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2011 Buyer’s

Guide

July/August 2011

$6.95

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Down, Draw and Shoot Conditioning the K-9 Team for a Gunfight

Exposure: Preparing Your Dog for Patrol Environments


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®

roll call

magazine magazine

VOLUME VOLUME 7 6

ISSUE ISSUE 4 6

Publisher

Jeff Meyer Jeff@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Editor

Heidi Parsons Editor@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Associate Editors

Ted Daus Ted.Daus@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Rob Lukason Rob.Lukason@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Competition Versus Cooperation

Contributing Writers

Janice Baker, DVM, Terry Fleck, Mike Johnson, Sergeant Bill Lewis II, David J Magdycz, Bruce Rogers, Brad Smith, Axel van der Borght Photographers

John and Becki Johnston - AceK9.com Mike Ireland, Roger Canady, Doug Tomkiel Design / Art Production

The Magazine Factory Business Manager

Joanna Kwiatek-Meyer Editorial Advisory Board

Jeff Barrett, Marc Ficcadenti, Andy Weiman Advertising Sales

Bud Simon and Tara Simon 262/431-4500 bud@PoliceK-9Magazine.com tara@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Subscriptions

Phone: 866/988-1545 Fax: 303/932-0328 www.PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Police K-9 Magazine P.O. Box 280541 Lakewood, CO 80228-0541 Police K-9 Magazine is published bimonthly in January, March, May, July, September, and November by JMX2 Media Inc., Lakewood, Colorado. Subscription rates for six issues are $29 US and $35 Canada (print and digital); all other countries $60 for print. Digital issues only: $25 all countries. Back issues, if available, are $10 (print) $5 (digital) all countries. Office of publication: JMX2 Media Inc., 14530 W. Bates Place, Lakewood, CO 802284870. Copyright © 2011 by JMX2 Media Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. The opinions expressed in this magazine are those of the writers only. Police K-9 Magazine does not endorse any training or deployment method and cannot be held liable for acts resulting from the use of any information presented herein.

JULY/AUGUST 2011

few years ago, I wrote in this column that I believed a little competition was good, that for handlers to compete in events that mirror their duties is a good way to measure themselves against fellow handlers. While I still believe that, I see another competition that is not so healthy: handlers competing with each other during actual deployments. Awhile back I assisted an agency in starting its K-9 program. I stressed to the handlers to become a team and support each other. We all work hard and want to experience success with our dogs, but we should take just as much pride in the success of the others in our unit. I believe a well-run unit is one where all the handlers get along, respect each other and want to help each team be its best. If you have invested a good part of yourself in helping a fellow handler and his dog in training, you will also feel a great deal of pride when that team makes a good find. I have witnessed handlers who were actually mad that they did not make the apprehension, without caring that another officer put a crook behind bars. I look at our profession as a team sport. We are one team, the criminals are another, and any goal scored on our side makes me happy. A divided unit is marked by the opposite attitude: who “scores” is the most important thing, rather than team success. With regard to competing on deployments, I feel the same way. When I was a new handler I experienced a great deal of luck and always seemed to be in the right place during area searches. This led to a lot of joking with other team members about how many finds I had versus them. While it was funny at the time, I look back now and realize that sometimes this attitude carried over to making bad decisions during a search in order to be the one who found the suspect. Over the years, my attitude and our team’s attitude have changed dramatically. I can honestly say on the shift I work there is no jealousy amongst the handlers. It is a much better and safer environment to work in. With the change in attitude, our tactics have gotten better. Our searches are more systematic, and we respect each other’s areas of responsibility (by not entering them). We train all the dogs to ensure they are all functioning at a high level, and there is a willingness to share any failures our dogs have so we can solve them as a team. Experience and time should make you better, and I am happy to say we are. n

A

Jeff Meyer, Publisher Contact: Jeff@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Police K-9 Magazine

5


HITS Instructors and Classes Armin Winkler Patrol Dog Selection

Dick van Leenen & Greg Thomas Making Your Dog Streetworthy

Warren Atlas Learn Your Rights as a Canine Handler

Jeff Meyer Tactical Area Search

Greg Thomas & Dick van Leenen HST, Hard Surface Tracking

Dan Losey Patrol Canine Legal Updates

Doug Roller Proper Use of Power Collar

Bob Eden K-9 Learning Concepts

Wendell Nope Bomb Dogs and Bomb Techs

Jack Schonely Suspect Tactics /Perimeter Containment

Bob Wright Seven Deadly Sins

Jeff Barrett High-Risk Tactical Tracking/ Woodland OPS

Ken Licklider Drug Canine Problem Solving

Steve Dean Selecting and Training Puppies for PSD

Ted Daus Drug Canine Legal Updates Andrew Weiman Drug Canine Record Keeping/ Court Testimony Rob Lukason Hidden Vehicle Compartments

Ryan Morris Homemade Explosives (HMEs) for the K-9 Handler Ron Cloward Proper Use of a Muzzle Gene Ramirez Civil Liability

Trent Crump & Brian Riggins Being a K-9 Supervisor

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®

July/August 2011

magazine

features 38

Down - Draw - Shoot! Conditioning the K-9 Team for a Gunfight

44 Felony Stops Deployment on High-Risk Vehicle Stops

54

Exposure Training Preparing Your Dog for Patrol Environments

66

The National Bulk Cash Smuggling Center: Disrupting the Criminal Supply Chain

page

44

page

BG-1

Police K-9 Magazine’s 2011 Buyer’s Guide Dog Vendors, Equipment, Trainers, Resources and more

page

38 on the cover: Photo by Heather Leider

54


®

magazine

July /August 2011

columns 5

Roll Call

Competition Versus Cooperation in K-9

— Jeff Meyer

32

In My Opinion

Core Components for Successful Detection Teams

— Mike Johnson

63

Detector

Keys to Preventing Boredom in Training

— Rob Lukason

69

Legal

Fighting the Good Fight in the Appellate Court

— Ted Daus

88

Health Watch

Preparing for the Worst-Case Scenario

— Janice Baker, DVM

page

32

page

14

departments 12

Notepad

14

Training Perspectives

36 72 77 86 91 92

10 Police K-9 Magazine

Canine news and views from around the world

Apprehending suspects in deep water, overcoming handler sensitivity, retraining a detection dog to indicate

Products & Services

Pet supplies, muzzles, and police sleeves

K-9 Legal Update

K-9 Narcotics Cases: Part II

Agency Spotlight

The Brussels Police Dog Brigade

Training & Events

Events, training, and certification

Advertiser Index K-9 Tails

Your canine’s funniest moments

JULY/AUGUST 2011


CANINE NEWS AND VIEWS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

notepad

PSD Bites TV Reporter, Who Gains ‘New Respect’

Handlers, K-9s Compete For ‘Iron Dog’ Honors ewsAdvance.com reported that approximately 30 law-enforcement officers and their K-9s from across Virginia competed in the 11th annual 2011 Iron Dog Challenge in Danville in May. Held each year by the Virginia Police Work Dog Association for K-9 teams statewide, the competition required handlers to guide their dogs over and under manmade obstacles set up near the beginning of a three-mile course at Anglers Park. The teams then followed a challenging track through the woods, through a creek along the Riverside Trail and up Gravity Hill. Next, they made their way along Crooked Stick Trail and exited the Men’s Open Category path where they walked to a firing range First Place: James Hewlett, Virginia for a target-shooting competition. Beach Police Department The Iron Dog competition was stagSecond Place: Shannon Zimmerman, gered, with the teams tackling the course Bedford County Sheriff’s Office one at a time. Conditions were made to Third Place: Brandt Gawor, Franklin County Sheriff’s Office resemble those of a real-life case, said Over 40 Maj. Chris Wiles of the Danville Police First Place: Mike Slezak, Chesapeake Department. At the end of the course, the Police Department handlers and their dogs either worked Second Place: Jerry Riggins, Danville their way through a drug-detection Police Department scenario or apprehended a man in a bite Heavyweight suit with the K-9 releasing him on com(handler and K-9s over 250 pounds) mand, according to NewsAdvance.com. First Place: Lee Owens, Chesterfield County Police Department Wiles noted that the event gives the K-9 teams a training opportunity and enables Teams First Place: Brandt Gawor and officers to gauge their physical fitness and Jonathan Agee, Franklin County that of their dogs. The social aspect of friendly Sheriff’s Office competition is also important, he said.

N

Iron Dog Winners

K9 officers com“A kron: pete head-to-head, bite

news reporter” read the attention-grabbing headline of an article on WKYC.com (Akron, Ohio). Far from accusing officers of any misconduct, however, Eric Mansfield’s May 22 article provided an amusing account of the WKYC-TV Channel 3 News reporter’s participation in a police K-9 demonstration. The “Lock Three” event was a competition among 14 canine officers from the Greater Akron area. Skills tests included attacking a suspect, agility, and an obstacle course. Some 500 people attended the event, and Mansfield served as a celebrity judge. Mansfield wrote that following the competition, police invited him to put on a bite suit jacket and experience being apprehended by a police canine. Akron Police Officer Dale Dorn instructed K-9 Gunny to take down Mansfield, which Gunny did three times. The article concluded, “Eric was not injured but said he has a new respect for how tough the K-9 officers are.”

Nose Points the Way To Robbery Suspect’s Location XLY.com reported that two days after the June 11 armed robbery of a corner grocery store in East Spokane, Washington, a suspect was arrested in the case, based in part on the keen nose of a K-9 officer. The robbery occurred at the M&K Market at about 11 p.m. and witnesses told police that the suspect, who was armed with a knife and wore a camouflage top, gloves and a mask, had run eastward from the market. Officer Rob Boothe's K-9 tracked the suspect’s scent to an abandoned garage, but did not locate the suspect. However, on June 13 around 1:15 a.m., Officer Adam Valdez was patrolling in the vicinity of the M&K Market when he noticed someone digging through trash. Because

K

12 Police K-9 Magazine

the person matched the description of the robbery suspect, Valdez approached and questioned him. The man, who was later identified as Garry L. George, told Officer Valdez that he had been in the same abandoned garage that Officer Boothe’s dog had zeroed in on two nights earlier. A search of that garage turned up clothes matching the description of those worn by the robbery suspect, George’s wallet, and a bag of methamphetamine. KXLY.com also reported that under a tree trunk behind the garage, Valdez found a black nylon bag containing the mask, gloves and knife that had been used in the M&K Market robbery. George was arrested for First Degree Robbery and Possession of a Controlled Substance. JULY/AUGUST 2011

New K-9 Training Academy Opens in Upstate New York olice departments in the northeastern U.S. and Canada have begun enjoying significant savings on training costs for their canine teams, thanks to the recent opening of the new Niagara County Law Enforcement Academy, according to BuffaloNews.com. During the first week in June, the website reported, about 40 officers from Western New York and Canada attended a four-day “Canine Support Team and Tactical Training” seminar at the Academy, which opened in March on the campus of Niagara University. The seminar was led by retired Officer William J. Nott Jr., a veteran K-9 handler who founded the Connecticut Police Work Dog Association in 1990. Nott retired from the Ledyard (CT) Police Department in 2007. The BuffaloNews article explain-ed that Nott’s training is focused on highrisk deployments with dogs, and includes information about communication, team building, clearing a building, “officer down” drills, rolling cover, shield drills and car extractions. The seminar provides a trained team for K-9 officers to follow when leading their dogs into an emergency situation. “It’s a huge boon in these tough times,” Niagara County Sheriff James R. Voutour said of the Academy. “All the locals are represented. That’s the beauty of being able to bring it here. We are getting 10 seats at a nominal cost. If we were to send people away, it would cost a fortune.” The “Canine Support Team and Tactical Training” seminar gives K-9 officers a trained team to follow as they lead their dogs into an emergency situation. “It’s a huge boon in these tough times,” Voutour said. “All the locals Officer Grieves for Murdered PSD and Pet are represented. That’s the beauty of being able to bring it here. We are oth a police K-9 and a pet dog begetting 10 seats at a nominal cost. longing to Bagley (MN) Police Sgt. If we were to send people away, it Larry Peterson were shot and killed would cost a fortune.” and left along a country road, the In addition to saving on travel costs, Grand Forks Herald reported recently. the K-9 officers training at the Academy K-9 Copper was a 70-pound have access to dormitories (which “hound/Lab cross” that Peterson reduces housing costs vs. local hotels) had rescued seven years ago from and some campus foodservice venues, the city pound; the other dog, Sally, Vontour pointed out. Noting that Niagwas also seven years old and a resara University also offers great theaters, cue; she was a black Labrador-Basincluding an instructional theater, Vonset Hound mix. The dogs had tour remarked, “We are looking at apparently gotten loose from Pebringing street survivor school here, a terson’s property, as they were national program on officer survival. It seen a short distance south of his comes to Buffalo maybe once every six home on May 10. Their bodies years and it’s expensive.” were found later that day about five Nott’s Tactical Training seminar miles north of the officer’s house; includes practice of K-9 skills using Peterson said the dogs had obviintense real-world scenarios that are ously been “dumped” there and enacted on the NU campus. “[Officers] killed elsewhere, with a small-calnever know who they are going to get iber weapon. when they go out to look for someone The Clearwater County (MN) in a tracking situation,” Vontour said. Sheriff’s Office is investigating the “They are holding a dog, not a gun, so shootings. this [training is] their support team.

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training perspectives

QA &

Q

How do the trainers of Police K-9 Magazine feel about sending a dog into water to apprehend a suspect? I attended a training day recently and most of the day was spend practicing having the dog go into water about five feet deep for an apprehension. I have been taught that this is not a good idea.

14 Police K-9 Magazine

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n Above: Is it a good idea to send your dog into water for an apprehension? n Below: Some trainers support and endorse occasional water apprehension training as a means of confidence building.

underwater debris. Also, monitor the dog’s fatigue level and don’t push too hard. This should be a fun-filled, positive training day for it to achieve its intended purpose.

A

Michael Colton replies: This is a valid question and you are 100% correct to have concerns about this practice. I personally know of a couple of dogs that were lost in my home state of Florida in water-related accidents. In one incident, a dog pursued a suspect into a pond and was drowned by the suspect. If a dog can’t stand up in the water, it cannot support its weight. When this happens, it only takes a pound or two of pressure to submerge the dog, and from there, it is only a few seconds until the unthinkable happens. Also, there are many naturally occurring hazards such as strong currents, underwater debris and here in the South, alligators. All that said, I do support and endorse occasional water apprehension training as a means of confidence building. For years, I was a member of the SWAT team and we practiced rappelling on a regular basis. In our com-

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munity the likelihood of ever rappelling on an operation was nearly nonexistent, yet we still practiced, primarily to induce confidence. In that regard this type of training, if done right, is imperative for building the complete K-9 warrior. Make sure the training area is secure and safe. Avoid tragedy by ensuring that your dog doesn’t jump into the water and hit

Mary Davis replies: I work in an area where water apprehensions are extremely rare. In theory, I do not believe it is ever a good idea to purposely send your dog into water to apprehend anyone. The dog will have a huge disadvantage and most likely drown in the course of the event, either at the hand of the suspect or by virtue of his level of fatigue. I do believe that water work in training can be useful. Water elevates the level of stress in some dogs because it is a unique environment. People use water to deter dog bites. We should work to expose our dogs to novel situations to help them become more confident. If you can view the training from that perspective, perhaps it would make some sense to you. Dick van Leenen responds: You have to look at these scenarios in two ways. First, there is the training aspect: Water apprehension is a great training challenge for both handler and dog. Some dogs don't like the water, but especially for these dogs, JULY/AUGUST 2011

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QA training perspectives

Most dogs aren't smart enough to let go of the bite once their head goes underwater.

&

through shallow water with a gun and your search team is in an open environment with no cover, then using your canine to pursue the suspect might be an option, as it provides a distraction and gives you a better ability to apprehend the suspect. My point here is this: train your canine for all possibilities so that you have options. To be stuck without options that could have been foreseen and worked through is your fault as a handler and trainer. So train for everything and all possibilities. Additionally, recognize your particular environment, the one that you and your partner will most often face and some of the ones that you occasionally will face — these are paramount to your training regimen. Simply put, if you are on a search and your suspect jumps into a pool with your canine attached to him, what will your canine do? The time for this question to be answered is in training, not during a real encounter.

n Left: It is beneficial, however, to train a K-9 to swim across a stream in the case the perpetrator crosses a stream and continues fleeing. n Center: Where you send your dog, you also go! n Below right: If a dog can’t stand up in the water, it cannot support its weight. When this happens, it only takes a pound or two of pressure to submerge the dog.

such scenarios will make them stronger — not just in or around water but overall as a streetworthy PSD. Besides that, it’s fun to work water scenarios with your dog. Working in or around the water is good for the bond between the handler and the dog. Nothing wrong with that, it is training! Second, there is the question of whether or not it is correct to send your dog into the water to apprehend a suspect. Some trainers will say no, it is not correct under any circumstances, I have a different philosophy. I always say: Where you send your dog, you also go! That is true not only with water work but also with work in high places, on stairs, in basements, on rooftops or whatever. So when you decide to send your dog into the water, you go with him and together you apprehend the suspect! It’s essential that you realize that it is the combination of handler and dog that makes the arrest, not the dog by himself. The dog by himself is very vulnerable in such situations, and as the handler you are responsible for his safety. So to say “you should never send your dog into the water” is too easy. It depends on the situation (how deep is the water, do you have back-up cops, etc.) and the experience and skills of the handler/dog team. 16 Police K-9 Magazine

Don't be afraid to decide not to do it! Training in water is your decision and yours alone. But using water scenarios for training (and fun!) is always a good idea in my opinion. Doug Roller replies: I think training a canine to go into the water is a good thing. Having a confident canine that can work through unusual environments is always good. Canines that have an aversion to water can fail you during field encounters. I am sure one question will be: “What if I send my dog into the water and the suspect tries to drown my canine and then I have to help him?”

First, as the K-9 handler, you are the brains of the outfit. Presuming you have control over your canine partner, it will be up to you to send him into any unusual environment. If a scenario develops such that it just does not make sense to send your dog in, then don’t. If you have a suspect who jumps into deep water, my question would be, do I need to send my canine after him? Can he get away and is there any officer or public safety issue I have to be concerned with? If not, then leave the suspect in the water, and order him out. If time is on your side, then what’s the rush? However, if your suspect is running JULY/AUGUST 2011

Ron Cloward responds: I train for water deployments with my unit. I do it for the environmental exposure, but in the field, I would seldom recommend it. If a situation arises for which you need to deploy your dog,

JULY/AUGUST 2011

keep in mind the depth of the water, the current, the demeanor of the suspect, and what other options you have. If the water is deep enough to drown the dog easily then it is probably not a viable option. One could reason that water only inches deep is deep enough to drown a dog. They are probably right, but could there be reasons why you would still deploy, are there things you could consider using to assist your dog in that deployment. There could always be a serious enough reason to deploy a dog in water. If you decide to use a dog I would suggest a long line with enough cops to help reel in the bad guy and the dog. This is one of the only ways I would consider the use of the dog in the situation where the water is deep or the current is strong. Any other use could place the dog in a life-threatening position. If the bad guy starts to drown your dog, are you going to watch? No matter what you do, you may still get wet. The deployment in water and training the environment are two very different things. If you are ever faced with an actual deployment, consider alternatives first and then do it the right way. The dog has done his part by locating. Now it is time for you

to do your part and capture at low risk to all involved, including the dog. Wendell Nope replies: I don't believe this to be a bad or unproductive "training" practice, but I am hesitant to advocate actually deploying a patrol dog in water deeper than where the dog can still stand on all four legs. Not only is the risk of the perpetrator drowning the K-9 is real, but also, even if the K-9 not drowned but only gets water in its lungs, it can be a genuine health risk. It is beneficial, however, to train a K-9 to swim across a stream in the case the perpetrator crosses a stream and continues fleeing. Jack Robicheaux replies: Although I think water training is good exposure for the dog, I would never deploy a dog on a water apprehension. It would not take much water for a suspect to drown a dog. At that point you would have a dead dog and still have the same situation to deal with. This should become a tactical situation. Ron Gunton responds: This is something I have never understood. Why would we send a dog into water that is over his head to engage a suspect? We are putting the dog at an extreme disadvantage in that he can no longer use his feet as leverage against the suspect, who is now in a position of tactical advantage from which he can drown the dog. Treat this as what it is: a contained suspect. Set up a perimeter (now this is good use of K-9) and talk him out. It may be even more to our advantage if the suspect is hiding in water frequented by alligators. As a "fun" activity on a hot training day, I have no issue with it, but when it comes to incorporating water with apprehension work, I think time is better spent training the dog to defeat a garden hose brandished by a suspect. Police K-9 Magazine

17


QA training perspectives &

n Left: Some of the things I would do in training would be to leave your dog on the bite for longer and longer periods of time. n Below: He bites okay when I am about four feet or more away from him, but as I get closer his bite gets “chewy” and he becomes somewhat frantic.

Q

How can I help my dog overcome his high degree of handler sensitivity? I work a three-year-old Malinois. I have had him since he was about one year old. He has been a very easy dog to train and has required very little compulsion for anything. We had almost no trouble teaching him a release command. Yet he still shows a very high degree of handler sensitivity. He bites okay when I am about four feet or more away from him, but as I get closer his bite gets “chewy” and he becomes somewhat frantic. I would like to get close to him and pet him to calm him down, but after months of me trying this, he has not gotten any better. Any ideas?

18 Police K-9 Magazine

PHOTOGRAPHS: WENDELL NOPE

A

Brad Smith replies: Humans, like dogs, are creatures of habit and a product of their environment. One of the first things we as humans have been conditioned to do when we get up in the morning is to find our “caffeine fix.” Some people drink coffee while others prefer energy drinks. In training, we are creatures of habit as well. Dogs are no different. During training, most dogs are probably not on a bite for more than five to 15 seconds. Over time the dog gets used to only biting a decoy/suspect for 10-15 seconds, and then the dog becomes nervous and his bite becomes worse and worse. Some dogs have a clock in their head or through conditioning and repetition they know when the out is coming and they have a tendency to get chewy and frantic. It sounds to me

like your dog is anticipating the out command as you get closer and closer. That would lead me to believe you have done most of your outing as soon as you get close to your dog. I would also hazard a guess that you are probably in the same area or in close proximity to the dog each time you out him. So your dog anticipates the out command coming after a certain timeframe and when you arrive at a certain position. I've even seen some dogs “self out” after a short time on a bite and go looking for the handler because they thought they missed the out command and don't want to be punished for not outing. Some of the things I would do in training would be to leave your dog on the bite for longer and longer periods of time and start outing him from a distance and in different positions JULY/AUGUST 2011


QA training perspectives

He must recognize you as part of the team… not as someone who is going to correct him.

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n Above: Have your decoy provide very little stimulation. Use the same motions and soothing verbal communication to calm your dog.

instead of in close quarters. In training, I’ve had my dog on bite for as long as 20 minutes. It has taken several weeks to get to this timeframe, but the dog learns that it's okay to bite for that long and not to get chewy or frantic whenever the handler comes around. Changing your outing routine and keeping him on the bite longer and longer will hopefully change the issues you have. Some other things you can try as you are building up the longer bite include walking up to your dog as he is biting and then walking away without giving him an out command. Eventually you may walk up to him five or six times over a three- to fiveminute time period without ever giving him an out command. Some of your issues may also be with your decoy. I know we tell the decoy to “stand still” or “stop fighting my dog.” But let’s face it, in real life, how many times has a suspect stood still or stopped fighting with your dog when told to and stood perfectly 20 Police K-9 Magazine

still like a decoy does? So why do we do that in training? Through conditioning, the decoy also anticipates the out command as you get closer and closer so the decoy stops fighting the dog. Through further conditioning, your dog learns that whenever the decoy stops fighting, the out command is near. I would have the decoy fight more with the dog, so the dog is more worried about fighting with the decoy instead of worrying about you and when the out command is coming. I would also have the decoy continue to fight with the dog even though you are giving your dog the out command. This is more “real life” training for both you and your dog. Michael Colton replies: Tough question without more background on the dog. I would be comfortable saying it appears that something in this dog’s past training, either before or since you acquired him, has imprinted this unwanted negative association during the handler approach.

Unfortunately, problems like this are not created overnight, so the fix takes time as well. I often see this type of avoidance behavior associated with a relationship issue – i.e., conflict – between dog and handler. The first thing I would consider is analyzing your relationship with your dog. Does your dog want to be next to you? Is he truly comfortable turning his back on a decoy and returning to you without spinning back and being clearly more interested in the decoy? Does he recall to you and disregard the decoy, showing you all of his attention? Are you more valuable to him than the decoy? If you are questioning that, I would get back to basics. Positive reinforcement, obedience training, tug rewards for the release and recalls, properly timed and appropriate levels of praise, and quick, concise verbal corrections all help establish a relationship based on trust and respect. Limit your emotional responses to inappropriate behaviors. In other words, try to ensure your dog is not put into a state of anxiety by your presence alone. Once the dog is more comfortable with you, then you can begin working up to your dog when he is in drive. Start while he is in guard behavior. While he is fired up on a decoy, step in and pet him “nose to toes,” starting just behind the head and moving down the back in slow, soothing strokes. Get in tight with him and let him feel you there. Make sure he knows your being there is okay. Move in and out, from both sides, stroking him on each side. Once he appears much less concerned about your presence, add short bites. Have your decoy provide very little stimulation. Use the same motions and soothing verbal communication to calm your dog. Make sure to move in and out smoothly, no sudden movements that can be interpreted as an impending hard correction. And don’t let the dog maJULY/AUGUST 2011

nipulate the decoy to move away from you. He must learn that you are on his side and not part of the conflict. It is important that you avoid outing your dog from this position for a while. Distance outs are more practical and tactical anyway, so work on those. Your dog has likely come to realize that your presence while he is on the bite means one thing: he’s about to lose the fight. He’s about to be forced to let go of a still standing, threatening decoy. When you out the dog and have him under control, have the dog “drive” the decoy away. Let him know you and he defeated the adversary together, as a pack. Then when he shifts from the decoy back to you, reward him with a tug and go spend some quality dog time with him. Don’t be in a rush to throw him back in the patrol car. Teach him that being by your side is a safe, comfortable place to be. When I refer to quality dog time, I mean run off the field holding one end of the tug while he carries the other. This is like two wolves carrying a deer leg back to the den to share with the pack. It is pack building and comforting for him. When you get away from the field, play a little tug with him. Let him carry the tug proudly, hike his leg on the nearest fixed object like the apex predator he is, then download him. By this I mean calm him down under a shade tree and sit with him. Take five or ten minutes of dedicated dog time with your partner. Don’t be in a hurry to throw him back into solitary confinement. All of this helps make being next to you comforting and rewarding, not part of the conflict.

First off, he is certainly old enough to be out of the adolescent stage of life. He should be on his way to being a solid police service dog. I’m not sure what you did during his younger years but sometimes handlers and trainers make the mistake of rearing a young canine as an adult and not a puppy. A canine that is a year old generally is simply young and is still developing not only physically but more importantly, mentally. He is like a young kid who needs support, confidence, and trust from you.

Many trainers put too much pressure on the young canine and start employing control at the expense of allowing the canine to harden up. Sometimes this imprinted behavior is hard to extinguish and you have a handler-sensitive canine. Depending on his particular predisposition, this may be hard to break. There are certainly things you can work on and you may have already tried some. These are some of the things I might try. Go back to the basics and drop the control you have placed on him. Also you

Doug Roller replies: These kinds of questions are sometimes hard to answer. Not being able to observe the canine and not knowing what you are doing or have done to correct the problem leaves me at a disadvantage. I will try to give you some ideas. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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Remember that if all you do is go in and pet and then step away for the release, you are enhancing your problem.

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PHOTOGRAPHS: WENDELL NOPE

must have a solid decoy, one that can read your canine and manipulate his behavior as needed. Working the canine in prey drive is probably needed. Try placing the canine on a leather collar, with no correction off the bite (choking off the bite for now). Remember, if he has been choppy on the bite for some time now, you will have to reestablish the correct bite (when you are in close proximity). Either stake him out or you, the handler, can anchor him off during bite work on a leather collar and sixfoot leash. Go back to the sleeve (unless of course this is what you already use), have the decoy agitate, and place the bite squarely in the middle of the sleeve. As soon as the bite is placed full and centered, pull the canine back solid into the bite while the decoy pulls back the other way (locking out the bite). You probably have tried some semblance of this but timing and proper decoy work is essential here. Gauge his bite from a one to a ten (10 being highest); when the bite is at a 10 or as close as you can get it, solid and firm, have the decoy release the sleeve as a reward for your canine. Have the decoy ready with another sleeve for another bite, mimicking the process. If necessary, quickly choke your dog off the sleeve for the next session, with as little compulsion as possible. Remember, this is a relationship-building session, not a correction session. You must continue this for some time — numerous sessions each and every day until this new behavior is locked in. Your relationship with your canine during this time is also crucial; you must praise and build him up. He must recognize you as part of the team during this process, not as someone who is going to correct him. Once 22 Police K-9 Magazine

n Left: Your decoy also needs to be aware of stress building up in the dog, whether it's before you get there or once you've moved in close. n Below: You will have to reestablish the correct bite (when you are in close proximity). Either stake him out or you, the handler, can anchor him off during bite work on a leather collar and sixfoot leash.

You could also consider outing the dog to another bite. The exercise could be run several times to help eliminate the stress. Then try outing him to a favorite toy and let the dog carry the toy back to the crate. This will also help with some of the anxiety the dog is experiencing. Remember that if all you do is go in and pet and then step away for the release, you are enhancing your problem. The dog will continue to become stressed at the idea of losing this reward, or bite. It is your job to remove that stress and give the dog some kind of hope after the release. I am curious, though, why you want to be so close for the release. If

this is the only time the dog exhibits this behavior, why not stay away? If there are any reasons why you need to be close, then fix the problem. Mary Davis answers: This dog sounds like he is in conflict with you despite the fact that you have used very little compulsion. I would suggest two things: first, think about grounding your decoy. Get him in a bite suit and after the hit, immediately take him to the ground. Maintain back-pressure on the lead and encourage your dog verbally as you approach. I believe his confidence will improve when he feels that he has conquered his prey and that you

are an active participant in the fight. Secondly, I would do a few strikes on a bite bar sleeve that can be easily slipped. Let the dog win the sleeve and have a second line attached to it that the decoy can control. See if the dog improves in his grip stability as you approach. Remember to keep steady back-pressure on your long line and have the decoy maintain tension on the sleeve line. I would also be inclined to evaluate your dog’s stability and confidence away from the issue of your proximity. If his insecurity about biting is triggered by other things, perhaps the issue has little to do with you or your training.

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his bite is built back up again, then start bringing control back into your sessions and balance him out. Hopefully this advice helps. Ron Cloward responds: You are not alone in having this problem, and most of the time we handlers create it. I think you are on the right track to fixing the problem, but while trying to fix it, are you reinforcing the problem as well? If you move in on the dog and pet him, does it follow with the out, or

tactical out? If the out follows, the anxiety found in the dog is due to the continued loss of his greatest reward, which is the bite. You continue to take it away, so he continues to stress over the inevitable loss. I would try several things along with what you are already doing. I would continue moving in and petting the dog, but then step away for a few seconds and come back and pet him some more. When you do decide to out the dog, make sure you have moved away. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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QA training perspectives &

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Q

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Please help me fix a problem I’m having in getting my dog to indicate during searches. I have a three-year-old, male, intact Belgian Malinois. We have been out of Basic Handler School for six months. During training, my dog will show a slight change of behavior, but will not indicate (sit) without being told to do so. Also, if I don’t catch the alert, he will keep walking past the find. How can I solve this?

A

Wendell Nope replies: Generally, when a passively indicating K-9 does not indicate quickly after finding odor, it is because the K-9 doesn't feel motivated from within to do so. Perhaps the hunt for drug odors has become boring or the K-9 just doesn't perceive enough drive satisfaction to induce it to quickly indicate. Here is one way of remediating the problem. Cause the K-9 to think it is hunting for a form of "prey" that will provide lots of excitement and drive satisfaction when it is found. In the K-9's mind, turn the drug odor(s) into a new form of prey. Begin by doing what you're already doing, and give a “sit” command when the K-9 gives an alert. Once the K-9 is in a sit, have another person make the drug odor come alive in the form of a toy that makes its way out of the "hiding spot" where the drug odor is emanating from. See photo #1; imagine you have given the "sit" command. In photo #2, the prey (toy) begins to exit from the hiding spot. The K-9 notices this and suddenly his attention begins to focus on this new action. Gently maintain the sit posture as the "rabbit" comes out of its hole in front of the dog. In photo #3, the rabbit is about to "run" out of 24 Police K-9 Magazine

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n Left to Right: the same procedure with a different K-9 in a different location.

www.policek9magazine.com its hole via the helper tossing it out. In photo #4, the rabbit has jumped out of its hole (was tossed out) and the handler plays tug-of-war with the toy and gives the K-9 some exciting drive satisfaction. The next series of photos show the same procedure with a different K-9 in a different location. The photos show the same sequence. First the K-9 makes the find, and then it either sits on its own or via verbal command. It maintains the sit while the rabbit comes out of the hole via the helper) and is tossed to the K-9. In this particular training session, a line is attached to the rabbit and some serious tug-of-war occurs such that it simulates the rabbit trying to go back into the hole. This Labrador Retriever struggled strenuously every time the line pulled back the toy close to the hole. You may notice that this lovable Lab even uses its front paws to try to hang onto the rabbit at the end of the training session. All you are doing here is imitating nature; this concept is commonly called "rabbit in the hole" and can be used for any type of passively indicating detector dog. 26 Police K-9 Magazine

Should you choose to use this procedure, here are a couple of important issues. First, when the K-9 makes the first find of the training session, there should be only pure odor in the hiding spot — no toy. The toy is brought to the hole by the helper once the K-9 is indicating, via a "magic trick." The dog should not see the toy go into position. Second, gently enforce the "sit" such that the K-9 gets the impression that the more quickly it indicates, the faster the rabbit will come out of the hole. If it breaks the sit, the rabbit goes back into the hole. It will only come out when the K-9 is sitting and waiting. Third, you can use this procedure for repetitive "indication drills" in which the rabbit goes back into its hole after a release command or a liftoff and the K-9 is allowed to go to the spot a second (or third or fourth, etc.) time and indicate (wait for the rabbit to come out). This procedure has been highly successful in causing a K-9 to think that when it finds odor it should quickly "sit" and stare at the source of odor and wait for the rabbit to come out. When this happens in a

real deployment, you may just see the K-9 on the car-cam sniffing along and then sit quickly, staring at the spot where the odor is exiting the vehicle. It is a beautiful thing to see! Ken Pavlick responds: I am going to guess that you are talking about a dog that only gives a slight change in behavior, and fails to indicate, in detection work. Your question does not say. So, based on that, I would recommend you review how your dog was imprinted on odor for detection work. If the dog is only giving you a “slight” change in behavior when he encounters odor, and no final response or indication, that would tend to show that the dog was not properly imprinted and fails to understand what you are asking of him. Go back and ensure that the dog understands that odor equals reward. Then, when that connection has been made with your dog, add to the equation for the dog that the process is now odor, indication, reward. Or, as it is more commonly known, stimulus (odor) – response (sit) – reward (toy). Once this chaining is clear in JULY/AUGUST 2011

your dog’s head, you can move forward to searching rooms. Michael Colton replies: This is one of the observations I’ve made through the years that led me to rethink how I teach detection. I now imprint search behavior, then final response, adding odor last. About the only thing you can do is to go back to basics and be exceptionally patient. Also remember that training a dog is not a spectator sport. I see many handlers hold the leash and watch as their K-9 works odor, only to stand in silence and frustration when he walks away. Encourage him during training. Remind him of what he needs to do, but withhold excess stimulation. Once he sits, gradually increase the amount of time he needs to maintain the position before being rewarded. There are many devices out there that help hold a dog’s focus until the delivery of the toy: hide-and-seek boxes, BSDs, and the Herstik Wall, just to name a few. I use all of these and each has its place. Police K-9 Magazine had a good article on the construction and use of the Herstik JULY/AUGUST 2011

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Nationa at al Police Canine Assoc. ationa

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Wall about two years ago (see “Training Detection Dogs Using the Herstik Wall,” May/June 2009, page 30). Just remember to be patient and positive. Your dog has to want to be a detection dog. Find what motivates him to search. That will help create the willingness to work. Without the willingness to work, the final indication can be difficult. I’m curious how the dog does in other areas of work — how is he with the toy? Overstimulated? Understimulated? Assuming the dog’s desire to work is adequate and that he covets the toy as most working dogs do, I would offer that he needs more repetition in basic sniff, sit, reward exercises. If the devices described above are not available, try a row of mailboxes or lockers that are at the right height to induce a sit, just above the dog’s head. As the dog approaches and investigates odor, encourage the sit, then praise and reward. Start out light at first, seeking quality over quantity. I’d rather see 30 sessions of one rep each than three sessions of 10. Make each one positive but keep the dog interested and focused. Some dogs handle the stress of high reps well, but most don’t. They can get bored and disinterested. If one rep goes well, praise and reward the dog, and end it there for now. This is a tough problem to fix and it should have been caught in basic handler school. Just be patient, anticipate when your dog is in odor, time your encouragement and praise well, and then make sure the reward is of value to the dog. If the problem is more prevalent in one area, such as with cars, consider what might be an underlying cause. Did the dog have a bad encounter with hot exterior/interior, hot asphalt, etc.? Or is this an over28 Police K-9 Magazine

National Natio on Seminar Bea eaum mont, Te Texass Oct 9-14, Oc 14, 2011 n Left: Proper leash control as seen here is important when problem solving a dog leaving odor.

all issue, regardless of the environment? All of these issues need to be considered when determining a training plan to address this issue. Rob Lukason responds: There are a couple things I could recommend, but without seeing the behavior first-hand I can’t give you one specific answer, so I’ll “shotgun” an answer to you. • Does the canine walk the odor because the handler is “heavy” on the leash? Or is the handler giving too much obedience? • Is this handler “in love” with his dog? Too much “pet-like” attention to his partner could create some handler dependency issues, resulting in walking odor; the dog would rather go with Daddy than stay on a find. • Did the dog have a solid sit indication before you noticed this problem? • Look at the amount of narcotics used when this behavior is noticed, just to rule out any threshold issues.

• At the time, were you using your normal/regular training narcotics? There may be issues with the dope itself. That being said, the problem of the dog “just” walking trained odor can be addressed in a few ways. As the dog alerts and “walks” a known find, try the following:

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• Visible toy at source of odor If the canine is line-sensitive and walking odor because of his “heavyhanded” handler: • Perform searches using the OffLeash Narrow Alley technique. Place JULY/AUGUST 2011

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His OtherBest Friend! the dog in a narrow alley and work him off leash so there is no leash to accidentally correct the dog. • Third-party leash hand: utilize a third party to control the leash so that the canine doesn’t feel any tension on the line.

• Work canine in harness. If the problem is neck sensitivity, the canine will feel no neck pressure and if it is simple line sensitivity, this will help disperse the pressure. Ron Cloward replies: When moving forward in our training, we

sometimes have to move backward. What I mean by that is you may have to take the dog way back to either the box or the wall. I do not know how the dog was trained or where the training was started, but what I do know from your question is that there is a focus problem.

trainers in this issue Ron Cloward is a lieutenant with

the Modesto (CA) Police Department. He has been a police officer for 24 years and a handler/trainer for 21 years, and is responsible for a 14-dog unit including two sergeants. He also is president of the Western States Police Canine Association. Contact him at cloward@modestopd.com. Michael Colton has been in law

enforcement since 1987 and has worked with police service dogs since 1996. He has instructed, lectured, and evaluated K-9 teams, both nationally and internationally, in all law-enforcement disciplines. He is a State of Florida-certified K-9 team trainer, an NPCA instructor and evaluator, and is certified by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives as an explosives detection K-9 team evaluator. He is also the director of training at Treasure Coast Canine Services. Contact him at info@tcK-9.com. Mary Davis is the head trainer for

the Montgomery County (MD) Police Canine Unit, with a 20-dog complement. Mary has handled four patrol/narcotics dogs during her 20 years in K-9. She has been

30 Police K-9 Magazine

a member of USPCA since 1991 and is certified as both a Level II Trainer and as patrol, tracking, and detector judge. Contact her at kninercop@comcast.net. Ron Gunton has worked for the Mentor (OH) Police Department for more than 22 years. He has been a K-9 handler/trainer for more than 12 years and works a patrol/narcotics K-9 also trained for SWAT applications. Ron is an accredited master trainer of Utility/Patrol & Narcotics Detection with NAPWDA and a canine evaluator for the State of Ohio. Contact him at thunderzone@ oh.rr.com. Rob Lukason is a training opera-

tions supervisor with the U.S. Border Patrol’s National Canine Facility in El Paso, Texas. Contact him at bpaluke@yahoo.com. Wendell Nope is the director of the Utah POST service dog program and the only certified teaching judge in the United States. Contact him at wendellnope@ sisna.com. Ken Pavlick operates Pacific

Coast K-9 in Washington State. He is a former police officer with

25 years experience working, training, and supervising patrol, explosive, narcotics, and SAR dogs. Contact him at ken@ pacificcoastK-9.com. Jack Robicheaux is the owner and director of training for K-9 Concepts, Inc., in Broussard, Louisiana, and has trained dogs for more than 30 years. Contact him at k9concept@aol.com. Doug Roller is a sergeant and

chief trainer for the Los Angeles Police Department’s K-9 Platoon. Contact him at offleashtrainer@ aol.com. Brad Smith is a police officer with the West Covina (CA) Police Department. He has been a SWAT dog handler for 18 years, specializing in field tactics and officer safety. Contact him at topdogwck1@aol.com. Dick van Leenen is a lieutenant

with the Netherlands’ National Police Agency’s (KLPD) K-9 Unit, located in the town of Nunspeet in Holland. He also heads the National Bureau of K-9 Certification and Quality Control, which means that he is responsible for all Dutch PSDs being certified.

JULY/AUGUST 2011

I also think you need to have someone videotape your dog doing a search to help you find the hidden indicators that you are missing. You mentioned “sit” and “indicate” as if they meant the same thing. They don’t! The dog will indicate odor in many different ways. The indication may come in the form of a head turn, a tail drop, or a breathing change. So I guess what I am telling you is to stop looking for the sit as an indicator and start looking for the indicator. The sit is nothing more than the solid finish to the presence of the odor. This is the finish you desire in your training, but it is not the indication. If you used the BSD boxes then you might want to take a brief journey back to the boxes — notice the emphasis on “brief.” You should not stay on the boxes for a long time. The next step is to use the wall, placing the aids in a position that is nose-high so the dog hits it very easily, and the sit comes easily due to the dog’s position. The most important thing here is that with the aids at the nose height, you are sure to see the indicator and then you can train the sit. The wall will help with focus and the focus will help bring about the indicator, which will help you develop the sit. Then do some real scenario-based searches with the odors again hidden at nose height. I would have someone videotape these trainings too, and again, watch for the indicators you have been missing. When you learn the indicators, the sit can be trained better, and the finish will follow. Always remember to take each problem and break it down into phases. The first phase is the odor recognition. The second is learning the indicators. In your case, the third phase is the finish, which is the sit. n JULY/AUGUST 2011

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PHOTOGRAPHS: ROGER CANADY

in my opinion

Core Components for Successful Detection Teams Drug detection K-9 teams require administrative support, and handlers need to know how to stay out of their dog’s way — and their own. By Mike Johnson his article will identify and address a few of the core components that are essential in producing successful narcotics detection teams. Understanding and applying this information will assist a detection team in achieving and maintaining a high level of working proficiency as a result of the sound fundamentals the team has acquired through training.

T

n Above: Law enforcement has available many resources from which to acquire high-caliber canines capable of meeting the requirements for a narcotics detection role. n Left: It is essential that departments adhere to ongoing maintenance training by the canine unit.

Success Starts with the Brass Often not considered, but vital to the success or failure of a narcotics detection team, is administrative support. It is essential that the team receive support from the top echelon of the department to be effective as a unit. This includes educational, motivational, and operating budget support. This support should extend down to the shift supervisor level under which the team may be assigned. Law-enforcement administrators implementing canine programs should understand that canine units cost money and need time to achieve the desired results. Teams that are given opportunities to attend training seminars, workshops, and specialized 32 Police K-9 Magazine

schools will gain immense knowledge and skills that will improve their performance, both in training and on the street. The administration should also conduct periodic reviews of the unit in order to evaluate the unit’s performance, identify problems, and take corrective action. In addition, written training records should be reviewed to assess the team’s training activities, problems it has encountered, and what corrective measures were taken. It is also important for administrators to review cases in

which the narcotics detection team has been utilized, to check the team’s adherence to departmental canine standard operating procedures and anticipate any possible court challenges.

Selecting the Team To set the record straight, great dogs do not, by themselves, make great teams. Great teams consist of a dog and a handler working together towards a common objective. Law enforcement has available many resources from which to acquire high-caliber canines JULY/AUGUST 2011

The superior choice capable of meeting the requirements for a narcotics detection role. The problem that is most often overlooked is not with canine selection, but with handler selection. Poorly selected handlers who do not possess the diversified skills and abilities required of a law-enforcement canine officer can — and often do — destroy the working abilities and potentials of high-caliber police service dogs. The process of selecting the most qualified officer as a canine handler should be one that assesses and scrutinizes many qualities the candidate should possess. These criteria should include the officer’s experience on the street, an attitude of “team player” rather than “Lone Ranger,” a minimal history of disciplinary action, report writing skills, a desire and commitment to accept all responsibilities of the job, openness to constructive criticism and new ideas, and family support (if the candidate is married) for the time demands of the position.

Adherence to Training Schedules To diminish departmental liability, it is essential that departments adhere to ongoing maintenance training by the canine unit. Federal statutes are in effect that allow civil action to be initiated against those agencies that fail to comply with maintenance training requirements. “Liability for Failure to Train” falls under the Federal Civil Rights Statute, 42. U.S.C. Section 1983. Departments that maintain and utilize their departmental canine units but fail to train or fail to maintain and provide written documentation of a unit’s training can be penalized under this statute. It is imperative that canine units conduct ongoing maintenance training and complete written documentation of all training activities conducted. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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www.prolaunchllc.com Common Handler Mistakes More often than not, many of the problems arising with detection teams are due to handler mistakes rather than canine errors. Unfortunately, it is often the canine that gets the blame for frustrating problems that the handler begins to experience both on the street and during training. To avoid writing a novel on this specific subject, I will address a few of the common mistakes that handlers make without having a clue as to why the problems they are encountering continue to occur.

First, it is crucial to have different training areas that are specific to the type of training that will be conducted. Many handlers tend to return to the same location time after time to conduct their training; the downfall of this is that it begins to condition the canine to that training location. The canine may excel as it begins to recall each area it has searched and may look like a robot. However, in real-life situations when a search is conducted in a different structure — for example, the canine has only trained in a mobile home and a real-life search needs to Police K-9 Magazine

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in my opinion be conducted in a hotel room — the canine may be confused in this new environment and may not display the expected intensity or drive in its searching. It is important to expose your canine to as many training locations as possible to reduce the potential for conditioning. A second area where mistakes can occur is which standards are being utilized for training. It is important to use current (fresh) substances and to periodically destroy outdated material so it is not used inadvertently. My personal opinion is that pseudo narcotics substances should not be used during training, as they have been shown to break down over time. I prefer to use Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)issued controlled substances, which are rotated out for destruction on a periodic basis. PHOTOGRAPHS: ROGER CANADY

n This support should extend down to the shift supervisor level under which the team may be assigned.

34 Police K-9 Magazine

and 10 minutes of set time for the following session. Our goal is to train the canine to indicate on the desired narcotic odor and go to its source location regardless of how long the source of narcotic odor has been in position. The third handler mistake that I will address in this article pertains to distractions caused by the handler during the search. These distractions can and do negatively affect the canine’s ability to search. n Above: Our goal is to train the canine to indicate on the desired narcotic odor and go to its source location regardless of how long the source of narcotic odor has been in position.

It is important to vary the amount of the substances on which the team trains during each session. In addition, make sure that the same individual is not always hiding the training substances, so the dog does not begin to associate a particular individual’s scent with the alert on a narcotics substance; that association could cause the dog to alert even when the substance is not actually present. It is also recommended that various types of containers composed of different composites (such as PVC, cloth, glass, tin, metal, cardboard, plastic, etc.) be used for the training. At all costs, avoid using duct tape on a consistent basis to conceal hides on fixtures. Over time, the canine will begin associating the smell of duct tape with narcotics even when the odor of narcotics is not present. I have proven this time and time again to my students, who learned hard lessons with this material. Another important point is to ensure that for each training session you have a different set time (the period in which odor is allowed to disseminate) prior to starting the training. For example, allow 20 minutes of set time for one session, a 30minute set time for the next session,

Common handler-caused distractions include: • poor leash control • over-presenting • blocking or crowding the canine’s search area • excessive talking to the canine during the search • getting frustrated with the canine • excessive looking at the canine • failure to maintain a good working pattern • failure to maintain a good working speed • poor reward techniques • not praising the dog enough on locating a concealment • placing hands near the reward during the search • not trusting the dog’s alert • inability to read the dog’s changes of behavior The list goes on, but this subject will be addressed in more detail in future articles. The important point is to avoid getting tunnel vision during the training process. Keep mental notes of what are you doing and what is the canine doing — or not doing — that may be a direct effect of your bad training habits. n Mike Johnson has been a K-9 handler and trainer with the Bedford (IN) Police Department for 21 years. He is the national president of the American Police Canine Association (APCA) and an APCAcertified Master Trainer. Contact him at Michael_Johnson_824@comcast.net. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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I

’ve been watching K-9 handlers work with their police dogs at ranges for over 10 years, both with other K-9 handlers and as part of our K-9 integration training with tactical teams (SWAT). I’m sad to report that I am often disappointed in the lack of control I see. It becomes obvious rather quickly who regularly trains with their dog around gunfire and who does not. I have also been surprised to see many experienced handlers who have been working with their dog for a year or two, but have neither introduced their dog to gunfire nor trained for a proper response to a gunfight. Yet, these same handlers have carried a firearm during this time and could have possibly engaged in a gunfight with an armed suspect in the presence of their unrestrained police dog. Why would a handler, trainer or supervisor not prioritize and address this potential deficiency? Do you know how your dog will react to gunfire? Is he trained to be gunfire-neutral? Is he trained to bite someone when gunfire erupts? Are you intentionally avoiding training around gunfire with your dog because you lack confidence and control? How will you react with your dog during a gunfight?

Down! Draw! Shoot!

Handler + Dog = Team As I have mentioned recently in my classes, I believe the biggest problem with police dog training today is that the majority of the time is spent on improving the performance of the dog instead of sharpening the performance of the K-9 team — both handler and dog. We are not mentally challenging our handlers enough to prevail in crisis situations and some handlers often rely too heavily on their dog to save the day.

Conditioning the K-9 Team for a Gunfight by Sergeant Bill Lewis II Photos by Doug Tomkiel

Handlers who put off training their dogs how to behave around gunfire are endangering themselves, their dogs and possibly other officers.

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continues

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officers also may be engaged in a gunfight down range. “As the dog is running toward the objective” is not the time for his handler to wonder whether the dog’s objective is “the suspect” or merely “the person who is shooting.” For many trainers and K-9 decision makers, the “gunfire equals bite” approach to training is considered a test of the dog’s courage during a pursuit. Some will argue that the dog must be trained to pursue in the face of gunfire (if so commanded) so that an armed suspect does not escape. However, other distraction-type noises can be rotated with occasional gunfire in training so that gunfire alone does not predicate a single response without a command. Air horns make excellent distractions in training and are very loud. It is the verbal command from the handler that should determine the appropriate response, not a sharp-sounding noise from a firearm. We have patrol certifications that include decoy runaways where they shoot as they flee and the dogs are sent to apprehend. We have K-9 trials and competitions that will often do the same. It is exciting for the spectators to watch the dog in hot pursuit of the fleeing bad guy who is shooting a gun and then see the dog leap for the apprehension. So, if this “suspect shooting situation”

does not occur routinely or regularly, I believe it’s good “training” if the gunfire is a distraction rather than the primary catalyst for a response. For most of our police dogs, pursuit of a fleeing suspect is not usually a problem when there is proper target acquisition — gunfire distractions or not.

Beginning Range Training Our introduction to gunfire at a range for the K-9 team will not initially revolve around the handler shooting or target accuracy. Obedience and control of the dog are the foundations of our introduction to gunfire. If your dog is not obedient and lacks control before he arrives at the range, both you and your dog will have a difficult and stressful transition in the presence of gunfire. In preparing our dogs, we should perform obedience exercises within earshot of a controlled range with intermittent gunfire, coupled with firm commands from the handler and compliance by the dog. As we achieve success, we will gradually work our way closer to the source of the gunfire. It is not recommended to begin by introducing the dog to gunfire at a normal patrol range,

Global Training Academy n The K-9 handler must quickly prioritize and demand control of the dog to allow the handler to concentrate on accuracy.

If K-9 handlers are not properly conditioning themselves and their dogs for a gunfight, they will be surprised, conflicted and not ready for battle when the time comes. More importantly, if caught unprepared, a handler is less likely to be accurate in returning fire. His dog should be the last thing on the handler’s mind when he draws his weapon to engage a suspect who is armed or believed to be armed during a life-and-death situation. The handler must first have the proper mindset and be trained in tactical decision making before he prepares for battle with his dog. It appears there are two schools of initial training to prepare a dog for gunfire: neutral and pursuit for apprehension (“gunfire equals bite”). The “neutral” method

40 Police K-9 Magazine

trains the dog to disregard the gunfire and remain static, regardless of who is shooting, be it the handler, the backup officers, or the suspect. When the team trains with the neutral method, the dog will not think “bite” and will not ready himself for an apprehension when he hears gunfire. On the other hand, dogs that are trained and conditioned that “gunfire equals bite” will begin to seek a bite opportunity when gunfire erupts, regardless of the source of that gunfire. Typically, in pursuit training involving gunfire, a decoy will appear at a distance; he will be shooting and running and we will command our dog to apprehend him. However, the potential for disaster occurs in the real world as uniformed or plainclothes

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but exposing him to such a setting is highly recommended for ongoing training. The introduction should occur during the basic handler school with the K-9 trainer. During training at a patrol range, I’ve watched handlers shoot live rounds into and over berms and miss silhouette targets, often not looking down range, as they fire one-handed while attempting to handle a leash and deal with their stressed dog. I’ve watched guns pointed backward and upward as handlers struggled to control their uncontrollable dogs before and during gunfire. These unsafe actions, improper shooting stances and inaccuracies may be tolerated somewhat during the introductory stages of the training, but not without strict admonishments and warnings afterward. The K-9 handler must make control his top priority, as achieving control of the dog will allow the handler to concentrate on accuracy in shooting. Trainers and supervisors do not want handlers to have concerns about where the dog is or what the dog is doing or will do when a deadly threat is imminent or occurs suddenly and a firearm will become part of the solution. We want our handlers to concentrate on evaluating the threat and taking appropriate action. We want and should expect accuracy.

Down, Draw, Shoot Our handlers must be trained to give a quick and firm command (“Down!”) with confidence that the dog will respond appropriately as they now face and evaluate their adversary while they simultaneously draw their weapon and prepare to shoot. Ideally, we would like the handler to have a previously rehearsed mental picture of the scene and have a conditioned mindset ready to react with this “Down — Draw — Shoot” repertoire consisting of a verbal command and physical actions. The exact command given to the dog and the specific action (down, sit, or stay) isn’t as important as consistent compliance. The simultaneous actions of the handler following the command should be based on previous and repetitious firearms training by the handler’s agency or firearms instructor. An integral part of preparing our K-9 team on an ongoing basis to face a deadly threat involving firearms and gunfire is patrol range qualification. It is imperative that the K-9 handler be confident and accurate and that the dog is under control. More importantly, from a supervisory perspective, the K-9 supervisor 42 Police K-9 Magazine

(as the other officers) without his dog and qualify. Then, the handler should shoot the same qualification course accompanied by his dog (under control) and qualify. I also recommend that while other officers are shooting, the handler should perform some obedience exercises with the dog prior to shooting the qualification course with the dog to better prepare for success. If your K-9 supervisor or trainer is not present during range qualifications, your range masters should be “trained” in advance of a regular range and given a quick demonstration to show “control” of the dog while the handler is shooting. When asked to define control, I once said to a range master, “If the dog isn’t attacking the handler or running wildly around the range biting the range masters, it is probably under control.” I believe it is essential in regard to officer safety and potential liability that the K-9 handler qualify in

(and agency administration) must have the same confidence that the handler has qualified with accuracy and is proficient in the controlled presence of the police dog. Range qualification provides an opportunity to evaluate the K-9 team and its performance in a controlled environment. Once we have trained our K-9 team for situations involving gunfire, I recommend a mandatory twophase patrol range qualification. The handler should arrive at a range with the other officers and shoot the same scheduled patrol range qualification

the presence of the dog and not merely fire rounds down range without consequence. By insisting upon the accuracy of the shooter with simultaneous control of (and compliance by) the dog, we are conditioning our K-9 team to react appropriately during a gunfight or other critical incident involving a firearm. n

Sergeant Bill Lewis II retired from the Oxnard (CA) Police Depart ment in December 2005 after 27 years of service. He was a K-9 handler for four years, K-9 supervisor for eight years, and SWAT operator for more than 25 years, with 18 years as Team Leader. Lewis continues to teach tactics, liability, and supervision to K-9 teams, tactical operators, and police supervisors. He is an expert witness, NPCA certifying official and Board Member for the California Association of Tactical Officers (CATO). Contact him at SgtBLewis2@aol.com .

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Felony Stops

The majority of high-risk vehicle stops go off without a hitch, but K-9 teams still need to train for suspect noncompliance.

By Ron Gunton Photos: AceK9.com

t

he situation goes by several names, including high-risk stop and felony stop, among others. The common thread is that it takes our game up a notch. For some officers, it is almost a daily occurrence and becomes second nature. For others, it is a rarity and can leave some officers confused and not knowing how to proceed. One thing for certain is that failure to plan for it, regardless of what you call it, can have deadly consequences. Throw into the mix the additional responsibility of handling a K-9 and things can get even more complicated. 44 Police K-9 Magazine

The high-risk stop can stem from numerous causes, such as a stolen vehicle hit, a warrant hit, a pursuit, or a car leaving the scene of a crime. Let’s take a moment to touch on pursuits and their conclusion or termination. Far too often, we see officers charging up to the suspect vehicle at the end of a pursuit, be it due to a crash, Pursuit Intervention Technique (PIT), or abrupt, voluntary compliance. Far too often, this action is met with a disastrous outcome. In the first two examples listed, the suspect has been stopped in cases in which he would not have otherJULY/AUGUST 2011

wise done so. Abruptly voluntary “compliance” should throw up numerous red flags. We must ask ourselves, “Okay, this guy was just doing all he could to get away from me, and now he has suddenly decided to stop for us?” I file that under “things that make you go ‘hmmm…’” We need to keep in mind that many times, a suspect who refuses to stop for an otherwise minor traffic infraction does so due to some underlying issue of which we are not aware when we first hit the lights. We must ask ourselves why someone would not comply. My experience JULY/AUGUST 2011

is that rarely does someone run just because they do not want to get a ticket. It is usually because they are impaired, under suspension, wanted, carrying contraband, or have just done something we do not even know about yet. Regardless, we must treat the fact that he is trying to evade us as a game-changer. Take Time to Assess Once we do get this person stopped, we often forget that we have time on our side. It is critical to pause for a Police K-9 Magazine

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Felony Stops can be accomplished in seconds while we are engaging in some controlled breathing techniques to bring us down a bit from the excitement generated during the pursuit. Whatever we determine, the last thing we want to do is rush up on the car and yank the suspect(s) out. Okay, check that: that is probably the first thing we want to do, but it is the last thing we can allow ourselves to do. Treat it as what it is — a controlled (more or less) situation with a contained suspect. If the suspect decides to bail and make a run for it, as K-9 officers, we have an app for that. If he decides to comply, that’s great. If he decides to shoot it out with us, we will deal with that as well. If he decides not to comply and remain in the car, we treat it as what it is — call it a barricade and get your tactical people on scene to deal with it. We will explore that more in a minute.

n As in everything related to police service dogs training is the key to successful street deployments.

K-9 Team’s Ride I have sometimes seen K-9 personnel appear to be confused as to what their role should be on a high-risk stop. For the sake of this discussion, let us assume that this is a typical (as if there is such a thing) high-risk stop. We

moment, take a breath, and determine a course of action. I would like to think that most of us have prepared ourselves mentally for this situation. However, I am sure many of you can recall that in this exact situation you have seen an officer throw caution to the wind and charge up on the suspect vehicle. I can even recall one incident in which the officer started to walk up casually without so much as unholstering his weapon, following a short pursuit of a stolen car. I would urge anyone who does not see anything wrong with that to seek another line of work. A quick assessment of the situation will tell us several things. First, what is our environment — what is 46 Police K-9 Magazine

have conducted this properly by waiting to have sufficient units (hopefully no fewer than three) present before initiating the stop. We have called for a clear channel on the radio and have selected a place to initiate the stop that best suits us. More than likely, we also have more units heading our way in addition to those on scene, as well as air support (if available). We have positioned our cars to block the road as much as possible to eliminate passing traffic and to provide us with as clear a look into the car as we can obtain without giving up cover. We have illuminated the suspect vehicle as much as possible and have given the officers on scene a moment to gear down, assess and plan. I will offer what I have found to work best for me; keep in mind that there are several ways to achieve a successful outcome. Vehicle positioning on one of these stops will be dictated somewhat by who arrives first. Typically, the initiating unit will be behind and slightly to the left of the suspect vehicle and the second unit on scene will be to the left of the first. Depending on the width of the roadway, additional units can continue blocking the road to the left or can pull up behind the first two cars. I typically prefer to line up with my dog next to the

around us? Look for cover and concealment options in case things should things turn ugly. What is our backdrop like? What are our traffic concerns? What are possible flight paths the suspect(s) might take? This JULY/AUGUST 2011

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Felony Stops chological and tactical advantage of having the dog on the side of the car from which the suspect exits.

Dealing with Multiple Occupants A common practice is to order each suspect out of the car and prone them out on the ground next to or just behind the suspect vehicle. The suspects are more or less lined up on the ground until they are all out of the car, at which time the officers approach and handcuff each one. This is something I have never understood. Again, I am not saying there is only one way to do things and this method may work for some agencies. I am just offering my opinion that we can do it better. I prefer to get the suspect out of the car, face him away and walk him back to us. This way, we are still in a position of cover and can deal with any threat presented if the suspect decides to reach for a weapon. Once we get him back to us (i.e., near the front of our car) he is ordered to his knees, secured, checked for weapons and stashed in a squad car. We repeat this for all occupants with one officer issuing commands; one securing, searching, and stashing; and the other officers focusing on the suspect vehicle. Then we can approach and clear the car for • K9 Problem Solving additional, hidden suspects. The • Off-Leash and E-collar Training entire extraction process is done without any officers venturing out • Command Post Operations into the kill zone; instead, they • K9 Search Teams remain back behind the lights near the police units and the cover and • K9 SWAT Tactics concealment they afford. I have never understood why we sometimes choose to approach the suspects to handcuff them prior to the car being deemed clear. While all of this is going on, and what can be accomplished most inexperienced dogs will focus on the officer issuing the comwith training and discipline. mands, especially if the officer is yelling to the suspects as opposed to using the PA. The reason for this is two-fold: first is the audio distraction. In the dog’s mind, the guy 213/305-4634 • 661/299-5505 doing the yelling is far more threatening and interesting than email: Offleashtrainer@aol.com the suspect who is coming out of

n Above and right: By positioning ourselves to see anyone coming out that door, we can immediately address any attempt by the suspect(s) to flee.

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second unit on scene. The reason for this is that I like to see all occupants brought out through the driver’s door (also my preferred point of exit for all occupants). By positioning ourselves to see anyone coming out that door, we can immediately address any attempt by the suspect(s) to flee. I have also found that it puts us at a distinct psychological advantage when the first thing the suspect hears as he steps out of the car is the barking of a large dog. There have been times when I wished for a high-resolution camera to record some of the suspects’ facial expressions. Depending on who is running the stop and calling the extraction commands, it may be necessary for the K-9 team to change position. For instance, if a suspect is ordered to step out the passenger side of the car, the K-9 team should change position to cover that side of the car. Failure to do so will likely result in a lack of target identification for the dog should that suspect decide to flee. We will also lose the psy48 Police K-9 Magazine

the car and making very little noise. The second reason is that many times, we simply fail to train for this, meaning that we have not exposed the dog to this scenario. If we spend some time conditioning the dog to focus on the people who are being ordered out of the car, the dog will have a clearer understanding of what his role is. This can be accomplished easily by setting up a high-risk stop in training and then having the suspect take off running, resulting in a send for an apprehension by the dog. We can mix this in with our suspect-decoy becoming animated during the extraction. If we blend these things in with

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Felony Stops n If the suspect decides to bail and make a run for it, as K-9 officers, we have an app for that.

having the primary officer utilize a PA system instead of yelling the commands, the dog will quickly learn that the person coming out of the car is more interesting, or at least carries the potential to be. Who Clears the Vehicle? I have seen a growing number of K-9 teams in which the handlers have begun training their dogs to clear the car once the suspects are searched and secured. While it is true that the car needs to be cleared for a suspect who may be hiding from us, I do not support the use of the K-9 to do so. I have a couple of examples to explain my position. I think we will all agree that at this point in the stop, the dog is significantly amped up. Provided the dog has been

n If he decides not to comply and remain in the car, we treat it as what it is — call it a barricade and get your tactical people on scene to deal with it.

trained to clear the vehicle, it is a simple task to send the dog up to the car, enter through the open door and engage anyone in the car. After all, we have warned them, correct? My question would be this: what if there is a child strapped in a car seat? Granted, most suspects are going to relay that information to us. However, on high-risk stops we are not typically dealing with Rhodes scholars. It could even be argued that the “stress of the stop” made the suspect “forget” to inform us of something like a child being strapped into a car seat. Either way, we are the ones who have the burden of responsibility. We can only imagine the outcry if our dog were to engage a child, especially if there were no additional suspects.

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Felony Stops

n If we spend some time conditioning the dog to focus on the people who are being ordered out of the car, the dog will have a clearer understanding of what his role is.

Example two for this scenario is that we do not know what is in the car. I once found a pitchfork lying in the backseat of a car. While that is not something we see on a daily basis, imagine the injury to your partner if he were to do as he has been trained and dove into the car… and impaled himself. Rather than taking such risks, let’s rely on our control. I would advocate moving up on the car with the dog in an off-lead heel. Command the dog to a down at a point approximately 10 feet short of the car, then continue forward to take a “quick peek” — visually clear the car then open PHOTOGRAPH: MIKE IRELAND the trunk. This way, if we encounter an armed threat, we can deal with it. If we encounter an unarmed threat, we can deploy the dog. The idea behind this approach is that we are not ex-

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52 Police K-9 Magazine

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posing ourselves to the kinds of risks discussed above. This approach is very simple to train and the dog will quickly get the idea of what is expected from him. Train for Trouble The vast majority of high-risk stops go off without a hitch. Most bad guys quickly realize they are facing overwhelming odds and opt to follow our instructions. This is what we want to have happen. However, we must also train for the opposite scenario — when the suspect chooses not to comply. In my travels I have seen many instances in which the K-9 is called upon to do a vehicle extraction. I have done this myself at many demonstrations. Like many handlers, I have always thought this is a very cool use of a K-9. Over the years, I have given this more and more thought and have reached the point of deciding against deploying the dog in this case. I have seen techniques in which the dog is sent through an open door or window. Even our suspects probably have enough cognitive function to roll up the window or close the door. Other techniques I have seen involve using a less-lethal round to shoot out a window and then deploying the dog through the opening. My concern with this is that all that broken glass has to go somewhere. There will be glass on the outside of the car, inside the car, and along the top of the door. In my opinion, this creates a hazardous situation for the dog. If the suspect refuses to comply and exit the car, call it what it is — a barricade situation. Treat it as a barricade and get your negotiators and tactical people on scene. If at some point during that process, the bad guy decides to make a run for it, then the K-9 team is back in the game. I believe that using the dog to force the person out of the car is a vivid example of trying to force the use of the K-9 unnecessarily. Leave this type of work for demonstrations where we can control the variables and prevent needless injury to our partner. High-risk stops provide an excellent opportunity to utilize a K-9. At bare minimum, the presence of a K-9 will deter most suspects from doing anything noncompliant. However, as with anything else we do, a high-risk stop is something we must train for if we want to be able to rely on our dog’s performance. Stay safe. n Ron Gunton has worked for the Mentor (OH) Police Department for more than 22 years. He has been a K-9 handler/trainer for more than 12 years and works a patrol/narcotics K-9 also trained for SWAT applications. Ron is an accredited master trainer of Utility/Patrol & Narcotics Detection with the North American Police Work Dog Association and a canine evaluator for the State of Ohio. Contact him at thunderzone@oh.rr.com. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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: e r u s o p x E Preparing Your Dog for Patrol Environments

By Bruce Rogers

n Do not fall into the habit that bite work must be a part of every training scenario.

n I realize that many handlers do not or would not deploy their dogs in some of the environments that I have suggested. However, the goal is to help your dog build up solid nerves in a variety of situations.

Training should equip you and your dog to handle the most challenging and unpleasant situations and locations. ny K-9 handler who has a modicum of street experience knows that criminals flee into and hide in the dirtiest, darkest, and most unwelcoming areas. The situations are inherently very dangerous, even without taking into consideration the kind of environments the suspects are hiding in. Yet, we as handlers send our dogs into these areas and expect them to fearlessly go in and engage the suspect. If the dog is uncertain and nervous about the environment he is entering, it may make the situation more complex and dangerous than if the dog werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t used at all. We need to expose our dogs to as many environments as possible during training so that

A

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the uneasiness they may have can be worked on in training, not during deployments. In the majority of K-9 training seminars with other agencies and associations that I have worked with and/or observed, substantially more sterile environment scenarios are set up than scenarios with exposure in mind. Too often, I see handlers refrain from training in areas where the dog or the team struggles. Handlers must check their egos at the door when training dogs, and never look to find them again. A handler focusing on his own ego will hinder or prevent the dog and the team from reaching their full potential.

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PHOTOGRAPH: MIKE IRELAND

PHOTOGRAPH: BRUCE ROGERS

I think there is a time and a place for police K-9 competitions, but it is imperative that handlers do not neglect the type of training necessary to prepare our partners for the ugly, dynamic, and unpredictably dangerous scenarios that they will face in the course of duty. The pride one feels as a handler should be derived from seeing the dog progress through patience and hard work in the areas where he struggles, not from the handler building his own ego by only working with the dog in areas where he already excels.

Lack of Training = Lack of Readiness Some time ago, a completely stressed out handler called me to tell me about a street deployment he had the

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PHOTOG

RAPH: AC

EK9.COM

n ABOVE: SWAT teams have several tools that make a lot of audio/visual distractions. So again, the time to know if it will affect the dog negatively is in training, not during the actual deployment.

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n We need to expose our dogs to as many environments as possible during training so that the uneasiness they may have can be worked on in training, not during deployments.

PHOTOGRAPH: ACEK9.COM

night before wherein the dog did not engage the suspect when he was supposed to. The scenario was a vehicle pursuit that came to an end on a dead-end street, with the suspect remaining in the car and refusing to surrender. The handler tried to send the dog into the car to engage the suspect, D but once the dog got to IKE IRELAN RAPH: M PHOTOG the open door of the car, he stopped and wanted out of the situation. The first question I asked that handler was if he had ever done any sort of training to expose the dog to the inside of vehicles. His response to me was, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I never could get a quarry/agitator that was comfortable taking bites in the car, so I never worked on it.â&#x20AC;? Do not fall into the habit that bite work must be a part of every training scenario. The goal is ensure that the training remains a positive experience for the dog, and having a unilateral approach to your training will prevent this. If your dog has nerve issues with a particular set of scenarios, you must not take it as failure or a personal hit. Re56 Police K-9 Magazine

grow confident and comfortable with the situation. A certain percentage of humans will be comfortable on their first attempt, just as a certain percentage of dogs will not have any fears about the scenarios you train for and see on the street. But again, the time to see if the dog is uncertain about a particular scenario is not during a street deployment. The irony of this type of training is that it is so simple to set up, but when I talk to handlers about it, their expressions suggest that exposure training is some ground-breaking, progressive idea that was just discovered. Take the scenario of exposing the dog to the inside of a vehicle, for example. All you need to do is appeal to the dog with what he already loves doing, and introduce the vehicle at the same time. If your dog has a favorite toy, throw the toy into the car for him to retrieve. If the dog is handler-reliant, then the handler can go into the car with the dog and make it a positive experi-

PHOTOG

RAPH: M IKE IRELAN

D

n it is imperative that handlers do not neglect the type of training necessary to prepare our partners for the ugly, dynamic, and unpredictably dangerous scenarios that they will face in the course of duty.

n LEFT: Do not be afraid to incorporate a muzzle into this training to deal with any equipment fixation.

member, your ego has no place in this training. As we all know, dogs learn much differently than humans in most respects. We cannot give our dogs a PowerPoint presentation to brief them on what we need them to do. We cannot reassure them through words that a scenario they are about to enter will be okay. It is our job to show them as much as we can in a training environment to prepare them to be confident when the time comes for street deployments. However, there is one way in which humans and dogs learn similarly. Humans all have certain fears and must train, or learn through exposure, to grow more comfortable with those fears. Take the fear of heights, for example, when rappelling. Most humans will not be comfortable rappelling down a significant distance on their first try. It will take exposure and several repetitions for a human to JULY/AUGUST 2011

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PHOTOGRAPH: BRUCE ROGERS

n It is much easier to introduce the dog slowly to new things than to fix negative association issues that the dog has already learned.

Another consideration aside from the areas where the dog will be deployed is what will be involved during the deployment. Just because your dog does great on building searches, does not mean he will do the same if the criminal or other involved officers introduce something the dog has never seen. For example, SWAT teams have several tools that create audio/visual distractions. Again, the time to know if it will affect the dog negatively is in training, not during the actual deployment. You should expose your canine to SWAT tools including:

ence that way. And if bite work is what gets the dog going more than anything, just introduce it with baby steps — start at the car door, and very slowly work your way inside the vehicle. Regardless of the method used to appeal to the dog’s desire for a reward, it is imperative that the handler remain positive and calm. If you appear unstressed and unaffected by the scenario, your dog will pick up on that. We have all heard that stress in the handler runs down the lead into the dog.

n LEFT: There is no need to create stress for the dog if he is already stressed from the environment. You must appear as if you are not the least bit concerned or worried, and then the dog will more likely sense that and be reassured that everything is fine.

• Noise and Flash Diversionary Devices (NFDDs) used during SWAT training • Breaking glass • PA speaker from a patrol vehicle • Multiple sirens going off simultaneously • Kicking/forcing a door open (before sending dog in) • Tasers • SWAT officers’ bulky vests, helmets, gas masks, shields, etc. • Smoke (inert version used as visual cover/dispersion) • CS gas (O-chlorobenzylidene malonontrite gas, also known as “tear gas”)

How to Begin There is no one magic way to expose dogs to environments that they will see on the street and ensure that each one is a positive experience for them. As is true with humans, dogs have different tolerances, temperaments, thresholds, etc. Figure out the best way to create a positive and low-stress experience for your dog, and then structure the exposure environment around that. It will require some creative thought, but in reality it is actually a simple process. Be creative, think outside the box, and don’t be afraid to get dirty. The possibilities are endless in terms of where criminals will choose to hide. As with any other experienced handler, I could write a book on the incredible areas where our dogs have found criminals hiding. I will discuss some possible scenarios for which you could train, but remember to consider particular environments you will encounter, such as:

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PHOTOG n This approach to training can RAPH: BR UCE ROG ERS be applied to other areas of training, such as a problem area that your dog may already have. Open stairs, for example, are a common problem for dogs, especially with many of the dogs imported from Europe.

But remember, do not send the dog straight into the “fire” — start with small steps. It is much easier to introduce the dog slowly to new things than to fix negative association issues that the dog has already learned. Bring the dog around all of the environments in a stress-free

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• Vehicles • Tarps • Entry through windows or other openings • Tunnels • Crawlspaces/attics in houses • Children’s playgrounds (large toys elevated off the ground) • Grated walkways/stairs/bridges (be careful with the size of grate, as it can injure the dog’s paws) • Slick/shiny floors (ex: school gymnasiums) • Garbage cans • Motor homes/busses • Thick/heavy shrubs • Any tight spaces

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manner. You need to ensure that your actions, and most importantly your body language, communicate that you are not the least bit concerned about what is in front of you. The dog must figure out on his own that he will be okay in that environment, but your calm actions are also necessary to reassure him. If you appear stressed, then it will cause a negative association for the dog. I realize that many handlers do not or would not deploy their dogs in some of the environments that I have suggested. However, the goal is to help your dog build up solid nerves in a variety of situations. We want the dogs to have a “been there, done that” sort of thought process when they are about to be deployed into any given environment. This approach to training can be applied to other areas of training, such as a problem area that your dog may already have. Open stairs, for example, are a common problem for dogs, especially with many of the dogs imported from Europe. Using the dog’s favorite toy and creating a fun, stress-free environment is very effective. Again, if your dog thrives mainly on a certain type of bite work, that is fine to use. Initially though, do not hammer on the dog with stress, or it will build up negative associ-

60 Police K-9 Magazine

n We cannot reassure them through words that a scenario they are about to enter will be okay. It is our job to show them as much as we can in a training environment to prepare them to be confident when the time comes for street deployments.

ations and memories for the dog, and your team will be worse off in the long run.

PHOTOGRAPH: MIKE IRELAND

Does the Argument Have Teeth? As you progress into bite work in your scenarios (or if yours start this way), an entirely different set of arguments come into play, such as the argument of whether to use a bite suit vs. a bite sleeve. I watched a police K-9 reality television show in which the handler/trainer said, “We train the dog to bite in the left arm.” Regardless of the fact that I do not agree with that training theory, I will not

JULY/AUGUST 2011

delve much into this argument except to explain how to best combine bite work with exposure training. When a noncompliant, armed, violent criminal is hiding by lying wrapped up in a tarp on the ground, do you want a dog that only looks for the left arm? I personally would rather have a dog that engages anywhere and in any way. Many of the exposure scenarios require that the quarry/agitator be in a full bite suit with some sort of head protection. If the scenarios are to look like what the dog will encounter on the street, then the helper needs to be in very vulnerable positions and laying passive. Obviously, a bite sleeve is not enough to accomplish this. Also, do not be afraid to incorporate a muzzle into this training to deal with any equipment fixation. The same calm attitude and body language from the handler must continue as this exposure training progresses into realistic engagements. There is no need to create stress for the dog if he is already stressed from the environment. You must appear as if you are not the least bit concerned or worried, and then the dog will more likely sense that and be reassured that everything is fine. You can be assertive with your dog without causing more stress by being all amped up.

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All of this can essentially be summed up into a brief set of guidelines for you to remember when you are setting up your training: • Be creative and think outside the box. • Introduce the dog slowly and progress with small steps. • Ensure that the environment will end up being a positive experience for the dog. • Be calm, patient, and ego-free. I wrote this article in hopes of expanding and supplementing your training to make it more effective. Do not be afraid to try to network with agencies outside your region to look for new ideas. Let’s not forget our primary goal in training these dogs: We are preparing them for the street, not for show. n Officer Bruce Rogers has been with the Yakima (WA) PD since 2001, a K-9 handler since 2003, and partner to Brutus since 2006. Rogers is also a certified K-9 trainer through the Washington State Police Canine Association. Contact him at bruceandbrutus@gmail.com.

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detector

Keys to Preventing Boredom in Training by Robert Lukason ince I began writing for Police K-9 Magazine, I have received quite a few emails regarding problem dogs and handlers. I enjoy sharing my experience with others and look forward to helping out my fellow K-9ers. Recently I received a few emails that concerned me regarding a “training rut” some units have fallen into. I work at a canine facility where all we do is train dogs all year long; we are training approximately 250–300 dogs per year with a cadre of 20 instructors. That is a pretty heavy pace for any agency. We keep this heavy pace to maintain and augment our current K-9 unit roster of more than 1,400 teams in the field. Getting into a rut at the Canine Center is uncommon, but it does happen. Although we are arguably one of the largest K-9 units in the United States — possibly the world — we are not exempt from common training setbacks. Canine training occasionally falls victim to “routineness.” A stale, over-played training routine can arise for a variety of reasons. It may be due to a lack of experienced or creative personnel, or a lack of organization within a tough law-enforcement work schedule. Regardless of how it comes about, routineness can be prevented.

S

Common Problem, Origin Unknown When I talk with other agency trainers and instructors regarding various training issues, they are surprised to learn that our program experiences many of the same obstacles as their programs do, such as boredom in training. I’m not talking about boredom with training in general; I am referring to maintenance training, the training that teams do after they graduate from basic canine school, get to their duty stations, and begin their unit’s ongoing K-9 training regimen. Believe me, there are a lot of units out there for which the “mundane” K-9 training day is not an issue, JULY/AUGUST 2011

and I applaud those units, trainers, and handlers. The purpose of this article is to highlight a potential problem and assist units that have fallen into a rut by providing some insight and guidance. I am not pointing the finger at anyone in particular (supervisors, instructors, handlers) because if boredom comes into play, everyone is responsible. Boredom can be a disease that is very detrimental to your program if not promptly identified and corrected. The thing about boredom is that it just kind of sneaks up on you out of nowhere, and you can rarely pinpoint where or when it started.

Vary Who, What, When and How Everyone in law enforcement is on a busy, fast-paced schedule. Everyone has a basic routine or “life script” that they follow and it is easy to fall into an arduous, boring daily sequence if you are not paying attention. For example: • 0640: Briefing • 0610: Training aids are planted, vehicle exterior training exercises, handler-unknown finds. Location: same as last training day. • 0640: Training: same dogs, same problems to solve, same handlers, same rotation as last training day, same instructor. • 1200: Lunch: Location: same as last training day, same guys telling the same stories. • 1300–1400: K-9 records, reports, work-related emails, and finally, kennel/equipment maintenance. Bam! That’s your eight-hour training day — sound familiar? Ugh! continues Police K-9 Magazine

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detector - KEYS TO PREVENTING BOREDOM IN TRAINING

For the new guys, this may still be exciting and cool, but for the veteran handlers, maintenance training can easily become mundane, boring, torturous. It may seem like every training day is becoming more painful than the last. I offer a solution: plan ahead. Plan out your training days in advance, such as on a quarterly basis, and make it a unit effort. On average, most single-purpose K-9 units train once or twice a month as a unit. Don’t get so caught up in your regular law-enforcement routine that you are planning your K-9 training 10 minutes before you start. I offer two suggestions to help you vary your training: 1. Assign fewer handlers to a particular day, so each team gets more individualized attention. 2. Selective placement — change up the people who train on specific days. Some people in your unit may have exceptional insight, motivation, creativity, or morale — spread these people around!

n Above: Finding new places to train will benefit both the dogs and the handlers.

Carefully plan out your training days, alternate the types of training you conduct on training days and keep the K-9 training applicable to what is going on in your area/unit. You will always get the most bang for your buck if you plan things out.

first aid. Handlers always need to be refreshed on current and recent court decisions and canine first aid procedures.

I recommend using five basic types of K-9 team training: • Handler-known finds: the handler knows where the aids are. - These are good for addressing K-9 issues. • Handler-unknown finds: handler does not know the location of the finds. - This is the most common type of training, as it tests the team’s ability to overcome training problems. It also builds handler confidence. • Scenario-based: K-9 team is given a mock situation and asked to react as they would in the street. This follows the “train the way you work” philosophy. • Competition: Timed event, see what team can get the most unknown finds in an allotted timeframe. This is an excellent confidence builder/motivator. • Classroom: Academics are a very important aspect of K-9 training, including topics such as canine case law and K-9 64 Police K-9 Magazine

Keep in mind that you can incorporate any one of these approaches or a combination of them within a single training day. Within these five basic types, instructors can prepare handlers for the street, K-9 competitions, court, and annual certifications while keeping the training interesting and fun for the handler as well as the dog. There is nothing worse than being able to predict in advance what you will do the next training day and where you will do it. We didn’t get into K-9 for that; if we wanted a predictable and monotonous existence we would have applied to become supervisors. By sitting down with your unit, soliciting ideas from everyone, and planning upcoming training days in advance, you will help improve your program’s overall training regimen. It has been my experience that when I was included in the construction and planning of my training schedule, it gave me a sense of ownership and pride in my program, thus keeping me motivated. Good luck, and be safe. n

Rob Lukason is a training operations supervisor with the U.S. Border Patrol’s National Canine Facility in El Paso, Texas. Contact: Rob.Lukason@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

JULY/AUGUST 2011


The National

Bulk Cash Smuggling Center:

Disrupting the Criminal Supply Chain By David J. Magdycz

L

aw-enforcement elements at every level, from local to state to federal to international, have recognized the significant impact of depriving criminal enterprise of its illegitimate rewards as an effective enforcement mechanism. Interdicting criminally derived bulk currency provides an effective deterrent by denying criminal enterprise of its life’s blood while also functioning to disrupt the enterprise’s chain of supply for continued operations. The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency’s Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) directorate, through its National Bulk Cash Smuggling Center (BCSC), is exploiting this strategy in its fight against criminal enterprise.

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The handler’s best friend has become an invaluable extension of the investigator’s sixth sense. The BCSC was created in late 2009 with the goal of identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal organizations that use bulk cash smuggling (BCS) to move their illegal profits. While seizing the cash disrupts the criminal or terrorist organization, it also provides invaluable intelligence about the organization as a whole. Providing local law-enforcement agencies with an additional tool to employ when they discover currency is an important element in meeting the BCSC’s goal.

The K-9 Component Canine units provide another invaluable tool in law enforcement’s efforts to combat bulk cash smuggling and deprive criminal enterprise of its illicit bounty. With the advanced canine training techniques currently available, one can argue that a dog’s ability to discriminate between

odors is greater today than it has ever been. Indeed, highly specialized, intense training with carefully chosen breeds has provided us with working dogs that can sniff everything from currency to narcotics to decreases in a person’s blood sugar, and even certain types of cancer. As a result of ever more sophisticated masking techniques employed by transnational criminal organizations, law enforcement has increasingly relied on canine units to detect the presence of contraband, specifically currency. Dogs have located currency in just about every imaginable place, including cash that was packed in grease, concealed in coffee, or hidden in vehicle gasoline tanks. The handler’s best friend has become an invaluable extension of the investigator’s sixth sense. In many reported seizures, handlers and their canine partners are the first to locate and uncover illicit cash during a traffic stop, incident to an arrest, or at an airport inspection. Notwithstanding the success canine units have had, their ability to provide the officer with probable cause has been a subject of debate and contention in courts for some time. On the one hand, a positive canine alert to bulk currency may provide probable cause for further enforcement action, while, on the other, it may merely provide a starting point for an interdiction officer or an investigator to build his or her case. As a result, a canine’s alert to currency should be, to the extent possible, paired with other potential indicators of criminal activity such as prior currency violations, known criminal associations, criminal history, etc.

Inter-agency Cooperation

An agency insider and former police K-9 handler provides a view into cashfocused crime fighting

JULY/AUGUST 2011

How can the BCSC assist canine handlers and other police officers? By placing a call to the BCSC, an officer and his department have the resources and the support of an international law-enforcement organization capable of filling intelligence gaps and piecing together a larger puzzle to reveal a sophisticated criminal enterprise. Utilizing a host of law-enforcement databases and the expertise of trained financial investigators, the BCSC can provide valuable indicators of criminal activity that assist in completing this puzzle. In addition, utilizing available BCS statutes, federal charges can be levied against a driver/courier, enabling longer detention of the subject and ultimately affording law enforcement more time to determine the existence of other criminal associates or other criminal activity. This is perhaps most effective in the scenario where currency is discovered that cannot be linked to narcotics. JULY/AUGUST 2011

Local law enforcement may also have no other method to determine if the driver/courier was merely transiting the area or if the discovered currency relates to criminal activity occurring within their jurisdiction. Placing the seizure in a geographical context significantly benefits all levels of law enforcement. Regardless of the circumstances, information from a seizure can be incorporated into vital databases, providing financial investigators at the BCSC the tactical intelligence necessary to mold additional pieces of the puzzle. The end result can lead to the disruption or dismantling of a criminal organization, terrorist cell or other nefarious operation. The ability to coordinate information and construct a larger picture of criminal activity is the reason HSI established the BCSC. The BCSC can also assist other law-enforcement agencies by providing equipment, technical training and expertise, and coordination of additional manpower related to interdiction operations. Furthermore, by contacting the BCSC, law-enforcement agencies may participate in equitable sharing arrangements from assets seized as a result of BCS investigations. Whether an agency is actively participating in the ensuing investigation or not, any subsequent seizures based on the initial information will further benefit the agency. Law-enforcement agencies can request real-time tactical support during an enforcement action where illicit cash is suspected by phoning the center at 1-866-9815332. The BCSC can also be reached at 802/872-6220 or by email at bcsc@dhs.gov during normal business hours. As a former police canine handler and now a Special Agent with HSI, I have been fortunate to see first hand both sides of the interdiction and enforcement arena, including the initial roadside encounter, the discovery of currency and contraband, and the follow-up investigation. Positive canine alerts have long proven vital to criminal cases, often providing probable cause to detain a driver or seize currency or other contraband. Coupling the current capabilities of working dogs with the assets provided by the BCSC makes today’s canine handler a formidable weapon in law enforcement’s efforts to combat criminal enterprise and ultimately dispossess it of its illegal profits. n David J. Magdycz is a Special Agent with the Bulk Cash Smuggling Center of the Homeland Security Investigations directorate within the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency. Contact him at David.Magdycz@dhs.gov. Police K-9 Magazine

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CANINE C A N I N E SERVICES SERVICES

legal

Fighting the Good Fight in the Appellate Court by Ted Daus wo narcotics K-9 cases that cover highly significant issues related to the use of a drug dog were published by the Florida Supreme Court this past April. Even if you do not handle a dog in the state of Florida, the legal philosophy used in each case could be used in and may well spread to your jurisdiction. You should know at the outset that Police K-9 Magazine participated in each case, writing legal briefs and attending the arguments before the Florida Supreme Court, but after fighting the good fight in court, we did not prevail. The magazine has put its money where its mouth is and on behalf of you, the reader/handler/officer, we will strive to win on rehearing — or if need be, we will appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.

T

Proving Reliability The first case I’ll discuss is Clayton Harris v. Florida, which was decided on April 21. The issue before the court was one of proving a narcotic dog’s reliability and whether or not a well-trained and certified drug dog would receive a rebuttable presumption of reliability that a defendant could challenge in court. The Florida Supreme Court held “that the State may establish probable cause by demonstrating that the officer had a reasonable basis for believing the dog to be reliable based on the totality of the circumstances. “Because a dog cannot be cross-examined like a police officer on the scene whose observations often provide the basis for probable cause to search a vehicle, the State must introduce evidence concerning the dog’s reliability. In this case, we specifically address the question of what evidence the State must introduce in order to establish the reasonableness of the officer’s belief — in other words, what evidence must be introduced in order for the trial court to adequately undertake an objective evaluation of the RONCO CONSULTING CORPORATION * 6710 OXON HILL ROAD *SUITE 200, OXON HILL, MD 20745 Tel: 240.493.3910 * FAX: 240.493.1440 * www.roncoconsulting.com JULY/AUGUST 2011

officer’s belief in the dog’s reliability as a predicate for determining probable cause. “The reliability of a dog as a detector of illegal substances is subject to a totality-of-the-circumstances analysis. Thus, the trial court must be presented with the evidence necessary to make an adequate determination as to the dog's reliability… We hold that evidence that the dog has been trained and certified to detect narcotics, standing alone, is not sufficient to establish the dog’s reliability for purposes of determining probable cause; especially since training and certification in this state are not standardized and thus each training and certification program may differ with no meaningful way to assess them. “Accordingly, we conclude that to meet its burden of establishing that the officer had a reasonable basis for believing the dog to be reliable in order to establish probable cause, the State must present the training and certification records, an explanation of the meaning of the particular training and certification of that dog, field performance records, and evidence concerning the experience and training of the officer handling the dog, as well as any other objective evidence known to the officer about the dog’s reliability in being able to detect the presence of illegal substances within the vehicle. “To adopt the contrary view that the burden is on the defendant to present evidence of the factors other than certification and training in order to demonstrate that the dog is unreliable would be contrary to the well-established proposition that the burden is on the State to establish probable cause for a warrantless search. In addition, since all of the records and evidence are in the possession of the State, to shift the burden to the defendant to produce evidence of the dog’s unreliability is unwarranted and unduly burdensome.” continues Police K-9 Magazine

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legal - FIGHTING THE GOOD FIGHT IN THE APPELLATE COURT

So the court turned a 20-minute hearing into a twohour hearing with loads of paperwork that will take a prosecutor and a handler or trainer hours to educate the judge about so as to demonstrate a dog’s reliability. But the good news is that if your records are up-todate and complete and your canine partner is independently certified every year, you can still win if you bring the documents to court, present them, and discuss them. It just makes your hearing longer and more involved, with detailed testimony about your records in order to prevail. States do not have to follow this case, although it may be used as persuasive authority on how to handle a dog reliability hearing in your jurisdiction if your state does not have an established procedure. (Most states do not have Appellate Court case law on this unique subject.)

“Hopefully this… topic of narcotics dogs sniffing the front doors of homes without a search warrant will make it to the U.S. Supreme Court.”

Search and Seizure The other curve ball thrown out by the Florida Supreme Court to the dog handlers of this state was in their April 14 opinion in the case of Jardines v. State of Florida. The Florida Supreme Court ruling stated, “We have said that the Fourth Amendment draws ‘a firm line at the entrance to the house.’ That line, we think, must be not only firm but also bright — which requires clear specification of those methods of surveillance that require a warrant… Given the special status accorded a citizen’s home in Anglo–American jurisprudence, we hold that the warrantless ‘sniff test’ that was conducted at the front door of the residence in the present case was an unrea-

70 Police K-9 Magazine

n Left: Thus, the trial court must be presented with the evidence necessary to make an adequate determination as to the dog's reliability.

sonable government intrusion into the sanctity of the home and violated the Fourth Amendment.” Justices Polston and Canady of the Florida Supreme Court disagreed with the majority. In his dissenting opinion, Justice Polston wrote, “As held by the United States Supreme Court, a dog sniff is not a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment because it only reveals contraband and there is no legitimate expectation of privacy in contraband that society is willing to recognize as reasonable. Given this binding precedent, Franky’s [the dog] sniff, while lawfully present at Jardines’ front door, cannot be considered a search under the Fourth Amendment.” This was a divided court and hopefully this hot searchand-seizure topic of narcotics dogs sniffing the front doors of homes without a search warrant will make it to the next step, the U.S. Supreme Court. If the issue is accepted and heard by the U.S. Supreme Court, one thing is for sure: I will be there, involved in the process to argue on behalf of the magazine and, more importantly, you the handler. I will fight the good fight in Washington, D.C. and say hello to Justice Clarence Thomas for you! As always, if you have any questions, comments or concerns, you can email me. Take care and be safe! n Ted Daus works in the Drug Trafficking Unit of the Broward State Attorney’s Office in Florida. He specializes in canine search and seizure and has lectured to state, local and federal law-enforcement agencies across the United States. Contact: Ted.Daus@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

JULY/AUGUST 2011


n Left: A drug-sniffing dog’s positive alert while sniffing the exterior of a car provides an officer with the probable cause necessary to search the car without a warrant.

legal update

n Below: In U.S. v. Mason, the dog jumped in the open driver-side window, which she did of her own accord and without being commanded by her handler to do so.

K-9 Narcotics Cases: Part II by Terry Fleck

Exclusive to Police K-9 Magazine, this column reports on the latest federal cases affecting law-enforcement K-9s and handlers. The following article is Part II of a series summarizing recent narcotics K-9 cases. Part I appeared in the May/June issue.

seals into the outside environment. Consequently, he continued, it is not uncommon for dogs to alert at the doors of vehicles where the seals tend to be heavily worn. Given these practical realities, the court thought it was reasonable to conclude that the odor which the dog detected may have travelled from the trunk — which is, after all, a logical place for drugs to be stored.

U.S. v. Taylor, 596 F.3d 373 (U.S. n Above: It is not uncommon for dogs to alert at the doors of vehicles where the seals tend to be heavily worn.

Vehicle Sniffs U.S. v. Kelly, 592 F.3d 586 (U.S. Court of Appeals Fourth Circuit 2010) Officers had probable to cause to search both passenger compartment and trunk of car parked at residence, and thus, search of car's trunk came within automobile exception to Fourth Amendment search warrant requirement; drug detection dog alerted posi-

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An alert or indication by a properly trained and reliable drug dog provides probable cause for the arrest and search of a person or for the search of a vehicle. A drug detection dog is considered reliable when it has been trained and certified to detect drugs; contrary evidence that may detract from the reliability of the dog's performance properly goes to the credibility of the dog.

tively at driver's door of car, and officer explained that odors travelled within a car and seeped out through loose seals, so that it was not uncommon for dogs to alert at doors of vehicles where seals tended to be worn. Dogs, of course, react not to the presence of drugs themselves but to their odors. And, as the K-9 officer in this case explained, odors travel within a car and seep through loose JULY/AUGUST 2011

Court of Appeals Seventh Circuit 2010) Agents’ use of drug-sniffing canine in course of defendant's traffic stop, to sniff around defendant's vehicle, did not constitute a search. Use of a drugsniffing canine in the course of a traffic stop does not constitute a search, and therefore does not in itself violate the Fourth Amendment, although it may impact the determination of whether a seizure is reasonable if the use of the dog causes a delay.

U.S. v. Winters, 600 F.3d 963 (U.S. Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit 2010) JULY/AUGUST 2011

U.S. v. Hernandez-Mendoza, 600 F.3d 971 (U.S. Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit 2010) Trooper who stopped vehicle in which defendants were traveling for speeding, after receiving tip from law-enforcement officer that drug dog had alerted to vehicle during traffic stop in neighboring state, had probable cause to believe there was contraband in vehicle. Trooper did not violate defendants’ Fourth Amendment rights by extending valid traffic stop to deploy drug dog to sniff vehicle for drugs, even though no drugs were found dur-

ing neighboring jurisdiction’s threehour search of vehicle. Trooper’s search of vehicle, even if based in part on pre-existing probable cause developed in neighboring jurisdiction, was not unreasonable. If probable cause justifies the search of a lawfully stopped vehicle, it justifies the search of every part of the vehicle and its contents that may conceal the object of the search. Probable cause to search a vehicle does not dissipate simply because it takes a long time to complete a reasonable and thorough search.

U.S. v. Mohamed, 600 F.3d 1000 (U.S. Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit 2010) A positive indication by a dog during a canine search following a lawful stop of a vehicle provides probable cause that drugs are present in the vehicle, thereby justifying a search of the vehicle. A lawful traffic stop that is extended in order to execute a canine sniff does not become an unconstitutional seizure where the stop is reasonably prolonged and constitutes Police K-9 Magazine

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legal update

“Drug detection dog’s alert on defendant’s vehicle was sufficiently reliable to establish probable cause for search of that vehicle.”

only de minimis intrusions on a defendant’s liberty. Following lawful traffic stop, state trooper did not unreasonably extend seizure of driver by prolonging the seizure by five minutes to conduct canine search of vehicle; vehicle was stopped for traffic violation, trooper noticed loose panels inside of vehicle, and driver’s demeanor and his explanation of why he was on the road aroused trooper’s suspicions.

U.S. v. Shafer, 608 F.3d 1056 (U.S. Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit 2010) During traffic stop, officer had reasonable suspicion of criminal activity permitting him to briefly question passenger and wave down canine unit after officer completed the speeding citation. Car had odor of marijuana, passenger was wearing police attire to avoid being bothered, passenger and driver gave somewhat different accounts of their travels and avoided eye contact, driver's hands were shaking and she appeared nervous, driver's further questioning detained officer from returning to passenger and car, passenger had criminal history, and only 31 minutes passed from time officer initially stopped car until canine alerted. U.S. v. Simpson, 609 F.3d 1140 (U.S. Court of Appeals Tenth Circuit 2010) A trained and reliable alert from a narcotics dog can provide support for an officer to conduct a search. Trooper who lawfully stopped defendant’s vehicle for traffic violation had reasonable suspicion that defendant was engaged in illegal conduct, as required to support continued detention of defendant beyond time necessary to resolve initial traffic violation. 74 Police K-9 Magazine

n Left: In U.S. v. Scott, the use of drug detection canine, while lawfully present in common hallway, to sniff exterior door frame of defendant’s apartment did not constitute a “search” under the Fourth Amendment.

Defendant had prior criminal conviction for drug trafficking, exhibited extreme nervousness even after trooper assured him he would not be given a traffic ticket, and provided inconsistent and evasive answers to queries about his fairly implausible travel plans.

contradictory accounts of their prior itinerary and that vehicle was traveling with out-of-state plates along a known drug trafficking corridor, provided officer with 17 years of law-enforcement experience with “reasonable suspicion” of additional criminal activity, of the kind sufficient to warrant this brief additional detention.

U.S. v. Pack II, 612 F.3d 341 (U.S. Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit 2010) While law-enforcement officer detained occupant of motor vehicle beyond time needed to investigate the speeding infraction that caused him to stop vehicle, this continued detention for no more than 35 minutes after initial stop, until drug-sniffing dog could be brought to the scene, did not violate the Fourth Amendment. Even assuming that vehicle’s occupant, who was not owner of car, had standing to raise Fourth Amendment issue, occupant's extreme nervousness when stopped (as evidenced by his heavy breathing, shaking hands, and visibly pulsing carotid artery), coupled with fact that he and the driver gave

U.S. v. Maynard, 615 F.3d 544 (U.S. Court of Appeals District of Columbia Circuit 2010) Any extension of a traffic stop leading up to a canine sniff of the vehicle defendant was driving was supported by reasonable suspicion. Defendant and his passenger had given officer inconsistent statements about their destination and activities, passenger had displayed nervousness, and defendant had an agitated reaction to officer’s renewed questioning after he had initially told defendant he was free to go.

U.S. v. Howard, 621 F.3d 433 (U.S. Court of Appeals Sixth Circuit 2010) JULY/AUGUST 2011

Use of drug detection dog to perform sniff test on defendant's vehicle was entirely independent of his arrest, and thus, even though defendant was unlawfully arrested without probable cause, suppression of cash seized from vehicle was unwarranted under independent source doctrine in prosecution for conspiring to possess and distribute cocaine and attempting to possess and distribute cocaine. Officer, who had neither participated in arrest nor spoken to defendant after arrest, instructed dog’s handler to have dog perform sniff test before officers searched vehicle, based on reasonable suspicion that vehicle occupants were engaged in drug trafficking. Drug detection dog’s alert on defendant’s vehicle was sufficiently reliable to establish probable cause for search of that vehicle, and thus suppression of cash seized from vehicle was unwarranted in prosecution for conspiring to possess and distribute cocaine and attempting to possess and distribute cocaine. Dog and its handler had completed training school, were certified and recertified with national association, and worked together on a daily basis, and dog had been deployed numerous times in field and had always performed accurately.

U.S. v. Pierce, 622 F.3d 209 (U.S. Court of Appeals Third Circuit 2010) A drug-sniffing dog’s positive alert while sniffing the exterior of a car provides an officer with the probable cause necessary to search the car without a warrant. Drug-sniffing dog’s entry into defendant’s vehicle did not constitute JULY/AUGUST 2011

an illegal warrantless search, where the dog entered the vehicle through a door that had been left open by defendant and the dog’s handler did not facilitate that entry, but only gave the dog his lead after he had alerted on the outside of the vehicle. Dog was acting instinctively.

U.S. v. Mason, --- F.3d --- (U.S. Court of Appeals Fourth Circuit 2010) When an individual is lawfully stopped for a suspected traffic violation, the officer may briefly ask questions unrelated to the stop, provided that the unrelated questioning does not extend the encounter beyond the period reasonably necessary to effectuate the purposes of the lawful detention. When trooper completed traffic stop of defendant for having illegally tinted windows, his suspicion that defendant and his passenger were engaged in criminal activity was reasonable, thereby justifying their additional detention until a drug detection dog arrived. Defendant did not pull over promptly, delaying his move in an abnormal manner. When trooper approached the vehicle and defendant rolled down his window, trooper was immediately struck by an extreme odor of air fresheners beyond normal experience. In addition, trooper observed there was only a single key on defendant’s key ring. The two men were coming from a major drug distribution city on a known drug route, the defendant was sweating and unusually nervous, and the two men gave conflicting answers as to the purpose of their travel. Drug detection dog’s several Police K-9 Magazine

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YOUR SOURCE FOR -9 FIRST AID!

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-9 FIRST AID IT: alerts on the exterior of defendant’s vehicle indicated that the dog perceived a narcotics odor while outside the car, thereby creating probable cause to believe that narcotics were present even before the dog jumped in the open driver-side window, which she did of her own accord and without being commanded by her handler to do so.

Parcel Sniffs U.S. v. Lozano, 623 F.3d 1055 (U.S.

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Court of Appeals Ninth Circuit 2010) Postal workers may detain a package to conduct an investigation if they have a reasonable and articulable suspicion that it contains contraband or evidence of illegal activity. Postal inspector in Alaska had reasonable suspicion to detain mailed package addressed to defendant’s post office box number past its delivery time in order to arrange for drug-sniff test. Postmaster had warned inspector that defendant was behaving suspiciously, specifically asking whether mail could be searched for drugs. In addition, the package listed a fictitious sender and addressee and an incomplete return address, was shipped with delivery confirmation service, had a handwritten label, had been mailed from California, and was heavily taped. Postal authorities’ detention of mailed package addressed to defendant’s post office box for some 22 hours between package’s initial seizure and the development of probable cause, which occurred when canine “alerted” to the pack-

age, was not unreasonable, and so admission of marijuana evidence found in package did not violate the Fourth Amendment. Delay was caused by the difficulty of canine travel in Alaska, as post office box was located in Barrow, Alaska; town’s drug-sniffing dog was in Anchorage, Alaska, for training, and there were only two flights from Barrow to Anchorage each day. Postal authorities’ transportation of mailed package from Barrow, where it had been seized so that authorities could arrange for drug-sniff test, to Anchorage, where town’s drug-sniffing dog was undergoing training, without probable cause did not make the detention unreasonable. Postal inspector had reasonable suspicion to detain the package, and Barrow was a remote community.

Dog Vendors, Equipment, Trainers, Resources, and more u

Residence/Apartment Sniffs U.S. v. Scott, 610 F.3d 1009 (U.S. Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit 2010) Officer’s use of drug detection canine, while lawfully present in common hallway, to sniff exterior door frame of defendant’s apartment did not constitute a “search” subject to the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on unreasonable searches. Defendant had no legitimate privacy interest in the illegal drugs that the canine sniff detected. n Terry Fleck is a retired deputy sheriff II/K-9 handler. An expert in the field of canine legal issues, he teaches classes throughout North America. Contact him at k9fleck@aol.com.

JULY/AUGUST 2011

PHOTOGRAPH: MIKE IRELAND

2011 BUYER’S GUIDE

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Following is our 2011 Buyer’s Guide. It is my desire to make this Guide a resource for all K-9 handlers to easily locate goods and services that cater to our industry. We have paired our printed Buyer’s Guide with an online version. On PoliceK-9Magazine.com, you will find that our Buyer’s Guide is linked directly to the companies listed. In addition, we now offer e-commerce on our site. Many of the companies in our Buyer’s Guide have made their products available to you right on our site with one convenient checkout in our store. Now you can purchase products from several different vendors all at one trusted place, PoliceK-9Magazine.com. – Jeff Meyer, Publisher / Contact: Jeff@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Equipment and Supplies AceK9.com, Inc. PHOTOGRAPH: MIKE IRELAND

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1556 Cypress Dr. Jupiter, FL 33469 Cell: 561-719-1832 (preferred) Phone: 561-746-0935, ext. 212 Fax: 561-747-0845 Web: www.AceK9.com E-mail: John@AceK9.com AceK9.com is a company dedicated to protecting the lives and safety of K-9s and their handlers. They offer innovative products such as the “Hot-N-Pop® Pro,” which combines the temperature-and vehicle-monitoring features of the “K9 Heat Alarm® Pro” and the remote K-9 deployment of the “K9 Door Popper®.”

American Aluminum Accessories, Inc. 3291 US 19 South Perry, FL 32348 Phone: 800-277-0869 Web: www.ezrideronline.com E-mail: lalbritton@ezrideronline.com

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web page at Check out our magazine.com www.policeK-9

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American Aluminum Accessories, Inc. offers, K-9 container systems, inmate transport, bite suits, vaults, narcotics safes, animal control units, portable kennels, rescue door openers, Cool Guard heat alarm systems and K-9 training aids.

The BUYER’S GUIDE is a supplement to the Jul/Aug issue.

Police K-9 Magazine. PO Box 280541 Lakewood, CO 80228-0541 Advertising & Listings Bud Simon and Tara Simon Phone: 262/431-4500 bud@PoliceK-9Magazine.com tara@PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Phone: 450-826-0820 Phone: 877-473-5959 Web: www.canam-k9.com Quality of our work is our first priority. We make everything we sell using the finest materials available. Made in North America since 1985—from leashes to bite suits and everything in between. Home of the Transformer & the Try-level bite suits; if we don’t make it, we don’t sell it! Custom orders are always welcome. Wholesale available. Calls from the U.S. and Canada are toll free.

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2011 BUYER’S GUIDE

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75 Jacksonville Rd. P.O. Box 2099 Warminster, PA 18974 Phone: 800-524-9900 Web: www.havis.com E-mail: sales@havis.com

Designer and manufacturer of lawenforcement K-9 systems: Bail Out, Hotdog, Premier Canine System, Maxi Thin Fan, En’Garde Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Alert; S.I.D. IED Transport System, remote loading system for bombs. Farawa, forensics, mirrored searching devices. GSA contract. Criminalistics, Inc. is a small business, owned by a veteran/ retired K-9 handler.

Havis manufactures the industry’s leading K-9 and prisoner transport systems, as well as high-intensity scene lighting, Consolidator® consoles, and computer mounts and docking stations. Havis provides solutions for your mobile office. Havis has been a dedicated and leading manufacturer of high-quality public safety industry products for more than 60 years.

Crossroads K-9 Supplies 104 Pennsylvania Ave. Hopelawn, NJ 08861 Phone: 800-905-9737 Web: www.xrdsk9.com E-mail: crossroadsk9@aol.com Crossroads K-9 Supplies offers one-stop shopping for all of your K-9 unit needs. We invite you to experience high-quality equipment without the premium price.

DogSport Gear In Canada: 22663 Old Yale Rd. Langley, BC V2Z-2V4, Canada In the U.S: 1706 Front St. Lynden, WA 98264 Phone: 888-856-2076 Web: www.dogsportgear.com E-mail: dogsportgear@telus.net DogSport Gear is a North American manufacturer of training equipment for police and military K-9s and handlers. Our product lines are complete, from toys to ballistic K-9 vests. DogSport Gear is also the official Canadian distributor, and a U.S. distributor, of Schweikert K-9 training equipment.

Horizon Structures Phone: 888-487-4337 Web: www.horizonstructures.com A Horizon Structures pre-built outdoor dog kennel is the perfect way for you and your pet, show or working dogs to safely enjoy time outdoors.

Horton's Handcrafted Quality 301 Washington St. Bellevue, NE 68005 Phone: 402-932-9144 Web: www.hortonsk9.com Since 1972, Horton’s legendary designs, materials and relentless commitment to field-tested quality are built into every handcrafted piece of equipment we sell. Horton’s Handcrafted Quality offers a complete line of professional equipment, including: leather products, protective clothing and K-9 equipment. Discover the guaranteed Horton difference at www.HortonsK9.com or call 402-932-9144.

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Equipment and Supplies continues

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BUYER’S GUIDE

K9 Tactical Gear

Pet Doors USA, Inc.

Phone: 916-652-8333 Web: K9tacticalgear.com

continued

We manufacture specialized products for K-9/officer teams. Our “K9Tactical Gear” line is manufactured in California.

4523 30th St. W. #E502 Bradenton, FL 34207 Phone: 800/749-9609 Web: www.dogdoors.com E-mail: support@dogdoors.com

K9 Power 350 Sackett Point Road North Haven, CT 06473 Web: www.k9power.com Email: healthydog@k9power.com K9 Power offers one stop shopping for all your working dog needs! Including a wide selection of high quality working dog gear for police, SAR, tracking, military and competition K-9s, as well as nutritional supplements, treats, chews, tugs and toys. LEO-owned.

K9 Pro Wear Box 2412 - Station Main Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada R3C 4A7 Phone: 888-881-5959 Phone: 204-488-1959 Web: www.k9prowear.com E-mail: contact@k9prowear.com Designer and manufacturer of K-9 & Handler gear. Tactical and High-Visibility dog uniforms to protect and identify working K-9 units. Options include Cool Packs™ for hot weather plus options for night, roadside, rain, pests and the cold. Uniforms customized by request. NEW Product - For dogs: Cool Pack™ Kennel & Roadside Pads. For handlers: Cool Packs™ Body and Cap. Cool Pack™ hot weather gear for dogs and handlers can be re-energized in the field up to 200 times, is light weight and non-toxic.

K9 Storm Inc. 168 Bannatyne Ave. Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0R5 Canada Phone: 204-669-8199 Web: www.k9storm.com E-mail: info@k9storm.com The K9 Storm Patrol–SWAT Vest is K9 Storm’s most widely used K-9 tactical body armor. The patented, built-in, loadbearing harness system enables the K9 Storm Vest to be worn on all deployments: track, search, rappel, extract, and apprehend. Other available K9 Storm gear includes tracking/I.D. harnesses, detector collars, close-quarters combat muzzles, long lines, and leads.

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Ray Allen Manufacturing is the industry leader in professional K-9 training equipment, including leads, collars, harnesses, suits, sleeves, muzzles, toys, kennels, vehicle inserts and electronic systems, and more. In business since 1948, Ray Allen continues to develop and provide innovative and revolutionary products for all your K-9 needs.

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Optical Surveillance Systems, Inc. 1920 Main St., #20 F Ferndale, WA 98248 Phone: 903-881-5517 Web: www.ossinet.com E-mail: info@ossinet.com Interdiction tools: SPY-STIK fiber-optic scope/visual inspection system, Windo-Wedge, TankSleeve. Stealth-9 surveillance scope w/USB camera.

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2011 BUYER’S GUIDE

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RunCool Hood Louvers 6767 Forest Hill Ave., Suite 305 Richmond, VA 23225 Phone: 804-355-1758 Web: www.hoodlouvers.com E-mail: cool@hoodlouvers.com

K9 Power

U.S. Explosive Storage 355 Industrial Park Drive Boone, NC 28607 Phone: 800-233-1480 Web: www.usexplosivestorage.com E-mail: dinfo@usexplosivestorage.com Explosive storage magazines/day boxes. Utilized by law enforcement in housing explosives for bomb-detecting canines. Protects explosive materials used in training and detection. Enhances safety for dogs and handlers. Many sizes. Transportable.

Food and Mineral Supplements

Experience the Noni difference. Noni makes dogs feel better! When they feel better they perform better and are more prepared to meet all of their professional challenges. Noni will help maintain optimal physical and mental well-being.

K-9 Apparel Glacier Tek Inc. PO Box 120642 West Melbourne, FL 32912 Phone: 321-676-7799 Phone: 800-482-0533 Web: www.coolvest.com RPCM® ChillyDog is the solution to heat stress experienced by working dogs. This revolutionary cooling product maintains 59°F for a couple hours and recharges in minutes. It was designed to apply longlasting cooling to the dog’s ventral area —the body core. No hazardous ingredients — the formula is safe even if some is ingested. RPCM® Cool Packs can be replaced with recharged packs in under a minute without removing the harness from the dog. Enter coupon code PoliceK9Mag-10 (right as you check out using our secure website for ordering) for a 10% discount off your entire order.

Designer and manufacturer of K-9 & Handler gear. Tactical and High-Visibility dog uniforms to protect and identify working K-9 units. Options include Cool Packs™ for hot weather plus options for night, roadside, rain, pests, and the cold. Uniforms customized by request. NEW Product - For dogs: Cool Pack™ Kennel & Roadside Pads. For handlers: Cool Packs™ Body and Cap. Cool Pack™ hot weather gear for dogs and handlers can be re-energized in the field up to 200 times, is light weight and non-toxic.

K-9 Officer Apparel Ray Allen Manufacturing 975 Ford St. Colorado Springs, CO 80915 Phone: 800-444-0404 Web: www.rayallen.com E-mail: sales@rayallen.com Ray Allen Manufacturing is the industry leader in professional K-9 training equipment, including leads, collars, harnesses, suits, sleeves, muzzles, toys, kennels, vehicle inserts, electronic systems, and more. In business since 1948, Ray Allen continues to develop and provide innovative and revolutionary products for all your K-9 needs.

Victory Defense 2815 E. Main St Canon City, CO Phone: 719-276-0341 Web: www.victorydefense.com Your best source for gear and training. victorydefense.com

Hallmark K-9 47 Ridge Rd., Box 1 Tylersport, PA 18971 Phone: 800-767-9055 Web: www.hallmarkk9.com E-mail: hallmark15@aol.com Vortex by CPN; no other supplement ever required again.

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Creative Pet Products Phone: 877-269-6911 Web: www.k-9firstaid.com First aid and resusciator kits in stackable, easy to transport cases.

Ray Allen Manufacturing 975 Ford St. Colorado Springs, CO 80915 Phone: 800-444-0404 Web: www.rayallen.com E-mail: sales@rayallen.com Ray Allen Manufacturing is the industry leader in professional K-9 training equipment, including leads, collars, harnesses, suits, sleeves, muzzles, toys, kennels, vehicle inserts, electronic systems, and more. In business since 1948, Ray Allen continues to develop and provide innovative and revolutionary products for all your K-9 needs.

P.O. Box 2926 Lake Havasu City, AZ 86405-2926 Phone: 626-523-4028 Web: www.k9tacops.com E-mail: topdogwck1@aol.com K9TacOps provides K-9 consulting services throughout the United States, Australia, Canada, and Brazil. Law enforcement and attorneys depend on K9TacOps to provide expert witness testimony in criminal and civil cases regarding use of force, K-9 patrol deployments, K-9 SWAT operations, independent/outside audits and reviews of their K-9 units, training, policy, case law, and report writing.

Software Law Enforcement Technology Group, LLC 1951 Woodlane Drive Woodbury, MN 55125 Web: www.letg.com E-mail: k9tracker@letg.com LETG CanineTracker was developed by an experienced handler for canine teams to keep track of training, call activity, vet visits and other canine related information. Keeping accurate records is very important when handlers find themselves in court. This is a browser-based system and accessible anywhere. Go to www.letg.com/products_canine.html to learn more or Email k9tracker@letg.com today to take advantage of this promotional offer.

13420 Cedar Lime Rd. Leander, TX 78641 Phone: 512-267-2275 Web: www.canine-academy.com E-mail: canineacademytx@aol.com

Excel K-9 Services Inc. Lyndhurst, OH Phone: 216-214-0060 Phone: 877-973-9235 Web: www.Excelk9.com E-mail: Excelk9@aol.com

Superb, pretrained canines available for purchase, including detection, patrol, dual-purpose, and tracking. Top-notch training for you and your canine partner. All canines guaranteed for health and performance. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Realistic training scenarios and environments. Bi-lingual instruction available. A company that stands behind its product and its word.

We offer a wide selection of services that include police service dogs and handlers trained in narcotics or explosive detection and all patrol areas of agility, obedience, article, building, and area search, tracking and aggression control/ handler protection. Two-year health and lifetime workability guarantee available. NAPWDA Master Trainer Utility, Narcotics and Explosives Detection.

Canine Tactical Operations - S.K.I.D.D.S. / CATS

Foremost Response/ Victory Defense Consulting

5208 N. State St. Jackson, MS 39206 Phone: 601-368-9944 Web: www.alphak9.com E-mail: randy@alphak9.com

P.O. Box 2926 Lake Havasu City, AZ 86405-2926 Phone: 626-523-4028 Web: www.skidds.com E-mail: topdogwck1@aol.com

3070 I-70B, Bldg. #4 Grand Junction, CO 81504 Phone: 970-434-4141 Web: www.victorydefense.com E-mail: trainers@victorydefense.com

Alpha K-9 is a state-of-the-art dogtraining facility specializing in both service dogs for law enforcement and problem-solving obedience training for civilians. Thirty years of dog-training experience helps to make Alpha K-9 your smartest choice.

SKIDDS/CATS provides exceptional basic and advanced tactical training to handlers and SWAT teams throughout the United States, Australia, Canada, and Brazil. The goal of these two 3-day courses is to educate and train patrol handlers and SWAT teams on the deployment of police dogs in a high-risk patrol or SWAT operation.

Legal Research Canine Tactical Operations & Consulting

Canine Academy Training Center

Training Alpha K-9

California Narcotic Canine Association 2 El Paso Place Salinas, CA 93901-4123 Web: www.cnca.com E-mail: Steve Stolan, President at Steve@cnca.com, or Jere Martin, Executive Manager, at Jerre@cnca.com Leading the pack since 1991 – In Dog We Trust CNCA is based in California, with a national and international membership. CNCA offers training and certification nationwide and in select countries. Training and certification is offered throughout the year for narcotic, explosive and now patrol certification. The four-day annual training seminar is held each January in Burbank, CA.

Eden Consulting Group 123 Hawkmere View Chestermere, Alberta T1X 1T7 Canada Phone: 403-569-6822 Web: www.kats.ca E-mail: rseden@policek9.com Our world-renowned trainers have been setting the standard for cutting-edge training in explosives, narcotics, and patrol dog training since 1991. Our customized courses and certifications give handlers the training they need to deploy ethically, using tactically sound techniques, and provide skills that strengthen police dog training and standards.

Victory Defense Consulting (VDC) provides reality-based tactical programs, arrest control, self-defense, firearms and K-9 training courses utilizing the nation’s best subject matter experts. VDC is prepared to come to you for this progressive reality-based training. Visit the VDC website for regular course information and updates. www.victorydefense.com

K-9 Services 27 Baugus Lane Edgewood, NM 87015 Phone: 505-250-4576 Web: www.k9services.com E-mail: ksheld@msn.com K-9 Services — where experience, education and expertise come together to provide professional law-enforcement training. Narcotics, explosives, patrol, cadaver and tracking training for police service dogs. Contact Kevin Sheldahl for information.

Mike Herstik International K-9 4804 Laurel Canyon Blvd. Valley Village, CA 91607 Phone: 818-951-4000 Cell: 818-335-4111 Web: www.detectiondogs.com E-mail: intk9@earthlink.net Experienced trainer of world’s best K-9 law-enforcement and special op military units. Explosives detection training for K-9 teams: conventional and unconventional, off-leash directed stand-off, post-blast scenario 2nd and 3rd device detection, suicide bomber mitigation, etc. Will create, enhance, or remediate existing programs. Experienced largescale project director. Internationally available for onsite training, clinics, and seminars. Serious inquiries only, please.

Police K-9 Magazine Training & Consulting P.O. Box 280541 Lakewood, CO 80228 Phone/Fax: 866-988-1545 Website: www.PoliceK9Magazine.net E-mail: Jeff@PoliceK-9Magazine.com, Jeff.Barrett@PoliceK-9Magazine.com Police K-9 Magazine Training & Consulting offers you the most comprehensive and professional resource for K-9 professionals. Our training classes, which feature some of the best trainers from around the world, include: Precision Power Collar Techniques, Drug Detection Canine Instructors Course, Narcotic Canine Deployment, Decoy Class, Tactical Patrol Dog Operations, High-Risk Tactical K-9 Tracking and Drug Detection Canine Record Keeping and Court Testimony. Consultants, due to promotions, transfers, and retirement agencies, are rarely able to maintain a high level of canine knowledge and experience. To solve this problem we have brought together decades of training and experience in all facets of law-enforcement canine disciplines to assist you and your agency.

Quality K-9 Concepts 995 Lake Ave. Harlem, GA 30814 Phone: 706-631-7592 Web: www.qk9c.com E-mail: matt@qualityk9concepts.com QK9C offers green dogs, trained dualpurpose dogs, puppies, personal protection dogs and estate dogs. We also offer a handler's course, a trainer's course, and a decoy course, and we are available to decoy any event. QK9C backs each dog with one of the industry's best guarantees. All dogs are trained to order.

BUYER’S GUIDE

K-9 First Aid Manuals and Supplies

Tarheel Canine Training, Inc. 230 W. Seawell St. Sanford, NC 27330 Phone: 919-774-4152 Cell: 919-244-8044 Web: www.tarheelcanine.com E-mail: malinois-j6@mindspring.com Green, started, titled and trained K-9s for sale. Four full-time police dog trainers on staff. 12,000-square-foot facility. Simply the best facility and training available. Two-year health guarantee on all dogs sold. Lifetime performance guarantee on all trained dogs sold. Jerry Bradshaw, CEO and training director. To purchase Jerry’s new book, Controlled Aggression, visit www.lulu.com/content/2317473.

Terry Fleck P.O. Box 729 Dayton, NV 89403 Phone: 530-545-2855 Web: www.k9fleck.org E-mail: k9fleck@aol.com Seminars: Canine Legal Update and Opinions; Tactical High-Risk K-9 Team Tracking; Defensive Tactics for K-9 Teams; High-Risk Vehicle Stops/Assaults with a K-9 Team; Tactical Handgun and Urban Rifle Techniques; Chemical Munitions Deployment with a K-9 Team.

We can provide an independent UNIT REVIEW of your agency’s canine unit to confirm that your unit reaches the level of best practices, or provide you with a detailed, step-by-step process to make your unit the best it can be. Expert witness services also provided.

Please visit our website at www.cnca.com for updates and information!

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Ventosa Kennel P.O. Box 358 Scotland Neck, NC 27874 Phone: 252-826-4415 Web: www.ventosakennel.com E-mail: tbowling@ventosakennel.com The nation’s largest police K-9 training facility. 5,000 acres, 70,000 sq. ft. indoor training center. Police K-9 training and sales since 1968. Imported, selectiontested, and guaranteed green and trained dogs for sale. Tracy Bowling, Training Director. For more information on our training, sales or to purchase Tracy’s new book, Police K9 Tracking, visit our website.

Training Materials and Videos Canine Training Systems 9325 East Saint Charles Road Columbia, MO 65202 Phone: 573-214-0900 Web: www.caninetrainingsystems.com E-mail: info@caninetrainingsystems.com Award-winning DVDs, books and supplies for trainers who want the latest techniques with the experts in agility, schutzhund, police K-9, obedience, tracking, clicker training, conformation, herding, tricks, pets and more. Check out our streaming samples online and follow us on Facebook® and YouTube®!

K-9 Trailing: The Straightest Path - Book by Jeff Schettler Alpine Publications 38262 Linman Road Crawford, CO 81415 Phone: 800-777-7257, 970-921-5005 Fax: 970-921-5081 Web: www.alpinepub.com

Ray Allen Manufacturing 975 Ford St. Colorado Springs, CO 80915 Phone: 800-444-0404 Web: www.rayallen.com E-mail: sales@rayallen.com Ray Allen Manufacturing is the industry leader in professional K-9 training equipment, including leads, collars, harnesses, suits, sleeves, muzzles, toys, kennels, vehicle inserts, electronic systems, and more. In business since 1948, Ray Allen continues to develop and provide innovative and revolutionary products for all your K-9 needs.

Terry Fleck P.O. Box 729 Dayton, NV 89403 Phone: 530/545-2855 Web: www.k9fleck.org E-mail: k9fleck@aol.com Seminars: Canine Legal Update and Opinions; Tactical High-Risk K-9 Team Tracking; Defensive Tactics for K-9 Teams; High-Risk Vehicle Stops/Assaults with a K-9 Team; Tactical Handgun and Urban Rifle Techniques; Chemical Munitions Deployment with a K-9 Team.

The K9 Bookstore P.O. Box 111 Eggleston, VA 24086 Phone: 540-921-2969 Web: www.k9bookstore.com E-mail: wolfe.media@pemtel.net Have you ever thought about publishing a book or training manual but didn’t know where to start? We are a fullservice, top-quality book publishing company offering writing, editing, book design, printing (conventional paper or e-books), marketing, and sales. We can help you with any or all of your bookpublishing needs; first-time authors are our specialty. Experienced K-9 lawenforcement editor with more than 30 years in the publishing industry. Call or e-mail us today for more information.

Training Supplies Canine Consultants, Inc. 120 Englewood Dr. Inman, SC 29349-9661 Phone/Fax: 864-592-3112 Web: www.canine-consultants.com E-mail: crk@www.canine-consultants .com The finest European dog-sport equipment at discount prices! Top-quality, custom-made bite suits used throughout Europe and the USA by police and military for $995. Bite sleeves starting at $32. Leather and our famous Beta leashes, collars, harnesses, sleeve covers and reward toys are all available. Why pay more?

Criminalistics, Inc. 560 N.W. 82nd St. Miami, FL 33166 Phone: 305-885-6444 Web: www.criminalisticsinc.com E-mail: info@criminalisticsinc.com Designer and manufacturer of lawenforcement K-9 systems: Bail Out, Hotdog, Premier Canine System, Maxi Thin Fan, En’Garde Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Alert; S.I.D. IED Transport System, remote loading system for bombs. Farawa, forensics, mirrored searching devices. GSA contract. Criminalistics, Inc. is a small business, that is veteran/retired K-9 handler-owned.

Horton's Handcrafted Quality 301 Washington St. Bellevue, NE 68005 Phone: 402-932-9144 Web: www.hortonsk9.com Since 1972, Horton’s legendary designs, materials and relentless commitment to field-tested quality are built into every handcrafted piece of equipment we sell. Horton’s Handcrafted Quality offers a complete line of professional equipment, including: leather products, protective clothing and K-9 equipment. Discover the guaranteed Horton difference.

A straightforward approach to police/search dog trailing, K9 Trailing, The Straightest Path by Jeff Schettler, out-lines his step-by-step method, designed for anyone handling a trailing dog. Schettler, a retired police K-9 handle, is a full-time police and civilian K-9 trainer and law-enforcement expert in human scent evidence and trailing/tracking.

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Alpine K9

975 Ford St. Colorado Springs, CO 80915 Phone: 800-444-0404 Web: www.rayallen.com E-mail: sales@rayallen.com

51001 E. Wickenburg Way Wickenburg, AZ 85350 Phone: 623-388-5000 Web: www.alpinek9.com E-mail: alpinek9@yahoo.com

Ray Allen Manufacturing is the industry leader in professional K-9 training equipment, including leads, collars, harnesses, suits, sleeves, muzzles, toys, kennels, vehicle inserts, electronic systems and more. In business since 1948, Ray Allen continues to develop and provide innovative and revolutionary products for all your K-9 needs.

Green or trained K-9s always available. Pups from top Czech DDR lines. We provide dogs for police, military, private security, personal protection and estates. One-on-one service and attention. Czech dogs, German Shepherds and Malinois.

Tarheel Canine Training, Inc. 230 W. Seawell St. Sanford, NC 27330 Phone: 919-774-4152 Cell: 919-244-8044 Web: www.tarheelcanine.com E-mail: malinois-j6@mindspring.com Green, started, titled and trained K-9s for sale. Four full-time police dog trainers on staff. 12,000-square-foot facility. Simply the best facility and training available. Two-year health guarantee on all dogs sold. Lifetime performance guarantee on all trained dogs sold. Jerry Bradshaw, CEO and training director. To purchase Jerry’s new book, Controlled Aggression, visit www.lulu.com/

DOG VENDORS Adlerhorst International Inc. 3951 Vernon Ave. Riverside, CA 92509 Phone: 951-685-2430 Web: www.adlerhorst.com E-mail: dreaver@adlerhorst.com Adlerhorst has been providing quality service dogs and training since 1976. We offer entry-level patrol, narcotics, explosives, and arson detection training classes. All of our classes receive college credit through Santa Ana Community College and the Orange County (CA) Sheriff’s Department.

Brodie K9 Center 740 Anderson Hollow Rd. Liberty, TN 37095 Phone: 615-408-5040 Web: www.brodiek9.com E-mail: brodiek9@dtccom.net Quality, professionally trained dogs. Twenty-six years of experience. Detection (narcotics, accelerants, explosives); patrol; dual-purpose patrol dogs. Initial certification course, equipment packet, and a five-day refresher certification course after one year included. Threeyear health guarantee. Training fully guaranteed. Discounts on multiple purchases.

Bullock's Canine Service P.O. Box 1013 Greenville, NC 27834 Phone: 252-752-6874 Web: www.bullocksk9kennels.com Email: info@bullocksk9kennels.com Bullocks’ K-9 offers hand-selected police dog candidates. We train with today’s top methods to ensure your agency receives only the finest work dogs available. Our agency offers police K-9 training nationwide. Our training covers areas such as patrol, narcotics detection, explosives detection, and arson detections. We recognize that your K-9 unit is important to you and therefore we offer a 100% satisfaction policy.

2011 BUYER’S GUIDE

13420 Cedar Lime Rd. Leander, TX 78641 Phone: 512-267-2275 Web: www.canine-academy.com E-mail: canineacademytx@aol.com Superb, pretrained canines available for purchase, including detection, patrol, dual-purpose, and tracking. Top-notch training for you and your canine partner. All canines are guaranteed for health and performance. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Realistic training scenarios and environments. Bilingual instruction available. A company that stands behind its product and its word.

Cobra Canine 583 S. Birdneck Rd. Virginia Beach, VA 23451 Phone: 757-966-9740 Web: www.cobracanine.com E-mail: jeff@cobracanine.com Cobra Canine specializes in the selection and training of the finest canines from around the world for law enforcement and military units. We provide training for canine teams in patrol work, narcotic and explosive detection as well as tracking and other specialized K-9 training.

Excel K-9 Services, Inc. Lyndhurst, OH Phone: 216-214-0060, 877-973-9235 Web: www.Excelk9.com E-mail: Excelk9@aol.com We offer a wide selection of services to include police service dogs and handlers trained in narcotics or explosive detection and all patrol areas. We also offer imported green and pre-trained dogs for sale. Our pre-trained dogs are trained to certification standards. Health and workability guarantee with all sales. Please visit Excelk9.com for further information.

Burke Working Dogs Laval, Canada Phone: 514-946-4029, 506-864-4788 Web: www.burkepolicedogacademy.com E-mail: dbs@burcam.com We provide fully trained dogs for general purposes, narcotics, bomb detection and search and rescue using the finest European lines and trained by former police dog handlers. We also sell green dogs and puppies from our own breeding program. State of the art facilities and 100% satisfaction.

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Hallmark K-9 47 Ridge Rd., Box 1 Tylersport, PA 18971 Phone: 800-767-9055 Web: www.hallmarkk9.com E-mail: hallmark15@aol.com Police dogs for sale: puppies, green young adults, trained and titled adults.

K-9 Concepts, Inc. 139 Robicheaux Rd. Broussard, LA 70518 Phone: 337-837-2519 Fax: 337-937-0445 Web: www.k9concepts.com E-mail: k9concept@aol.com Sales of police K-9s: narcotics, patrol, explosives, single- or dual-purpose. Handler courses included with sales or provided to those with own canine. Trainers are avail-able for seminars. Trainers are published authors of scent-detection books. They are members and judges of NPCA and USPCA. Owner: Jack Robicheaux.

K-9 Services 27 Baugus Lane Edgewood, NM 87015 Phone: 505-250-4576 Web: www.k9services.com E-mail: ksheld@msn.com K-9 Services — where experience, education, and expertise come together to provide professional law-enforcement training. Narcotics, explosives, patrol, cadaver, and tracking training for police service dogs. Contact Kevin Sheldahl for information.

K-9 Training Center

Logan Haus Kennels

Performance Kennels

1807 Nelle St. Tupelo, MS 38804 Phone: 662-553-4199 Web: www.k9policetraining.com E-mail: gary@k9policetraining.com

514 Rolling Hills Farm Rd. Lewisburg, WV 24901 Phone: 304-661-5758 Web: www.loganhauskennels.com E-mail: loganhauskennels@gmail.com

5455 Edmonson Ave. Buffalo, MN 55313 Phone: 612-916-1161 Web: performancekennels.com E-mail: performancekennels@att.net

We sell top European imported police service K-9s with more than 20 years experience in training. We offer a 3to-5-week training school with purchase of one of our K-9s. Single-purpose or dual-purpose. Tracking and apprehension are our specialties. Visit our website at www.k9policetraining.com.

At stud: Arko PH1 Met Lof, a Dutch Shepherd; the top young KNPV producer. He has drive, power, and courage like we have never seen in any dog. He passes on those traits to his offspring with amazing consistency. Come test him; we know you will use him to improve your police dog program!

Started or fully trained German Shepherds or Malinois. All dogs are guaranteed suitable for dual-purpose work. Our goal is superior quality over quantity. The strong character and stability of our dogs sets us apart from others. One of our specialties is sporting breeds that are fully trained in narcotics detection.

K9 Unlimited

Midwestern Kennels

275 Warwick Ave. PO Box 402 Franklin, NJ 07416 Phone: 201-983-3527 Web: k9unlimited.com E-mail: k9unlimited@gmail.com

Phone: 608-495-0431 Web: www.midwesternk9.com E-mail: contact@midwesternk9.com

We at K9 Unlimited understand the importance of a good decoy and our goal is to help your dog perform effectively and reliably for the streets. We believe the quality of any training exercise far outweighs the duration of the session. Because the dog exerts a lot of energy during bite work, we train in multiple short sessions. http://newjerseydogtrainers.com/home.html

The premiere breeding & training facility, Midwestern K-9 is a full service dog facility. We specialize in hand picked and highly trained dogs for home, personal, and police use. If you’re looking for a dog you can count on, we will provide it! We hand pick each dog for its temperament, intelligence, and ability to learn. We don’t import from other countries blindly or breed dogs that are not fit for the job. Our program and model for achieving successful dogs is proven and highly desired within the industry.

Kreative Kennels Office: 900 Post Rd. Oakdale, CA 95361 Training facility: 11380 Early Dawn Rd. Turlock, CA 95380 Phone: 800-640-2855 Web: www.kreativekennels.com E-mail: kreativekennels@yahoo.com Kreative Kennels is breeding and importing old-style German Shepherds for the military, border patrol, and police departments. Excellent prey drive, courage, intelligence, tons of energy. Huge selection of dogs at all times. All available dogs are pre-trained. Industry standard guarantee. References are available.

Pacific Coast K9 P.O. Box 529 Custer, WA 98240 Phone: 360-410-8436 Web: www.pacificcoastk9.com E-mail: ken@pacificcoastk9.com Specializing in exceptional, high-drive sporting breeds — green, started, and fully trained. More than 40 years of experience handling and training every type of working dog we sell (drug, bomb, SAR, cadaver, patrol). Excellent guarantee.

Ruffhaus Kennels LLC 22111 O’Brien Rd. Howey-in-the-Hills, FL 34737 Phone: 352-406-1814 Web: www.ruffhauskennels.com E-mail: k9hoby274@aol.com We are well aware of the types of dogs that other vendors sell to police agencies as police dogs. It is our mission at Ruffhaus Kennels to provide top-quality police dogs that can do the work. We will not sell any dog we would not work ourselves.

Tarheel Canine Training, Inc. 230 W. Seawell St. Sanford, NC 27330 Phone: 919-774-4152 Cell: 919-244-8044 Web: www.tarheelcanine.com E-mail: Malinois_jb@mindspring.com Green, started, titled and trained K-9s for sale. Four full-time police dog trainers on staff. 12,000-square-foot facility. Simply the best facility and training available. Two-year health guarantee on all dogs sold. Lifetime performance guarantee on all trained dogs sold. Jerry Bradshaw, CEO and training director. To purchase Jerry’s new book, Controlled Aggression, visit www.lulu.com/content/2317473.

Treasure Coast Canine Services Michael Colton P.O. Box 1384 Ft. Pierce, FL 34979 Phone: 772-370-3770 Web: www.tck9.com Email: info@tck9.com TCK9 is committed to quality, NOT quantity, putting your needs in a working dog ahead of our convenience. Our dogs are selected and trained for your unique requirements. TCK9 selects, breeds and trains dogs for service – not sport. You don't pay for titles, only realworld capability. At TCK9, we offer K-9 training for the 21st century. We are proud of our reputation, based on our head trainer's 13 + years of experience working with and training canines. Mike Colton has worked with dogs here on the Treasure Coast, across the state, nationally and internationally. He is trained and certified by the State of Florida as a police K-9 team trainer, the National Police Canine Association as an instructor and evaluator of police K-9s, the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives as an explosives detection K-9 evaluator and through Penn Foster Career School as a companion dog obedience instructor. He has been certified by the AKC as a Canine Good Citizen evaluator.

Tri-States Canine Services

Ventosa Kennel P.O. Box 358 Scotland Neck, NC 27874 Phone: 252-826-4415 Web: www.ventosakennel.com E-mail: tbowling@ventosakennel.com The nation’s largest police K9 training facility. 5,000 acres, 70,000-sq.-ft. indoor training center. Police K9 training and sales since 1968. Imported, selection tested, and guaranteed green and trained dogs for sale. For more information on our training, sales or to purchase our book, Police K9 Tracking, visit our Web site.

BUYER’S GUIDE

DOG VENDORS

We offer on-site and off-site advanced K-9 training seminars. Please visit our website for complete information.

Von der Sandburg Working Dogs 522 Summer St. Rockland, MA 02370 Phone: 508-221-4066 Web: www.vondersandburg.com Email: vondersandburg@aol.com We have Czech imports and domestic dual-purpose K9's and green, dualpurpose prospects available. Puppies are occasionally available. We offer high caliber, quality working dogs at reasonable prices. We are proud to stand behind what we sell!

3069 Durst Clagg Rd. Warren, OH 44481 Phone: 330-501-3816 Email: dave@tristatek9.com Website: www.tristatek9.com Tri-State Canine Services is committed to providing quality training that will exceed your expectations. We offer all the services you need to ensure your organization’s canines are the best of breed. We also have police dogs for sale, check for availability. We make our own custom aluminum k9 crates right at our facility.

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American Protection and Patrol Dog Association (APPDA) c/o Mo Earle, Secretary 4614 Kirker St. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 Phone: 561-723-9051 Web: www.appdak9.com E-mail: fyrresg2@yahoo.com APPDA is a program designed to show – through sanctioned trials, with realitybased scenarios – that any K-9 team that has been through the program will have the confidence, ability, and courage to de-escalate any situation, if one day confronted and put to the ultimate test. Go to www.appdak9.com for more information.

American Working Dog Council P.O. Box 71 Brookville, OH 45309 Phone: 937-771-1476 Web: www.awdck9.com E-mail: admin@awdck9.com The American Working Dog Council is setting the standard for trainer and handler certifications. We also offer workshops and seminars for our members. Our goal is to bring all trainers under one certification to improve the industry.

Connecticut Police Work Dog Association c/o James A. Cortina 596 Vauxhall St. Ext. Waterford, CT 06385 Web: www.cpwda.com E-mail: k9cortina@ct.metrocast.net The Connecticut Police Work Dog Association Inc. was established in 1991, to assist, unite, and promote police service dogs in the State of Connecticut. This organization was established to enhance the training, education and overall working performance of our police canine teams.

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Eastern States Working Dog Association, Inc. P.O. Box 187 Mt. Holly, NJ 08060 Phone: 609-321-4435 Web: eswda.org Email: JMiller@eswda.org The Eastern States Working Dog Association is an independent non-profit police K-9 organization comprised of a group of working dog and police K-9 enthusiasts. These individuals work together to promote the best interests of the police K-9 and working dogs utilized in law enforcement and other public safety functions. It serves as a legally recognized certifying authority for those police K-9s, their handlers and trainers.

National Narcotic Detector Dog Association (NNDDA) 379 CR 105 Carthage, TX 75633 Phone: 888-289-0070 Web: www.nndda.org E-mail: nnddasecretary@yahoo.com NNDDA is a professional, nonprofit organization dedicated to the utilization and proficiency of scent detector dogs for the benefit of law enforcement and private industry. Our purpose is to provide training pertaining to the laws of search and seizure, utilizing scent detector dogs and a method of certification for court purposes.

National Police Canine Association (NPCA) P.O. Box 538 Waddell, AZ 85355 Phone/Fax: 877-362-1219 Web: www.npca.net E-mail: info@npca.net NPCA is a nonprofit association dedicated to the training, development, and certification of law-enforcement canine teams. NPCA offers street-realistic certifications in patrol, narcotics detection, explosives detection, tactical, tracking and trailing, human concealment, contraband, and wildlife. NPCA offers these nationally accepted certifications throughout the year across the United States.

North American Police Work Dog Association (NAPWDA)

United States Police Canine Association (USPCA)

4222 Manchester Ave. Perry, OH 44081 Phone/Fax: 888-422-6463 Web: www.napwda.com E-mail: napwda@napwda.com

National Executive Director Russ Hess P.O. Box 80 Springboro, OH 45066 Phone: 937-751-6469 Web: www.uspcak9.com E-mail: USPCADir@aol.com (Mr. Russ Hess, National Executive Director)

The North American Police Work Dog Association (NAPWDA) was organized in October 1977. Objectives are to unite and assist law-enforcement agencies in training and continued improvement of police work dogs; establish a working standard for police dog teams and trainers through and accreditation program; and provide education through publications and state and national training workshops.

Partners for Patriots 740 Anderson Hollow Rd. Liberty, TN 37095 Phone: 615-408-5040 Web: www.partnersforpatriots.org Email: info@partnersforpatriots.org Partners for Patriots is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation founded to provide disabled Veterans with a service dog. The need is great and donations are needed and appreciated. Donate online at: www.partnersforpatriots.org or mail donations to: Partners for Patriots 740 Anderson Hollow Rd. Liberty, TN 37095 Find us on Facebook!

Southern Tier Police Canine Association (STPCA) Business address: 4125 St. Clair Rd. Binghamton, NY 13903 Training facility: 2289 Airport Rd. Johnson City, NY Phone: 607-723-1878 Web: www.southerntierpolicek9.com E-mail: kaladar1@aol.com orjvanek@stny.rr.com Southern Tier Police Canine Association, Inc., is a nonprofit association of handlers and trainers who are law-enforcement officers dedicated to providing the best police service dog teams to the community. We host an Advanced Handlers and Tactics Seminar in June of each year.

2011 BUYER’S GUIDE

Established in 1971. USPCA is a professional law-enforcement training and certification association.

INTERNET AND PUBLISHING RESOURCES Police K-9 Magazine P.O. Box 280541 Lakewood, CO 80228-0541 Phone: 866-988-1545 Web: www.policek-9magazine.com E-mail: jeff@policek-9magazine.com or editor@policek-9magazine.com Police K-9 Magazine provides timely articles on K-9 training, health, legal issues, interviews, deployments, and equipment. We are the number one resource for information about upcoming training and events around the world. Our magazine is the most read publication for police K-9 officers in the world. Police K-9 Magazine is owned and published by a working K-9 officer. The insight and experience from our publisher and editorial advisors is unmatched. Currently we have readers of our print and digital versions in over 61 countries. Visit our Web page for additional articles, interviews, videos and news as well as an online store featuring K-9 and police equipment.

Terry Fleck P.O. Box 729 Dayton, NV 89403 Phone: 530-545-2855 Web: www.k9fleck.org E-mail: k9fleck@aol.com Seminars: Canine Legal Update and Opinions; Tactical High-Risk K-9 Team Tracking; Defensive Tactics for K-9 Teams; High-Risk Vehicle Stops/Assaults with a K-9 Team; Tactical Handgun and Urban Rifle Techniques; Chemical Munitions Deployment with a K-9 Team.

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The K9 Bookstore P.O. Box 111 Eggleston, VA 24086 Phone: 540-921-2969 Web: www.k9bookstore.com E-mail: wolfe.media@pemtel.net Have you ever thought about publishing a book or training manual but didn’t know where to start? We are a fullservice, top-quality book publishing company offering writing, editing, book design, printing (conventional paper or e-books), marketing, and sales. We can help you with any or all of your book-publishing needs; first-time authors are our specialty. Experienced K-9 lawenforcement editor with more than 30 years in the publishing industry. Call or e-mail us today for more information.

K-9 CONSULTING AND SEMINARS California Narcotic Canine Association 2 El Paso Place Salinas, CA 93901-4123 Web: www.cnca.com E-mail: Steve Stolan, President at Steve@cnca.com, or Jere Martin, Executive Manager, at Jerre@cnca.com

Brad Smith/Canine Tactical Operations/SKIDDS & CATS P.O. Box 2926 Lake Havasu City, AZ 86405-2926 Phone: 626-523-4028 Web: www.skidds.com Web: www.k9tacops.com E-mail: topdogwck1@aol.com K9TacOps provides K-9 consulting services throughout the United States, Australia, Canada, and Brazil. Law enforcement and attorneys depend on K9TacOps to provide expert witness testimony in criminal and civil cases regarding use of force, K-9 patrol deployments, K-9 SWAT operations, independent/outside audits and reviews of their K-9 units, training, policy, case law and report writing.

Terry Fleck P.O. Box 729 Dayton, NV 89403 Phone: 530-545-2855 Web: www.k9fleck.org E-mail: k9fleck@aol.com Seminars: Canine Legal Update and Opinions; Tactical High-Risk K-9 Team Tracking; Defensive Tactics for K-9 Teams; High-Risk Vehicle Stops/Assaults with a K-9 Team; Tactical Handgun and Urban Rifle Techniques; Chemical Munitions Deployment with a K-9 Team.

Leading the Pack since 1991 – In Dog We Trust CNCA is based in California, with a National and International Membership. CNCA offers training and certification Nationwide and in select Countries. Training and certification is offered throughout the year for narcotic, explosive and now patrol certification. The four-day annual training seminar is held each January in Burbank, CA. Please visit our website at www.cnca.com for updates and information!

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buyer’s guide To have your product or services featured in the next Police K-9 Magazine Buyer’s Guide please contact Tara at 262/431-4500.

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GUIDE TO ASSOCIATIONS


agency spotlight

“Currently, the dog brigade of the Brussels city district has 53 canine teams.”

Hours and hours of hard work training. Dangerous searches. Being on call all the time. But take a quick break for some play and it is all worth it.

The Brussels Police Dog Brigade by Axel Van der Borght

JULY/AUGUST 2011

I

recently visited the dog brigade of the police force in Brussels (the capital of Belgium), after receiving permission from Head Commissioner Wymersch. This dog brigade, a large operation with three kennels, has played a prominent role in the training of drug dogs in Belgium. The brigade has a long history and is renowned for its cooperation in the 1980s with J.R. Toman, a Hungarian expert in police dogs and dog training. The Brussels police force has 2,830 police officers and civilian personnel to serve and protect the city’s 230,000 inhabitants and an es-

timated 1,250,000 daily visitors (including tourists and commuters). Of course, the Brussels metropolitan area has many more residents and visitors, but the town is divided into different police districts. Currently, the dog brigade of the Brussels city district, in the center of Brussels, has 53 canine teams, seven of which are also trained in drug detection. The other districts in Brussels have their own K-9 units, but none are as large as the city district’s unit. I was fortunate to have the friendly and enthusiastic Superintendent Derese as the

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agency spotlight host of my visit. My interview with Superintendent Derese about the dog brigade and the evolution of dual-purpose teams follows. Q. How does your dog brigade work? Derese: Each handler works with his own dog. We provide a 24-hour service. During the day, the handlers patrol on foot, providing primarily preventative patrols in the many parks in Brussels, as well as at shopping centers and in residential districts. Night patrols act more as assistance to the traditional patrols. They go on the road with their dog in the back of the car. They may do searches of premises in case of alarm or suspicious transactions. They may also assist colleagues in higher-risk interventions such as fights in the entertainment area, or when other officers need to

control a car or persons. At the King Baudouin Stadium, our national soccer stadium, we assist regularly with security for public events such as football matches, concerts or other events. And of course, we do planned searches with our drug dogs assisting the narcotics section. Our instructors and helpers also divide their time between their regular work and training. Q. Who owns the dogs? Derese: With few exceptions, all dogs are owned by the corps in our area. All expenses are borne by the zone. Almost all the dogs remain in the kennel. Some colleagues were also motivated to become involved in dog sport. I think of one of my handlers, Marie France, was once the Belgian champion in the VVDH (a Belgian GSD club).

5. deemed to have the right character profile. Q. Which breed do you prefer? n Above: the Atomium, a Brussels landmark.

Q. Who does the selection of dogs and how does that work? Derese: The selection is done collectively by all four trainers and the two certified helpers/decoys within our kennel. We use the following criteria: 1. at least 12 months old; 2. registered; 3. vaccinated according to the minimum conditions required for the entire territory of the Empire; 4. medically and physically declared fit;

Derese: I have no breed preference, but I have seen an evolution over the years. There are now many more Malinois than German Shepherds in Belgium. Sometimes we have a Dutch Shepherd in training. On the other hand, there are varieties that are no longer eligible to be police dogs in Belgium, such as the Bouvier and the Rottweiler, which are bred with too much emphasis on beauty versus character. Also, there are slim pickings among varieties such as the Belgian Groenendael and the Tervueren. In the past, we had a Laekenois, two Groenendaels that were brothers, and a Tervueren. In 1978, onethird of our dogs — 10 out of 30 — were Bouviers, and at the time they were very good dogs.

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n Below: Head inspector Derese with his K-9 unit.

Q. Where do you find the dogs? Derese: Each year, we have more and more difficulty finding good dogs. We have a lot of competition from foreigners who come here to Belgium for strong dogs. Our dogs are provided by citizens, clubs, and vendors. Sometimes we find a good dog through colleagues in other areas. Because of our cumbersome administrative procedures, sometimes we lose the chance to buy a dog. Some foreigners pay more money than we can, and they pay much faster, if not on the spot. With us, it can take weeks to authorize a purchase. Q. I see a sign hanging in your office with an inscription by J.R. Toman that reads: “Training a dog starts with his handler.” 78 Police K-9 Magazine

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agency spotlight Derese: I have even met the man himself, J.R. Toman. He was here as a technical adviser to start courses. In the 1980s, I estimate that 600 to 700 police officers came to our corps to take the patrol dog courses started by Toman. At that time, he was a highly sought-after expert. Periodic maintenance trainings were also provided. Q. How long has the dog brigade had teams that were trained in narcotics detection? Derese: When I started as chief of the K-9 unit, our force had only one drug dog. In the early 1990s, we had none! I found this unacceptable and I was very happy when the corps proposed that we allow some teams to specialize in drug detection. The head commissioner supported me, because in a city like Brussels, with as much criminality as we have, our col-

n Above: Inspector Derese at one of the K-9 vehicles.

leagues undoubtedly know the value of a dog brigade. Q. If neither you nor your handlers had experience in drug detection, how did you train for that? Derese: I looked to various police corps abroad. I visited the Rotterdam police in the Netherlands with their boss Zoodsma in Nunspeet. I also went to Paris for instruction. In Germany, I

received an education with Alfred Maciejewski at the then-famous Police School in Stukenbrock (in the North Rhine-Westphalia region). Maciejewski had been specializing for many years in dual-purpose dog training. Then in mid-1990, I spent one week at an international police dog meeting in Budapest, Hungary. There I learned some new methods and made some important contacts. As a chief, I also had my own service dog — Boy, a three-year-old German Shepherd. With him, I did training on my own, and through that self-teaching, I started to look for a different way to train our K-9 teams. When I felt ready, I resumed contact with Maciejewski. Boy and I went to Germany to certify as a narcotic detection team, along with a group of dog handlers who were just at the end of their training course. We passed the test. Q. Then you also created a course for drug dog handlers to be established in Belgium? Derese: That's right. This was in collaboration with the Brussels police academy. This gave local police the opportunity to train drug dogs. There was a great deal of demand for such training. However, I took some grief from the Gendarmerie. They had the opinion that each dog (and each team) should have only one area of specialization.

n Right: K9 Unit office and kennels.

Q. You encountered a lot of opposition? Derese: I have long felt opposition from the Service Dog Support of the Federal Police. Their argument is that there should be one dog for each discipline because otherwise one of the 80 Police K-9 Magazine

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two disciplines will suffer. However, I am not convinced of that. I have long been a target for the Gendarmerie but I did not give up. I consoled myself with this thought: If I did not taken the initiative in the ’90s and had not been supported by my chief of police and the Brussels police academy, there would be so many police departments in Belgium that would not have any drug dog. The Federal Police cannot run such a program; they are too small and don’t have the budget for it. Many forces want a drug dog of their own because the federal police force has only 14 active and two passive or silent drug dogs. The Federal Police cannot handle both the training needs and the demand for nonoperational support. The need is there, but not the capacity. Through my experience and my contacts abroad, I knew that training for a drug dog specialization takes three to four months. I put a program in a nutshell; ours is based on about 300 hours of training. The Federal Police is counting on 760 hours. I find that very strange. Q. How many training courses for drug dogs have been organized? Derese: In the period from 1994 to 2007, I trained approximately 60 teams. In each class, I also took a team from our own kennel to train, primarily as dual-purpose but sometimes strictly for narcotics detection. Q. So you're a proponent of having dual-purpose dogs? Derese: I've always worked with dogs trained in two disciplines. One reason is that a small corps cannot

Q. Are you also still a handler yourself? Derese: Due to a lack of time, especially because of all the courses I teach, it is no longer possible for me to be a handler. Q. What are the most important points you drum into your dog handler candidates’ heads during training?

n Above: Kennels owned and managed by the Brussels K-9 Unit.

pay both a patrol dog and drug dog. I searched for patrol dogs with the right qualifications to train for a narcotics detection specialty. All over the world this is done by both police and the army, so why should that not be possible in Belgium? It has been a tedious process to develop our program, and I had to be patient for many years. I had prepared a dossier for a new specialization called “dual-purpose dog.” Only very recently — in June 2010 — was dual-purpose adopted by the Belgian police as a fully recognized discipline. Now that Belgium has established a legal framework for the employability and training of police dogs, as a trainer I will continue to provide training and do everything I can to ensure the success of this program. JULY/AUGUST 2011

Derese: I urge them to try to understand what the dog is saying by reading his body language. And I warn them at the end of the course that the real work is only just beginning, i.e., “The learning never stops.” Besides, it is relatively easy to learn to work a dog and to know the products they are looking for. The partnership between handler and dog and the tricks of the trade require more time and energy to master. Q. Do you also advise patrol officers who don’t work with dogs? Derese: Something I keep on repeating is that as the police dog unit, we are an assistance unit. We help out our colleagues who do the investigations. They know how to do their job and we know how to do ours. When officers search for drugs in the presence of a suspect, they should not search the place. Often it happens that in their enthusiasm — and sometimes, in their ignorance — they first start looking for drugs themselves. Especially if they have already found a small amount of narcotics, most officers want to find more, so they start to search more carefully. Only when they cannot find something do they ask for our assistance. In such cases, the handler usuJULY/AUGUST 2011

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agency spotlight candidate drug dog handler with us knows that he must remain available for maximum service. The job of dog handler is one in a million, so we have to work as real professionals. ally has problems during the search because the odor molecules have gotten mixed together and the dog may be responding to contaminated sites. From time to time, small seizures can lead to large-scale surveys. I remember a handler who was asked to search the room of a drug user after the addict was caught with a small amount of drugs in his jacket. The dog found much more drugs carefully tucked away in a CD changer. When a finding like that is made, users may begin to talk. In this case, the investigators told me that eventually a network was rolled up in Belgium and France with many arrests and seized drugs and cars — all thanks to the work of one drug dog. His find was the start of a successful international investigation. The investigators noted correctly that without a dog, the find of a larger amount of heroin during the house search probably would not have been made. Let's be honest: who thinks to look into a CD changer? Q. How many times per year are your drug dogs called into action?

n Above: Handler Patrick Renard at the Atomium in Brussels (circa 1980s). n Top: The Brussels -9 unit has created a course for drug dog handlers.

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Derese: Annually there are approximately 200 planned actions, usually at the request of colleagues from the LRD (Local Investigation Service) or the FPG (Federal Judicial Police). I estimate that there are also about the same number of spontaneous actions taken by our colleagues in the field. They ask our assistance when they need to search a car on the street, or a house. Our dispatch office and our Drug Unit are always aware that a drug dog handler is available. Each JULY/AUGUST 2011

Q. Although you had lots of opposition from the Gendarmerie in the past and from the Federal Police these days, you still are very motivated. Why? Derese: I have always enjoyed working with dogs. But I also derive a lot of motivation from the feedback I get from my former students of the drug dog training program. This year for instance, Kevin, a young police dog handler from a small police force, informed me that on two occasions his drug dog found more than a kilo (cocaine and heroin). Q. What have been some of the dog brigade’s best finds? Derese: One of my handlers once found 230,000 euros of drug money during a building search for suspected drug traffickers. The courtyard of the building was a real mess, full of boxes, plastic bags, garbage, electronics, broken trucks, etc. The investigators and detectives did not know how to search. However, one of our dogs that was on a leash at the scene waiting for a sign from the detectives spontaneously pulled and his handler read his body language and decided to follow his dog. The dog indicated on an old washing machine drum where the money was hidden, professionally packaged. That was not only a great find, but also a nice example of how important it is to read your dog. n Axel Van der Borght is a police inspector and dog trainer/decoy in Ghent, Belgium. Contact him at axel.vdb@telenet.be, or visit www.belgianK-9friends.com for more information. JULY/AUGUST 2011

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If you have an event, training, or certification you would like Police K-9 Magazine to list, please send it to Jeff Meyer jeff@PoliceK-9Magazine.com.

For complete listings see www.PoliceK-9Magazine.net

training & events Oak Brook, IL JULY 23, 2011 Drug Dog Record Keeping & Courtroom Testimony Instructor: Deputy Sheriff, Andy Weiman, Broward County, FL

OCT 1 - 2, 2011 Confidence Building for Complex Apprehensions & Advanced Ecollar info: Jeff Barrett (853) 529-5113 or (863) 738-0495

Little Falls, MN

Hobart, IN

SEP 27 - OCT 2, 2011

SEP 26 - 30, 2011

2011 NAPWDA Minnesota Search & Rescue Fall Workshop, hosted by Central Lakes Search and Rescue. Training and certification for SAR trailing, SAR cadaver and SAR area search, taught by NAPWDA Master Trainers and geared for beginner and experienced teams. Class sizes are limited and will be filled as registration is received.

2011 American Police Canine Association National Convention & Workshop.

info: Sharolyn Sievert, 320-762-8243, k9.503.clsar@gmail.com (workshop questions) or Chuck Lubowitz, 218-838-0761, ricelakeroad@yahoo.com (facility questions).

info: Simon Gresser, 219808-7868, or Bill Granzow, 219-808-5879 at the Hobart Police Department (main number 219-942-1125), www.theapca.com.

Jeff.Barrett@PoliceK-9Magazine.com, www.vohneliche.com

Lawrenceburg, IN Lansing, MI

SEP 12 - 16, 2011

AUG 22 - 24, 2011

NAPWDA 2011 Indiana Fall Workshop, hosted by Lawrenceburg (IN) PD’s K-9 Unit. Geared toward all levels from beginner to experienced teams. Training and certification available in all areas of patrol including building search, area search, aggression control, obedience, tracking and cadaver, as well as in narcotics detection. info: Captain Doug Taylor,

2011 Michigan Tactical Officers Assoc Annual Training Conference. info: Chris

dtaylorlpd@yahoo.com, 812-537-2284 (O) or 812-221-0369 (C), or Ptl. Jacob Jump, jajump2003@yahoo.com, 812-537-2284 (O) or 812-221-0376 (C).

Perlatt copsniper69 @msn.com, www.mtoa.org

Boardman, OH SEP 22 - 23, 2011 KNPV Police K-9 Training & Bite Work Techniques Workshop, sponsored by the Boardman (OH) Police K-9 Unit. Featuring Martin Kreeft, certified (KNPV) Royal Dutch Police Work Dog judge, decoy and trainer from the Netherlands, and a Canine Legal Update Seminar with Terry Fleck, deputy sheriff and canine handler (retired).

Billings, MT JULY 25 - 28, 2011 NAPWDA 2011 Mountain States K-9 Workshop Training and Certification, hosted by Crazy Mountain Kennels and the Montana Narcotics Officers Association. Training and certification available in all areas of patrol, including building search, area search, aggression, obedience, tracking/trailing and narcotics along with problem solving, also training and certification in cadaver and SAR. info: Contact Kevin Klostermeier,

info: Brian Cionni, cdog202@aol.com, 330-502-1800.

406-930-0426, or Lucinda Klostermeier, 406-930-1044.

Modesto, CA

Washington, DC

OCT 21 - 22, 2011

AUG 24 - 27, 2011

WSPCA Year-End Trial, hosted by the Modesto Police Department. info:

5th Annual HITS (Handler Instruction & Training Seminar) info: see ad

www.wspca.net/2011wspcak9events.html

on page 4&5, or visit www. PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Lakewood, CO SEP 26 - 29, 2011 2011 NAPWDA Colorado Cadaver Training & Certification Workshop, hosted by Bonnie Guzman and Beck Leider. Training and NAPWDA certification will be available in Cadaver Detection. Evening class will include expert witness testimony preparation. All levels of experience will be challenged in this workshop. Training will be geared for the experience level of individual teams. info: Bonnie Guzman, 303-733-4220, bonefinder@ comcast.net.

Moncks Corner, SC OCT 17 - 21, 2011

San Diego, CA

2011 NAPWDA South Carolina State Workshop, hosted by the Berkeley County Sheriff's Office. Open to single-purpose and dual-purpose dogs, the workshop will provide training and certification in narcotics, explosives, tracking, evidence (article) search, area search, building search, agility, obedience and aggression control. info: Sgt. Scott Cook, 843-709-9302;

OCT 10 - 13, 2011 Command Post Operations and K9 Search Team Tactics Off-Leash Control (E-collar training) info: Maximum K9 at (858) 688-2206 or maximumk9@ sbcglobal.net.

Prescott Valley, AZ JULY 25 - 28, 2011 ALECA 19th Annual K-9 Officer Survival Seminar

Sgt. Obie Pittman, 843-209-5825; or Lt. Jeremy Baker, 843209-7577, jbaker@berkeleycountysc.gov

info: www.alecapolicek9.com

Smyma, TN NOV 14 - 15, 2011

Loudon, TN JULY 12 - 13, 2011 Police Service Dog Bite and Out Clinic, Lakeview K-9 Academy. 16-hour course, involving bite suite work, sleeve work, hidden sleeve work, foundation exercises, grip-improving exercises, $100/team (handler/dog).

AUG 1 - 5, 2011 NNDDA K-9 Tactical Operations Handlers Class Level 1, Lakeview K-9 Academy. Tactical OB, multi-suspect apprehensions, passive response to gunfire, muzzle work, room clearing, tactical team approaches, movement and entries with K-9, introduction to K-9 rappelling, and use of force.

Police Dog Decoy Workshop info: Jeff Barrett (863) 738-0495 Jeff.Barrett @PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Beaumont, TX OCT 9 - 14, 2011 National Police Canine Association (NPCA) National Training Seminar & Competition. MCM Elegante Hotel info: Officer Danny Valdez, 409.284.3595 or Officer Phillip Smith, 409-284-3592, or see http://www.npca.net/.

Douglasville, GA OCT 2 - 7, 2011 2011 NAPWDA Georgia Fall Workshop, hosted by Sheriff Phil Miller and the Douglas County Sheriff’s Office. Complete workshop covering obedience, aggression, narcotics detection, explosives detection, tracking, area search, building search, cadaver work and problem solving. info: Lt. Michael Barnhill, 404-597-3030, or Lt. Billy Lashley 678-873-6720.

info: Robert Suarez, ahidta.suarez@ gmail.com, 865-755-5412, 865-458-3332 or 865-457-3112, http://lakeviewk9.com

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JULY/AUGUST 2011

JULY/AUGUST 2011

Hartwell, GA AUG 29 - 31, 2011 NNDDA Narcotic Training and Certification, sponsored by the Hart County (GA) Sheriff's Office. Register early to ensure a spot. Space limited to 30 teams. Training areas include canine drives and communication, school searches, building independence, distractions, and traffic stops. NNDDA certifications on last day. info: Lt. Todd Hendrix, k9lt631@gmail.com, 864684-1647, www.nndda.org

Lakeland, FL AUG 1 - 2, 2011

Perry, GA NOV 14 - 18, 2011 NNDDA 2nd Annual South Georgia Workshop & Certification. Sponsored by Dooly County Sheriff’s Office and Houston County Sheriff’s Office. Areas of instruction will include: narcotics detection, explosive detection, cadaver detection, indication training, criminal apprehension, gunfire acclimation, surveillance position, obedience, tracking, building search, tactical tracking, and area search. info: Lt.

High-Risk Tactical/ Woodland Ops

OCT 14, 2011 Drug Dog Record Keeping & Courtroom Testimony info: Jeff Barrett 863738-0495 Jeff.Barrett@ PoliceK-9Magazine.com

Marsha Peavy at 229-805-0451 or Pam Rogers at 256-651-6586.

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Real World

healthwatch

K9 Training for Handlers and Their

Preparing for the Worst-Case Scenario

Police Service Dogs

Case studies of treating dogs in combat situations offer useful recommendations for providing emergency care for your canine. By Janice Baker, DVM onsider the following case study: Breston, a military working dog in Afghanistan, suffered a gunshot wound to the chest, and within a few minutes of his injury, he collapsed and stopped breathing. The dog’s handler and the medic with the unit could not detect a pulse. By all outward signs, the dog was dead. The handler and the medic treated the dog based on the principles of human tactical combat casualty care (TCCC), placing an occlusive dressing over the chest wound and performing a needle decompression of the dog’s chest to relieve tension in the pneumothorax (collapsed lung). Following this treatment, the dog began to breathe again on his own and his pulse returned. For the next three hours, during an ongoing firefight and medical evacuation to veterinary care, the dog quit breathing and lost a detectable pulse three more times. Each time, needle decompression was performed and the dog began breathing again. He arrived alive at the military veterinarian’s facility, where he received further surgical care.

C

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The skill of the handler, the medic, and the veterinarian who took over the case were instrumental in his survival. Despite having “died” four times on the battlefield, the dog returned to duty in Afghanistan an amazing three weeks later. He completed several more combat deployments after that, and was finally retired due to “old age” a few months ago. Breston’s case was a hallmark in emergency care of military working dogs in combat, and Breston will long be remembered as the dog that validated TCCC care of working dogs in combat. Within two months of Breston’s injury, three other military dogs incurred serious gunshot wounds: one to the head, one to the shoulder,

and another to the chest. All three dogs survived despite life-threatening injuries because the basic TCCC principles the handlers and medics in the field used on these dogs allowed them to survive long enough to arrive at veterinary care. Since then, unfortunately, many more working dogs have been injured in Iraq and Afghanistan while saving the lives of countless service members and civilians. However, many of these seriously injured dogs have survived their wounds due to the rapid, effective actions of their handlers and tactical medics in the field.

Critical Training Tips When word of these amazing survivals got around in the working dog JULY/AUGUST 2011

community, other dog handlers soon wanted to know what special training these handlers had and what equipment they carried that helped save the lives of these dogs. The answer: Their special training consisted of basic TCCC training (combat first aid, normally focused on treating humans) that they then applied to dogs. They had no special equipment; just a couple of gauze bandages, a couple of elastic bandages, and a couple of intravenous (IV) catheter needles (used for needle decompression of the chest). Basic medical training and basic medical equipment, used at the right time and in the right way, saved the lives of these brave and valuable dogs. TCCC principles state that some casualties will die no matter what you do for them, some casualties will survive no matter what you do for them, and some will survive if you provide the right treatment at the right time, but will die if you don’t. The last case is where you can make a difference in saving the life of your dog. The first thing to do in this process is to demystify the amazing survival stories. These dog handlers had no special training other than the standard TCCC training they received for human care, coupled with training by dedicated military veterinary technicians who worked closely with them to show them how they could apply the TCCC skills they learned on humans to injured dogs, with a few modifications related to the specific anatomy of dogs. The second thing to note is that these handlers and medics did not carry expensive or complicated veteriJULY/AUGUST 2011

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Advertiser Index

healthwatch

Ace K9 - Radiotronics, Inc / www.acek9.com ........................................65 All K-9 / www.allk-9.com ........................................................................37 APCA / www.TheAPCA.com .....................................................................60 Bullock’s K-9 / www.bullocksk9kennels.com ........................................52

above. More information on specific treatments will follow in future articles).

n Left: In an emergency you might have to modify whatever is available. n Below: Almost every service member in a combat area carries an “Individual First Aid Kit.”

nary emergency care supplies into battle with them. Almost every service member in a combat area carries an “Individual First Aid Kit” (IFAK; different names may apply depending on the unit and branch of service), which includes basic supplies such as gauze bandage materials, an elastic bandage, a tourniquet, an occlusive bandage, a hemostatic bandage or compound (to stop bleeding), a nasopharyngeal airway (NPA, a tube to put in the nose to keep the airway open), and in some cases, large-bore IV catheter needles for decompression of pneumothorax. These dog handlers also carried a similar kit for their dogs, modified slightly for canine use. For example, NPA tubes are too wide and not long enough to work in dogs, so they were left out of the canine kits. Similarly, commercially made tourniquets issued to military personnel are too large to work on dogs’ narrow legs, so they are also left out of the kit. There was nothing out of the ordinary or “special” in any of the emergency kits used to treat these dogs. 90 Police K-9 Magazine

What saved these dogs were some simple facts:

1. The dog handlers knew how to recognize and treat serious, life-threatening emergencies in their dogs. 2. The medics assigned to those units knew that they were authorized and expected to provide treatment to injured working dogs just as they would for injured teammates.

3. The military unit using the dogs knew that the dogs were eligible for treatment in the field, evacuation, and a higher level of care just like any military service member. 4. MedEvac unit personnel, unit commanders, and all others involved understood the value of these dogs and that they were eligible for the same level of care as their human teammates. 5. Veterinarians receiving these injured dogs were prepared to treat and manage serious traumatic injuries at all hours of the day or night.

• Evacuation and transport to the closest veterinarian capable of managing serious traumatic injuries. Can your regular veterinarian manage serious gunshot wounds? Blunt trauma? Are they open 24 hours a day? How can you contact them after hours? How long would it take for them to come in at night if they are not open all hours? Would it be best to go directly to an emergency/specialty clinic vs. your regular veterinarian? Meet with them ahead of time and discuss a plan for a worst-case scenario. They will be much better prepared to handle your dog’s serious injury if you plan with them ahead of time.

These principles are not limited to use by military dog handlers; they can apply just as well to non-military law enforcement and other working dog units. So how can you apply these principles to your canine unit and to your own dog?

1. Get training in canine first aid: If possible, get training that is based on TCCC principles. (Look up human TCCC online: TCCC is standardized training and a lot of the information is available online. Also, many organizations offer TCCC training for working dogs.)

2. Prepare yourself and your team with basic first aid kits.

3. Prepare your organization for the possibility of serious canine injury. Work out details ahead of time, such as: • Treatment at the point of injury (see information on training, JULY/AUGUST 2011

• What is the budget for veterinary care? (It may cost $5000 to treat the dog until he can return to duty, but how much more would it cost to replace him with a fully capable dog?) What are some outside sources of funding for this? (Look at charity groups, community outreach, payment plans and pre-arranged working dog discounts.) A good fact to know is that one study showed that 100% of US military working dogs who survived their gunshot wound injuries returned to full duty (including subsequent deployment), so don’t give up on a seriously injured dog! Want a packing list for a basic ICFAK (Individual Canine First Aid Kit—based on the IFAK for human combat casualties)? Email us at contact@vettacgroup.com to request our packing list. n

Burke Working Dog Services / wwwburkepolicedogacademy.com... ..80 Can-Am K9 / www.canam-k9.com ..........................................................36 Canine Legal Update / k9fleck@aol.com, 530-545-2855 .......................23 Canine Training Systems / www.caninetrainingsystems.com ............37 Creative Pet Products / www.petfirstaidkits.com................................76 Criminalistics / www.criminalisticsinc.com ..........................................31 DogSport Gear / www.dogsportgear.com .............................................47 Dogtra / www.dogtra.com ........................................................................9 Global Training Academy / www.globaltrainingacademy.com ..........41 Gold Coast K9 / www.goldcoastk9.com. ...............................................89 Hallmark K9 / www.hallmarkK9.com .....................................................43 Havis / www.havis.com ...........................................................................93 Horizon Structures / www.horizonstructures.com ...............................61 Horton’s Handcrafted Quality / www.hortonsk9.com .........................81 K-9 BSD - Reiter Systems LLC / www.k-9bsd.com .................................19 K-9 Dynamics / www.K-9dynamics.com.................................................51 K9 Kastle - Capitol Sheds / www.k9kastle.com. ....................................89 K9 ProWear / www.k9prowear.com .......................................................13 K9 Services / www.k9services.com ........................................................36 K9 Scope / www.iabti.org .......................................................................83 K9 Unlimited / www.k9unlimited.com ..................................................79 Kreative Kennels / www.kreativekennels.com .....................................62 Kustom Krates / www.kustomkrates.com.............................................79 Lakeview / lakeviewk9.com ....................................................................31 Midwestern K-9 / www.midwesternk9.com............................................3 Morinda Care / www.morindacare.com.................................................15 National Narcotic Detector Dog Assoc / www.nndda.org ...................53 National Police Canine Assoc / www.npca.net ...............................29. 83 Optical Surveillance Systems Inc / www.ossinet.com .........................85 Pacific Coast K-9 / www.pacificcoastk9.com ........................................57 Partners for Patriots / www.partnersforpatriots.org..........................37 Pet Doors USA / www.dogdoors.com ....................................................36 PoliceK-9Magazine.com ............................HITS 6 & 7, T&C 27, Sub 71, You’ve...76 ProLaunch / www.prolaunchllc.com ......................................................33 Ray Allen / www.rayallen.com ................................................Back Cover 94 Ronco Consulting Services / www.roncoconsulting.com ....................68 Run Cool Hood Louvers / www.hoodlouvers.com ................................50 ScentLogix / www.scentlogix.com .........................................................59 Schweikert K9 Inc / www.schweikert-k9.com .........................................2 Signature K9 / www.signaturek9.com ...................................................27 Tactical Electronics / www.tacticalelectronics.com ...............................4 Tactical K9 / www.tacticalk-9.com .........................................................49 Tarheel Canine Training Inc / www.tarheelcanine.com .......................25 TwoAsterisks / www.2asstorisk.com .....................................................82 U.S. Explosive Storage / www.uschemicalstorage.com .......................85 USPCA / www.uspcaK9.com ....................................................................75 VCSI / www.vigilantcanine.com .............................................................35

Dr. Janice Baker is a consultant with the Veterinary Tactical Group, based in McLean, Virginia. Contact her at jbaker@vettacgroup.com. JULY/AUGUST 2011

Ventosa Kennel / www.ventosakennel.com .........................................81 Victory Defense / www.victorydefense.com ........................................11 WSPCA / www.wspca.net ........................................................................21

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Police K-9 Magazine July/ August 2011  

A publication for Police K-9 Handlers by Police K-9 Handlers.

Police K-9 Magazine July/ August 2011  

A publication for Police K-9 Handlers by Police K-9 Handlers.

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