets and injections. Some kids are afraid of taking a shower as the water is very cold according to them.

In Lahore and Karachi, the sounds of shootings and bombings scare children. They are also afraid of bullets. Some children have had traumatic experiences such as falling off a moving motorbike, accident with a truck or falling down a stairwell and they feel disturbed by the mention of these things. Some children said they were scared of Pathans; this was in a locality in Karachi where Muhajir and Pathans are always in conflict. Watching horror movies on television scares some boys. Happiness I am happy if… when…. Girls and boys both are very happy when there is harmony and peace in the family; when the family goes out together for a picnic or walk or eat out. Going to the zoo, attending a marriage ceremony, being at peace with siblings, playing together, singing together are enjoyable activities for them. At the centre, the caregiver's role is extremely important for girls' and boys' happiness, and they are most content when they receive attention and encouragement from the caregiver. They also like being with friends and with the caregiver, and being engaged in collective activities such as story-telling, games, songs, poems, and playing with building blocks and play dough or clay.

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They are also scared of ghosts, genies, ‘Baba’ and the ‘mad man’. These are characters that parents use to frighten children into obedience.


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Physical closeness with parents gives them a strong sense of security;. Children report that they are very happy when fathers pick them up and play with them, when mothers lay with them in their bed to help them go to sleep, when their siblings play with them. Being allowed to play games and watching cartoons gives them joy. Having new toys, clothes, and ice cream puts a smile on their faces. They enjoy new clothes on Eid and other Eid celebrations. Some boys reported that they are happy when they get pocket money and also when they fly kites.

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6

Chapter Gender perception of parents sending their children to ECCD Facilities

In rural Thatta, usually fathers participate in centre activities for parents because of restrictions on women's mobility, the need for a chaperone when they go out, and low level of respect for women's ability to operate in a public sphere. Generally parents seem to be content with the services and no complaints were mentioned. It must be mentioned here that the parents who send their children to ECE centre seem to be better off economically than the ones not sending children to the facility except only a few. Details of feedback received are:

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Forty-one focus group discussions were held with parents (506 total number of parents; 254 mothers and 252 fathers) who were sending their daughters and sons to ECE/ECCD facility to assess the reasons for sending their children to ECE facility. The FGDs cannot be quantified as these are mostly qualitative in nature and shy parents tended to repeat the statements made by the outspoken person in the group.


1. Reasons for sending children to ECE centres 1.1 Generic the parents shared several reasons for their daughters and sons attending ECE centres. The common reasons for both girls and boys are described below. Variations have been reported separately in subsequent sections.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Head Start: Children begin the process of learning at an early stage and usually perform much better in school when they have attended pre-primary. One parent said: “in a competitive environment, children who have attended ECCD facilities have a better chance of being enrolled in a quality school”. Confidence Building: Parents feel that the ECE/ECCD centres are instrumental in enhancing level of confidence among the children. Their self-esteem grows and they are better able to handle various situations. Means of acquiring social skills: When they are together in a group children learn social skills and learn to work in collaboration with their peers, according to most of the parents. Learning relationship building/grounding of cultural values: Children exhibit improved behavioral patterns regarding elders in the family after being in an ECCD centre. They are more respectful towards their elders and their relationships with siblings improve. Personal hygiene: Not only do the children's personal hygiene habits, such as washing hands before and after food improve, they also tell their parents and siblings to wash their hands. Routine development: “Children develop a daily routine, wake up at a certain time and learn to respect time”. One reason given for sending children to ECCD facility was that they 'study' – ‘likhna parhna aa jaey’ (learn to read and write). “Children are impressionable and absorb messages quickly”. Parents' confidence in caregiver's ability to 'nurture' children was one of the predominant reasons. Some parents did not believe in young children being sent

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out of home, but were convinced by caregivers and head teachers. In one centre, run by an NGO, food is also provided free of cost – an incentive for parents from low income strata of society to avail the facility. Parents did not mention emotional development except enhanced self-esteem. Leadership development and opportunities for learning through play were also not mentioned. 1.2. Specific reasons for sending girls to ECE centres The main reason given by parents was that because of a head start they would get better opportunities for admission in schools and will be able to run their homes well and become good human beings. “Girls should learn how to face any situation in life”. “A daughter has to be strong as she is a nation builder”. “When my daughter gets older, there will be restrictions placed on her mobility; I want her to enjoy all opportunities before that time”. Some parents underlined the importance of providing educational and development opportunities to girls at par with the ones provided to boys. 1.3. Specific reasons for sending boys to ECE centres “It is important for boys to enroll in ECE/ECCD facilities as they would get admission in good school and have access to better career opportunities”. Parents feel that attention to boys' education is critical for parents' old age as sons are expected to take care of their parents in old age, particularly as

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Parents expect boys to learn good manners, work in collaboration with peers, appreciate cultural values, develop a routine in life, realise the importance of time and punctuality, and respect elders. Learning to pronounce words properly as well as manage anger effectively is also an expectation by the parents.


Pakistan is not a welfare state. “Boys are usually naughty and soon become a nuisance at home, so we send them to ECE centre. We really appreciate the facility because boys do nothing otherwise except roam around the streets, which is unsafe for them.� 2. Expectations from the Centre

th

the 8 grade�

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

2.1 For girls Parents focused on girls' education because of the current unstable economic situation of the country. They thought it critical for girls to possess a degree so that she can earn a decent livelihood if the need arises at any time in her life. Enrollment in ECE centre, they believed can pave the way for her better education. It is evident from the FDG that parents appreciate the opportunity provided by the centre to develop social skills, to learn to appreciate cultural values and norms and to become used to a routine in life as well as becoming good Muslims. Some parents expected food support from the centres. Others wanted the centre to develop clear thinking, analytical abilities and decision making skills in girls. 2.2 For boys Parents expect boys to learn good manners, learn to work in collaboration with peers, learn to appreciate cultural values, develop a routine in life, and appreciate the importance of time and punctuality, and develop respect for elders. Learning to pronounce words properly as well as anger management is also an expectation of parents.

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The major expectation, however, is that boys develop a habit of learning so that they can be exposed to better career opportunities and are able to hold jobs and perform well as the main breadwinners of the family. 3. Future plans for children 3.1 For girls

One mother said, “My greatest desire in life was to become a doctor. I can never forgive my father who married me off after Grade 8 (13 or 14 years of age). “We do not educate our daughters to become career women. We want them to become good human beings and to be able to run their households efficiently once they are married” Police and army were also mentioned as good choices for girls when they grow up. “God forbid my daughter ever has to seek employment. I want her to become a good wife. The purpose of her education is to enable her to manage her married life well. Feedback from FGDs confirms that there is a growing realisation of respecting girls' decisions about their future as several parents shared their intention of respecting their daughters' choices. 3.2 For boys Engineering, medicine, flying, navy, army, bureaucracy (government officer, WAPDA officer), business, police, corporate sector, banking, and finding work abroad were mentioned as the preferred careers for boys. Opinions tilted heavily though towards respecting the boys' inclinations – 3 times stronger than for girls. Two opinions collected were that boys should go to ‘madrassa’ (Islamic seminary) after completing primary education to memorise the Holy Quran so that they can become good Muslims.

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Jobs related to teaching and medicine (doctor, nurse, lady health visitor) are parents' preferred career options for girls, according to the parents' feedback. The reason given by them is the respect these professionals – particularly doctors and teachers – enjoy in the Pakistani society .


4. ECCD/ECE centre's role in achieving future goals for children The unanimous opinion was that the learning opportunities offered in ECCD/ECE centres are useful for retention and improved learning achievements in further education.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Comments by parents indicate that they are mostly focused on early childhood education and not so much care and development. Only a few parents appreciated the learning process that includes activities, role playing, poems, stories and games. A few parents also mentioned confidence building, and sharing and collaborating with peers as an added advantage which will help children in further studies. Some also appreciated the learning environment. 5. Being a girl or a boy – an issue for children Boys ask for bangles, colorful clothes, frocks, make up, lipstick and dolls. Some boys like doing household chores such as sweeping the floor, kneading flour, washing up and washing clothes. One boy loves putting henna on his hands. A few boys insist on wearing ‘dupatta’. Girls want to wear trousers and shirts and like to play cricket. Some resent the fact that boys are allowed to play outside the home but they are not.

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It seems however that gender roles and barriers begin at an early stage. A number of comments confirm this; parents shared that girls and boys as young as three realise that 'this item of clothing is for boys and not for girls' and though they ask for it, they are also conscious that their desire is not so 'kosher'. Some girls are reported to have refused wearing trousers. A boy says: “If boys play with girls, they grow horns.”

Reportedly, the level of tolerance for such so-called 'aberration' is higher for boys than for girls. “Girls have to go to another home after marriage. That is why it is critical that she learns 'normal behavior' and is trained to be patient. Boys are stubborn and it is good for them as they have to face the outside world.” A minority reported that they do not discriminate amongst girls and boys and let them play with whatever they want. One mother said, “Sadly, very soon, the society will begin putting gender barriers in their path – and they will have no choice but to conform.” The level and quality of emotional support to girls and boys varies according to internal dynamics in the family, however, no clear pattern could be observed. Some fathers prefer sons and others prefer daughters as they say “we are worried about the unpredictability of our daughters' future; they have to move away from the family after marriage and we are not sure how the in-laws will behave towards them”. Some mothers say girls are 'naturally' closer to their mothers. In a few instances mothers are reported to help establish better relationship between fathers and daughters. Boys' needs are generally given priority in the family for two major reasons: one, according to most parents, boys are more aggressive and stubborn while girls are

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“My son likes to wear frocks, but when he wears it, other children laugh at him” Parents and other family members, older siblings, grandparents keep reconfirming gender roles and conveying to children what is acceptable gendered behavior in Pakistani society, e.g. that boys do not play with dolls, that girls do not play cricket, that make-up is not for boys. Sometimes older children ridicule younger children to impress upon her or him the importance of so-called 'acceptable' behavior.


pliant and obedient; and two, because sons are patents' old age 'insurance'. Nevertheless, boys are beaten much more than girls when they refuse to listen to their parents. 6. Children's identification with a picture book/cartoon

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

All parents except three reported that their children watch television cartoons films in English and Urdu, both such as Tom and Jerry, Spider -Man, Chota Bheem, Superman, Scooby Doo, Tarzan, Mr. Bean, Power Girls, Ben 10, Pogo, Ben and Bella, and Dora the Explorer. Girls were also reported to watch Barbie cartoons. Both girls and boys insist on bedtime stories mainly revolving around kings, queens, princesses and princes, as well as fairy stories. Other stories such as Cinderella, Snow White and other Urdu stories and poems are also popular with them. Most boys identify themselves with Superman, Spider-Man, Chota Bheem, Ben 10, Mr. Bean, Raj Kumar (a prince in an Urdu cartoon series ) and kings and princes, and role play at home around these characters. Girls become Snow White, Cinderella, Power Puff Girls, fairies and princesses. They also like to playact 'home' and take the role of the mother. Some girls play act as teachers. Boys want school bags with the picture of the character they identify with, while some girls want bags with a picture of Barbie. 7. Boys and girls sharing their day at the educational centre In four FGDs at rural locations (out of 41) parents reported that their children do not share anything about the centre with them – parents were very busy putting bread on the table and did not have time for their children. Most of the children share happenings at ECCD centres with their parents. Narrations include stories heard at the centre, games played, any movies watched, art, and any other activities the children have been involved in. They keep repeating messages heard from the teacher, whether it be on literacy or numeracy, or a story or a poem, and generally seem very excited about their experiences.

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Children also carry messages of personal hygiene at home and insist that all family members wash their hands before eating food. Some also advise their parents and siblings not to quarrel and to share things with one another. Colouring books seem to be a favorite with girls and boys both – as is playing with Playdough, singing, and taking trips. Fathers, in a few instances confessed that they did not interact much with children hence children do not get an opportunity to share the events and feelings with them.

Boys prefer playing with cricket bat and ball, carrom, kite flying, football, running, computer games, playacting as spies, engineers, and doctors, as a teacher (with a rod or a stick); cycling, pillow fights, jumping, swinging, ‘pithu garam’, walking/running in the street, and marbles. Girls play with dolls; do mock cooking (hind kuliya); carrom; hide and seek; playacting as teacher, as a mother, as a train; tag; teddy bear; ludo; clapping games; frog jumping; swinging; hopscotch; and ‘kikli kaleer di’ (a singing and spinning game). Listening to stories about fairies and queens, colouring, and playing with toys are common to girls and boys. 9. Toys not allowed The following, requested by children, and considered dangerous by parents are not allowed. Ÿ Any toy with sharp edges Ÿ Kites Ÿ Firecrackers Ÿ Toy rifle Ÿ Father's pistol (in one case) Ÿ Knives Ÿ Rifle Most of the parents reported that they try to get boys and girls the toys that are not too expensive.

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8. Children's current preference for games/activities


A few parents shared not buying a tricycle for their sons as the streets where they would ride it are unsafe. One girl wants a tricycle as well but parents hesitate because she will ride it in the street which is unbecoming for a girl. One boy wants dolls, however, his parents do not buy him any as 'dolls are not for boys'. “We cannot afford any toys” a few parents from rural areas said. 10. Preference for female/male caregiver Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

A vast majority of parents prefer female caregivers because in their opinion, women are more attuned to children's needs, and have the capacity to nurture and love children. In comparison with male caregivers they are more sympathetic, polite and ‘soft’. A few parents said, “Female caregivers possess a maternal instinct by nature and are best for young children who trust women more than men. Men are aggressive and hence not good caregivers for children of young age”. A few mentioned risk of child abuse and school corporal punishment as well. A few parents said there should be male caregivers for boys and female caregivers for girls.

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Chapter

7

Gender perception of parents not sending their children to ECCD facilities

In a rural location, Dhok Dund, Chakwal, all 3-5 girls and boys go to the 'Kids' Room' in the government primary school; a few are 2 and a half years old. There are two private schools in the village which have preparatory and nursery (pre-primary). Parents are very interested in their daughters' and sons' education. The information was gathered from discussions with head teachers, primary school teachers, Kids' Room caregivers, women relatives of children, chowkidar (watchman) of the school, teachers from private school. The driver accompanying the team was also tasked with checking with other members of the community. All reported the same situation. In another rural location, Chattaal, Chakwal, there are two government run primary schools; one for girls and one for boys along with Government Girls Elementary School (for women teachers), and four private schools. The Elementary School has an ECE centre and private schools have pre-primary also. Then In January – February 2012 both government schools began an information campaign in the community about the Kids' Rooms being set up in the two schools. As a result all children, a few even younger than 3 years are attending ECE centres.

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Interviews were held with 34 parents (6 fathers, 28 mothers) who do not send their daughters and sons to ECCD/ECE centres. As the field work was done during working hours, fathers were mostly not available. In four locations in Chakwal and one location in Lahore the researchers did not find any parents who were not sending their daughters and sons to ECCD/ECE centres. In all three locations the caregivers held several individual and group meetings with the community members and parents, and explained to them the importance of early childhood care and development, and also emphasising that there will be no financial implications for the parents


Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

At Khanowal, Chakwal, there are two government run primary schools: one for girls and one for boys as well as a private school which provide ECCD/ECE facilities. Plan Pakistan helped establish Kids' Rooms in the government schools. However, the credit for enrolling all children of ages 3 to 5 in the ECCD/ECE centres goes to a teacher of the private school, Mumtaz Foundation Education Complex. She is indebted to Plan Pakistan as her education expenses were supported by the organisation and she now volunteers part-time for Plan. She raised awareness and motivated members of her community to enroll their children in the centres. Thanks to her efforts no child of age 3 to 5 is reported to be out of these ECCD facilities. The community is very appreciative of support provided by Plan.

By far the most interesting model was unearthed in a rural location, Janjaatey in Lahore district. Janjaatey had a government ghost school GGPS which was being used by a person with influence as a horse stable. The teacher appointed for the school and paid for by the Government and received her salary without working. After giving birth to a physically challenged son she considered it a punishment from God for claiming a salary without working. As atonement, she began a campaign to have the school premises vacated and to reestablish it as a school. She met with the president of an NGO Al-Jannat, who belonged to Janjaatey; the person promised to support her cause. After a long drawn out struggle the school was reestablished as a primary school. The building was repaired by Al-jannat NGO. The NGO then also constructed a Kids' Room and hired a caregiver for ECE. The teachers campaigned with other community members to get all 3 to 5 years old children in the centre with the result that now no children are out of ECE facilities.

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Interviews could not be held in two locations in Thatta because of ‘hartal’ (strike). 1. Reasons for not sending daughters to ECCD/ECE Centre Twelve parents (10 mothers and 2 fathers) out of the 34 interviewed listed poverty as the reason for not sending their daughters to ECCD/ECE centres. It seems that limited resources are being used for food and basic necessities which leave little space for sending daughters to the centre. Two parents (1 father and 1 mother) said their girls as young as 5 years look after their siblings while both parents are at work. Eight parents (7 mothers and 1 father) seem to think that the girls are too young at three years of age to be going to any establishment regularly and intend to send them to the centre when they turn four. Three parents (mothers) also said it is against their family traditions to educate girls. Several parents felt that girls had to be escorted to the centre due to safety and security situation so they were waiting for the girls to grow older (six years) when they would be sent to primary school, highlighting issues of mobility of girls even at a young age.

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Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

“We are ‘mazdoor tabqa’ (low income, daily wage laborers). We don't earn much. Boys just play in the streets. We think of them as very young till they are five years old. When they reach the age of sixth and become a nuisance at home we send them to a government school because: one, the fees is minimal and two, the teachers are strict disciplinarians. The ones who enjoy studying, study; those who do not drop out.”

At Udhewal, Chakwal, there are five private schools, a Government Girls Primary School (GGPS) and a Government Boys Primary School (GBPS). For the Kids' Room in GBPS the teachers met with community members to inform them about the ECE centre. Children in the school played a very important part as well since they informed their parents and


One family had just migrated from another city and was uncertain about their future prospects. One woman was living with an abusive husband who beat her often and threw her out of the home frequently. She would go to her parents with the children until the husband would reconcile with her, only to repeat the pattern. She said she could not send her daughter or son to any care and development facility because of this unpredictable situation An overwhelming impression that the researchers had is that parents do not think that ECCD/ECE can add value to their children's lives hence they are unwilling to make any effort in having girls participate in any early childhood care initiative. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

2. Reasons for not sending sons to ECCD/ECE centres According to 14 parents (10 mothers and 4 fathers) poverty seems the major reason for not sending sons to any ECCD/ECE facility. Where no uniform is required, parents feel that sending sons to ECCD centre will entail some expense – particularly if the placement was in a private school. In comparison with girls, the parents emphasised the need to give an early start to boys, however felt that it is an extra burden on the boys to be “carrying a huge satchel of books” to school. “It is their time to play” some said. Boys spend most of their time outside playing in the streets. Two parents feel that boys have to be at least four years old before they can be sent out of the home to any formal institution. One father 'teaches' his son at home. One family does not send their son to an ECCD centre due to conflict between husband and wife. “We are ‘mazdoor tabqa’ (low income, daily wage labourers). We do not earn much. Boys just play in the streets. We think of them as very young till five years of age. When they reach the age of six and become a nuisance at home we send them to government school because one, the fees is minimal and two, the teachers are strict disciplinarians. The ones who like studying, study; those who do not like studying, drop out.” 3. Hopes for the future of daughters The preference for girls' future prospects is of their either becoming a teacher (7

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parents, 6 mothers and 1 father) or a doctor (5 mothers), government servant (one mother). However, 10 mothers seemed very despondent and doubted that their daughters will ever be able to reach this goal as they thought girls would not be able to continue their studies due to poverty, and restrictions placed on them by male members of the family, who would not allow them to study after initial 4-5 years of schooling.

Three mothers said they would like the daughters to make their own choices and they would support their decisions. 4. Hopes for the future of sons Several professions were mentioned by mothers and fathers regarding their sons' future, such as doctor(3 mothers), army officer (2 mothers), police officer (2 mothers), bureaucrat (5 mothers), pilot (1mother), and teacher(2 mothers), rickshaw driver (1 mother) . Five parents (3 mothers and 2 fathers) sounded very pessimistic as they said: “what can a poor person's son become? We cannot afford to educate them.” A father said, “he will be like me, either a daily wage labourer or a rickshaw driver.” “Boys are very stubborn and Two mothers said they want to have their sons educated demanding. since sons are responsible for taking care of parents in their That is why I old age. sometimes give them more Six parents (3 mothers and 3 fathers) said they would like to food than I support their sons to make their own choice for selecting a give to my profession. daughter.” There is a very strong desire in parents to provide better opportunities to their sons to help them break out of the cycle of poverty. They strongly recommended that the Government should make available to people living in poverty ECCD as well further education opportunities of the same quality that richer parents have access to.

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Seven mothers said that they want their daughters to be educated so that they would be able to run their household effectively well after marriage. One mother wanted her daughter to be famous.


5. Being a girl or a boy – an issue for children Eighteen parents (16 mothers and 2 fathers) report that their daughters and sons have never talked to them about such issues, and remarked “we don't have spare time to talk to them”.

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Girls are generally told to stay at home while boys are allowed to go out and play. When some girls ask their parents why it is so, parents usually tell them that this is what the social norms are. Boys refuse to help in household chores as they think it is girls' work. Parents feel indebted to the sons if they share any household burden. On the other hand, it is taken for granted that daughters will help at home. Girls as young as five are reported to help their mothers with house work. A nine year old girl takes care of most of the housework. One boy is reported to like bangles. A girl likes to wear boys' clothes. The mother does not stop her but says she will when the girl is older. One girl wishes she were a boy so that she could go out of the house to play. Girls want to play cricket but are not allowed to. A boy says: “girls play with dolls and boys play football or cricket”. A girl asks “why do boys have short hair?”. She also wants to wear her hair shorter. One girl wants to go to the mosque with her father. Girls are mostly not allowed to ride a bicycle though they want to. Parents report that boys are usually more stubborn and opinionated while girls are mostly obedient (with the exception of two). “Boys are very stubborn and demanding. That is why I sometimes give them more food that I give to my daughter”. Children are explained the gender roles by the parents such as “girls do not go out to play”, “boys do not wear colourful clothes”, “girls should help with household chores”, “girls have to leave their parents’ house to go to someone else's house”. Girls are schooled in respecting the norms and traditions of Pakistani society – predominantly based upon sexual division of labour, division of public and private

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space (public being for men and private for women), concepts of honour, etc. Poverty has limited the opportunities of play for girls and boys both. However, boys have more play and leisure time than girls because: a) girls are expected to help mothers or elder sisters with household work as well as taking care of siblings; and b) they are not allowed to go out of the house.

6. Children's identification with a picture book/cartoon Thirteen parents (3 fathers and 10 mothers) say their sons/daughters do not identify themselves with any such character. They do not have television at home so children do not watch TV. Boys who watch cartoons want to be Super Man (1 boy), Ben 10 (1 boy) ,Tom from Tom and Jerry (4 boys and 1 girl), Spider-Man (1 boy). Two girls want to be fairies. Two girls and two boys like Chota Bheem (cartoons). One mother reported her children like Courage the Cowardly Dog cartoons. Some Urdu cartoons are also favourites with both boys and girls, however, they could not be identified. Only two children (1 girl and 1 boy) are provided with story books. The rest of the parents did not mention any books shown or read out to boys and girls. Four parents reported that boys wanted mobile phone so that they can play video games on the phone. Two boys and one girl like to have colour books. One boy likes animal books. 7. Activities/games that kids play Boys are reported to play with a ball (6 boys, 1 girl), play football (2 boys), play with a cricket bat (2 girls, 10 boys), toy cars (1 boy), and riding tricycles (2 boys). Two girls like to role play as teachers. Two parents reported ignorance of what

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It also took some time for the researchers to explain the question to fathers and mothers, underlining the fact that these parents have never considered this an issue.


their sons were involved in, as boys go outside the house to play. Eighteen girls – both from low income families and higher income households – play with dolls. They also play hopscotch or role play as teachers. Three girls play outside the house with their brothers. 8. Toys not allowed Eight parents said they cannot buy any toys for their children as they cannot afford them. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Seven Parents listed the following as the toys they would not get for their children: Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ

Any toy with sharp edges Kites Firecrackers Toy rifles

Two parents reported that they do not want to buy a tricycle for their son because he will ride it in the street which is unsafe. One girl wants a tricycle as well but parents hesitate because she will ride it in the street which is unbecoming for a girl. A mother said she will only buy a doll for her daughter though she asks for ball and a cricket bat. One mother said we provide everything that our daughter likes. One father said we provide whatever our son demands. Twenty-two One father and one mother said our sons demand parents prefer mobile phones but we don't want to give them one. female caregivers Seven parents reported their children don't demand because they “take any such toy. better care of

children, love them and nurture them and are more sympathetic and mindful of young childrens' needs”.

9. Caregiver preference – woman or man Twenty-two parents prefer female caregivers because they “take better care of children, love them and nurture them and are more sympathetic and mindful of young childrens' needs”.

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Five parents preferred female caregivers for girls and male care givers for boys. Five parents said they preferred male caregivers as they are strict disciplinarians and that “boys need discipline�. Four parents said the role of caregiver is important and not their sex.

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8

Chapter Findings and recommendations

The institutions providing ECCD facilities are generally contributing significantly to early care and development of children and parents seem satisfied with their investment in terms of time and other resources. Nevertheless, the research has identified various key entry points for not only strengthening ECCD policy and programming in Pakistan but also inclusion of gender concerns. The main findings given below include generic findings coupled with findings on gender in ECCD. 1. Findings Gender biases faced by the caregivers in their childhood: Most faced some form of gender discrimination in games, in mobility, son preference and in personal relationships (girls were allowed only to have girl friends) during their childhood – and although some felt it as an injustice more acutely than others, they were not able to see it in a gender perspective. A number of caregivers faced some physical violence at home as well as in school. Caregivers' biases in ECCD practice: The caregivers were found generally to have some level of gender biases in their perceptions of gender roles and the capacity of girls and boys though they make an effort to be fair to both sexes. Some saw the differences between the behavior, learning patterns and achievements in learning areas as availability of opportunities or lack thereof. Most of them conform to socially prescribed gender roles and gender stereotypes

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Globally, both in developing and developed countries the need for an early learning for children – particularly those at risk of being excluded – has been felt for decades. The ECE/ECCD initiatives have focused on various age groups such as 0-3, 3-5 or 0-8 and under the ECCD/ECE umbrella the initiatives have adopted a wide range of strategies provision of support to families to enable them to eventually support children, capacity enhancement of caregivers for improved ECCD implementation, advocacy for policy, legislative or systemic change for enhanced finances and quality of service delivery, mobilising community, and building capacity at all levels. However, gender equality integration has been minimal.


learned in their childhood. The same gendered patterns of behavior and attitude are being repeated by them. Caregivers' capacity: A large number of caregivers have not received any training on ECCD to begin with and no gender training at all. Those who have receive some ECCD training reported their introduction to activity based learning techniques – appreciated by them. However gender aspects are missing from current models of ECCD training. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Similarly, there is no training on dispute resolution or dispute transformation. Subsequently, caregivers cannot pass on the skills for handling bullies to young children. Caregivers' interaction with girls and boys: There does not seem to be any intentional ignoring of requests from girls and boys on the basis of gender – except only a few and no overt discrimination in games. However, this claim by the caregivers is not confirmed by observation. The caregivers were not found to be actively encouraging a gender sensitive behavior amongst boys and girls, particularly in games where boys were accepted to be more boisterous and girls shy, hence boys usually would go outside and play and girls would stay indoors during break. The caregivers did not intervene to encourage girls to play outside the room. Lack of psychological support to caregivers as well as girls and boys: Conversations with caregivers about their childhood indicate that psychological counseling should be provided to the caregivers so that they come to terms with injustice and violence meted out to them during their childhood. The expected enhanced understanding of their own issues can help shift their attitudes towards girls and boys as well. An uncomfortably large numbers of girls and boys have reported facing physical violence at home and observing domestic violence in their parents' relationship, highlighting the need for provision of psychological support to children. Lack of support on gender equality in ECCD to the caregivers: Minimal technical support and guidance is provided to the caregivers on inclusion of gender concerns in ECCD; the only exceptions were a few sessions to a minority of

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caregivers where gender equality was emphasised. ECCD service delivery institutions Limited attention to protection and safety issues of children: The standards for safety and protection of children were not fully adhered to in a number of ECCD centres; in some guard rail on the stairs was missing and in some others roofs were without parapets. Basic facilities such as safe drinking water were also lacking in some institutions.

Inadequate physical space provided for children: In most cases the physical space provided for ECCD was inadequate, both in public and private institutions. Learning corners were not set up in all ECCD facilities. Access to a playground was limited and girls generally preferred to stay in the room than to go out and play as in most cases the recess time was the same and the playground was 'claimed' by older children. Inadequate materials in the centres: A few of the government functionaries pointed out the inadequacy of learning materials in the centres – as did girls and boys who want the centres better equipped. Lack of a professional development system: The existence of a professional development system was not noted in any centre, though in a few, caregivers reported of occasional training workshops that were made available to them. Lack of information on national ECE curriculum: Generally, the caregivers were not familiar with the national ECE curriculum and the formats and methodologies mentioned in the ECE curriculum were not being followed such as checklists for record keeping, maintaining children's portfolios, and pro formas for monitoring. Additionally, no gender disaggregated data was being maintained.

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The timing of the centres – ranging from 3 to 6 hours – is also of concern as young children get tired and bored easily unless they are kept constantly occupied. Longer hours necessitate other facilities such as provision of space and furniture to rest. This was not observed in most cases. Monitoring of social interaction is minimal during break and some girls as well as boys report being bullied (pushed around, beaten up) by older children, mostly boys.


Lack of a uniform and regular monitoring and assessment system: In most centres a monitoring system was non-existent or at most sporadic. No tools for monitoring of gender equality concerns were observed. Similarly, provision of feedback is occasional and ensuring integration of feedback is left to the caregiver's whims. Similarly, no systematic assessment according to ECE assessment guidelines provided in the ECE curriculum is being undertaken. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Lack of tools for self-assessment: No tools for self-assessment were available in the centres. Some caregivers undertake self-reflection of their own accord in order to improve their performance. Engagement of fathers/mothers and other family members: As previously emphasised, mothers, fathers and other family members' involvement is essential for early learning. Caregivers however, seem to be unaware of this, and almost half the centres do not invite parents at all; missing the opportunity of partnering with a child's family to achieve early learning targets of girls and boys. Fathers and male family members do not seem to be engaged in the process except in Thatta, mainly because women are mandated to stay at home by the families, and in one location in Chakwal where the centre is far from the village. Recommendations: ECCD interventions can promote gender equity beginning at a very early stage when children are more impressionable. By default when parents observe a change in girls' behavior and increase in confidence because of ECCD programmes they begin to realise the potential girls have, and start perceiving them as active learners and as individuals with diverse social and intellectual capacities. ECCD interventions can provide a powerful environment to counter gender biases in girls' and boys' growth and development – expressed in the homes by restrictions on girls' mobility, sometimes in nutrition, and most particularly in the differential level of attention and care provided to girls. Research has indicated that there are great dividends for girls enrolled in ECCD programmes such as the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study and other studies. A

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research by Myers (1995) points out that in both Indian and Guatemalan girls who participate in ECCD programmes are much more likely to join school at the appropriate age. A study in Nepal confirms this finding and also states ECCD programmes' vital role in getting and keeping girls in school and dramatically improved boy-girl ratios in the early grades. “In sum, whatever the factors underlying exclusion or Marginalisation – gender, poverty, ethnicity, caste, and religion – early childhood programmes are remarkably effective in countering 41 disadvantage”.

A system for professional development of caregivers must be made a priority and incentives attached to professional development. Making ECCD training a prerequisite for hiring can be a first step towards ensuring that only people trained on ECCD can become ECCD caregivers. The training must also include appropriate techniques for developing low-cost, no-cost materials in view of financial resource limitations of the public and private sectors. Knowledge building: Research on various aspects on ECCD in Pakistan will contribute to enhanced realisation of the critical importance of early learning as well as achieving EFA goals; simultaneously ensuring that national and international commitments on child rights are adhered to and operationalised. The research can also provide strong evidence for relevant advocacy programmes. It is also suggested that an operational research undertaken by a team of child counselors be undertaken over a longer period of time for accurate enumeration of data. 41

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Capacity enhancement of the caregivers:Comprehensive, regular programmes should be initiated to build caregivers' capacity on ECCD to begin with. However it is critical that all such training programmes integrate gender equality concerns in the training. Gender sensitisation is an essentially self-analytical process; therefore any gender in ECCD initiative must consider capacity building of caregivers on gender equality and equip them with tools for self-reflection. Along with gender sensitive training modules on dispute resolution, effective communication skills for communicating with children and parents will make the training more meaningful.


Provision of information to the institutions and caregivers: To make the policy and programming level information accessible to the institutions as well as caregivers, it is essential that documents such as the national curriculum on ECE, and any strategies developed or other programme information is widely shared. For effectiveness, it is recommended that the information is translated in Urdu as well as local regional languages and disseminated to all relevant stakeholders.

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Gender integration into all documents on ECCD: It is suggested that all available documents be reviewed with a gender perspective and changes incorporated in the manuals, guidelines, any policies or strategies, as well as into the national ECE curriculum. Gender disaggregated data compilation and availability: A separate database for ECCD should be created in all provincial and national education management information systems and a national as well as provincial ECCD census be made available in accessible formats. Promoting media reporting on ECCD: To bring gender and ECCD on a national platform, alliances with media are critical. For example, various civil society organisations have successfully modeled media sensitisation communication programmes on violence against women. Such programmes can be replicated in collaboration with electronic and print media journalists' forums. Development of age appropriate learning materials for children: The dearth of gender sensitive stories, poems etc. is currently a huge gap for gender in ECCD in Pakistan. Advocacy with publishing companies with technical support on gender equality can go a long way in overcoming this particular barrier. Gender responsive budgeting on ECCD: Currently all budget information available indicates that ECCD (pre-primary) funding available is obfuscated due to its inclusion in budgets available for primary schooling. Separate budget lines should be created for ECCD and disbursements and expenditure monitored accordingly.

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Systems for monitoring; assessment of children: Assessment of caregivers, feedback; self assessment by caregivers: Lack of systems mentioned hinder access to an overarching picture of ECCD in general and gender in ECCD in particular. All of these systems need to: a) exist; and b) be made gender sensitive.

Linkages and coordination with health departments or health facilities: Although there is some focus on nutrition and personal hygiene in the centres, regular, across the board monitoring of health of children is missing. A critical input for ECCD, there is an urgent need to fill this vacuum – this could be managed through having first level intervention (such as a nurse) at the centres and close linkages with health facilities in the vicinity. Engaging men in gender and ECCD: Involving men in gender in ECCD can contribute effectively into gender in ECCD programming on several levels. Involvement of fathers in care and development of children is essential and centres can play a very important role in this regard. Similarly hiring more male ECCD trained caregivers can break barriers of women as the 'natural' carer and nurturer, providing an alternate model to children. Engaging the community: Several case studies on community involvement in education have witnessed the effectiveness of community mobilisation and community's eventual support. The community can provide its collective resources in favour of gender in ECCD; however any community mobilisation programmes initiated must be gender sensitive to begin with. The community's role in monitoring ECCD budgets allocated at the local level can be very influential in expanding ECCD net of services. Gender sensitisation of teachers in institutions as well as parents: The institutions can play a very active role in sensitisation of parents, community and other teachers on gender equality integration and the benefits accrued thereof.

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Considerations for emotional health: Most of the ECCD facilities lack focus on emotional health of girls and boys. Programmes must be initiated around this; encouraging institutions to hire a counselor or linking them up with organisations involved in provision of psychological support to children can be options to explore.


Techniques for developing low-cost, no-cost materials, and community to donate materials

engaging the

Zero tolerance for corporal punishment: Ensuring that a policy of zero tolerance for corporal punishment is adopted in institutions is a state responsibility. Advocacy measures will have to be initiated to institute this as a condition for any budget releases for the school. The state will have to make this mandatory for the private sector as well. Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Socioeconomic dividend generated through effective gender sensitive ECCD programming is particularly relevant for Pakistan in view of the current economic challenges. With over 30% of the population living on the edge of poverty where most adults feel little sense of agency or control, and are more interested in keeping the children fed, it is not surprising that the most disadvantaged families do not and cannot afford to give their children and early start in their lives by sending them to ECCD facilities. Gender sensitive ECCD programming can help break the vicious cycle of poverty generating more poverty. Concerted and sincere efforts by all stakeholders can point to a better future for children, aware of their rights and able to exercise them.

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Chapter

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Tool box for gender in ECCD

The tool box contains guidelines for simple and easy methodologies for self-reflection and observation in ECCD centres, and methodologies and concrete examples to be used by Plan partners and trainers. Guidelines for self reflection and observation

Self reflection allows caregivers to go down memory lane and recognise the impressions and messages that they received in their own childhood, the division of roles and tasks between sexes, and the reference point that they use instinctively when faced with gender issues. There is a risk that their perceptions in the childhood and socialisation process that they went through will impact on their behaviour and attitude towards girls and boys in ECCD. The research tells us that in Pakistan the only way effective self-reflection by caregivers can be done is through a facilitator. ECCD centres should build time in for that and hire gender and ECCD experts as facilitators to conduct these sessions. As none of the caregivers met during research have gone through a gender sensitisation training, the questions raised through self reflection will remain unanswered unless these are properly mediated. The following questions (not exclusive) can be used for self-reflection: 1. What were your expectations in your childhood? 타 From parents 타 From teachers 2. What games did you like as a child? 3. What games you were allowed to play as a girl/boy? 4. What role plays did you enjoy as a child? 5. What did you like in your most favourite teacher?

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The research has evidenced that delivering gender sensitive ECCD is not a systematic, conscious process on behalf of caregivers although some of them have claimed that they do not intentionally discriminate between girls and boys. For any effective self reflection process on gender sensitivity in ECCD gender training of caregivers is a prerequisite. This has been recommended in methodologies for Plan and its partners.


6. Why did you dislike the teacher that you disliked? 7. Were you content to be the gender you were (a girl or a boy)? Why? 8. What characteristic in you was appreciated by your parents/elders in the family? Why? 9. Did you notice any difference in behaviour with girls and boys by your parents or teachers? 10. What did your parents and teachers expected you to do as a child? Did you have any responsibilities? What were they? 11. Do you remember any comments made by parents/elders in the family on your being a girl or a boy?

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Subsequently, the following process may be adopted for self-reflection on for caregivers. 1. During training: Specific time should be built into the training for guided selfreflection. Meta cards can be used for each question. All responses must be processed. 2. Individual reflection: A trained gender and ECCD expert should work with the caregivers over a period of time. The caregivers can begin keeping a journal for their thoughts for a specific period of time. They can then be brought together for a collective reflection guided by the gender and ECCD expert. 3. Once the caregivers are trained and have spent some time on self-reflection, they can be trained in facilitation skills so that they become a resource for other caregivers in ECCD centres. Guidelines for observation Once the caregivers are trained and have gone through a process of self-reflection they can begin observing the girls and boys, their gendered behaviours, and intervene in an appropriate manner so that children can understand the situation. Systematic observation can enable caregivers to recognise stereotyping of roles in girls' and boys' behaviour and help them find activities with children which do not reconfirm gender roles and stereotyping. Again ECCD centre management has to build time into the schedule for observation. The following table can be adapted for observation and the results can be reflected upon by caregivers.

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Guidelines and strategies for use by Plan and its partners The suggested strategies presented below are based on the analysis of the research and recommendations arising from the gaps analysis. In essence, this is a generic document and the end users are expected to be all stakeholders involved in ECCD efforts in Pakistan. Plan's role has been highlighted. However, prioritisation for the next 2-5 years, mechanisms and timelines are best decided by Plan. It is also evident from the recommendations that strong and concerted advocacy efforts are required for integration of gender in ECCD. Plan may like to develop a targeted advocacy plan for the coming years.

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Observation can also include watching which learning area is preferred by girls and which one by boys. Their attitude towards each other and the language used can also be indicative of the roles that they think girls and boys should take. Caregivers should document their impression and discuss them with gender and ECCD expert to find out effective ways of handling them.


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Plan Plan


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Minimum standards for gender in ECCD

Minimum standards for gender and ECCD

1. ACCESS AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Standard 1.1: All girls and boys have access to gender sensitive ECCD facilities 타 ECCD centres are within walking distance so that escorting girls and boys

to school does not constitute an additional financial burden to mothers/fathers/family members. 타 Minimum fees are charged as far as possible. 타 Wearing a uniform is not a requirement. Standard 2.1: Learning environment is safe for girls and boys (protection and well-being) 타

All safety requirements mentioned in the National ECE curriculum are adhered to.

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The minimum standards for gender in ECCD are rooted in the fact that education is a basic human right for everyone, all girls and boys. In Pakistan, particularly, with introduction of Article 25a in the 18th Constitutional Amendment a lack of access to educational opportunities has become a justiciable action, serving as a fundamental entry point for gender-responsive education programming. The Constitution hence guarantees non-discrimination in exercise of all girls and boys to quality education. Gender responsive education ensures that the differential needs of girls and boys are understood and policy and programming ensures their enrolment, participation and achievement in a gender friendly learning environment. An essential step, therefore, is to analyse current practices to address gender barriers, respect the differences, and to encourage and promote structures, systems and methodologies that are sensitive to girls' and boys' needs. The above is a starting point for minimum standards for gender in ECCD.


A code of ethics against bullying is developed for schools where older children study as well and shared with teachers as well as girls and boys. Ÿ Zero tolerance for corporal punishment is adhered to by the centres. Ÿ Separate washrooms are available for girls and boys (preferably/ where appropriate). Ÿ Psychological support is available to both teachers/caregivers and boys and girls for their emotional development. Ÿ The centres are linked with health, nutrition, and psychological support for children's optimal emotional and psychological development. Standard 3.1: Learning environment is attractive for girls and boys Ÿ

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Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ

Learning corners are provided with gender sensitive learning materials. Work done by girls and boys is displayed in the room. Caregivers provide equal opportunities of learning to both girls and boys by listening and responding to both.

2. TEACHING AND LEARNING Standard 2.1: Curriculum takes into account gender aspects in all learning (activities, poems, stories, role plays, games including pretend games, action singing, building blocks, other) Standard 2.2: All learning processes take into account the different needs of girls and boys both. Standard 2.3: Age appropriate methods are used for assessment of expected learning outcomes of girls and boys.

3. CAREGIVERS and HEAD TEACHERS Standard 3.1: All caregivers hired must have pre-service ECCD training and are provided with consistent, regular gender training. Standard 3.2: Selection criteria takes into account equity and diversity aspects; e.g. male caregivers also be hired. Standard 3.3: Caregivers are provided with structured training on gender in ECCD

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Standard 3.4: A system of professional development is established for need based, relevant training of caregivers and head teachers on ECCD and gender equality concerns. Standard 3.5: Caregivers regularly receive all information on gender and ECCD.

4. EDUCATION POLICY 4.1: All education policies, strategies and laws recognise differential needs of girls and boys. 4.2: Separate budgets are allocated for ECCD and professional development on gender and ECCD.

5. DATA 5.1: Gender disaggregated data on enrolment, attendance and completion is maintained and is accessible.

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Standard 3.6: System of provision of gender sensitive technical support and guidance to caregivers and head teachers is established and made functional.


Gender analysis of 'Barhte Huey Qadam': ECCD curriculum by Plan Pakistan and specific Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

recommendations for improvement

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Gender Analysis of Barhte Huey Qadam ECCD manual prepared by Plan Pakistan and specific recommendations for improvement

Gender sensitive early childhood programmes have the capacity to challenge gender stereotypes, promote behaviour changes towards gender, encourage acceptance of human rights and equal rights, enhance feelings of self-esteem in girls and create awareness of gender equality in parents, teachers, families and the community. Giving girls and boys gender non-discriminatory messages at this age can counteract many social biases such as division in public and private space (public for men and private for women), gender based division of labour, discrimination in access to and control of economic resources, Medical and sociological research has confirmed that the messages children imbibe in early childhood create analytical pathways in the brain which act as a reference point for all actions/reactions in future. The manual developed by Plan is generally based on the ECE national curriculum and is very comprehensive as an early childhood education manual covering 32 weeks and provides lesson plans as well as guidance for ECCD teachers. In terms of gender equality integration though, it is generally gender neutral, though with some very valuable inputs sprinkled throughout. These are:

1. Illustrations include an excellent gender representation. 2. Mein chota sa ik bachcha hoon (I am a small boy) is a very gender sensitive poem which propagates care roles for boys. 3. On page 105, the teachers have been told that some mothers may also be 42

UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report, 2007

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This analysis has been based on the learning and guidance from the Gender Loops project for which all documents on their website have been screened carefully. The definition of ECCD used in the report as well as for this analysis is that ECCD entails “health, nutrition, hygiene, and cognitive, social, psychological and emotional development, from birth to entry into primary school, in formal, informal and non-formal settings, often provided by a mix of government institutions, non-governmental organisations, private providers, communities and families�42.


4. 5.

6.

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7. 8. 9. 10.

working outside the home – teacher's conversation with girls and boys is on “Who does what in the home over the weekend”. On page 106, in the role play, the child changes his clothes when he gets home. The narration says anyone in the family may help him. On page 110, in colouring (art), an outline of woman working outside the home has been shown and children are asked to colour it. The guidance for discussion is gender sensitive. On page 111, “Our Fathers”, children are told that fathers are supposed to play with children and tell them stories. On page 115, a woman is shown working on the computer with two men in the same room. On page 137, in the poem “Apple” both parents go to the market to buy apples. The elder sister is teaching her younger sister and brother how to read the clock. (page 335) By far the most gender sensitive is the role play on page 398, 399 which is based on role reversal of a girl and boy at home which also highlights discrimination in food distribution between girls and boys at home. In the end father agrees that the girl works longer hours and both girls and boys need the same level of nutrition.

On page 438, the family goes to a fair and the girl and boy are treated equally: both get one gift each. The illustration shows both. General gaps identified in the manual are: 1. The Urdu word used for children (bachchay) is generally used for: a) all children: and b) for boys. The word 'bachchiaan' which means girls in Urdu has been used only occasionally. As the research points out, it is very important to mention both so that the generic use of the term does not subsume girl childs’ needs. 2. The manual would have been strengthened with suggestions to the teachers on how to watch for trends of leadership amongst girls and boys and how to handle any differences they observe. This has not been discussed at all. 3. Guidance on monitoring of and support to be provided to girls and boys as well as mothers and fathers for emotional development is missing. 4. Growth monitoring has been mentioned very briefly. Guidance on simple actions that can be taken by care givers in the case of any growth issues is missing as is feedback to the parents on any development issues.

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5. It seems that the manual mainly focuses on Early Childhood Education and very little on ECCD. 6. Actively involving parents in the child's development has not been discussed at all. 7. Emotional development has not been focussed on. Specific gender related comments on the manual are presented below:

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lentils

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Sair

This is an outline of three girls skipping.

kind

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minds


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Specific recommendations for improvement: In view of the analysis presented above, it is recommended that the manual 'Barhte Huey Qadam' be re-written from a gender perspective. It is also essential that psychological and emotional development be included in the manual as well as active involvement of parents particularly engaging fathers in ECCD. It is recommended that following activities be used by caregivers:

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1. Gender sensitive poems: these can be adapted from the gender sensitive ECCD material used regionally, particularly from India and Nepal. 2. Gender sensitive games. 3. Gender sensitive stories. 4. Caregivers can be trained in developing context specific, easy to make low cost materials that are gender neutral. Aga Khan Foundation has developed methodologies that can be adapted.


Annex A Research on gender and ECCD For Plan Pakistan Bibliography Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

1. Return to Learning: Education as Protection and a Way of Rebuilding the Future in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster. 2009. Save the Children, Bangkok. 2. Abril, Paco, Michael Cremers, Norman Duncan, Loreta Golubevaite, Jens Krabel, Anzelika Lilaite, Ole B. Nordfjell, Juste Raudonyte, and Alfons Romero. Gender Loops Toolbox for Gender-conscious and Equitable Early Childhood Centres. Ed. Jens Krabel and Michael Cremers. 2008. 3. Ahmed, Shehlina, Mahmuda Akhter, Md. Shah Alam, and Selina Chowdhury, eds. Parenting Manual. N.p.: ECCD Programs Plan Bangladesh, 2002. 4. Akimushkina, Irina. Contemporary Women: Between Productive and Childcare Activities. Review of the World Bank Projects and Research Papers on Childcare and Women's Participation in The Labor Market. 5. Arnold, Caroline. Positioning ECCD in the 21st Century. 6. Aslam, Komal. Analysis Report: Education of Pakistan. Rep. Islamabad: UNDP, 2010. 7. "Beijing Declaration." UN News Center. UN, Web. <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/declar.htm>. 8. CHECK. Definition of Early Childhood Care for Development. 9. CHECK. Developmentally Appropriate Practices. 10. CHECK. Equal Possibilities for Boys and Girls. Booklet for self and team reflection for teachers and teachers. 11. CHECK. "National Curriculum on Early Childhood Education 2007: A Critical Review." Rev. of National Curriculum on Early Childhood Education 2007. 12. The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Development. Coordinators' Notebook: An International Resource for Early Childhood Development. Ed. Ellen M. Ilfeld, Elizabeth Hanssen, and Louise Zimanyi. West Springfield: Graphic Printing, 2004. Ser. 28.

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13. The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Development. Early Childhood Indicators. 14. The Consultative Group on ECCD. ECCD Briefs—Calculating Cost Savings: The High/Scope Perry Pre-School Project. 15. Content with Activities. Potential ECCD Curriculum CHECK. 16. Coppens, Sven. ECCD in Plan – Scope of Work Proposed Strategy for Taking ECCD Forward as a Plan Global Theme. Apr. 2008. Proposed strategy for taking ECCD forward as a Plan Global Theme. 17. The Dakar Framework for Action. Apr. 2000. Adopted by the World Education Forum. Dakar. 18. Department of Education and Science. "OECD Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland." Review. July 2004. 19. Department of Social Development, Republic of South Africa. Position Paper on Early Childhood Care and Development. Dec. 2005. Position Paper. 20. Directorate for Staff Development. DSD Early Childhood Centers Evaluation Report. Rep. , 21. Early Child Development in Social Context: A Chartbook. New York: Commonwealth Fund, 2004. 22. Early Childhood Development Initiatives in Pakistan: A Mapping Study. Publication. Karachi: Sindh Education Foundation, 2009. 23. Early Childhood Development. Powerpoint Presentation for a training on Early Childhood Development. 24. East Asia and Pacific United Nations Girls' Education Initiative: In Focus: Gender and Early Childhood Care and Development 6 (Oct. 2010). 25. ETS. Early Childhood Development Test at a Glance. Test Introduction Booklet. 26. Gapminder World. N.p., Web. <http://www.gapminder.org/world/>. 27. "Gulshan, Banani & Baridhara." Map. Global ECCD Workshop. N.p.: CHECK, N. pag. 28. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education. EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO, 2011. 29. Hohmann, Mary, and David P. Weikart. Educating Young Children: Active Learning Practices for Preschool and Child Care Programs. Educating Young Children. N.p.: High/Scope, 1995. 13-41. 30. Humayun, Salman. Public Financing of Education in Pakistan: Analysis of Federal and Provincial Budgets. Rep. Ed. Waseem Hashmi. Islamabad: Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (I-SAPS), 2010. 31. Impact Evaluation of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Project.


32. 33.

34.

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35.

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

Report to Plan Nepal by Foundation for Human Development (FHD) And H.D. Nepal Consultants Group (P) Ltd. , Inter-American Development Bank. Breaking the Poverty Cycle: Investing in Early Childhood. , Kamerman, Sheila B., and Shirley Gatenio-Gabel. "Early Childhood Education and Care in the United States: An Overview of the Current Policy Picture." International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy1.1 (2007): 23-34. Lokshin, Michael M., Elena Glinskaya, and Marito Garcia. The Effect of Early Childhood Development Programs on Women's Labor Force Participation and Older Children's Schooling in Kenya. Working paper. N.p.: World Bank, 2000. Ser. 15. Megawangi, Ratna. Gender Perspectives in Early Childhood Care and Development in Indonesia. 1997. The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development. Pakistan. Ministry of Education. National Curriculum for Early Childhood Education. , 2007. Plan Asia. Suggested Analytical Framework for Identifying Good Practices in ECCD. Workgroup Discussion. Plan Pakistan. Manual on Early Childhood Care and Development. Plan Pakistan-Mountain Institute for Educational Development. Training Manual for Caregivers, ECE Teachers, ECE Focal Group and Implementing Partner Staff. , Plan Uganda. Concept Note: Building Talents. Kampala. Plan. Working Towards Achieving Quality in Early Childhood Care and Development. Operational Definitions of Quality Dimensions. "Project: Introduction to ECCD." Mountain Institute for Educational Development - MIED. N.p., Web. <http://www.mied.org/project.php?pid=100>. Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO, 2007. Strong Foundations for Gender Equality in Early Childhood Care and Education. Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia, 2007. UNESCO International Bureau of Education, comp. Country Profile: Pakistan Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE). Rep. Geneva, 2006. UNESCO. Why Gender Equality in Basic Education in Pakistan? 2010. Islamabad. "United Nations Millennium Development Goals." UN News Center. UN, Web. <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/>. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." UN News Center. UN, Web.

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<http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/>. 49. Wallis, Allan, Victor Dukay, Claude Mellins, Sylvia Kaaya, Harryl Hollingsworth, and Carl Larson. Power and Empowerment Fostering Effective Collaboration in Meeting the Needs of Orphaned and Vulnerable Children. Rep. N.p.: Lundy Foundation, 2008. 50. "What Is ECCD." The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Development. N.p., Web. Zupancic, Maja, and Tina Kavcic. "Gender Differences in Personality Through Early Childhood: A Multi-Informant Perspective." Horizons of Psychology 14.2 (2005): 11-38.

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Annex B Research on gender and ECCD for Plan Pakistan Guidelines for interviews with teachers Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

Please familiarise yourself with the guidelines which are just that â&#x20AC;&#x201C; guidelines. Follow all the leads that turn up in the conversation. Write the responses as they are given word for word as far as possible â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not your interpretation. However, seek clarification if the statement is not clear to you. Please use conversational style. Rephrase the questions as well as their order given below according to the situation. Please record conversation in Urdu if the conversation is in Urdu. Use of local language is preferred. (Introduce yourself and explain the objectives of the research; politely ask whether s/he would be willing to be quoted in the research)

SECTION I 1. Professional background of the teacher Education: Training: Duration of training

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Where and by whom? Previous experience as an ECE teacher: Working in the school/organisation as an ECE teacher since: 2. Personal background:

SECTION II 1. How is your ECE training different from your previous perceptions of teaching? 2. Did the ECE training include any gender equality aspects/gender orientation? 3. Has your ECE training changed your perceptions of a teacher's role? 4. With reference to your current experience, what are the most useful elements of your ECE training? 5. Are there any refresher opportunities available to you? 6. Is there a professional development system provided by schools/organisation for ECE? 7. Do you believe that girls and boys behave differently in similar situations? - Games - Social interaction - Leadership roles 8. Have you experienced any differences working with girls and boys? Emotions: anger, sulking etc Social skills: salaam, being polite, use of language Games: assuming leadership; giving space to others; fairness 9. How do you manage the differences, if any?

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Married/unmarried Any children: What were your expectations in your childhood? - From parents - From teachers What games did you like as a child? What games you were allowed to play as a girl/boy? What role plays did you enjoy as a child? What did you like in your most favourite teacher? Why did you dislike the teacher that you disliked? What is your motivation for becoming an ECE teacher?


Record Keeping 1. Do you follow and keep a record according to the checklist for progress? 2. Do you maintain portfolios for children? What do you do with them? 3. Do you compile gender disaggregated data? Interaction with parents/parents' involvement:

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

1. How frequently are parents invited to the ECE centre? 2. Who attends the meeting (fathers/mothers) (get number) 3. How frequently do fathers/male family members participate in the meetings? 4. How frequently do mothers/khalas/grandmothers or other family members participate in the meetings? Monitoring 1. How is your performance monitored? What tools are used for monitoring? 2. How frequent is the monitoring process? 3. How is the feedback from monitoring integrated in your work? 4. Does the feedback include aspects of gender equality? 5. What support is available to you for integration of gender concerns? Assessment 1. Have you observed any marked differences between girls and boys achievement in learning and development in your assessment? Child performance: girls and boys Learning patterns of girls and boys Achievement of learning milestones 2. Is there a marked difference in achievements in learning areas between girls and boys? 3. Do you undertake self-assessments? How frequently? 4. Does your self assessment guide include any gender sensitive aspects?

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Annex C Research on gender and ECCD for Plan Pakistan Guidelines for conversation with children

Some leading questions could be: 1. Do you like coming to school?

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(Please familiarise yourself with the guidelines which are just that â&#x20AC;&#x201C; guidelines. Talking to children is very sensitive. Please sit down with them so you do not seem threatening to children. Spend some time with them; play with them and once you feel that they are comfortable, begin the conversation. Do not refer to the guidelines in front of them. Preferably record the conversation using a mobile phone or any other recording device. Replay it for them before you leave.)


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you

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Please record girls' and boys' responses separately. Note during the game or afterwards, in which way girls and boys deal with certain feelings. Are there gender-related differences in certain children groups?

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10. (Play a game with children. Sit with them in a circle. In this game children can tell the group which events provoke certain feelings in them. The children may continue the following sentences. It makes me angry, if … (I'm not allowed to have a bath alone) I'm happy if…. (Ammi cuddles with me at night) I get scared if… (it is raining heavily) I'm sad because… (Ali always takes my doll away)


Annex D Research on gender and ECCD for Plan Pakistan Checklist for observation for learning environment and chidren's leaning patterns and activities 46

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ECCD caregiver's assessment Guidelines for observer: (Please spend a minimum of 20 minutes in each centre for observation. Mark only those activities that you observed. Please do NOT make assumptions.)

1.

Does the caregiver talk to girls and boys both? Yes No Comments: (which gender does the caregiver talk to most?)

2.

Which requests does the caregiver respond to? Games

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Activities 3.

From girls From boys

Which requests does the caregiver not respond to? Games

-

From girls From boys

4.

Does the caregiver provide equal opportunity for girls and boys to discuss/ask questions?

5.

Does the caregiver provide equal opportunity to girls and boys to play? -

6.

Which games for girls? Which games for boys?

How does the caregiver handle any conflict? Does s/he give different messages to girls and boys?

Comments:

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Activities


Annex E Research on gender and ECCD for Plan Pakistan Guidelines for FDGs with parents

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

(Please familiarise yourself with the guidelines which are just that – guidelines. Follow all the leads that turn up in the conversation. Write the responses as they are given word for word as far as possible – not your interpretation. However, seek clarification if the statement is not clear to you. Please use conversational style. Rephrase the questions as well as their order given below according to the situation. Please record conversation in Urdu if the conversation is in Urdu. Use of local language is preferred.) 1. Why do you send your young girls to the ECE centre? 2. Why do you send your young boys to the ECE centre? 3. What do you want your girls to learn in the ECE centre? Why? 4. What do you want your boys to learn in the ECE centre? Why? 5. What do you want your girls to become in the future? 6. What do you want your boys to become in the future? 7. Is the ECE centre useful in achieving future goals for your children? 8. Is the topic of “being a girl or being a boy” an issue for your daughter or son at home? For instance, does he/she say that girls or boys are not allowed to or cannot play certain games or activities? Or does your daughter or son refuse to wear a certain item of clothing because he/she thinks it is for a girl or boy? No

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Yes, (please expand) (Give two or three examples or quotes) 9. When your daughter or son makes a comment on the topic of “being a girl or being a boy” how do you usually react? Give two or three examples of a “typical” reaction from you (e.g. agree, disagree, no reaction)? 10. Does your child ask questions about the topic of “being a girl or being a boy”? Does your child ask you questions, such as: are these trousers for a girl? Do boys play with dolls too?

Yes, my daughter/my son asks the following questions: How do you answer the above questions from your daughter/son? 11. Has your child strongly identified with a particular picture book, cartoon or comic figure recently? No Yes, (please expand) 12. Does your child talk about what she/he likes doing best in the early childhood educational centre? No Yes, according to our daughter/our son, she/he likes doing the following things best of all: 13. Which games or activities does your child currently like playing most of all? 14. Are there any toys that your child would especially like to have that you do not want to give her/him? No Yes, (please expand) 15. Do you prefer a female or a male caregiver? Why?

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No


Annex F Research on gender and ECCD For Plan Pakistan Guidelines for questionnaire with parents who are not sending their children to ECCD facilities

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

(Please familiarise yourself with the guidelines which are just that – guidelines. Follow all the leads that turn up in the conversation. Write the responses as they are given word for word as far as possible – not your interpretation. However, seek clarification if the statement is not clear to you. Please use a conversational style. Rephrase the questions as well as their order given below according to the situation. Please record conversation in Urdu if the conversation is in Urdu. Use of local language is preferred.) Name of the father/mother: Location (vicinity of which centre), UC, district: Date interviewed: Name of the interviewer: 1. Why do you not send your daughter(s) to the ECE centre? 2. Why do you not send your son(s) to the ECE centre? 3. What do you want your daughter(s) to become in the future? 4. What do you want your son(s) to become in the future? 5. Is the topic of “being a girl or being a boy” an issue for your daughter or son at home? For instance, does he/she say that girls or boys are not allowed to or cannot play certain games or activities? Or does your daughter or son refuse to wear a certain

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item of clothing because he/she thinks it is for a girl or boy? No Yes, (please expand) (Give two or three examples or quotes) 6. When your daughter or son makes a comment on the topic of “being a girl or being a boy” how do you usually react?

7. Does your child ask questions about the topic of “being a girl or being a boy”? Does your child ask you questions, such as: are these trousers for a girl? Do boys play with dolls too? No Yes, my daughter/my son asks the following questions: How do you answer the above questions from your daughter/son? 8. Has your child strongly identified with a particular picture book, cartoon or comic figure recently? No Yes, (please expand) 9. Which games or activities does your daughter/son currently like playing most of all? (record answers separately for girls and boys) 10. Are there any toys that your child would especially like to have that you do not want to give him/her? (record answers separately for girls and boys) No Yes, (please expand) 11. Do you prefer female or male caregiver? Why?

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Give two or three examples of a “typical” reaction from you (e.g. agree, disagree, no reaction)?


Annex G Research on gender and ECCD For Plan Pakistan Guidelines for interviews with government functionaries (Departments of Education, Punjab and Sindh; EDO Education at district level) Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

(Please familiarise yourself with the guidelines which are just that â&#x20AC;&#x201C; guidelines. Follow all the leads that turn up in the conversation. Write the responses as they are given word for word as far as possible â&#x20AC;&#x201C; not your interpretation. However, seek clarification if the statement is not clear to you. Please remember that provinces' role is extremely important after devolution of the Ministry of Education. Please use a conversational style. Rephrase the questions as well as their order given below according to the situation. Please record conversation in Urdu if the conversation is in Urdu. Use of local language is preferred.)

(Introduce yourself and explain the objectives of the research; politely ask whether s/he would be willing to be quoted in the research)

1. Policy 1.1 Does a policy/strategy/action plan on ECE/ECCD exist in the province/district? 1.2 If not, what guidelines/directives/notifications are being followed? 1.3 Is the policy/strategy/action plan/guidelines gender sensitive?

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2. Curriculum/Manual 2.1 Does the province/district have an ECE/ECCD curriculum? (please refer to the ECE curriculum by the Federal Curriculum Wing) 2.2 If not are there plans to adopt/adapt an ECE curriculum? (probe to find out what the plans are, what the process is and what is the progress on that)

3. Available Services 3.1 How many functional centres (Early Childhood Education/Early Childhood Care and Development) are available to the public? 3.1.1 With what facilities? (Please list all â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rooms, etc.) - Designated rooms â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are they well ventilated? - Learning/playing materials - Furniture - Human resources (teacher [ECE trained teacher, other], aya, etc.) - Availability of safe drinking water - Adequate light - Washroom(s) - Playing space 3.2 Does the recruitment policy mention gender of the ECE teacher? 3.3 How many teachers have been hired as ECE teachers? What is their gender? 3.4 How many children are served by the ECE centres? (Get an estimate of the population of the province/district as well) 3.4.1 How many children in katchi? 3.4.2 How many 0-3 years aged children out of: ECE: girls and boys

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2.3 Is the ECE manual developed by federal MoE Curriculum Wing being used? Are there plans to adopt/adapt it?


Katchi: Girls and boys 3.4.3 How many 3-5 years aged children are out of: ECE: girls and boys Katchi: Girls and boys

Gender in Early Childhood Care and Development

3.4.4 Is there an official position on title of the teacher? Miss Auntie Teacher Baji Other (please describe) 3.5 What learning material is being used by ECE teachers for delivery of ECE? Primers Routine plans GCET specific Other 3.6 Is there a manual or day-to-day planning support available to them? 4. Capacity and professional development of ECE teachers? 4.1 What are the minimum requirements for hiring of an ECE teacher? What kind of PRESET? 4.2 How is their gender sensitivity judged? 4.3 Is there a consistent policy about their professional development? (get details) 4.4 Is there a training manual for ECE teachers? 4.5 Are any minimum standards for ECE being followed? (get a copy) 5. Financial Allocation 5.1 What level of financial allocation is being earmarked for ECE? 5.2 Are there any plans in near future to increase the allocation? (please get copies of budgets, spending, etc.)

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6. Assessment mechanisms 6.1 What are the current monitoring/assessment mechanism/s around ECE/ECCD? 6.2 Is the curriculum recommended assessment mechanism followed? 6.3 Is gender disaggregated assessment data collected? 6.3.1 Checklist of children's progress

6.3.3 Progress report for parents 6.4 Is the current system adequate, in your opinion? 6.5 If not, can you suggest alternatives?

7. Recommendations/suggestions 7.1 What, in your opinion, are the gaps in ECE/ECCD services in the province/district? 7.2 Do you think inclusion of gender equality aspects in ECE curriculum will make a difference? 7.3 What do you recommend?

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6.3.2 Portfolio of children's work


Country Office House # 9, Street 32, F-7/1 Islamabad, Pakistan T: +92 051 2609435-41 F: +92 051 2609442

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Programme Unit - Chakwal House MCB 3/401, Mohallah, Shumali Behkri Road, Chakwal, Pir Ladla Chowk Chakwal, Pakistan T: +92 0543 542804, 550 222, 550295 Fax: +92 543 550 221

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Programme Unit- Thatta House No. 107-A Unit # 1, Opposite Shah Latif Public School, Hashim Abad Housing Society Makli, Thatta Tel: +92 298 771970, 770766 (Amin - Imran Ali-Direct) Fax: +92 298 771970


Exploring gender in the eccd programme