Page 1

THE

BARNET BOOK OF

PHOTOGRAPHY


THE BARNET BOOK of PHOTOGRAPHY EIGHTH EDITION. REVISED, REWRITTEN, AND INCLUDING NEW

MATTER AND NEW ILLUSTRATIONS, THUS CONSTITUTING AN

ENTIRELY

NEW WORK.

PUBLISHED BY

ELLIOTT & SONS, LTD. BARNET, HERTS.

MDCDV.

>


THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

K 338 A»TGH, LENOX AND

1LIW

FOUNDATIONS 1927

J=t

•• • •

,

• •

• • • •

«

t « §

i

, •

<

• .

*

L


PREFACE CHE

Barnet Book of Photography

has

be recognised as a standard work.

made

concise instructions have

it

come

Its clear

to

and

a useful and

practical guide to thousands of photographic workers, and,

since

first

published in 1898,

large editions

dented

it

has passed through several

which have met with an altogether unprece-

sale, until

with 1905

it

has again become necessary

to reprint.

Although from time

to

time the articles and illustrations

have been carefully revised and brought up to date, the production of the present edition has been taken advantage of to have the whole

Book

rewritten

;

new subjects have been

introduced as the progress of photography required, so that the

Eighth Edition

substitute

for

previous editions

revision, but constitutes

We

want

Book

of the Barnet

now

is

not a mere

out of print, nor a

an entirely new work.

The Barnet Book

to

even more than ever

remind Photographers throughout the world of our

readi-

ness to realise their needs, and to afford them help and

advice in a manner not perhaps usual with a commercial

house

;

moreover, this

Book

should keep in remembrance


that

and

vast

growing industry

whence

Films,

Plates,

of

Barnet

That the Barnet productions are prepared only

after the

Papers, Carbon tissues,

&c, bearing

the

name

are sent forth.

most painstaking

means of

all

and

as full

Book

is

We

for

sufficiently

tests,

and by

The

accounts for the ever increasing

them, to which

liberal

and

manufacturing resources of

the great

Barnet Works, demand made

investigation

scientific

it is

our aim to respond in

a manner as that in which the Barnet

planned. desire

no monopoly, but are content with

measure of support which uniform good quality and prices

room

that fair

must secure, and the record of the past leaves no to

doubt that our endeavours have been appreciated,

and should, moreover, be a guarantee that the photographer of whatsoever rank can at for the material

and

for

means of

all

times confidently look to us

realising his

practical guidance

in

Photographic Ideals,

difficulties

arising

course of his Photographic Practice.

ELLIOTT

<S

SONS, LD

BARNET, HERTS,

1905

D

in

the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

CONTENTS. PAGE

Negative-Making.

By A.

Horsley Hinton

9

.

.......

Orthochromatic Plates and Colour Screens Mcintosh

By

Film Photography.

The Hand Camera. Hints

By By

P.O. P.

M.A.

C.

72

Welborne Piper

85

.

By W. E. A. Drinkwater

Bromide Printing.

Carbon Printing. Ozotype.

By

By

.

.

in

Carpenter

Portraiture. .

60

S. L. Coult hurst

By Edgar H.

Amateur

on

Lambert,

42

Percy G. R. Wright

Lantern Slide Making. Photographic Lenses.

By John

Rev.

.

C. Winthrope Somerville

Bennett

.

By Thomas Manly

Pictorial Photography.

By A.

ELLIOTT & SONS,

128

181

225

259

....

Some Useful Formula

C.

156

.

By Henry W.

F.

Horsley Hinton

Ltd.,

265 278

BARNET, HERTS.


ILLUSTRATIONS. I'AGE

Close Gateway, Winchester.

A Haul

By

By Edgar H.

The Trysting

Robin's Nest.

C.

By John

The Seine Net.

C.

56

74 94

.

114

Douglas

134 158

.

Horsley Hinton

178

By F.J. Mortimer

226

By A.

The Majestic Main.

Facing page 30

G. R. Ballance

By J. W. Stamp

Hill and Dale.

Gulls.

Carpenter

By

Mountain Pastures.

Elliott

Frontispiece.

Douglas English, M.B,

By John

Place.

Kimber

By W. Thomas

Ploughing in Dorset.

Volendam.

G. S.

By Hubert J.

of Pilchards.

The Harvest Mouse.

By

248

Douglas

268

By W. Thomas

Rain from the Hills.

By

A. Horsley Hinton

Âť>

294

Diagrams Showing Result of Various Light Filters (Orthochromatic Photography)

Prints Illustrating

MENT Prints

Two

(Bromide Printing)

Illustrating

(Bromide Printing)

47

.

....

Stages in Develop

Combination

203

Printing â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

208


Negative'Making* AND AFTER-

EXPOSURE, DEVELOPMENT,

TREATMENT.

T

why

assume that the

to

fair

is

reader

of

the

or

plate

printed

is

and

negative,

negative

is

exposing

from

film

completed photo-

which the graph

knows

book

this

a

called

is

that

the

produced by

first

also

a

plate

the

in

camera and subsequently developing

in a chemical solution

it

;

but the beginner im-

patient to realise his results stays not to acquire a

understanding of

those

stages

initial

knowledge of which would go

far

to

of

the

ensure

right

process

more

a

uni-

formly successful results, instead of largely depending, as is it

and

so often the case, on mere luck or accident

may be

too

much

be willing to delay

to

his

expect that the novice should practice

an exhaustive knowledge

of

so long

elementary

could he be persuaded to devote just so tion thereto

as

shall

foundation to start nothing to unlearn,

purpose of

give

with, it

as

much

him something

and thus

would be

at

him imperfectly equipped

acquire

considera-

like

a

firm

a later stage have

for his good,

this article to give just so

to

principles, yet,

much

of negative-making that for the student to leave

whilst

and

it is

the

of the process

know

less will

for future practice, whilst


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

IO fuller

may not be

information

may be

desirable, treatises

essential, though, if

combined with

practice.

Many, though of course not it

difficult to say precisely

all,

They began by

camera according

to directions,

time, not determined

plates

particular

But why

placing

exposed

and

No

similar

came out

it

what they know a plate in the for a period of

reliable than a guess,

a developing solution, and

it

accepted what the Fates gave.

readers would find

learnt

by anything more

and subsequently poured over

this

my

of

how they

of photography.

formed from

thought

derived by the study of more exhaustive

very definite idea was

first

attempts,

right

all

and

this was so remained for want of a

knowledge quite unanswered

;

except that

others little

didn't.

previous

and instead of being able

to

repeat the conditions which secured success,

deliberately

the lesson which experience should have taught was

Even now perhaps the reader

lost.

by no means certain of

is

securing even a majority of successful negatives from every

batch of exposed plates, and, like a spendthrift, would be astonished were an account rendered of the plates and time

wasted in producing those failures which he so readily forgets in the gratification

which

his few almost accidental

successes give him. Surely,

if

the careful perusal of a few printed pages will

give the beginner greater assurance, certainty, it

and economy,

were worth doing. Negative-making may be conveniently considered under

three headings

and

will

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; exposure, development, and afte r-treatment,

here be briefly so treated.

EXPOSURE. On

the principle of " safe bind, sure find," the

care that

is

exposure, the simpler and

quent

more

exercised in securing an approximately correct

operations

become.

more In

satisfactory will all subse-

ascertaining

the

correct


NEGATIVE-MAKING. exposure in any given instance,

II

six points

have

be con-

to

The speed of the plate. (2) The character of the subject. (4) The time of year. (3) The light. (5) The time of day. (6) The aperture of the lens. For general purposes we may regard plates and films as

sidered

:

(i)

being of four kinds, differing from each other in respect to their

These are

speed or light sensitiveness.

medium,

ordinary,

extra

and

rapid,

:

—Slow

specially rapid

three first-named

being, roughly speaking, each twice

rapid as the one

coming before

is

known under some

usually

"

or something similar, and

Now,

perhaps, half as rapid again as the extra rapid.

stands to reason that what

is

a correct exposure

" ordinary " plates will be too long for "

more so that

if

say,

medium," and

still

should hardly need explanation to show

it

one second be the right exposure

view in which there so bright as to sufficient for a

is

make

no dark

camera

is

object,

an open sea

for

and which indeed

one's eyes ache, then

it

woodland scene, which we value

Remember

dimness and cool shade.

through the

by the

affected lens,

it

for,

Next we have the character of

for " extra rapid."

the subject, and

as

specially rapid

fancy name, according to the

maker, as for instance " Rocket is,

The

it.

or

the

;

ones; hence distance

The sky

objects near at hand.

scenes where the sky

is

from the scene

reflect less

than remote

generally speaking, lighter than

is,

view, whilst at the other

for its very

that the plate in the

reflected

light

and near objects

is

not be

will

is

the lightest part of every

end of the

scale

would be indoor

intercepted by the roof, and light

only admitted by windows and doors.

The next three factors hour may be considered

— the

light,

the season,

and the

together presently, and next

we

have the lens aperture.

Your with the

lens, unless

means of

purpose of which

it

be of a very cheap kind,

is

furnished

altering the size of the opening, the chief

is

to increase the defining

power

of the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

12 lens, a

matter which does not concern us for the moment,

and which

Welborne book

be better understood by reference

will

but altering

;

amount

on

Piper's article

aperture

the

Mr.

to

lenses in another part of the affects the

incidentally

of light which enters the lens, hence, the smaller

the " stop " or aperture, the longer must the exposure be

admit more

in order to

light,

and the stops

by the next

smaller,

meaning l

1

fi

th,

half the

may be explained that the marked / 8,/ ii,/i 6, and so on,* these

stops

It

that the diameter of the aperture is ^th,

&c, of/ which

stands for the focal length

signs

TT tn or >

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

when

distance between the plate and the lens

that

admitted

light

and consequently only requires

exposure to be made. are usually

made

are so

each aperture admits double the volume of

is,

the

the scene

is

sharply focussed.

So now we have three

factors towards calculating the

exposure for any particular scene

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

speed of the

plate,

the aperture of the lens, and the lightness or darkness of

scene

the

If

itself.

you explain

general terms

in

the

nature of your subject and state the plate and lens aperture

you propose to a

little

give,

use,

it

might be expected that a person with

experience would

and indeed a

tell

you about what exposure to

made out

table of exposures can be

below

for your guidance, such a one being given

throughout the year and in every

power of the daylight

is

taken into consideration.

but

â&#x20AC;˘

hour of each day the

changing, and this

has

From midwinter

midsummer

to

to

be

the light gradually increases and then as gradually declines in power,

*

To

and so

in

each day from dawn to noon the light

avoid confusion

it

may be

said that in

accuracy the stops are marked in decimal /"

11*31,

&c,

some

cases for greater

thus

fractions,

or a different series of numbers are taken

;

:

^"8*6,

the relative

remain the same, each larger stop requiring right exposure being found with any one stop, that with another is ascertained by

exposures, however, half the exposure

of the next smaller, so that, the

multiplication or division.


NEGATIVE-MAKING. grows in

intensity,

and then

the

represents

maximum

off again

falls

In the Northern Hemisphere,

13

then,

and so

power,

light

towards sunset.

midsummer

noon

at

tables

of

approximately correct exposures are calculated as for noon sunshine

in

midsummer, and

portionately as the time of day

from.

Such a

table

is

must

be

increased

and year are removed

here given, in which some typical

classes of subjects are set

down

;

but

if

the subject does

not appear to come within this classification a

dependent judgment must be exercised, whilst or larger stop

is

in

if

little

for the next

must be made.

The

larger

or

in-

a smaller

used multiplication or division by

the exposures given respectively

prothere-

smaller

2 of

stop

exposures below are given

seconds or fractions of seconds.

EXPOSURE TABLE. Exposure required to give Bright Crisp Negatives with the Developing Formula given on the Plate Boxes. In Bright Sunshine in Jime, jnid-day.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY

14

Almost any text-book of photography

you

give

will

exact tables showing the alteration of the light at different

hours and seasons

say double the exposure in

sufficient to

and

end of January

to

double the noon exposure increasing

from

to

it

may be April,

from early

it

and, as regards time of day,

:

10 a.m. and 2 to 3 p.m.

at 9 to

four

it

March and

August and September, quadruple

also in

November

but for the present purpose

;

to six

when near

times

to

sunrise or sunset.

One more

If the

the weather.

exposure

if

;

gloomy four

is

the state of

lightly clouded over,

double the

consideration remains, and that

dull

sun be

and cloudy, multiply

by three

it

or five times the normal exposure

or

;

will

if

very

not be

too much.

Now

there

is

nothing really complicated in

table gives us a clue to start with,

time there

given according

to

all this.

Our

and then we increase the the season, hour, and

weather.

But

if

any hesitation be

meter, can be resorted

to,

felt,

a

little

a light-sensitive strip of paper. part of the subject,

an actinometer, or exposure instrument which contains

This

is

placed in a shady

and the time the paper takes

under the influence of the light

is

to darken

counted in seconds, and

by then adjusting certain series of figures representing those have been described above the required factors which length of exposure

is

automatically given.

There are many

contrivances of this kind, including sliding scales to assist in calculating, but

perhaps the best course

is

to

work out

the exposure yourself as above directed, and then seek by

using an exposure meter to corroborate your

In

this

way, after a very

little

laborious arithmetical exercise let

own

estimate.

time, what may appear now as a

comes

intuitively.

Do

not

the six factors and the columns of figures dismay you.

Put

F

16

stop

subject, use a

in

the lens, choose

medium

an open landscape

plate, refer to the table

on page

13.


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

1

In the third column, sixth line from the top, you read -^th of a second; but suppose

which

is,

double

and

if

it

it is

in

March, then double

^-th,

£ second, and if it be afternoon 3 p.m. then again, which gives | second if the sun is shining, say,

the sun

is

clouded double or

time— that

triple the

is,

from \ a second to one second according to whether the sky be lightly clouded over or quite dull.

But the reader may have a question to ask of the four speeds of plates to use.

decided by circumstances

;

which

as to

This must be largely

but at the outset, or until he has

learnt to get fairly accurate exposures,

he

do best by

will

keeping to the "happy medium," and except on some

medium

special occasions the

enough

plate will be fast

for

almost any purposes, and more easy to manipulate than a very rapid one, which should be regarded by the beginner rather in the light of an emergency plate.

Moreover, by

keeping to one speed of plate one factor in the calculation

remains the same. In very dull winter weather, however, an extra rapid plate

will

prove

compensating somewhat

useful,

feeble light; whilst in bright

for the

summer days an "ordinary"

comparatively slow plate will be

fast

And

enough.

having exposed a plate, we proceed to develop

or

now,

the

at

present invisible or latent image.

DEVELOPMENT. Although there

is

consist essentially of

a great variety of developers, they three

proper or reagent; (2) sets

the reagent

quickens (3)

its

going,

action,

bromide

of

and

an

and is

elements alkali,

as

(1)

the addition

the quantity

or

bromide

of

which retards action, and

is

may be made up

separate solutions,

in three

is

of which increased

hence called the accelerator

potassium

all

The developer

;

and

ammonium,

called the restrainer.

These

and by using


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

1

a

of this and a

little

or

accelerated

to

by

profit

progress

the

as

of affairs

But perhaps we are not experienced

suggest as desirable.

enough

may he may

of that development

little

retarded

opportunity of controlling the

this

development, and hence

it

which due proportions of

will

be best to use a formula in

mixed

three are

all

together, thus

giving only one solution.

Here if

one such formula, which

is

easily

is

made

up, or

preferred a ready-made one solution metol-hydroquinone

developer,

may be procured

Metol

.... ....

Water Sodium sulphite Hydroquinone

The

:

.

.

200 grains, or 6 grammes 80 ounces, or 1,000 c.c. 6 or 75 grammes ,, 1 50 grains, or 4 ,,

.

.

Potassium bromide

.

Potassium carbonate

.

50

or i£

,,

2 ounces, or 25

,,

ingredients had better be dissolved in turn in the

order given, using hot water to begin with, but using the

mixed developer only when quite

cold.

Although we have now made a " one-solution yet

is

it

"

developer,

a good plan to have always ready in addition a ten

per cent, solution of potassium bromide

— that

is,

one ounce

of potassium bromide dissolved in ten ounces

This should be a stock item, always ready on a

hand

of water.

shelf, close at

to the developing table.

It

need

not, of course,

ready, white light

is

be said

that,

our solutions being

excluded from the room, and the dark-

room lamp, of whatever form

that

may

be,

is

alone used.

Placing the plate in a suitable developing dish, having previously lightly wiped the surface with a silk handkerchief or the soft part of the hand, provided the

clean

this

hand

is

dry and

being done in order to remove any particles of

dust on the surface

sufficient

developer

is

taken in a glass

measure or similar vessel to cover the plate when poured over

it.


The Baurnet Medium AND

Extra. Re^pid Plates ARE

HIGH. CLASS

LOW

PRICE.

ECONOMY.

LITTLE

BECAUSE

nc

ve

ROCKET

THE A

AT A

AND THEIR USE THERE-

FORE MEANS

IS

PLATES

IT

HIGHER

IN

PRICE

POSSESSES QUALITIES

WHICH ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SOME KINDS OF WORK. BUT ARE SUPER-

FLUOUS

FOR

OTHERS.

><

vc

^


FOR COPYING AND ALL SIMILAR CLASSES OF WORK

WHERE THE OBJECT AND

A

SHORT

IS

STATIONARY

EXPOSURE

THEREFORE NECESSARY. A

BARN

NOT

IS

^ ^ ^

ET

Ordinary Plate

IS

INVALUABLE, AND

FILM

ALLOWS

LATITUDE

IN

OF

ITS RICH,

THICK

EXTRAORDINARY

EXPOSURE,

n*

ve

^


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

And

here

am

I

going to make a suggestion which

outcome of experience, and

it

is

this,

we add

four fluid ounces of developer,

ounces of plain water, thus diluting formula given above is

very energetic and

the

is

we take

if

thereto one to two

The

in strength.

it

may be found

it

that,

a standard stock solution, but

is

The same suggestion

little.

1

the instructions with which

weaken

safer to

it

it

a

applies to ready-made developers,

you to

tell

one part

take, say,

to

four parts of water, in which case I should take five or six

The reason

parts of water.

may appear

for this dilution

presently.

Now in

pour the contents of the glass measure over the plate

one even continuous wave, and

to take too

of the solution

little

should be enough of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; here

is

let it

to well cover the plate

it

be said that

a false economy

and a sharp look-out must be kept

when

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; there at rest,

that after flowing

no

corner or edge of the plate remains uncovered, also that no

bubbles have formed the

latter,

;

a touch with the finger will disperse

and then the dish

is

gently rocked so as to keep

The

the developer slightly moving.

patch

may

negative

is

finished,

and then appears

area which nothing can the developer acting

of

result of

an uncovered

not and probably will not be revealed until the

rectify

;

as an irregular thin

similarly, a

bubble prevents

on the plate by interposing a

tiny

dome

and this will produce a semi-transparent circular spot. Rocking the dish and watching the plate during the first

air,

half minute or so will be

an anxious period, and

if

exposure

has been correct and no error unwittingly committed there will presently

in

more or

those

appear a darkening of the film here and there less

of the

portions

strongest

well-defined

the

represent

light has

been

These should

and has affected the plate most. meanwhile other parts in turn darken, not

rapidly blacken

;

in very quick succession but with

now

These

areas.

scene where

that exposure has

been

due

correct,

precision.

and each

We

know

part of the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

20

view has duly impressed the plate according to

developer

rapidly, then

thing,

relative

after the

flowed on, the whole of the plate darkens, or

is

dark area appears the other parts follow very

after the first

After a

its

suppose we find that very soon

lightness; but

evident that the plate

it is

little

is

over-exposed.

experience has been gained at this sort of

such a plate may perhaps be saved by at once pouring

back into the measure, instantly flooding

off the developer

the plate with water to stop further action, adding a few

drops of the bromide solution to the developer and beginning over again

;

the bromide restraining the developer's action,

and giving what

will eventually

be the densest parts of the

With the

negative time to gather density before the others

developer

made up

as above, this course

recommended, because it includes bromide, and

will

is

not perhaps to be

be seen that the formula already

we may

easily get

an excess of

the addition of bromide to retard the action

it

;

but

mentioned

is

here to illustrate a principle which applies more particularly

some other developers

with

If,

on the other hand,

to be given later. after the first darkening, the re-

mainder of the film shows no sign of following on, and the first

dark area, probably representing the sky, grows black

with a well-defined edge to

then

it,

The

evidence of under-exposure.

we may

recognise the

sky, always so

luminous

as to impress a plate in a fraction of a second, has effect,

but the

have not had there

is

terrestrial objects, reflecting

sufficient time,

no

practically

and

for

much

had

its

less light,

an under-exposed plate

salvation.

Supposing, however, that the exposure has been approxi-

we

mately correct,

development. be to procure, tive,

shall next

want to know when to stop

Perhaps the most practical course if

possible, a

good or

fairly

and cover it with two or three thicknesses of

paper.

As soon

at first will

good finished negafine tracing-

as that portion of your plate which has

darkened has assumed a

fairly

deep

tint, lift it

out and hold


NEGATIVE-MAKING. it

so that you can look through

it

2

towards the dark-room

lamp, and hold the paper-covered pattern negative by

With a fully-exposed and fully-developed remains a certain thickness of film which

plate

its

side.

there

still

unaffected and

is

deprives the plate of a certain degree of transparency, and I

suggested the tracing-paper

have

addition to the clear

finished model negative as something like an equivalent

;

but

you have not to compare the general transparency of the two so

as the relative intensities of the various parts.

much

the darkest part of your

darkest part of the model, return careful that

again,

it

to the developer, being

no bubbles are formed, and

and

if

that the solution

After a minute or so examine

thoroughly covers the surface. it

you are uncertain perhaps

this plate

better be used purely experimentally, so rinse

place

it

If

plate seems less dense than the

made

in the fixing-bath

as follows

...

Hyposulphite of soda

it

had and

:

6 ounces 12

Water

in water

,,

To which when dissolved add — Metabisulphite of potassium

.

Or an

alternative is

1

.

... .....

6 ounces

Hyposulphite of soda

Water

When

dissolved add to

it

Water

... .

Both these are what are still

12

,,

....

Sulphite of soda Tartaric acid

ounce

10 ounces

Water

.

are

known

2J ounces 2

,,

o

»>

as acid fixing-baths,

and

use than the old-fashioned and

much

pleasanter

largely

employed plain hypo bath, consisting of 4 ounces

to

hyposulphite of soda in 20 ounces water. After a few minutes' immersion the opalescent appearance leave the at the back of the negative will have disappeared j


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

22

and then wash

plate therein for yet another five minutes,

in

water.

You have now your

and

finished negative,

may be

it

examined by daylight and compared with your model with tracing-paper removed.

its

developed too long

and

recall its

if

;

If

too dense

is

it

it

has been

Try now

too thin, not long enough.

appearance when examined by the dark-room

lamp, and, remembering

this, try

and

by the experience

profit

in future.

A much simpler but not less important The

finished negative

must be

left in

than an hour and a half to two hours,

less

be limited,

it

operation remains.

running water for not or, if

the water supply

should receive ten changes of water with an

interval of five minutes' soaking

between the changes, and

then set on end to dry in an airy place free from dust.

VARIOUS DEVELOPERS. We may now briefly which are

at

review some of the

less distinctive characteristic, yet all

same

many

developers

our disposal, each possessing some more or being dependent on the

principles.

First

we have a developer somewhat

similar to the

one

already given, but in two separate solutions.

Solution No. Water Sodium sulphite Hydroquinone

160 grains, or 18

6o

,,

or

6

,,

Potassium bromide

3°

n

or

3

Âť

Solution No.

...

Caustic soda

These are 1

,,

Citric acid

Water

No.

i.

20 ounces, or 1,000 c.c. 2 or too grammes. ,,

.

and No.

to 2.

.

.

20 160

2.

ounces, or 1,000 c.c. grains, or 18

grammes.

be kept in separate bottles, and labelled

Were we

sure that the exposure

is

correct


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

we should merely ture over the

23

take equal parts of each and flow the mix-

plate

;

but to guard against over-exposure

taking us by surprise and the whole plate darkening before

we can apply a remedy, we as to

much as

will

only

it

take, say, 3 ounces or

first

comfortably cover the plate of No.

ounce of No.

1

will

Pour

2.

this on,

1,

and add

rock the dish

and watch. Should no darkening occur

after half a

minute or

so,

pour the developer back into the measure, add another

ounce of No.

may

like

in

and try again, and after another minute we manner add the third ounce of No. 2, thus

2

making the developer up

to

normal strength.

now, the image should seem to hang

If,

developer off; add to

it its

own bulk

ounce, or in extreme cases

1

fire,

pour the

of water, and half an

ounce more of No.

and

2

proceed as before.

We

are

accelerator,

now employing

the alkaline solution No. 2 as an

having added water to prevent the whole solution

being too strong.

Another standard developer of the same follows

No.

as

is

1.

Water

10 ounces, or 1,000 c.c. 35 grains, or 7*5 grammes or 15 70 ,, ,,

....

Potassium metabisulphite Ortol

No.

2.

Water

10 ounces, or 1,000

Sodium

sulphite

c.c.

\ ounce, or 60 grammes if ounces, or 180 grammes

Potassium carbonate .

Potassium bromide

As

class

:

5 grains, or

1

gramme

in the previous case, equal portions of each are to be

taken for normal

use

or

modified as before

and used

tentatively.

One more little

developer of the kind

more difficult to use

may be given,

which,

if

a

at first on account of its extraordinary


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

24

when once mastered ;

rapidity, is exceedingly useful

Rodinal

Rodinal.

needs only to be diluted to be ready being from this the

for use, the proportions

With

to 70 parts of water.

1

10 per cent, solution of bromide of potassium

very useful,

image

the

to 20 parts to

i

this is

sold as a solution ready made, and

is

owing to

as,

often

its

up

flashes

is

extremely energetic character, a

in

rather

disconcerting

manner.

Now, with

the developers thus far mentioned, the

all

same portion of

solution can be used repeatedly

for several negatives in succession

are right

—and

To

of other more or

less

the same class belong a

modern

Edinol, Amidol, Eikonogen,

many

is,

they do not produce a stain on either the

fingers or the plate.

But

— that

provided the proportions

practitioners

introductions

number

— such

as

Kachin, Glycin, Synthol, &c.

remain loyal

still

to the older

fashioned pyrogallic acid or pyrogallol, the brownish stain

which

an in

it

some

imparts to the film being considered by

Two

advantage in printing.

formulae are

as

here given

which carbonate of soda and ammonia are respectively

used as the

alkali

:

Pvro and Soda Developer. No.

1.

Water

80 ounces, or 1,000

Nitric acid

.

.

.

.

.

.30 drops,

Pyrogallol

1

Potassium bromide

No.

Water Sodium sulphite Sodium carbonate

.

c.c.

or 5 c.c.

ounce, or 12 grammes

.60 grains,

or 2

,,

2.

.

.

(clear crystals)

80 ounces, or 1,000 c;c. 9 ounces, or 112 grammes. 8 ounces, or 100 ,,

For an ordinary developer equal parts of No. No. a

2 are taken, or the

solution

separate

formula

is

:

and used

as

1

and

may be used as required. The other

potassium bromide


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

25

Pyro and Ammonia. No.

.....

Water

Potassium bromide

dissolved add

Pyrogallol

For use take

dram of each

No.

1

will

it

and \ dram of No. dram of No. 2 as

other I

2 to it

of stain

and works

Some

c.c.

2 ounces, or 20 c.c.

from 4 to 6 ounces of

of

the

be best

plate

regards

as

to take

1

dram of

6 ounces of water, adding the

may seem

For a pyrogallic developer

grammes

ounce, or 120

8 ounces, or 800

to

but until the condition ascertained

1

2.

....

is

,,

:

Water Ammonia, -88o

exposure

5 ounce, or 60

..... i

c.c.

grammes

ounce, or 120

1

.

.

No.

water,

20 ounces, or 1,000

...

Potassium metabisulphite

When

1.

desirable.

this gives a

minimum amount

slowly.

other developing formulae are given in the article

entitled "

Some Useful Formulae"

(p. 265).

DENSITY. One

occasionally hears the complaint that such and such

a plate or formula will not give sufficient density

;

but

it

should be borne in mind that density can always be obtained if

the plate be

left

long enough in the developer, but a slightly

over-exposed plate

may

quickly darken on the surface and

appear nearly opaque when examined by transmitted but

will

prove after fixing to be

much

too thin.

light,

Indeed,

developers vary a good deal in the apparent density shown before fixation to

;

hence the

one developer and

desirability of adhering rigidly

always judging

development by one and the same

judgment may not be misled by the

the

light,

so

progress that

of

one's

specific variations of

different developers or the greater or less intensity of the light.

B


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

26

SOFTER EFFECTS. It

common

quite a

is

much, so that they

" soot and whitewash,"

high

the

fault

to

develop negatives too

commonly dubbed

yield a print of a kind

on account of the harsh whiteness of

and the impenetrable blackness of the

lights

shadows.

Formerly, the ideal negative was held to be that

which was

all

but solid or opaque in those parts represent-

and

the highest lights

ing

deepest shadows

;

clear transparent

in

film

the

but closer observation and a better under-

standing of Nature have revealed the fact that, unless

it

be

in

some very small spot indeed, pure white and jet black in a but with most standard print are inartistic and unnatural ;

developers such as those given above

it

probable that

is

before the least affected parts have yielded to the developer the highest lights have accumulated such deposit as to have

quite or nearly opaque, and hence the

become

recommenda-

tion given earlier in this chapter to dilute the developer

with a larger proportion of water, for with this the negative is

very slow to gain density, whilst detail

come up negative

Of

in the is

shadow

parts,

and a

continues to

still

more

softer,

delicate

the result.

the fixing-bath, which has already been mentioned

and formulae given, nothing more need be

said.

WASHING AND DRYING. The above heading plicity

too

as to require

much

to

no

suggests operations of such simspecial description,

say that these

yet

it

is

not

commonplace performances

properly carried out are in their way as essential as any part of the procedure.

Hyposulphite of soda in solution

has, in the course of fixation, permeated every part of the soft gelatinous film,

and the subsequent washing must be of

such a kind that not a trace sure

way

to accomplish this

is

shall

remain

;

and the only

to leave the plate,

if

possible,


NEGATIVE-MAKING. in a vertical position for

two hours

in a constantly flowing

may be

Metal troughs

stream of water.

2^

obtained with

grooves to hold the plates vertically, from which the con-

taminated water passes out at the bottom as fresh water

from a supply-tap

flows in limited,

may be

it

running

left

;

or,

water be

if

soak the plate in water,

sufficient to

changing the water ten or a dozen times during an hour,

Nothing

at intervals of, say, five minutes. its

own punishment

is

so sure to bring

as careless or imperfect washing of a

negative, for in a day or two, or perhaps not for a

more, the hypo surface,

left

week

in the film begins to crystallise

and nothing can cure or

restore

or

on the

it.

Prescriptions are given for the elimination of hypo by

chemical means

but water, and plenty of

;

and the reader

eliminator,

it,

the best

is

recommended

not

is

to try

any

other as yet. After the long immersion in fluids that the gelatine film

warm weather

may be

it

it

will

be understood

sodden condition, and

in a very

is

in

necessary to have recourse to a

few minutes' immersion in a saturated solution of alum to prevent the film from partially dissolving and leaving the glass altogether

should

Ordinary pitfalls,

;

but in any case more than

be given to secure as drying

racks sold for the

the plates

trivial

attention

drying as possible.

rapid

purpose often prove

being so close together that unless a

vigorous draught of air be available

a most unnecessary time, and

which must be avoided.

it

is

some

portions will occupy

just this

unequal drying

Perhaps the readiest means

is

to

lay along the top of a shelf a strip of blotting-paper folded

to

two or three thicknesses, and, having allowed the water

to drip from the plate, stand let it

it

on end on the

rest against the wall at the

side outwards

;

or, better

still,

blotting,

back of the

French wire

shelf,

nails

driven into the wall, between two of which a plate cornerwise.

In

damp

weather,

and film

may be may rest

when the atmosphere does


BARNKT BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

28

not encourage rapid drying,

it

be wisest to soak the

will

plates in methylated spirit for a quarter of

drying

an hour before

they will then dry in ten minutes.

;

FACTORIAL OR TIME DEVELOPMENT. No

article

on negative-making or extended reference to

development would to-day be complete without including a brief explanation of what

at least

is

termed time develop-

ment, a system introduced more than ten years ago by Mr. Watkins,

Alfred

whose arguments

support are so

in its

difficult

to controvert that, although there are

ticularly

amongst older workers, who dispute

may be

it

recommended

confidently

having once mastered

more

surely guide

its

him

to success than

own unripe judgment and remain too long

plate to

too soon

;

who,

find that they

will if

he relied on his

Even the

unskilled eye.

in the

efficacy,

to the beginner,

simple rules,

deceived perhaps by appearances,

many, parits

will occasionally

developer or

will

expert,

allow the

remove

it

but in time or factorial development we have a

simple arithmetical formula whereby to solve that always difficult

problem, " when to stop development."

In the following brief description of time development

may

it

said

some points which

strike the student that there are

are in conflict with the teachings of

with reference

to

what has already been

modifying or controlling the de-

velopment, and these points have given controversy.

He may choose

either the older tentative

described, or the

by

factors,

newer

style of

without troubling to

structions for both are given reader's experience

be but

with adopt tne " time is

to frequent

rise

This, however, need not concern the reader.

"

him

slight

make them

agree.

in this article

he

method, and he

easier to attain oy learning

method, as already

determining development

will

do

but

Inif

the

well to forth-

will learn that success

and applying a

by depending on personal judgment.

;

fixed rule than


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

29

In the instructions already given for development

was

it

stated that by modifying the constituents of the developer

&c, could be may be shown that

the degree

of density,

other hand,

it

;

on the

developers have equal power in bringing out

(a) All

detail

the plate be

if

left

long enough

of bromide merely delays

power

only

if

;

the addition

it.

nearly equal

developers are

(b) All

controlled

development

in

density-giving

continued

be

long

Exception may have to be made in the

enough.

case of a developer like pyro, which gives a coloured

image or

stain

the ordinary black

in addition to

deposit, thereby producing an increased density.

When

(c)

comparing

highest light

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is,

each

will also

provided that the time has

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

alike in

be exactly equal,

been long enough to

bring out the lowest tone in each. in the

in

taken out when the

is

the greatest density

Every other tone

the two.

exposures "treated

similar

different developers, if

(Large variation

amount of bromide would

affect

the prin-

ciple.)

Here

are

may

reader

Watkins

fundamental

three

principles

which

the

accept without attempting to verify, and Mr.

insists

that the

addition of bromide or the

re-

duction of the proportion of alkali only affects the formation

of gradation

developer

is

if

the

alteration

is

made

before

contrast or density being the length of development.

urges that

all

He

photographers employ this power even when

they think they exercise other means.

A man

wishes to

get thinner negatives with less contrast than he has getting,

the

poured on, the only power of control over

so uses a

dilute developer

accustomed time.

He

down

virtue in the

to a special

and develops

been

for his

gets his desired result, but puts

it

weak developer, whereas


EARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

3<3

he would have secured the same result negative out a

the

little

if

he had only taken

The broad

then,

is

on which time development

is

earlier.

rule,

longer development, greater contrast.

Now, based

the main principle that

this,

is

any change of temperature (and tem-

marked

perature affects development to a

change

amount of

in the

degree), or any

which lessens or increases

alkali

the time required to obtain a certain degree of density or

same

contrast also alters in exactly the elapses before the first if

we once

is

so

ratio the time

which

darkening of the plate begins, so

that,

ascertain that the time required for full density

many

times the period which elapses before the

may be

appearance, then the plate

first

always developed for a

given multiple of the time of appearance, and a standard

amount of

contrast will always

This multiple

result.

is

called the multiplying factor.

We

proceed, then, as follows

:

The developer being mixed, place the plate in the dish, and at the moment the hand of your watch touches an even and rock the dish

minute pour the developer on

moment

the

;

the high lights appear on the creamy surface note

the time.

The time first

that has elapsed

appearance

plied

is

between pouring on and the

and

the time of appearance,

by the multiplying

gives

factor

the

this multi-

total

time of

development.

To

take an example. Suppose

we

are

hydroquinone developer given on page also that the multiplying factor

of contrast that

we

between

require to be 14.

pouring

darkening of the 20

x

14 will

which

give

high 4

on

minutes,

seconds

and

has

proceeded for 4 minutes with

that

development

is

let it

developer

20

and suppose

will give the

Again,

the

lights

using the metol16,

when

amount

be supposed

and the elapses,

first

then

development

absolute confidence

complete, without

the

necessity

of


p


NEGATIVE-MAKING. examining the negative,

first

2ยง minutes, which

image should

appearance by be the

will

14,

total

we

get 140 seconds, or

time of development to

same density as the previous more slowly appearing

On

negative attained.

another

taken out, rinsed, and passed

quickly, say, in 10 seconds, then, multiplying this

shorter time of

attain the

is*'

If with the next plate the

into the fixing bath.

appear more

it

31

plate

the other hand, suppose

more

to possess

we

desire

we increase the

contrast,

multiplying factors say, from 14 to 20 and multiply the time of appearance by that.

This system of timing development

is

not dependent on

any particular developer, and, so long as we do not use one in

which the formation of density does not follow very closely

on the bringing out of is

detail,

it

matters

what developer

little

used.

Developers vary widely in one respect, and that rapidity with which density follows detail; list

of typical multiplying factors given below

much

that they vary as

as from 3^ to 40.

it

will

of

and

all

development,

slowly.

Hence

the

in the

be seen

In one class

of developing agents, such as metol, rodinal, and the image

is

and hence

amidol,

appear very early in the course

detail

density

being

this class are

attained

comparatively

commonly regarded

as not

giving sufficient density or contrast, simply because the user

does not leave the plate in long enough.

The

multiplying

and 18

factors for these are, with average formulae, 28, 40,

respectively,

high multipliers giving a long time for total

development. In the second class, represented by hydroquinone, pyro, and adurol, the lowest tones or detail appear quite slowly,

and by

the time they have appeared the high lights have attained

considerable density, sufficient contrast then being attained quite

rapidly;

hence

sufficiently long total

class

a

low multiplying

time for development.

of developers that

gives

factor It is

a

with this

bromide has most power,

for the

I


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

32 restrainer

ones have stage the

is

able to hold back the lower tones until the upper

full density,

and

if

the plate be taken out at this

bromide has altered gradation

to

be neither the extreme of these classes

will

medium first

but one with a

multiplying factor, and in which density follows the

appearance

The

a considerable

The most convenient developer for time development

extent.

at a comfortable rate.

figures given

below have been worked out by Mr.

Alfred Watkins as a guide, and represent the factors of the majority

of developers

in use,

multiplying

or the ratio

between time of appearance and the attainment of a desired

amount varied

of contrast or density.

They must

of course be

according to the photographer's ideal as

desirable degree of density or for the particular

of negative required by circumstances Pyro soda

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

:

to

the

character


NEGATIVE-MAKING. marked; a simple

plainly

33

sliding scale or calculator multiplies

the appearance by the factor, and points to the total time of

development.

A

modification of the factorial

method,

sextuple

method

in

way of using

"

Manual

" for

need be,

if

any further

to

make the time now been

but sufficient has

6,

said to put the beginner in the

lopment, and he may,

as the

adhered

is

throughout, and the developer diluted so as to of appearance suit the factor

known

is

which the factor 6

refer to

factorial deve-

Mr. Watkins's

particulars.

AFTER-TREATMENT OF NEGATIVES. Whilst a negative which has had

subsequent chemical treatment

is

which needs no doctoring,

is

it

its

faults

set right

by

not to be preferred to one often imperative that

we

should use any power within our reach to improve and

make

duction,

be

The two

the best of an unsatisfactory negative.

processes

under

and

sufficient

briefest

for the if

chief

heading are intensification and

this

purposes of the present

article

it

re-

will

a few formulas and their use be given in the

manner.

INTENSIFICATION.

A negative

which has been taken from the developer too

soon may be described as

lights

print

thin,

weak, or

and those corresponding it

will

fiat

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is,

lacking

between the parts representing the

in sufficient contrast

to the

shadows, and the

yield will possess a dull, foggy appearance

hence we seek to add some fresh matter to the image to increase

its

substance and light resisting power.

Intensification is

finished

may

take place immediately the negative

or at any subsequent time, but

that the plate should have

thoroughly washed.

it

is

important

been thoroughly fixed and very

If the negative

soaked in water for half an hour.

be

dry,

it

had better be


BARNRT BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

34

Immerse the

plate in the following solution

Mercury bichloride Hydrochloric acid

Water

Now

Ammonium

film will gradually

grey and

5 parts

chloride 5 parts)

plate,

100 parts

become bleached,

turning

first

Occasionally rock the dish.

then milky white.

remove the

part

I

....... (or

The

.... .....

:

and wash thoroughly

running

in

water for two hours.

The bleached image Ammonia, '880 Water

Or

a

is

next blackened by immersing

.....

in

weak metol developer,

or a

sodium sulphite may take

As soon

solution.

found that first

or

is

the

the

as

through to the back of the minutes, the plate

of

blackening

plate,

which

washed and

ammonia method Sodium

penetrated

has

be in a few

will

when

dried,

it

will

intensity.

sulphite

is

not

be relied on

such a powerful

may be

repeated

to gain increased intensification.

Another method

is

" stain "

to

the image a

reddish

colour with a deposit of uranium, which greatly increases light-resisting

power

Uranium Water

:

nitrate

.....

I

.

.

.

.

1

Potassium ferricyanide

.

.

.

.

I

Immerse the negative

its

part

50 parts

Glacial acetic acid

judged to be

be

The

secures a greater degree of in-

blackener, but in any case the operation

from the beginning

ammonia

the

tensification, but the results are not always to

as permanent.

part

10 per cent, solution of place

has gained considerably in

it

I

20 to 30 parts

in the above, and, as

sufficiently "

part ,,

soon as

it is

browned," remove and rinse in

water to which a drop or two of acetic acid have been added,

and then wash under the tap

until the stain is

removed from


NEGATIVE-MAKING. If the water

the more transparent parts.

most house water

is,

35 is

at all alkaline, as

the whole of the intensification will be

removed, therefore a prolonged washing must be avoided, and hence all or part may be removed at will by a weak of carbonate of soda, ammonia, or other alkali.

solution

This

may be

desirable to

it

be thought

intensification locally

by applying

turned to

remove the

an alkaline solution with a

should

account

fine brush.

Yet another method of intensification following

is

to bleach in the

:

.... .... A.

Copper sulphate

Hot water

200 grains 1 ounce

B.

Potassium bromide

Hot water

When

cool,

add B

to A,

200 grains 1 ounce

and immerse the

bleached, wash for five minutes only, and blacken

.....â&#x20AC;˘!

44 grains ounce

Silver nitrate

Water

Or

When in-

plate.

for greater

intensity substitute for the silver solution an

ordinary developer.

REDUCTION.

We may now

pass to the reverse process, that of re-

ducing the density of

a negative

which

has been over-

developed. Such a plate yields prints in which the contrasts are too harsh, the

before

more transparent portions

the light has

had time

gradation in the denser parts, or

printing fully detail

and

the entire negative,

may

to

print the

be so opaque that printing takes an inconveniently long time.

We

have the choice of several reducers, each acting in a

special way,

which gives them

their respective values.


BARNKT BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY,

36

we

First

consider

will

ammonium

the

persulphate

method, which reduces the more opaque parts so,

first,

whilst generally reducing, also lessens contrasts.

and Im-

merse the thoroughly washed negative in

Ammonium Water

After a

and the

little

a

little

reached,

wash

persulphate

before

the

10 to 20 grains

.

ounce

1

imparted to the water,

is

examined

now proceeding

the

as

.

while a milkiness

plate should be

time, reduction plate

.....

carefully

desired

Remove

the

degree of reduction

continues after

action

from time to

very rapidly.

may be

in a gentle stream of water, or action

is

removal, and

its

instantly

arrested by immersion in a 10 per cent, solution of sodium sulphite.

Finally,

wash

an hour.

for half

In the second place we have what

is

known

as Farmer's

Reducer, which, contrary to the persulphate, attacks the thinnest portions before the denser,

and

so, whilst

density, generally tends to increase contrast.

plate in water, then prepare the following Hyposulphite of soda

...

Water

When

dissolved,

plate,

There are an acid

.5 ounce

add a few drops of 10 per

by the colour, which should be a

Immerse the

and remove when

Wash many

cent, solu-

The strength may be judged good medium yellow colour. sufficient reduction has

thoroughly.

other less used reducers of which one,

permanganate, must

suffice.

solutions of (A) strong sulphuric acid,

Make

20 per cent,

and (B) potassium

permanganate, and for use take 40 minims of

80 minims of B, and add 10 ounces water. permanganate or too will

soak the

:

4 ounces

tion of potassium ferricyanide.

taken place.

reducing

First

little

A

and

Too much

acid will result in staining, which

be best removed by treating in sodium sulphite 60


NEGATIVE-MAKING. grains, oxalic acid

12 grains,

water

37

ounce, after which,

1

however, the plate should be fixed in hyposulphite of soda bath.

SPOTTING AND RETOUCHING. Our

negative

is

due

now

and there only remains

finished,

to

done by way of making good any defects

see what can be

to accident, such as

tiny transparent

known

holes,

as

"pin-holes," because bearing a resemblance to pin-pricks; or

may be

there

small circular spots of thinner or more

transparent film, due to bubbles clinging to the surface for

The former would,

a portion of the time of development. of course, print as black specks, in,

and hence have

a process called " spotting."

For

this

to

be

filled

purpose, water-

colour paint applied with a dainty touch with the point of a fine camel-hair

brush

will serve, or there are certain

pared spotting colours.

been spotted out

will

turn be painted out on the print

Apply by means of the the

hand

until

semi-transparent spots,

medium

is,

no longer

to

then,

possible

about the region

and rub with the

sticky,

if

retouching.

tip of the finger the least

retouching

where the spot or defect the

;

may be removed by

small, or other markings

amount of

ready pre-

Of course the little holes which have now print white, and these must in

soft part of

with a very fine-

pointed moderately hard lead pencil, hardly touching the film but just grazing over until it

it is

it,

proceed to shade in the spot

as dense as the surrounding part, looking through

towards the light

touching desk

is

all

the time.

For

this

purpose a

re-

almost essential.

VARNISHING. The

final

step of varnishing the negative

should on no account be omitted its

preservation

:

the

if

any value

application of a

is

is

one that

attached to

varnish protecting


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

38

from scratching, staining from contact with the

the film

printing paper,

and other sources of irreparable

Negative varnishes of various kinds

and most of them are

to

but, better

may be purchased,

be applied to the negative when

made hot. The negative may be supported side uppermost,

on the extended

horizontally,

fingers

of the

and

left

The

with a pneumatic holder.

still,

injury.

film

hand,

negative

is

heated by a gas-stove or other convenient source

then

of heat until as hot as one can bear to negative varnish tilting the

is

hold.

A

little

then poured near to one corner, and by

negative this

little

pool

induced to flow evenly

is

over the whole surface, finishing at the corner next the one it

started from, the surplus varnish being then allowed to

run off back into the bottle.

As soon

varnish ceases to drip, the plate

is

as the excess of

again warmed, which

causes the varnish to settle evenly, and

it

on one side

free

to cool

in

which would adhere to the surplus

surface.

varnish drain off into

which the main stock particles of dust,

quite

a place

&c,

it

from

dust,

It is best to let the

another bottle

kept, so that, should

is

then placed

is

it

to

that

in

acquire any

can be strained through cotton

wool before being again used.

A

few prescriptions should here be given, including

backing, clearing, stain-removing, and hardening.

BACKING. This consists of spreading on the glass side or back of the

negative a preparation which will absorb the super-

fluous light which, after penetrating the film,

probability be

reflected

would

in all

back again and cause a serious

blemish known as halation, and so commonly seen in

photographs of

amongst

trees

interiors

which

include

a

window, or

which are projected against a bright

sky.


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

39

Halation due to excess of light in certain parts present to a greater or less degree in

than

we

is

probably

many more

instances

and only the marked improvement

suspect,

in

sharpness and clearness which will be noticeable in photo-

graphs from " backed

The

"

plates will

make us aware of

before being placed in the dark

plate,

down on

laid face or film side

edges by |th of an inch, and to suit our

does not dry quickly

if this

convenience a piece of thin paper may

then be placed in the dark

itself.

The

plate

may

slide.

Another method whereby messing

is

an old printing frame with the glass

prevented

front, if

is

to use

has one,

it

Place the plate to be backed in the frame in the

removed.

way and

close the back

margin

a narrow

protects

mixture

short of the

thinly just

be laid down to keep the wet mess to

usual

is

clean blotting or other paper,

and the backing mixture spread enough

it.

slide,

is

When

frame

the rebate of the

;

round, whilst the backing

all

freely applied.

may be wiped

developing, the backing

off with

a

wet sponge before development, or the plate may be put into the developer as

it

is,

and half way through develop-

ment, when the backing has become thoroughly sodden, a rinse

under the tap

ment, when as

will

wash

away.

it

In

Time develop-

we do not need to have the plate so transparent examined by transmitted

to be able to be

light,

backing can

be removed at any time so long as

particles of

do not

it

settle

on the

developer obtaining access to

Backing mixtures

in

Gum

variety can

Methylated

Mix and

strain

spirit

through muslin.

the simplest course

is

be purchased, or the

may be made

..... ....

powder

arabic

and so prevent the

it.

following excellent preparation Crystal caramel

film,

the tiny

:

1

J 3

ounce

â&#x20AC;&#x17E; drachms

This dries quickly.

to purchase plates ready backed.

By far The


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

40

Barnet plates are backed by the makers, and the greater

convenience and avoidance of what operation

is

apt to be a messy

is

well worth the trifling extra price.

CLEARING.

A

makes

yellowish stain which

be cleared following

off

This stain may

printing slower.

immersion

by

sometimes contracts a

in

one

.

20

to

Hydrochloric acid

.

.

50

,,

.

the following

is

an old favourite bath

25 ounces

100 drops

:

Alum

ounce

1

20 ounces

Water Iron protosulphate

Sulphuric acid

A

ounce

I

Water

other of the

or

......

:

Alum

Or

development or due

negative, either through prolonged

to discoloration of the fixing-bath,

2 „ 20 to 60 minims

.

new

clearing bath containing a

substance, and one

which seems to considerably brighten and clear a stained negative,

is

the

following

thoroughly washed

free

the

Citric acid

.

Water Chrome alum

.....

discolouration

recognised on

.

.

known

.

.

yield to

when

:

very

5 grains

10

,,

7

,,

ounce

I

as dichroic fog,

the back or glass side

immersion

in

is

....

Thio-carbamide Citric acid

Water

be

used

it is

which may be

account of the negative having a reddish or

pink colour when viewed by transmitted or green

must

negative

....

Thio-carbamide

A

;

from hypo before

.

.

.

.

.

but yellowish

light,

looked

1 1

at,

part ,

10 parts

should


NEGATIVE-MAKING.

41

Iridescent edges to a plate, sometimes due to the plates

being stale or to the composition of the developer, are best

removed by rubbing

firmly

moistened with methylated

with

plug of cotton

a

spirit, or,

wool

instead of cotton wool,

the finger-tip covered with chamois leather. Silver stains,

which an unvarnished negative

will

some-

times contract from contact with the silver printing paper, are best disposed of by soaking the negative in the following Potassium iodide

....

Water

1

:

part

20 parts

Iodine (metal) enough to impart a deep brown colour

Even

if

a negative

its intensification,

clearing, spotting,

negative

when

is

is

not to be printed from immediately,

or reduction,

if

either are required, as also

and varnishing, should be done before the

put away as finished

;

it

will

then be always ready

required.

A. Horsley Hi?iton.


42

Orthochromatic Plates and

Colour Screens*

1 i

t

9

| i


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS. other colours, but

the

graphs

we can contrive

if

and the blue we

brilliance of the violet

which every colour

in

monochrome with

is

the

represented in

exactly the shade of brilliance

This sensitiveness to colour

nature.

lower

to

shall obtain photo-

be

shall

43

has in

it

obtained by the use

of dyes, of which there are a large number, each of which has a different effect from the others, so that we

most suitable

plates that are

may buy and

for landscape purposes,

others that are better fitted for subjects in which there

is

a

preponderance of red.

For landscapes, amateur (and worker),

matter of

it

in

and

plate

and

yellow, leaves

convenient to use, as

is

plenty of

Such a

light,

so long as "

the

is

I

in the present instance, as

is

it

it is

that

all

development

is

is

Yellow Sensitive

additional

necessary, but alteration

As

is

if

care to

it

and capable So

far as

to

be

backing the plates

and during development, a

them

shield

the dark-room lamp

from the

light

is

good type no

is

of a

is

set forth in

needed.

the formula for the developer

the box,

Ortho-

nothing new

is

slides, in

as a preventive against halation, little

be

work

an exceedingly rapid plate

there

In loading the dark

to

chiefly restrict myself

shall

required in the ordinary way.

concerned

sensi-

is

little

possible to

(quite equal in speed to the Barnet Extra Rapid)

learned.

professional

of the right quality.

is

it

Barnet

chromatic Plate," and to that

of doing

which the

in

the

that

most generally interested a plate that

is

tive to violet, blue, green,

desired,

and the work

portraits,

the

for

is

unnecessary to give

who work

in detail here,

it

full

on

but for

10 per cent, system,

the

benefit of those

may

say that each working ounce contains approximately

3

grains of pyro, f

\ grain

of

carbonate,

grain

potassium

and 27^

the

of potassium meta-bisulphite,

bromide,

grains

I

22

grains

of sodium

developers may, of course, be used

if

of

sulphite.

preferred,

sodium Other with the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

44

exception of hydro-ammonia and hydroquinone, which are

recommended.

not

Beginners

manipulation of the plate

is

whom

to

the

general

a matter of uncertainty are

referred to other sections of this book.

may be pointed

It

do

out that an orthochromatic plate will

any other plate of the same speed

that

all

do a great many things

in addition will

and

will do,

that the others will

not do, so the photographer need not hesitate to load his

use them in precisely the

may employ

or he

plates,

noted

He

changing-box with them.

slides or

which

later on,

same way

he chooses,

if

would ordinary

special contrivances to be

the

will

may,

as he

him

enable

get the full

to

advantage out of them.

We

know

all

and

colours,

seven

tints

red.

We

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

that white sunlight

that the spectrum violet, indigo,

also

know

of these colours, or

a matter of

fact,

our eyes, and

is

is

is

composed

If this

and

blue, green, yellow, orange,

that every colour

composed

we

of two or

see

is

one

either

more of them. As

every colour we see in nature reflects to

incidentally to the lens of

proportion of white light in addition to colour.

of various

arbitrarily divided into

its

camera, a

the

own

particular

were not so we should be unable with an

exposure of reasonable length on an ordinary plate to get detail in green, yellow, orange,

and red

subjects.

the white light which these objects reflect give representations of them, though

all

somewhat

imperfectly.

already stated, the orthochromatic plate

the

colours, though chiefly to the violet is

it is,

sufficient to

As

(indigo as a purely arbitrary term

As

is

is

sensitive to

and the blue

generally considered in

photographic matters to be included in these two), and

we were

to give a sufficient exposure

colours time to impress themselves on the plate, these

would be hopelessly over-exposed.

If,

if

to allow the other

however,

we

first

inter-

pose somewhere in front of the plate a screen which shall reduce in brilliancy the most powerfully-acting

light rays

we


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS.

45

and oranges an opportunity As the plate at present under

shall give the greens, yellows,

of asserting themselves.

consideration it

is

not specially sensitive to red

we may

leave

out of account.

The media used stained

and

troughs

glass

used.

The

work,

as the

be

glass

glass,

easily

for

screens

coated filled

of

are

with

dyed

with

and

strength

but

for

to

being

very

about,

and are

and studio work.

field

would be the best of

all

if it

and used, but

I

that will correct the colours perfectly, so glass

coated

some dyed

with

ex-

Stained glass

were possible to get

material.

it

Many

of the correct colour and of the required strength. glass screens are sold

all

may

of the dye

also the tint

addition

are

and experimental

troublesome to carry

pensive they are

not suitable

in

kinds

or collodion,

solutions

last are useful in laboratory

altered,

various

gelatine

have found none

we are left with These may be

bought or they may be made by the photographer with comparatively

trouble.

little

I

have said that the different

dyes used in preparing the plates give widely different degrees of colour sensitiveness, and that

follows that a screen

it

one maker's plate may be quite un-

perfect with

is

suitable for use with another, so

when

perfect correction

is

required and the maker of the plate does not issue a screen it

is

make

better to

The

reader

is

screens for ourselves.

of course aware, as a matter of general

knowledge, that each colour in the spectrum

mentary to some other

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; thus

violet

is

comple-

and yellow are com-

plementary to each other, blue and orange the same, and green and red.

A

pass through

the deeper the yellow the less the violet,

and

if

orange

it,

yellow screen permits very

a proportion will also

duce the

be cut

of blue off.

It

activity of the violet

we may employ

is is

little

violet to

added a portion of the evident, then, that to re-

and blue rays upon the

an orange-yellow screen.

Those

plate

who


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

46

have access to a spectroscope

or

possess

find

will

interesting to note the effect of holding between

As,

source of light different tints of transparent colour.

however, the effect on the plate the eye

we must

test

is

it

and the

it

not the same as upon

the screens by actual exposures, and

the spectroscope need not be employed.

We

must have, however, some coloured objects

and we cannot do

as tests,

tions given

by

Sir

William Abney.

patches, but with the plate yellow, green,

and

blue, will

we be

He

are

suggests five colour

using three

sufficient,

chromium

green,

Pieces

blue.

stained

yellow (silver

an inch

square

are

are to be arranged side by side

They

glass.

The

the

best)

is

and

shade)

signal green (blue

half

of these,

and the materials

can be obtained from most workers in stained colours wanted are

to act

better than follow the instruc-

on a

cobalt

enough.

large

ground

bit of

glass, separated and surrounded by black paper, which will

hold them in position. piece of

The

yellow

chromium green and one of

imposed

for the green,

imposed on one of

One

stands alone.

signal green are super-

and one of cobalt blue

signal green for the blue.

super-

is

It is

then

necessary to bring them to equal visual brightness by covering the brightest with

little

pieces of celluloid film which

have been developed to a grey

most

difficult part of the

pany tester,

A Sir

article

this

tint.

This graduating

The

work.

figures

is

the

which accom-

were made by a Chapman Jones Plate

a most useful instrument. different

form of colour patch, also recommended by

William Abney, may be more easily made by the photo-

grapher.

Pieces of cardboard

yellow, emerald green,

lamp-black

same

is

also

are

painted with

and French ultramarine

wanted

to

bring

visual brightness or dulness.

blue.

the

colours

The

colours

bought in the powder form from any colourman.

gum

or size

is

mixed with the

blue,

and

it is

chrome

A little to

the

may be

A

little

painted quite


Fig.

Fig.

i.

Fig.

Fig.

6.

Fig. 3

2.

Fig

4.

Fig.

7.

5.

Fig.

8.


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS. on the

thickly

the green,

bring

which

than they are

when

wet,

it is

the yellow

;

it is

well to paint quite a

of pieces of card with each colour, adding a

a selection.

may

I

is

lighter

not easy to judge the exact

black each time, and from these

make made

the blue

as

shade while they are moist, and

number

painted with

As the colours dry

same way.

in the

is

black has been added to

sufficient

same shade

the

to

it

darkened

card, another piece of card

to

47

it

not be

will

little

difficult to

say that although I have not I have made and used satisThey may be arranged side

a set of the glass patches,

factorily the painted patches.

by side on a piece of white or black card, and are copied the camera in the same

way

that

any other design

graphed, and different screens must be tried

till

is

in

photo-

the desired

effect is obtained.

Lest

what

it

should be supposed from the above, and from

to follow, that the use of orthochromatic plates

is

beyond the

skill

out that while

it

much

stand as

of the average worker, is

it

is

may be pointed

desirable that everyone should under-

as possible about the principles of colour

work, and even at some sacrifice to carry out the operations here suggested, with

plates,

better

yet

and

I

in

than

ordinary

with

have endeavoured to state the methods of mak-

ing the screens in such a

secured

work can be done with them

most primitive apparatus

the

the

manner

that

good

may be

results

absence of the colour patches described

above.

Before proceeding to a description

of the

which the colour screens are made and tested, to

examine and compare

Figs,

i,

2,

3

and

4.

made on a Barnet orthochromatic Chapman Jones plate-tester, in which

a negative a

strip is

grey, the lowest square

blue, the next higher

is

With a suitable screen

on the

right

it

means by will

Fig.

be well is

from

plate through

the

hand

green, and that at the top all

1

is

upright side

is

yellow.

four ought to be equally dark, and


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

48 it

be seen that the print

will

The

squares on the

left

and do not concern

poses,

is

hand

not far from being correct.

side are used for other purFig.

us.

plate,

not sensitive to colour, and

blue

only

traces of the green.

from an ordinary

is

be seen that the

will

it

though there are

impressed,

strongly

is

2

remaining figures) exposed without a screen,

(as are all the

and exhibits a great advantage over the ordinary was exposed to candle-light, and

Fig, 4

the green

a

is

is still better,

little

dark and the blue a

for

some purposes very

shows that

it

faint

from a Barnet orthochromatic

Fig. 3 is

plate.

though

too light

little

still

;

may be

fair results

obtained without a screen by photographing by candle-light.

We

must now consider the actual making of the

and although collodion that gelatine

method required is

is

to

is

tint,

is

sometimes used

a solution of gelatine, to dye

and then to coat

dry another piece of glass

on top of the

first,

made when working in a tion of gelatine

is

glass with

way

all,

for

the drying

is

injury.

but the

A

are great.

must be made

and, above

When

it.

from

screens in this way,

small

usual

to the

the film

each

I

have

difficulties

separate solu-

tint,

it

must be

a troublesome matter

in the absence of a proper drying cupboard.

my

it

cemented with Canada balsam

to preserve the film

successfully

filtered,

The

easier to manipulate in all ways.

make

screens,

would suggest

I

I

am

told

by

Mr. Newton, the Principal of the Bolt Court

friend

Technical School, that to ensure the absence of the curious worm-like markings sometimes seen, the conditions must be

To keep

so arranged that drying shall take five days.

the

temperature regular for such a time involves the use of apparatus which everyone cannot possess.

The method I

stain

it

in

squeegee it

I

have adopted recently

is

much

simpler.

purchase a sheet of clear gelatine of a suitable thickness,

it

as before

an aqueous solution of dye to the required

upon

glass to dry, strip

between two sheets of

it,

glass.

tint,

and then cement

The

gelatine can


IMBIBE

'

,111

**flHili!lf!"!'

BABNET

CHROMATIC

«$

EASY TO WORK SO MANY USE IT EVERY DAY IN

Wr

STUDIO

«i

FIELD

Can be used with |

a screen

ably

—very

free

or without

rapid

from

—remark—

balation

as

easy to use as an ordinary plate

APPROXIMATE SPEED.

1


I

»

|

|L»

I

——

BARNET Cut T^HESE

LIE

MADE

IN

PERFECTLY

FLAT AND

THREE GRADES—

"ORDINARY," "EXTRA RAPID," ^

CAN BE USED

IN

ARE

*•

V

AND "ROCKET."

ANY PLATE CAMERA

IF

BACKED WITH CARDBOARD. THEY ARE JUST AS EASY TO MANIPULATE AS GLASS PLATES,

BUT HAVE ALL THE ADVANTAGE

IN

POINT

OF WEIGHT,

"*•

HENCE THEY ARE

GREAT

«*»

*-

FAVOURITES

WITH

TOURISTS,

BEING PORTABLE

AND *•*»*•*• UNBREAKABLE.


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS. be bought from

J.

5

Bousquet, of 28 Barbican, London, E.C.

in large sheets of a thickness of about one-hundredth of

inch, at sixpence each.

form

in thickness,

trifle

thicker at one

pieces or so,

and

It is perfectly clear

although

it

end than

may happen

at the other.

an

uni-

fairly

that a sheet

is

a

As, however, the

we want need not be more than two inches square the variation in thickness is negligible. The same

firm sells thinner sheets at threepence each, but these are

useless for our purpose.

Of

many dyes

the

Yellow

"

and

have tried

I

I

would suggest "

&

Brilliant

Naphthol Yellow S.E.," both imported by

Company, and obtainable

the Bayer

Penrose

"

in small quantities

Co., of 109 Farringdon Road,

from

London, E.C, and

from other chemists and dealers who stock Bayer's prepara-

One ounce

tions.

pensive item,

from

of each will

and the cost

screens,

as

it

is trifling.

must be

make many hundreds of The glass is the most ex-

clear,

perfectly

flat,

and

free

flaws, otherwise the definition of the picture will suffer.

Old negative

together

it

been suggested, but although

glass has

this is

when two thicknesses are cemented introduces an amount of distortion fatal to good

the best of

its

A

definition.

kind, yet

thin so-called parallel glass can sometimes be

obtained from Hetley's, of Soho Square, at a moderate price,

but

it is

the

make a personal

necessary that the purchaser should

selection.

most

Plate-glass perfect,

ground optically

but

is

flat

by an optician

extremely expensive, so for

is

all

ordinary purposes I suggest the thinnest patent plate which

can be obtained.

It is sold

good way of business. will

by most glass merchants

The

size to

which

depend upon the aperture of the

it

in a

to be cut

is

but three

lens,

inches square will be found generally suitable, and as the cost of

cutting

it it

is

up,

chiefly in the labour of it is

better to get a

looking

it

out and

dozen or so of pieces

at

one time.

The

gelatine should be cut at least an inch larger each


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

52

way

than

the

glass

it

be

to

is

do very

well, as if the

the pieces will

The

away.

still

and ammonia

it

A

up.

in a solution of the

and has absorbed five

damp may

fingers are

gloves while cutting

all the

minutes' immersion will

till

or two, and a piece

the

all

till

when

it,

of the gelatine

it

and rinsed

It

then

is

for a

minute

of the clean negative glass slipped

the two are lifted out and allowed to drain

corners

the

may

and the

film

has

glass

then be clipped off with a pair

of scissors and the edges folded under the plate

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

prevent them from cockling up during drying.

may then be

is

thoroughly limp

is

be long enough.

water between

The

escaped.

be cut

possible,

capable of taking up

it is

transferred to a dish of clean water

under

little as

with advantage wear

piece

dye

dye

faulty in places

for the faults to

gelatine should be handled as

and those whose immersed

dyed gelatine proves

be large enough

Old

upon.

dried

quarter-plate glasses well cleaned with whiting

this will

The

glass

stood on the bottom of a tumbler, and the

surface of the film lightly dried with fluffless blotting-paper.

Care must be taken that no dust while

it

is

drying

;

but this

upon the

settles

film

a precaution to which

is

all

photographers are accustomed.

In a moderately dry room the film will dry completely in

about twenty-four hours, and then

round with a knife the film should be applied to the with the whiting and gelatine will not

sticking.

If

glass.

ammonia

It is

if

will fly off.

the edges are cut

No

it

is

there

is

grease or talc

properly cleaned

no

of the

risk

quite possible that every piece

be quite perfect, so

it is

desirable that two or three

of each useful strength should be prepared, from which a selection

suggested

may be made, and later

it

is

well to apply the tests

on before cementing

the

film

the

to

glass.

This cementing operation small

bottle

of

Canada

is

by no means

balsam,

to

be

difficult.

obtained

A

from


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS.

53

dealers in microscopes or from most photographic dealers,

The

required.

a

little

of the balsam

placed in the middle of one side of

is

each piece, and they are placed in a warm, for the

balsam to

A

soften.

larger than the glass

is

placed on top of one glass, and the

By

balsam can be made

spread outwards

A

the edges.

to

pressing on the

couple of "bull-dog"

glasses

and

ment

again placed in the oven.

is

the oven must only be moderately

When

spoiled.

it

is

bringing the

if

the whole arrange-

It

must be noted that

warm or

the screen will be

seen that the excess of balsam has

been driven out the screen may be hung up place

till

the balsam at the edges

protruding gelatine

the

exudes

it

letter clips, or

of bicycle trouser-clips will help in into close contact

the

centre

till

a pair

film

oven

but'.not hot,

perfect piece of the film rather

other glass laid on that.

from

is

been thoroughly cleaned,

plate-glass having

is

cleaned with benzole, and a

moderately hard,

is

to be

in a

trimmed

strip of lantern

the

off,

warm when glass

binding pasted

round the edges.

The

nature of the dye and the strengths of the solutions

depend upon the work

will

sible to use a screen

blue to the orange

to be done.

When

it

pos-

is

that will correct the plate from the

we should do

so,

but as such a screen

requires about three or four times the normal exposure

must

some work employ one

for

correction.

I

cannot,

number of

tests

made

and

therefore,

that gives only

do

better

give a

with screens of different intensities

worker to select those that purposes

partial

than

state the nature of the solutions used, leaving

stock

will best suit his

one drachm of

brilliant

it

to each

comparing

In other,

each

may be made up the

following

no attention need be paid

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

in the

slight variation in the

For

purpose.

yellow

may be

dissolved in one hundred drachms of water and filtered

napthol yellow

we

;

the

same way.

illustrations

with

each

to the relative darkness of

time of development given


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

54

to the negative, or of the exposures in

making the

prints,

will affect this, and as the negatives had each to be made and tested before the next could be made it was impossible to develop them all at the same time, which would

The

have been preferable.

point to be looked for

which equal density in the upright

extent to

squares

the three right-hand

showed a

negatives

is

Some

obtained.

considerable action in the

although too feeble to appear in the prints

and

of the

red,

would

it

the

is

strip

and

still

be

of importance as giving a better rendering of orange. Fig. 5

from a negative made through a screen dyed

is

with brilliant yellow,

i

10,000

in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

is,

one ounce of

the stock solution was diluted with one hundred times

For

bulk of water.

much

subjects

general

contrast of colour this screen

camera work, as posure,

there

useless, but for

twice

requires

only

the

its

is

hand-

normal

ex-

and when open landscape with

permissible,

is

it

it

is

which

in

distant hills are being photographed, or for seascapes, or for delicately-tinted spring flowers

it

was made with a screen dyed

100.

in

corrected,

It will

and

if

be

this screen

cirrus clouds, in

Made

contrast.

naphthol yellow,

which

it

is

been over-

was employed with landscape

would have

however,

screen,

in

noted that the yellow has

subjects, totally false renderings

good

spoils distant hills

be particularly useful.

will

Fig. 6 1

prove of service,

will

it

whilst by cutting off the blue haze that

Such a

would be given. its

uses in

so difficult

with a solution of

1

in

photographing

to get sufficient

500

it

screen, for taking general cloud effects.

would be a

The

screen

used required an exposure of ten times the normal. Fig.

yellow,

7 1

was

taken

in 5,000.

with a

It required

screen dyed in

an exposure of four times

the normal, and although the blue it is

brilliant

is

still

under-corrected,

a good screen for general subjects in which there are

strong

contrasts

of colour,

and when longer exposures


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS. cannot be

It might,

given.

be photographed, and

to

it

be used with a

for instance,

when

lens working at a large aperture

55

rippling water

had

to get fairly correct

was desired

renderings of the colour values in the surrounding foliage. In portraiture also it would give good results without

unduly prolonging the exposures.

was taken with a screen dyed with brilliant yellow, It required an exposure of about six times the 1,000.

Fig. 8

in

1

be seen, approaches very nearly to what is desired, but the yellow is a shade too brightâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; it is in fact A number of experiments were made to over-corrected.

normal, and, as

bring

all

will

four tints equal, but at

much

without

first

Either the blue or the yellow predominated, or level the green

was too dark.

of one sheet of gelatine dyed

At

in brilliant yellow also

and another dyed

used with the result seen in Fig. nearly

full

correction for the red

over-correction for the yellow.

in 5,000,

1

In

normal.

screens for use with red sensitive plates

found that

is

very

more

exposure

light,

will

and

as

making

probably be

it

will

accompanied by

This may be adjusted by

much

in 5,000.

1

darker visually, and

a deep citron colour, but photographically little

was

is

adding a third film stained with methyl violet

Such a combination

in 5,000,

i

The exposure was

1.

times the

three

possible

as

made up

screen

last a

in naphthol yellow

success.

they were

if

in practice

little

its

if

is

of

cuts off very

any additional

be required.

Aniline dyes cannot always be mixed together, but these I

have mentioned may be compounded in any proportions.

It

therefore,

is,

brilliant

stain

quite

possible to

add the

yellow and the naphthol yellow

violet to the

in solution,

only one film to cement between the glasses. of working in the way to

and

one piece of gelatine, with the advantage of having

make

direct

I

instead

have described, anyone prefers

the screens by pouring

on to one of the

If,

glasses,

the

gelatinous

the proportions

solution

named


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

56

Those who do not care

will give similar results.

make

to

colour patches as test objects can, by following the

the

directions given, get results that will at least be

much

better

than those given by bits of yellow glass chosen at random.

In whatever way the screens are made to

plan

simplest

apparatus

will

be necessary

in

:

pinned up

cardboard

camera

can suggest without the use of special

I

as follows

is

should be

be

should

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;A

bromide or platinotype

good

in

placed

the

in

dark slide

the

bellows

of

the

is

pro-

such a way that one-half of the plate

exposure for such a subject

is

closed.

is

print

and a piece of

daylight,

tected from the image thrown by the

of

it

determine the exposures required with them, and the

The

lens.

correct

and the shutter

then given,

The cardboard

shield

is

then shifted so as to cover over the other half of the plate,

and the colour screen

placed in front of the lens.

is

The exposure must now be

given in sections by partially

One end

drawing the shutter between each. should receive very

much

less than

is

of the plate

supposed

be the

to

required exposure with the colour screen, and the other end very

a

much more, a

less,

little

while the middle sections should be given

little

more, and the section exactly in the

centre should have just that which

When

the plate

is

developed

it

is

will

supposed to be

not be

correct.

difficult to

decide

which exposure corresponds with that given without the screen.

It is

exposure

is

then a simple matter to decide what additional

needed when the screen

Those who

are at

all

advanced

is

used.

in pictorial

work need

not be told that scientifically correct colour renderings

be quite

false

from a

and colour values happen

that

are

two

two objects

different things.

It

in close proximity are

may

tints of

uniform grey.

If,

often

visually of

equal brilliance, and with the screen used in Fig.

be rendered in

may

Colour contrast

pictorial standpoint.

1

would

however, one was

a blue and the other a vellow the contrast that was visible


PLOUGHING By W.

IN DORSET.

THOMAS.


ORTHOCHROMATIC PLATES AND COLOUR SCREENS would be

to the eye

Even without assuming

entirely lost.

such an extreme case,

57

might well be that the correct

it

screen would completely upset the pictorial balance.

such cases the choice

would yet give the truer

^orrect colour values

The

dering of the subject. screens

In

might not give

screen that

of a

possession

pictorial ren-

a battery of

of

and an intimate knowledge of their

effects

will

place a power in the photographer's hands that cannot well

be over-estimated.

little loss

be

of course,

It will,

making the screens

is

of actinic light in the camera as

does

its

work on the

the conditions are to

action on

the

may

some extent

We

reversed.

we can

it is

The

be.

as

want the

get with the least pos-

Bearing in mind the way in

plate.

which the complementary colours cut each other that the Barnet plate

in

In lighting the dark room

plate.

brightest light visually that sible

object

no importance so long

visual intensity of the light is of it

that our

gathered

to get the colour correction with as

and

out,

sensitive to yellow but not to red,

is

obvious that we must for our greatest convenience use

the brightest red

we can

Ruby

beyond the orange. red,

and

get,

that will be the red just

passes very

glass

little

of this

but does pass a considerable amount of dangerous

violet light, so that

trouble can

it

is

necessary to supplement

it

with a

Those who do not mind taking a

sheet of yellow.

make

for themselves a

Reference to Fig. 6

will

show

much

that naphthol yellow

base for the purpose, particularly as

In conjunction with

yellow visually.

little

better combination.

is

it

is

a good

a very bright

this

we must have

A

second sheet of

some

dye that will cut out the green.

glass

coated with gelatine, dyed with rosaniline, will do

this effectually,

orange that visible.

and we are

will

left

with a plenitude of bright

make everything

With ordinary

in the

care, plates

dark room clearly

of the nature of that

we have been considering may be worked

in such a light,

C


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

58 since

not be necessary to go closer than within a

will

it

With

couple of feet from the lamp.

and

to red,

sitive

manipulation,

may be

it

give a

good working

plates that are sen-

not

are

advisable to add a

This

blue to the yellow.

who

workers

for

will

speedy in

little

methyl

cut out the orange and

still

light.

The lamp should be

glazed with a piece of ground glass,

and the compound screen

fitted half

an inch or so in front

of it to lessen the risk of the gelatine being scorched.

Since writing the above

have made a number of

I

screens dyed with a combination of naphthol yellow and

naphthol green with excellent

results.

Various proportions

have been used, but a good working formula

is

two grains

of naphthol green

and one grain of naphthol yellow

ounces of water.

The depth

is

to be

dyed

depend

will

largely

upon the

which the screens are being made.

class of

work

for

For landscape work

which there are strong contrasts of colour, and even the

in six

of tint to which the gelatine

in

in

which

faintest traces of clouds present in the sky are to

be preserved in printing strength, screens requiring times the normal exposure will be found useful.

such screens the gelatine

may be immersed

six

In making

in a solution

of

dye of the concentration given, and allowed to take up

all

it

will absorb.

cold water

It

the tint

till

more regular

should then be rinsed several times in is

to the strength required

A

six

way than by dyeing

and then rinsing

briefly.

times screen necessitates inconveniently long ex-

posures for

many

studies, so

it is

and a

Better and

sufficiently reduced.

results are obtained in this

half times

such a series

subjects,

as well to

is

up

to six.

little

and

is

make The

more

unsuitable for most flower

a series ranging from one cost

whilst

and trouble of making one

is

engaged

matter than in making one, and a good plan

is

in

the

to dye, say,

three pieces as described, then to dilute the solution to half strength, to

dye three more, and so on.

The

pieces of


orthochromatic plates and colour screens. gelatine

may be washed

may be mounted,

all

out to different degrees of

or a selection only

and the remainder stored away

till

fixed,

may be pointed

washed, dried, and dyed

somewhat It

it

so treated

to

make one

out that a piece of is

and

wanted.

For the benefit of those who wish screens only,

may be

tint,

59

practically as good,

easier to manipulate, than plain

or two

roll film

and

is

sheet gelatine.

must, of course, be cemented between two pieces of clear

glass.

Naphthol green stops but

little

of the red, and with the

screen described correct colour values are given well into the orange.

In conclusion,

it

may be

said that those

mastered the orthochromatic plate the

ordinary

conspicuous

type for subjects

will

in

who have once

be loth to revert to

which colour plays a

part.

John Mcintosh.


6o

Film Photography*

NQUESTIONABLY mous

popularity

has

graphy

the enor-

photo-

that

during

attained

the

last

few

years

due

to

the

introduction

films.

Both newer

the

films

roll

largely

is

daylight

of

and

films

flat

loading

have contributed to the

this popularity, for

intro-

duction of celluloid as a base for the sensitive gelatine

emulsion

maker material

add

to

himself with at

enabled

has

to

his

outfit

dead

a

the

camera

a

and

traveller

and

without,

weight

dread stant

obtaining

of

necessity

through

as

hitherto,

careless

The

ever-present

handling,

dark-room

the

con-

accommodation, roll film

has

tended to increase the troubles of

amateur photographer, who has ere now discovered

the that

on

all

burdening

of glass plates, which are

an accompaniment to the holiday which the almost abolished,

holiday-

adequate supply of

once an incubus and an annoyance. of breakage

the

an

it

is

just as

films as ever

the attendant

possible to get perfectly it

good negatives

was on glass plates and with none of

risks.

The danger

of halation has also been practically banished

by the introduction of

films.

With a

glass plate, unless

it is

properly backed with a soluble caramel backing or paint,


FILM PHOTOGRAPHY. there

6l

an amount of halation which renders

is

impossible, to secure

good

it difficult,

effects against the light or

where

and shadows, such

there are violently contrasting lights

or

as

the outline of masts against a sunset sky or the delicate

of twigs and

tracery

dows

are to be included,

plate

is

absolutely useless

and there

For

landscape scene.

leaves in a

unbacked

interiors the

are

many

win-

if

other drawbacks

which only the unfortunate user of unbacked plates

The

covers.

celluloid basis of a film

even the thinnest glass light

so

much

No

backing

except in the most extreme cases, and seldom,

more than the

dis-

thinner than

plates, that this trouble of reflected

non-existent.

practically

is

is

The

is

required

ever,

is

there

even with very

slightest trace of halation

troublesome subjects.

if

saving of weight and storage

space, either before or after development, are advantages that

do not

require to be urged, as they are patent to the

most casual observer

;

but

it is

not until one has accumulated

a large stock of negatives both on glass plates and celluloid films that the really marvellous

saving of space

is

quite

realised.

Films, then, have the advantage of being lighter, less liable to breakage, take

produce halation.

They

up

less storage-room,

are a

little

but the other advantages perhaps outweigh films the price rises to rather

backed

plate,

but the

and do not

dearer than glass plates,

With

that.

more than double

difficulties of

roll

that of a

manufacture must be

taken into account, and the incalculable advantage of being able to dispense with that holiday bugbear, the dark room,

both when loading and unloading the camera, are surely

enough

to justify the extra expense.

As some willing to

are

still

film.

of the readers of this article

may

still

be un-

concede the advantages already enumerated, there

one or two more points

Being

light

and

flexible,

an ordinary envelope with

in favour of the celluloid

they

little

may be

sent by post in

or no packing; and this


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

62

who

should appeal to any amateur his negatives to

some

ments or

made.

sides,

prints

is

may be

Films

which does away with the need

carbon work.

Some

to the use of glass

celluloid films

printed from both

for

of those workers

double transfer in

who

can ever approach them say that one of their that they

is

do not keep

Perhaps before development in hot climates they do

development they

will

keep

deterioration before development

and even

plates have

well.

not, but

indefinitely, providing, of

course, that they have been properly fixed

tional cases,

wedded

are so

that they will not admit that

plates

principal objections to films

after

sending

in the habit of

trade retoucher or to have enlarge-

is

The

and washed.

only found in excep-

been known to

in the

fail

same way. Flat films are cut sheets of celluloid coated with sensitive

emulsion and made

same

in the

They

sizes as glass plates.

are put into an ordinary carrier, dark-slide or changing-box,

same way

just in the

as a plate,

tions of development, fixation,

and

in the

subsequent opera-

and drying there

and rapid drying with alcohol would prove fact that the celluloid

alcohol

films.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; therefore,

The

three A's

is

fatal

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; acetone,

liable to

Both play

ammonia, and

be devoted to the use and

deservedly popular

endeavour to show how, with film

owing to the

inadvisable.

rest of this chapter will

treatment of the

special

had better be avoided, while yet another

A, the acid fixing bath,

The

no

would probably dissolve away.

pyro-ammonia developer and acetone are havoc with

is

Certain developers must be avoided,

treatment required.

roll

film,

and

will

intelligent treatment, the roll

can produce not only perfect negatives, but can be

manipulated with both celerity and certainty. Photographers

and

flat

films

difficulty in

who

are

frequently

accustomed to handling plates complain that they have great

making the short sections of

rollable films

keep

under the developing solution, and many and curious are


FILM PHOTOGRAPHY. have been adopted to secure

the devices that

Some

63 this end.

of them, although undoubtedly ingenious, are

trouble than

discover

the use of a

pinning

down

the

wood-bottomed corners

four

Another man

developer. tions flat

One

he attempts to use them.

if

mended

more

worth, as the reader will no doubt

they are

dish,

before

states that

writer recom-

and suggested

on the

pouring

he keeps his film sec-

by placing coins on the edges of the

film,

but he

acknowledged that the rocking of the dish was apt

to dis-

lodge his makeshift weights, and the remedy was almost

more trouble than the

original

complaint.

Personally

I

never had any serious trouble in keeping the films quite flat

when developing them

to the

fact that

which

in short sections,

is

due

always gave them a long preliminary

I

soaking before attempting to start development.

We

suppose that a spool of a dozen has to be de-

will

veloped, and the nature of the exposures, or the inclination

demands that they shall each be treated The seal is broken, and the black paper unwound until the white sensitive material

of the exposer, separately. is

gradually

can just be seen by the light of the red lamp.

Turn

the

spool over in the hand, and then with a pair of scissors

make a good the

division

clean cut along the white line that marks

between exposures

eleven

and

twelve.

In

unwinding, the film must be held firmly in contact with the black paper, care being taken not to let

paper as

it

unwinds.

Section

it

number twelve

slip will

over the

be rather

longer than any of the subsequent sections, and this should

be noted so as to avoid cutting into the exposed surface in

number

eleven.

by being cut

into a

off badly,

Each of the

mind.

may think this is a now and then hear of

Experts

of advice, but one does

and

it

sections as

and the winding

films

damaged

should therefore be borne in it is

cut off should be dropped

deep ewer or bowl of water and

quired,

needless piece

spool,

left

to soak until re-

with such black paper as


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

64

By

remains, can be thrown away. tions

will

it

following these instruc-

cut-off pieces of black

be found that the

paper

and can be secured with the of the left hand, so that they do thumb the and first finger well. Now cover the ewer up as water not drop into the up above the

roll

sensitive film

A deep

and get the developer ready.

carefully

always be used, and plenty of developer.

dish should

no good

It is

attempting to use two or three ounces for a quarter-plate

5x4

a

in

film

With

disaster.

of success, and then there

is

above is

room the

ready,

because you

dish,

for

you

and

arch up a

to

We

surface.

chance

far greater

your film does not keep quite

if

it

are simply courting

you have a

eight ounces

little

dipped

into

the

flat

not get

still

now suppose

will

have

and

everything

ewer

for

a

film.

The and

it

the section quite limp,

it

evenly,

and as soon as

this

The

dish.

slightly in the middle,

into the

has happened you should

turn the film over so that the sensitive side

bottom of the

it

This allows the developer to flow

solution face upwards.

across

made

water has probably

should be immersed quickly by sliding

film will

but after a few seconds

no need

to touch

next to the

is

then probably arch it

will flatten

again for a few minutes.

out,

and there

The

progress of development can be watched from the back

of the film,

is

it

and the amount of density

can be judged to a

that

it

has attained

nicety.

Another convenient method of developing the separate exposures which measure,

may be

or, better still,

put the sections into film

preferred

is

to

fill

a flat-bottomed

a thin tumbler, with developer, and

that.

The

go conveniently into the

slight curling

glass,

makes the

and the progress of

development can be watched through the sides of the Air bubbles, if they form on the gelatine surface,

tumbler.

can be shaken

off instantly

hand over the top of the

by pressing the palm of the

glass,

and shaking the

glass

and


FILM PHOTOGRAPHY.

65

may

contents once or twice with the other hand, or the film

be

up and dropped back again two or three times.

lifted

There are one or two useful commercial appliances for flat, and in this connection I might

keeping film sections "

mention the

"

Primus

film-holder,

which consists of two

small clips, which grip the edge of the film, and are them-

This

by a spring handle.

selves held in place

and

one's fingers in the developing solution,

pyro this

is

piece

little

dabbling

the necessity of

of apparatus entirely removes

in the case of

an advantage not to be overlooked.

This method of tentative or personal development has

many to

adherents, and

than

it

I

I

have therefore devoted more space

perhaps should have done otherwise.

Roll film

and

users have, however, discovered that there are other easier

ways of obtaining negatives, and the majority of them

have adopted the

strip

method.

is all

unwound, and the

sensitive film

A

before development.

development are

is

conducted

of a very varied

is

up

in the

hand

by most

attached to the two is

carried out

bowl of clean water, and the

same

it,

Big

fashion.

of developer;

plenty

nothing like

series

first

much

in

necessary and

expedition there

rolled

preliminary washing

film through a

by drawing the

dishes

The

strip.

is

pair of strong clips, sold

photographic dealers, should be

ends of the

name implies, The black paper

This, as the

means developing the whole spool at once.

but for

although, in the case

of exposures, one

may now and

then find one negative that requires longer development than the others.

If

such a case occurs, that negative must

be cut out and allowed to remain in the developing bath after the others are done, but the occurrence is rarer than

one might be led

As

far as

entirely factor,

ing

to suppose.

my own

practice

is

concerned,

I

have almost

adopted Mr. Watkins's method of development by

and

find

it

by

good and regular

far the results.

most

satisfactory

way of

In the chapter of

obtain-

this

book

c*


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

66

devoted to Negative-making the described, so that I scarcely

here

A

;

still,

factorial

method

is

fully

need occupy space with

it

there are just a few points to be remembered.

slow developer, with a high

multiplying factor,

not

is

particularly suitable for the ordinary strip development, as

continual and

the

necessary

movement

one before development

liable to tire

my

Rodinal, which, in

opinion,

is

is

arms

of the

is

really complete.

the simplest and

best

commercial developing agent obtainable, had practically to

be discarded on

Negatives developed

account.

this

with rodinal lose some of their density in the fixing bath,

and the time of development for this.

I

used

therefore

is

for

rather long to compensate

some time the following

pyro-soda formula, which gives negatives of a particularly

As

useful character. little

be seen, however,

will

it

differs

but

from the Barnet pyro-soda developer given in the

chapter on Negative-making.

.... ...... No.

i.

Sulphite of soda

Water

Pyrogallic acid

.....

....

No. Carbonate of soda Carbonate of potash

Water

.

.

6 ounces 32 ounces 1 ounce

2.

3 ounces 1

.

.

.

.

ounce

32 ounces

For normal exposures use equal parts of No.

1

and No.

2,

together with sufficient water to double the quantity used of the two solutions.

As

this

is

somewhat apt

rapidly, a little metabisulphite of potash should

The

factor

for

this

formula

is

ten,

to

oxydise

be added.

and development

is

usually complete in six or seven minutes.

As, however, negatives that

and

at the

I

have a great liking for the delicate

rodinal alone

same time was

seems capable of yielding,

sufficiently

enamoured of the

" always ready " character of that estimable preparation,

I

devised a means of overcoming the tiring way of " sawing"


BARNET Roll Films

RE

A'

AND

ORTHOCHROMATIC

NON-CURLING.

MADE TO

FIT

ALL DAYLIGHT-LOADING CAMERAS,

CAN

BE

CONFIDENTLY

RECOM-

MENDED. PERFECTLY COATED WITH

AN EXTREMELY RAPID EMULSION. VERY RICH GREAT

IN SILVER. GIVING

LATITUDE

IN

VERY

EXPOSURE


THE BARNET Lantern Plates TWO BRANDS WARM TONE. :

COLD

F

l

JLL

TONE.

INSTRUCTIONS

ENCLOSED

WITH EVERY BOX FOR

OB-

TAINING A WIDE RANGE OF TONES. q THE BEST PLATES FOR

TRANSPARENCIES.

3

3

WINDOW 5

5


FILM PHOTOGRAPHY.

69

up and down during the twelve long minutes that demands and this is what I did. A screw eye was fixed into the wooden ceiling of my dark room, and a the film

rodinal

:

thin cord with a small weight attached was passed through it.

To

and

this clip received

end of the cord a strong

the other

patterns

several

are

one end of the developing

of the special film

film.

dishes

was fastened,

clip

then got one

I

which

(of

there

mounted on a wooden

obtainable)

base with an adjustable arm for passing the film under.

This arm carries a vulcanite the film

is

and by means

roller,

of this

kept beneath the surface of the solution

the

;

weight attached to the cord keeps everything taut, and then all

one has to do

end

to

and

fro,

is

to pull the clip attached to the other

and the whole

film

is

developed with an

ease and convenience that must be tried to be believed.

A

similar device

was recently described and

illustrated in

the " Photogram."

The

use

of

developing machines has

daylight

removed any necessity

certain extent quite

even to possess a dark room or a red lamp

who

a question whether the amateur

own sake and

;

but

a

quite

it is

hobby

loves his

revels in all the various

to

for the dilettante

for its

and necessary opera-

Even

tions will ever take kindly to mechanical methods.

with the proper application of the Watkins system (multiplying the actual time

of

appearance in seconds by the

first

factor of the developer), there

is

a popular desire to watch

the image built up, although relying on the result of the calculation to determine

the developer. shall

we say

Perhaps

faith, in

how long it

the film shall remain in

requires too

the system, for

much

courage, or

some photographers

desert their beloved negatives in the

making

;

but

if

to

only

they would have this faith and either screen their lamp or

cover the dish and filter

let

through the red

results

no

light,

glass,

even the " safe

come

would be much more

to their films

satisfactory.

" rays that

at

The

all,

best

the of


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

70

that

produce

sometimes

lamps

the photographer

comes a

there frequently

soon because right

it

Then,

appearance," there

too,

desire to take the film out too

and you made

is

"first

it is

enemies

of

contend with.

appears to be getting too dense.

factor

wrong, and

to

worst

that

fog,

has

If

your

no mistake about the time of no possible chance of going

is

better to let things take their course

and not

meddle.

A

few hints about washing and drying the

one good method

is

small cork and let

it

The

water.

hypo there

each film by one corner to a

to pin

about in a large bath

float

gradually

falls

down

then drops to the bottom

lath, say,

about four or

strip of film

in a similar

five feet

If

of

bottom corner and

With

bath.

strips

long

pin one end of your

;

lath

your lath

is

of

Get a

in useful in this way.

on to one end of the manner.

to the

of the

come

film the bath will also

fairly full

hangs downwards, and what

naturally

film

is

film will

If the exposures are cut off separately,

probably be of use.

and

thick

fix

the other

end

enough you can

put the pins actually on the end, and then the heads will act as buffers to keep the floating lath from scraping against the sides of the bath

;

but,

if

not, turn

The

strip of film

about half an inch of the

down on hang down in a

film over the end and pin will

it

floating lath (if the loop is too big, pin

and make two smaller

all-night soak.

up

in the

middle

and the hypo will drain out in Of course, in adopting this idea

to give all your films a

swill after they leave the fixing solution

This

it

ones),

a most exemplary fashion.

you must remember

the upper surface. big loop from the

is

much

good preliminary

and again

after the

simpler and gives less trouble

than any other method, and the results are absolutely certain.

Those who have not a good supply of water at their Take half a dozen might try this alternative.

disposal

tumblers and

fill

them

all

with water.

The

films should

be

cut into sections, and as they leave the fixing bath they are


FILM PHOTOGRAPHY.

7 I

Each

passed through the half-dozen tumblers in succession.

film should be drained before being changed, blotted with fluffless blotting-paper,

hypo

is

and

removed, and a

minutes' soak in each glass

five

By doing

should be allowed.

final

this the greater part of the

soak for an hour in a tumbler

of clean water will remove the last traces of hypo that are likely to

washed

do any harm, so that a dozen in little

now

hypo eliminators that are also be

films are efficiently

more than a gallon of

employed

One

water.

of the

advertised so freely might

to advantage, but

is

it

best to use an

eliminator in conjunction with washing rather than instead

of

it.

For drying

I prefer to

short lengths of board,

set these

good dry place well out of the way. employed

to

practically

Perhaps some of diffuse,

little

exactly

Blotting-paper can be

and by

any excess of moisture,

off

to

boards up in a

boards against the wall with the films face

leaning the

downwards

take

down on

pin the four corners

and then

for

it

is

no dust can

my

difficult

on them.

settle

explanations

may have been

now and then

some of these time-and-trouble- saving devices

practice has taught one.

and many enemies, but

I

The

roll

film

has

a

to describe

many

that

friends

venture to say that the objectors

only object from a want of knowledge,

or,

knowing too

condemn too much. To the traveller, to the photographer who is enthusiastic enough to have a camera in

little,

his

pocket on every available opportunity, the

roll

films

Many

have made themselves absolutely indispensable.

treasured negative might never have been obtained had

not been for the invaluable daylight loading reliable

and the equally invaluable folding pocket camera seems invariably to associate with

film,

that

one

it.

Percy G. E.

a it

Wright.


72

Lantern Slide Making.

THINK

we may take

granted

most

that

graphers

know what a

slide

even

is,

made one It is

glass,

if

it

for

photolantern

he has never

or seen one made.

a transparent print on

and one which

is

in-

tended to be viewed by being projected

upon a white screen

by means of an optical or what was formerly called a "

magic

made,

lantern.

"

for

on

purposes,

This transparent print

is

now always

convenience of handling, storing, and optical

one

of glass,

size

which

in

England

is

3^ inches square (3^ x 3 J).

Lantern

slides of to-day are

made

generally

upon com-

mercial lantern plates, and which are to be bought from any

photographic dealer.

There are many ways and means of

making lantern

but

slides,

when

I

say that 99 out of every

100 slides made, and by the best workers, are on plates

bought ready coated, such as Barnet Lantern Plates at is. per dozen,

it

will

of the ordinary worker

Now

let

me

is

be easily seen that no other method

worthy of our consideration here.

say at once that any photographer

make a decent negative can also make The making of technically good slides

who can

decent lantern slides. is

purely one

of


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING. which the worker

practice, in

will find

73

many

out

unwritten

laws as his experiments proceed. Yet,

one wishes

if

ordinary slides there

paper printing.

and has the

above the

knowledge and good

artistic

making

level of

claim that the slide-maker,

and colour,

printing

as

rise

if

taste,

him

as in

he wishes

commands

same power of expression, the same power of control

the

if

I

to

just as big a field before

is

each

as does the pictorial

shown with knowledge the

is

man on

paper,

perfect slide will stand

artistic production just as well as a paper print

an

production, not

artistic

Now making

let

me

advise

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;an

art.

be perfectly practical

to

in

and

all

matter of

in the

slide-

workers to take interest in details

of their work, and observe cleanliness in

all

branches of their

slide-making.

We

will take

it

for

granted that negatives for slide-making

are already at hand, say ^-plate or less (the larger size

deal

will

with

later)

all

the

work

we

conducted in the

is

ordinary dark room, where a' good supply of water can be at

The dark room

command.

illuminated with a greater

when

can,

amount of

safe

slide-making, be light

than when

negative developing.

Now i.

A

us see that

let

hand ready

for use

we have

the following articles at

:

quarter-plate printing frame, or better

the

many

excellent

lantern

slide

still

one of

frames,

made

especially for the purpose. 2.

Dish, for development.

3.

Dish of hypo,

for

fixing the

slides just as

in

fixing

negatives after development. 4.

Bottles of developer as described under " Develops

5.

Box

6.

A

ment." of lantern plates as bought from the dealer at

about

is.

per box of 12.

by-pass gas-burner, fixed to gas

(if

used).


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

74 It will

be thus seen that one has not a new

appara-

lot of

tus to purchase for slide-making. First of all

these three rules

Sort out

i.

would recommend

I

make up each

class into

In this way one

touching the next.

slides before

soon find the exposure of each batch, and

much

of failure will be

Make

2.

workers to follow

negatives into three or four classes accord-

all

ing to their densities, and

will

all

:

each

a series of class, the

trial

risk

reduced.

exposures on one negative from

development of

it

will

soon show the

correct exposure.

Make

3.

a standard distance from the lights for

posures.

Thin negatives, however,

and dense ones nearer with advantage.

further away,

Now we

take our printing-frame and place in

open the box of lantern

tive,

j

place the negative film

face to face just as in

upon

plates

the nega-

it

and place one upon

the negative you want to appear on the

portion of

that

lantern-slide

and lantern

plate film

making a P.O.P. print; now place

the back of these a piece of dark cloth or red blotting-

paper, and fasten the exposure, If gas

down

the back,

and we

are ready for

upon which much depends.

be used in the dark room a by-pass burner

be found of advantage, because not requiring to be after

will re-lit

each exposure.

Using the same

light,

whatever

it

may

and holding the frame at the same distance, process

much more

There note

ex-

all

may be exposed

in

distance.

is

will

make

holding the frame to the

The

the

certain.

one point which the beginner should

trated as follows

The

be, each time,

light,

theory of illumination

and

may be

carefully

that

is,

the

briefly illus-

:

intensity

of illumination

on a given

surface

is


By

DOUGLAS ENGLISH,

M.B.


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING. inversely as the square of

This means, that

if at

its

75

distance from the source of light.

a distance of one foot from a gas-jet

or candle-light an exposure of 30 seconds

should the distance be increased to two

feet,

is

correct,

and

the correspond-

ing exposure will be two minutes, and so on as this diagram

shows. 4!

times

4

Fig.

But there

is

.

Âť

rn

'-F

Btimas

ffi

ultimas

i.

this difference in practice, the light

has less

power to penetrate the dense portions of a negative as the distance increases,

and as previously stated, dense negatives and weak ones further away from the

are best exposed nearer light.

Let us expose our plate that frame say

thirty

how

burner and see If

seconds at far

2

ft.

is

we have been

any part of the negative

waiting in the printing

from a good Bray No. 6

is

successful.

unequally dense

requires more exposure than the rest to bring

it

and

fully out,

the ordinary portion of the negative should be shaded with

moving, whilst the dense

a piece of brown paper kept portion receives

more exposure.

If the negatives are

upon

films a piece of clean glass

should be placed at the bottom of the printing frame so that

it

will

be held quite

flat.

DEVELOPMENT. Our

plate

veloper

is

now ready

we make up the

purpose :

for

development, and for

following

this

good all-round de-


76

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY. No.

i.


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING. It

nicely

is,

its

however, advisable, when the image comes

and gradually, with

develop

That

it.

it

and the

result should

and appear

to

be

be reduced away in the

will

be correct.

plate out of the developer

a flow of clean water and

picture has reached

further

little

This

15 per cent, overdone.

Take the

when the

go a

up

parts in order, to just over-

all its

to say,

is

best to the eye let

fixing,

77

fix,

and wash well under

as in negative-making, for ten

or fifteen minutes.

FIXING BATH. is

The made

fixing bath,

as follows

which must always be used quite clean,

:

... ......

Hyposulphite of soda

Water

When

the slide

washed

well

comes from

5 ounces

20

this fixing

,,

bath

must be

it

a negative, and dried away from

just as

all

possible chance of dust.

The

slide is best

examined when dry, as we can then

better judge the points.

black, which

The

is

The

colour should be a

colour, to a great extent,

is

regulated by the quality of

the negative, the exposure given to

A

used.

veloped with a normal developer the same negative

Thus

result in a colder colour.

will

and de-

fully

yield a nice

warm

it

will

be seen

it is

will

possible

upon the same make of

and developer by varying the exposure.

Good

negatives give the

slide-making, as in

A scope,

very poor,

all

thin

harsh

satisfactory

negative does

and whilst a good

hard,

most

results

in

other photographic processes.

slide

negative by skilful treatment,

A

and the developer

exposed just enough

to obtain a long range of colours

plate

it,

good average negative exposed

colour, yet

warm

very pleasing for a great variety of subjects.

negative

not give the same

can be made from a poor

it is

only a makeshift.

should

be

given

a liberal


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

78

exposure

or be even over-exposed to aid in building

up

gradations that are not easily printed from such a negative.

The worker It will

is

strongly advised to keep to one developer.

be really surprising what can be got out of

one comes to know

it

well,

and

to

do

this

it

it

when

must be

in

constant use.

Two given

other formulae of well-tried developers are here

:

METOL DEVELOPER. No Metol


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING. There slides,

one important point to observe

is

and

that

by

lime-light, the

same

the

shown

slide

double the

shown

is

slides will

appear best; yet

in a large public hall

and with the same

size

appear hopelessly black.

if

upon a sheet

lantern, the slide will

make

best to

It is

If

room and upon a small

in a small

dense

developing

in

We will explain.

as regards the density.

is

the slides are to be

sheet

79

average density to suit public-hall work, and

if

slides of fair

they at any

time have to be used in a smaller room and they appear too

can be used upon them through the lantern.

thin, less light

Thus

it

often happens

when

slides are

judged

at exhibition

better

and so gain

upon small sheets the dense ones look

the awards, yet the slides look hopelessly at

they are shown in public.

upon a

A

sheet to

full-size

good lantern

slide

whole of the image

is

These

do them

may be

fault

when

should be judged

slides

justice.

one

said to be

in

which the

of the most translucent character, in

which the colour of the deposit caused by the developer pleasing,

and

in

is

which the tone values and gradations are

proportioned in such a manner as to be suitable to the character of the light that

comes from the

lantern.

SLIDES BY REDUCTION. Thus contact

same

we have been dealing with

far

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the lantern plate or smallerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; but

size

in contact with

slides

made by

a negative of the

this limits us to

making

slides

from a negative or a portion of the negative 3^ in. square. But the negative or the image to be included may exceed this,

and we must then adopt some method of reducing the

subject to the size

we

negative being set

portrait, the subject glass,

and the

plate.

Thus

plate

it

will

require.

This

is

done by copying, the

up and photographed being

used

made 3^ x 3^ in the

be seen that

just as a view or in.

on the ground

dark slide being a lantern it is

possible to copy any size


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

80

of negative, however large, and

make a slide 3 J

in.

square to

the lantern just as easily as one from a small negative.

fit

Some

workers assert that slides made by contact are never so good as those

contact

made by

reduction

a good deal of what

much

and

;

method much may be put

is

if

care

is

not used in the

lost in sharpness,

down

but perhaps

to superiority is not

technical merit as a certain artistic quality.

failed after

I

repeated tests to discover any technical

ference between a slide reduction, the

made by

same subject and

contact and one exactly

the

so

have dif-

made by

same portions

of the negative being used in each case.

There are cheap pieces of apparatus

upon

use

for daylight

the market for reducing negatives to slides which will

save the worker endless trouble

;

they are most efficient and

speedy in use, and are to be recommended to any who can afford the few shillings they cost.

For reducing by is

more expensive apparatus

artificial light

needed, on account of the condenser being required.

simple plan

is

to

have two cameras

negative at one end, and a small

large

lantern plate.

one to hold the

Place the two on a long board, remove the

lens from the larger camera,

and through the hole thus

point the lens of the small camera.

Now

place

position in the big camera,

whole board to the

and draw both light

and

shutters.

left

the big

negative to be reduced in the dark slide, and place

the

A

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a large one to hold the

it

in

Adjust

photograph the

big

negative with the small camera, using a lantern plate for the purpose.

Development

is

the

same

as in the case of contact slides,

which has already been described.

CLOUDS IN LANTERN A

SLIDES.

lantern slide with a clear white sky

production, and that there

is

it

is

is

an unfinished

so simple a matter to put in clouds

no reason why such

slides

should be shown at


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING.

The beginner must

all.

and

reveal

make a

will call the

be more or

is

it

a

difficult

way of a

slide in the usual

foreground or landscape sky showing on

less

We

clear.

not think

matter;

that the following brief description will

simplicity.

its

First

we

hoped

is

it

8

subject,

but this must be quite

it,

take a sky negative, the lighting of the clouds

being in accordance with the light in the foreground

Mark

which

There may

slide.

slide.

from the sky negative with brown paper that

off

portion of the sky negative on which the landscape would

encroach, and proceed to

make an exposure on

a separate

lantern plate for the sky only.

These two lantern film,

should

not at

fit

plates

dry,

and placed

film

together and form one whole slide.

a difficult matter,

all

when

and a

little

to

It is

practice will quickly

turn even a beginner into quite an expert with the process.

REDUCING AND INTENSIFYING. Lucky

little

is

the

man who can

always

make

the slide he

Oftentimes a slide comes out of the fixing-bath a

wants.

too dense or just a

trifle thin,

or

maybe

corner too dense, which spoils the whole.

a reducing-bath must be resorted First

we

will take in

hand

there

is

just

one

In such cases

to.

slides that are heavy, dense,

or over-developed either in whole or part.

The Howard- Farmer reducer it is well known and is

purpose

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

No.

is

I.

...

Hyposulphite of soda

Water

No.

a standard one for this

generally satisfactory

I

ounce

10 ounces 2.

Saturated solution of ferricyanide of potassium.

These should be mixed only

Take

2

ounces of No.

1

for

immediate

use.

and 10 drops of No.

2.

:


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

82

Soak the watch

tion,

be reduced and place

slide to

and take

carefully

it

reduction you require

it

in the solu-

it

out before the

If only partial reduction

required use a soft camel-hair

is

The

brush, and apply the solution to the parts required. solution

may

full

reached, and wash well at once.

is

be used stronger or weaker as the density of

the slide requires.

This reducer acts more quickly upon the high

upon the dense

half-tones than

watched on

carefully

upon

require acting

attacks the dense portions

Slides

as

most,

first

and

should be used, as other parts

must be

it

well

slide

washed quite

and place

it

p. 36.

to

and flow :

2 drachms

chloride

make

dish,

cover the plate well

... ....10

Mercury perchloride

Water

flat

Intensification.

from hypo.

in a clean

of the following sufficient to

Ammonium

free

it

For

later.

which from over-exposure or other causes are

Take the over

and

must be

dense portions

and thin may be made more useful by simple First they

lights

it

generally the case, the

is

composition and use see

its

and

If the

this account.

Ammonia Reducer

Persulphate of

particulars of

portions,

I

.

.

.

drachm ounces

This can be used repeatedly.

When

the slide has

out and wash

it

assumed a white appearance take

well for five minutes

dish and place the slide in liq.

ammonia

*88o

once darken the

methods of

1

it,

now

and flood over

slide

and make

it

much

identical with

may be found

in the

it

take another

it

part in 10 parts water.

Intensification

negative-making

;

a solution of

This

denser.

will at

Other

those given in

chapter under that

heading.

There are many points

making

that have

only

in

the practice of lantern-slide

been

briefly

touched upon on

account of space, but the slide-maker will have had given


LANTERN SLIDE MAKING. him

sufficient to indicate a'

course of work and study

means of

earnest slide-maker finds out ways and his

extends,

practice

and

of experience that go. to

83

such

is

it

make up our

every

;

own

his

as

arising out

matters successes.

MOUNTING AND BINDING. When is

from

we

injury,

connection are

known

as

our

and a

The

as cover glasses

3^

in.

fixed lantern plate

it

so as to protect

and neatness

these must be the

;

same

and should be as

square,

it

in this

things to obtain are what

first

purpose

this

beginner

the

size

as

thin find

will

his

with the old emulsion cleaned off

lantern plates

Wash them

just the thing.

mount

certain exactness

essential.

is

For

possible.

require to

shall

slide,

spoiled

and

the exposed, developed,

finished

and

well

polish,

and only use

those that are free from scratches and bubbles.

Next some paper masks sold for the purpose,

known

be required such as are

will

are square pieces of opaque paper 3J cut-out openings of various shapes

shapes

recommended

are to be

Binding

are

strips

and

and with Oblong

sizes.

Ovals

and

circles

are

narrow

all.

required

also

gummed

black

strips of

least of

square,

in.

be found the most useful.

will

These

as lantern-slide masks.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; these

paper, which are used to bind the

mask and cover glass together. Take a piece of clean white paper,

slide,

the table see is

it

is

before

you.

perfectly dry.

coated

Examine

the

and

lantern

lay

on

it

slide

and

Gelatine such as the lantern plate

absorbs moisture, and undergoes decom-

with

much more readily when damp. Hence it is a good plan to warm

position

before binding

before the

fire

mask

bone-dry.

is

or film side up,

This

it

up,

done,

and place

the

slide

well

also see that the

the

slide,

upon the sheet of paper, and upon

face it

lay


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

84 the

mask of paper

taste

that

suits

See that

paper

print.

slide,

and place upon

it

best

in

;

trimming a

in

dust has been brushed off the

all

the cover glass

it

same

the

this

used as

be

and judgment should

(or, if

a cloud

is

to be introduced, the sky slide) having the film of the slide

and the paper mask between the two. doing

now

is

All that requires

they are well

glasses with the binding strips, seeing that

secured

keep

all

of the two

bind round the four sides

to

This

round.

will protect the

whole

and

slide

from scratches and damage.

it

now important

It is

that the slide shall be

such a way that there shall be no doubt as to

be put in the lantern,

for

marked

how

it is

must be remembered

it

in

to

that

the lanternist works mainly in the dark.

A

recognised

tablished simple.

to

standard of

Hold

the slide

see the subject just

corners

With a

of the

in

as in

slide

become

marking has

and

working,

ensure correct

this

is

es-

quite

such a position that you can nature, then place

two round

spots

of

on the top

white

paper.

marked, any lanternist who may happen to

slide so

handle the slide

will

know

the screen in the right in the lantern with

on

that for the picture to appear

way he

the spots

will

have to place the slide

downward and towards

the

light.

Before being shown, slides should be carefully cleaned of

all

gum and

dirt,

and

finally

polished with a soft rag. S. L.

Coulthurst.


35

Photographic Lenses*

-H 1

1


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

86

defined with a pin-hole, though finer definition

than

is

generally

possible

is

supposed by those who have had no

experience of pin-hole work.

The

pin-hole has also the defect of transmitting such a

small quantity of light that very long exposure

is

necessary

Fig.

to produce

any developable

effect

on a

sensitive plate, but

it

has the virtue of always drawing form correctly and in true

shows that

the

beams of

light

perspective.

Fig.

that reach the

image screen must pass through the pin-hole

and

intersect

i

one another

at the point

Fig.

the case, the image

is

object be solid the image is

true

called if

its

little

h,

and, this being

2.

a true geometrical representation of

the object, whether the latter

h

all

is

a plane or a solid.

is

in

" station point," and perspective

a true station point

If the

" plane perspective," while

exists.

is

always


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

87

ACTION OF THE LENS. With a good remedied. and,

if

lens both

defects of the

It transmits a very

properly " corrected,"

it

much

larger

produce a

will

and accurately drawn image of the most Fig. 2 is similar to Fig. i,

the pin-hole.

It is,

pin-hole are

amount of light,

but shows a

finely defined

intricate detail.

lens, l,

in place of

however, only an emblematic lens, and

not illustrative of the form of a photographic lens, which

much more complex

a

the lens must transmit

but

larger area,

it

arrangement.

more

light

than the pin-hole, being of

also obvious that to act perfectly

is

is

seen that

It is easily

must concentrate all the light that

it

it

from any one

collects

object point on to the corresponding image point, or " focus,"

and

at the

foci that

same time must

make up

correctly locate all the

the complete image.

are essential to the formation of a well defined

drawn image, but they are not

fulfilled

numerous

These conditions

and

correctly

unless the lens

is

especially constructed, or " corrected," for the purpose.

The

light received

by the lens from any object point

is

of necessity always divergent, as shown in the diagram, and

forms a divergent " pencil object

is

that the pencil

photographic of

"

of light,

though when the

at a very great distance the divergency

lenses,

may

lens,

practically

be called

is

so small

parallel.

The

whether a single lens or a combination

must have

the

power of converting such a

divergent or parallel pencil into a convergent one, otherwise it

can form no real focus of the object point

lens

must be of the class

lenses.

A combination

;

known as convergent of lenses that

is

used alone, cause

and render divergent pencils

parallel

still

more

or " positive "

positive as a

may, however, include one or more " negative lenses, which,

therefore the

whole

" or divergent

pencils to diverge divergent.

Single

lenses of the two classes can be distinguished apart from their effects, a positive lens

always being thicker in the centre than


88

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

at the edges,

and having

a negative lens

is

one concave

least

one convex

at least

surface, while

thinnest in the centre, and always has at surface.

CORRECTION OF LENSES. A

photographic objective

bination of a

number and

various forms

almost invariably a com-

is

of positive

and negative lenses of so arranged that the

varieties of glass,

of one

errors, or "aberrations,"

lens or set

of lenses

is

counterbalanced or "compensated" by opposite errors pro-

duced by the other

Negative lenses are introduced

lenses.

for this purpose, as their errors are generally of

nature

of

those

to

positive

attempts to thus compensate

an opposite

The

lenses.

optician

when the proves impossible he makes

all

perfect balancing of the errors

aberrations, but

use of a " stop " or "diaphragm," which

is

virtually a per-

forated screen with which very erratic and quite uncontrollable light rays can be obstructed or " cut out," while those

submit

that

diaphragm tion

control

to

the aperture

if

allowed

are

will eliminate the effects of

Even a

able results.

pass.

small enough, therefore

is

and cheapest means of making a

easiest

to

it

affords the

lens produce pass-

single uncorrected lens will

work with a small stop put

in just

Such a

most forms of aberra-

do good

the right position

;

but,

with any lens, the use of a small stop aperture reduces the quantity

of light

that

passes

" slow," or of low " intensity," If great rapidity

a small stop

utmost

is

skill in

the

lens,

which becomes

and requires long exposures.

and short exposure

is

necessary, the use of

impossible, and the optician has to use his

applying the principle of compensation.

He

cannot do altogether without the stop, but he must place as little

reliance

hence the lenses

and

upon

it

difficulty

as possible for purposes of correction

of making very rapid perfectly acting

their relatively high cost.


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

89

TESTING CONDITIONS. All the single lenses used in photographic combinations

have either spherical or plane surfaces, and

together with

all,

the diaphragm, are centred on an axial line which intersects

every surface angles to

all

normally

:

which means that

the plane surfaces

centres from which

all

is

it

at right

and passes through the This

the others are struck.

called the " principal axis " of the lens,

and any

line is

light pencil

joining object

and image points which are situated on the

principal axis

is

guish

it

principal axis.

mainly

described as a "direct" pencil, to distin-

from the oblique pencils which have

its

foci off the

In testing the quality of a lens we consider

performance in representing a plane object upon

a parallel image plane, both planes being at right angles to the principal axis.

Fig. 2 will serve to illustrate these test

q

conditions, for the line p

is

the principal axis of the lens

l, while the object plane 0, and

both at right angles to p

"direct" one, while that

the image plane

b,

are

The pencil from p to Q is a from/ to q is, of course, oblique.

q.

For experimental purposes pin-holes

in o, with a bright light

behind each, form good object points, and with

ment the aberrations about

this arrange-

to be described can be easily

identified.

CURVATURE OF THE With a

test object

FIELD.

such as that just described, every point in

the object plane should be reproduced exactly in the parallel

image plane.

If this condition is secured the lens

a "flat field," but of the field,"

if

and when received on a

sharply defined at the direct pencil

has

not the image suffers from "curvature

same

time.

and an oblique pencil

time the existence of curvature

curved with a plane object

it

is

flat

plate cannot all be

If

you cannot get a

in focus at the

manifest.

may be

flat

same

If the field

is

with a curved

D


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

90 object, but

that

The

understood.

commonly

not "flatness of field" as

is

form of the field varies with the distance

of the object, hence the test object should be placed at a distance likely to be used in practice.

away, vital

a matter of

for, as

importance when copying

condition

of

It

need not be

absolute flatness

fact,

An

diagrams, &c.

flat

far

only of

is

ideal

can only be secured with highly-

flatness

corrected lenses that produce perfect image points.

CHROMATIC ABERRATION. This

one cause of ill-formed

is

by any natural object analysed

into

uncorrected lens always performs such an analysis

number

sents one object point by a

image points

at various distances

and many

visible

from the

The

afterwards substituted for the screen,

formed

active rays

plate

is

blurred.

;

visible

hence,

in the

The

lens,

if

is,

plate,

which

chromatic aberration

wrong place and the

come

is

present, the

resulting negative

is

to a focus nearer the lens is

not over-

and we can roughly adjust the plate it

is

little

rays, the developed image being by invisible " actinic " or chemically

actinic rays

former by pushing

an

in the

however, very

than the visible rays (provided the aberration corrected),

some being

we place the focussing screen

almost entirely

repre-

visually focussing

plane of the visible image points.

by the

it

of differently coloured

When

invisible.

object in the camera

affected

emitted

light

very various colours, and as an

of

light

The

foci.

always mixed light that can be

is

nearer the lens

;

to the

but in a corrected lens

both visible and actinic rays have the same focus, and no such adjustment '

achromatic," or

is

A

necessary.

" apochromatic "

is

about

than the visible focus, but the

if

is

2

styled

corrected for more

With an uncorrected

than one set of actinic rays. lens the actinic focus

corrected lens

single

per cent, nearer the lens

latter focus is the nearer in

an


rpHE

EXQUISITE DEFINITION OF MODERN

WILL

LENSES

VALUE

IF

BE

OF

BUT LITTLE

THE GRAIN OF THE EMULSION

ON THE PLATE USED BE NOT VERY ESPECIALLY

NEGATIVE

IS

IS

THIS THE CASE

WILL

WHEN THE

TO BE SUBSEQUENTLY USED

LANTERN

MAKING

FOR

FINE.

EVENTUALLY

WHICH

SLIDES,

ENLARGED

BE

PROJECTION ON THE SCREEN, OR

BY

IT IS

TO

BE ENLARGED FROM, DIRECT ON TO BRO-

A LARGE

MIDE PAPER, OR ON TO

q THE

ALL

OF

EMULSION

PLATE.

THE

FIVE

BARNET PLATES IS

OF

ESPECIALLY FINE GRAIN.

q THE ADVANTAGE TERISTIC

OF

WORK

IN IS

OF

THIS

CHARAC-

PRACTICALLY ALL CLASSES NOT,

APPRECIATED

AS

PERHAPS. IT

AS

SHOULD

FULLY BE.


SNAP-

SHOTS FOR SPECIAL HIGH-SPEED

WORK-

EXPRESS TRAINS, TROTTING HORSES,

USE

ATHLETIC

&c—

SPORTS,

BARNET

ROCKET PLATES FOR

SEASIDE

COUNTRY 3 USE

AND VERY 5

3

5

OPEN 3

3

BARNET

MEDIUM PLATES FOR GENERAL SNAP-SHOT HAND-

CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY USE

3

3

BARNET

EXTRA RAPID PLATES AND BARNET ORTHO. GOOD QUALITY MEDIUM THICKNESS GLASS, ALWAYS ACCURATELY CUT, TRUE TO SIZE. 3 3 3


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

The

over-corrected combination.

and develop.

focus carefully, then expose

image

The most convenient

achromatism If the

one the lens

as sharp as the visible

is

test for

93

object for this test

from the camera.

line but find another

is

If

we

to

developed

achromatic.

is

is

a printed

surface slightly inclined so that each line of print different distance

is

is

at a

focus on one

the sharpest in the developed image

chromatic aberration obviously

exists.

SPHERICAL ABERRATION. If

we can

get nothing but a blurred image of a point,

wherever we put the

some phase

of

it,

plate,

must

then spherical aberration, or

In a direct pencil

exist.

aberration can exist only in

its

of which

This may be a

is

a circular blur.

this

simplest form, the effect disc, or

an

ill-

defined bright spot surrounded by a feeble blur, or a bright ring

around a

comparatively dark

space,

a

or

similar

appearance with the addition of a bright spot in centre.

moved

These

different

or from

to

surrounding blur with dark centre

is

the

is

and the bright spot with

lens,

The

the best focus attainable.

most

the

appear as the screen

effects

and

ring

if it

is

found

nearer the lens than the best focus the aberration

is

under-

corrected and

is

styled " positive," while if the ring is

the focus the aberration

Any cheap form mount,

will

characteristic,

is

of photographic lens,

show these

beyond

over-corrected and " negative."

effects

on a

if

removed from

its

fairly large scale.

ASTIGMATISM. When

a focussing screen intersects an oblique pencil in

a certain place a point

may be

represented

by an oval

pointing towards the principal axis of the lens. the screen slightly, another oval

is

Moving

then found with an axis


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

94

at right angles

to

of

that

the

is

and somewhere

one,

first

between these two ovals the point

represented by a disc.

These appearances can usually be observed with any cheap

and they are a

so-called "rectilinear" doublet lens,

that spherical aberration

is

complicated by the effect

produced

in oblique pencils only.

The two

ovals are the astigmatic foci of the oblique

and the

pencil,

disc

the

is

towards the principal axis focus

the other

;

the primary focus

is is

mean is

The

focus.

oval pointing

the " secondary

"or

" radial

the " primary " or " tangent " focus.

If

nearest the lens, then the aberration

is

under-corrected or " positive," but is

known

photographic lenses, can be

astigmatism, which, with

as

sign

if

the foci are reversed

it

over-corrected or " negative," this being the usual state of

affairs.

As there

there are three foci in each oblique astigmatic pencil

must be three image

foci,

and

will

be

in

it

an object

One

fields.

line radiating

is

formed by

because each point of the line

fairly well defined,

angles to a radial line, or a tangent line,

field of the

extended

is

line at right

will,

however, be

mean

tangent foci radial lines are blurred laterally,

is

represented by a disc.

three fields can be field,

then

and

flat,

preferable that the

mean

not corrected, and a

aimed

at

When

if

only lines

direction can be in focus

is

on a

field

flat

that

is

flat

Only one of the

either the radial or

plate

should be

mean

field of

a small extent,

running in one particular it

;

flat if

field is the

is,

therefore,

the astigmatism

condition usually

by the optician. astigmatism

is

perfectly corrected

and good

there

is,

of

may be

either curved or

definition will be possible in

any part of that

course, only one image field, which flat,

In the

foci all lines are equally blurred to

as every point

tangent

In the image

laterally.

while tangent lines are comparatively sharp. the

is

A

extended mainly in a longitudinal direction.

blurred, as each point

radial

from the principal axis


Vole^dam 9*c.

By

EDGAR

H.

CARPENTER


photographic Lenses. field if the

95

removal of the astigmatism leaves no residue of

A

spherical aberration.

is now generally name only is new, not the The modern anastigmats are

corrected lens

an " anastigmat," but the

styled

condition that

expresses.

it

distinguished by the fact that they are rapid field,

curved flat

and have a

flat

whereas the older ones when rapid had a violently rendered them practically useless, and a

field that

field

The

anastigmat was extremely slow.

only well

known specimen

of the old type of anastigmat belongs to

the second class,

and

is

called the Concentric lens.

very fine lens so far as correction aperture

is

is

a

It is

concerned, but

its

only about a quarter of the diameter of that of

New

a modern anastigmat.

methods and new materials

have enabled opticians to overcome the defects that once appeared to be inevitable, and the modern anastigmat not only of extreme rapidity, but well corrected for

is

all

errors.

COMA. This only astigmatism,

an additional complication

occurs as

and therefore in oblique pencils

be identified by the

lateral

symmetrical astigmatic principal axis, or

foci,

away from

it.

distortion of

either

alone.

It

of

may

what should be

inwardly towards the

The primary

focus becomes

a lopsided oval, while the secondary focus develops a wing or pear-shaped projection at one

an inexcusable defect as

it is

in a

end of the

oval.

Coma

is

complete photographic objective,

the easiest aberration to correct.

It

can be readily

observed with any single positive lens used without a stop.

DISTORTION.

A

lens

may be comparatively

hitherto described

and yet draw

free

untruly.

from the defects

The

various foci

composing the image are then incorrectly situated to

each other

;

hence the image

is

distorted.

relatively

A common


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

96

result of distortion is the curvature of straight lines situated

near the margin of the view.

A

square

with concave or convex sides, the

"cushion

" distortion

and the second

The

absence of either effect

lens

is

from

free

ceptible

is,

as " barrel " distortion.

however, no proof that the

may be

distortion, for curvature

The cause

of distortion

of a true station point, which reference to

the

pinhole,

imper-

fault, as

check the truth of the perspective.

good angle without

position, set the swing

before implied in

untrue drawing

test for distortion is to

camera upwards

Tilt the

from

shifting the lens

back perfectly

its

vertical with a

usual

plumb-

then focus on a subject with long truly vertical

If these are perfectly parallel in the

is

the non-existence

is

involves both

and wrong perspective, and the best

line,

represented

being known as

even when a considerable amount of distortion

really present.

to a

may be

first effect

lines.

image the perspective

is

and

but

if

they are not the station point

the lens

is

incapable of drawing correctly under any con-

ditions.

Certain lenses that show no curvature in ordinary

true,

is

defective,

circumstances will show most alarming distortion with this test.

FOCAL LENGTH AND CONJUGATES. Before a lens can be used to advantage certain facts

concerning

it

must be known to the

Fig.

The

user.

3.

focus of a very distant point lying on the principal

axis of the lens

is

lens has two such

known

as a " principal focus,"

principal foci

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one, f

in

and every

fig. 3,

for

the


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES. from

parallel pencil travelling

direct

diagram) and another,

object point

If the

focus moves in the

brought nearer the

is

same

direction,

These two points are called conjugate

When

f 2 the

image q

the point p is

distance p f 2 or q f

dimension

is

at is

fixed absolutely

is

is

at

lens, say

from f to

foci.

when q

p being the image of q

and the position of each other.

the

,

to p,

reversible,

to right (in

left

f 2 for a pencil travelling from right

to left. its

97

is

They

q.

are

the object,

by that of the

one particular distance from

an equal distance from the " focal length " of the

a most important factor in

all

f,

and the

lens,

which

calculations re-

lating to the adjustments of the camera.

If

we

from both f and f 2 we arrive at two points, ,

n and # 2 called ,

may be

towards the lens distances equal to the

set out

focal length

" principal

points,"

and while

f2

and n 2

distinguished as the front principal focus and princif and

pal point respectively, principal focus

The

and

may be

?i

called the back

point.

position of object or image

may be

fixed

by

distance either from principal focus or principal point.

measurement from the former point is the

its

A

extra-focal distance

of the object or image, but one from the principal point

is

distinguished as the focal distance, and a pair of such focal distances are called conjugates.

If

we multiply a

pair of

conjugate focal distances together and divide the result by their

sum

the quotient

is

the focal length of the lens.

This

equation represents the " law of conjugate foci," from which

we can always

The

find

simpler rule which

much

one distance

extra-focal distances is

are,

if

the other two are known.

however, connected by a

much more

easily applied,

and of

greater practical use.

Each

extra-focal

focal length divided

the distance p f 2

distance

in the

focal length [divided

is

equal to the square of the

by the other extra-focal distance.

by q

fig. is

f] (all

Thus

equal to the square of the of course in inches), while


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

98

qf

equal to the square of the focal length divided by p f 2

is

Supposing the extra-focal distance of the object, or p f 2 to

be 10

and the

ft.

.

,

focal length of the lens to be 6 in.,

then the extra-focal distance of the image, or q

The

divided by 120, or three-tenths of an inch.

36

in.

rule can

be

f, is

thus applied to set the plate at the right distance from the lens

when

the distance of the object

known.

is

Knowing

the extra-focal distance of object or image you can at once

distance by simply adding one focal

arrive at the focal

In the above example the focal distance of the

length.

object

is

10

+

ft.

6

and

in.,

image 6

that of the

in.

+

three

tenths of an inch.

SCALE OF IMAGE. Focus being secured, the image and object are equal

Thus image and

focal distances.

when while

relative linear proportions of

to those of the relative conjugate

object are the

same

they are equally distant from the principal if

the focal distance of the image

the object the image

The

ratio of

one-third that of

one-third the size of the object.

is

image

is

size

points,

to object

is

image

extra-focal distance of the

also equal to that of the

to the focal length,

and

to

the ratio of the focal length to the extra-focal length of the object.

the

That

object,

while p f 2

is

is

fq

to say, (in

fig.

if

the image

3)

is

is

one-third the size of

one-third

the

image, therefore, varies directly with

its

focal length,

The

three times the focal length.

size of the

distance from the

back principal focus, and inversely with the distance of the object from the front principal focus. the latter distance you must double plate from the

the image

These

is

If

you halve

the distance of the

back principal focus to secure definition, and

then doubled in

size.

rules are of great importance in

practical work.

Suppose, for example, we wish to copy a diagram negative on

the

scale

of one-quarter

full

size.

or

With a


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES. 6-in.

24

we must

lens

in.

the object four

set

99 focal lengths, or

from the front principal focus of the

lens,

and the

plate one-quarter of a focal length from the back principal

focus

—that

is

i^

in.

the image four times

however, we wished to enlarge

If,

set the object one-quarter

we should

of a focal length from the front principal focus, and the plate four

focal lengths

from the back focal point.

having once set up the camera, scale

—say reduce —we reduce

we wish

Or,

to alter the

the image to three-quarters

slightly

present size

if

its

its

distance from the principal

focus in the same ratio and increase the distance of the object in the inverse ratio, which

by four thirds or add one

third.

means It

that

we

multiply

it

should be noted that

such adjustments can seldom be made so accurately as to ensure perfect focus

—they must always be supplemented by

visual examination of the image.

With

different lenses

used upon an object at a fixed

focal distance the size of the image varies with the focal

In the case of very

distance of the plate from the lens. distant objects the plate

and the length

size of the

image just twice the is

placed at the principal focus,

image then varies directly with the focal

of the lens.

the object

is

distant.

Thus an

8-in.

size of that

an

lens will produce

formed by a

4-in. lens, if

With a near object the camera has

to be racked out to secure focus, and size then depends on

the focal distance, which

is

greater than the focal length.

MEASUREMENT OF FOCAL LENGTH. If the position of the

back principal point of a lens

is

known, then by focussing on a distant object and measuring the distance from screen to principal point you find the focal length.

If the principal point

is

not known, focus on

a distant object, and then rack out and focus on a near one, measuring the extra extension. ratio of object to image,

multiply the

Then determine result

the

by the extra

*Z

''

\ *


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

IOO extension length.

previously

and the

found,

result

the

is

focal

convenient to use a finely divided scale as

It is

the test object, and then measure the image either with the

same

scale or another exactly similar.

As an example,

pose we find that the extra extension of the camera

and the object

is

two and a half times the

is

in.,

image

size of the

then the focal length must be 2*4 multiplied by 2-5 6

sup-

2*4

in.,

;

or

in.

APERTURE. The

next important particular that must be

regard to a lens

is

its

largest parallel pencil of light that the lens

Knowing

will pass.

relative

known

with

effective aperture, or the size of the

and stop together

each stop we can estimate

for

this

exposures with different stops, for the amount of

light passing the lens varies with the area of the pencil,

the exposure must vary inversely with the

For example,

if

we

much exposure

is

much

required.

light passes

As

aperture must vary with the square of sufficient to

best

expressed

therefore,

//22,

know

is

and only

the area of the

its

diameter

as a fraction

of the focal length.

&c, by which the apertures

The /stands

of lenses

the fraction

An //8

is

the "ratio

aperture

f/16 aperture;

it

is,

is

number"

is

This,

are always

stands for focal length

&c. of the focal length.

is

//n, //16,

fraction simply denotes that the effective aperture r T th, ^(-th,

it

the diameter only, and this dimension

the meaning of the fractions //8,

represented.

and

light.

so alter the aperture as to double the

area of the light pencil twice as half as

amount of

and the is

^th,

The denominator

of

of the stop.

naturally twice the diameter of an

therefore, four times the area, passes

much light, and requires one-fourth as much An//xi aperture (really// 11 '3) is half the area exposure. Therefore, by changing of //8 and twice that of// 16.

four times as

from f/S to //11, or from

//n

to// 16, we reduce the


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

IOI

by one-half and must double the exposure.

light

These

stops belong to a universally useful series in which

each

stop requires twice the exposure of the next larger one, the series

being//4,//5-6,//8,//ir3,//i6,//22-6,//32,//45-2,

The

//64.

modern

stops in

lenses belong to this series,

with the occasional exception of the largest stop, which, in rapid lenses, being simply the biggest one that can be used,

not always

will

The

when

only

plate

in.

fit

effective aperture

the

the size of the hole in the stop

is

stop

To

in front of the lens.

is

measure the true

effective aperture in other cases first focus

on a very distant

object, then replace the focussing screen

by some

opaque screen perforated

sort of thin

with a small pin-hole.

Put a bright

hole, then lay a piece of

ground

of the lens, light seen

light

glass flat against the

and measure the diameter of the

on

this little screen

this will

;

in the centre

behind the pin-

hood

circular disc of

be the diameter

of

the effective aperture.

The result

is

a distant object forms the

effective aperture for

basis of calculations in

the case of near objects, but the

sometimes wrong owing to the

fact that, with certain

lenses, the effective aperture really varies with the distance

To

of the object.

constant

" or not,

with the lens in

test

whether the aperture

measure

its

it

hood points

to the pin-hole.

two measurements agree the aperture distance of the object, but

if

the

first

than the second then the aperture while

if

the second

measurement

increases with near objects.

lens

is

not at

all

is

"

" lens

Telephoto

is is

desirable.

so great that

is

If the

constant for any

measurement

is

larger

smaller for near objects, the greater the aperture

is

only a matter of

or enlarging, for which

inconstancy

in-

Excepting with a few lenses

of very special type, inconstancy

when copying

thus "

and then again with the

usual position,

lens reversed so that the

is

just as described above, first

With it

moment

work an inconstant

certain lenses, however,

must be allowed

being a notable example.

for;

the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

102

EXPOSURE. When

the aperture alone

is

varied exposure varies with

number of the

the square of the ratio

same stop we

If with the

by focussing on a

lens to plate

Thus the

stop.

exposures with//8 and//i6 are as 64

tive

:

256, or as

alter the focal distance

rela1

:

4.

from

different distance, exposure

varies with the square of the focal distance of the plate.

Thus,

if

we rack out

must be

the camera from 7

increased in the ratio of

49

in.

to 10 in. exposure

must be ap-

100, or

:

proximately doubled.

When

copying to various scales with any one stop

exposure varies with the square of

Thus

to object.

and

if

at

another three times

at

ratio of (1

2

+^)

to (1

plus the ratio of image

1

one time the image

+ 3)

2 ,

full size,

or in that of 2\ to 16.

So long as the aperture has the same distance of the plate exposure lens

used or

is

not.

apertures

with //8

exposure

is

is

and both focussed on

is

if

one lens

distant objects

racked out and the focal distance

Relative exposure with pin-holes the

same

focussed on a near

is

and then a longer exposure

same way

ratio to the focal

constant, whether the

Therefore with two different lenses both

equal, but

distance the camera increased,

half full size

is

exposures vary in the

is

required.

may be

calculated in

as with lenses, the distance of plate

from pin-

hole divided by the diameter of the latter being the " ratio

number."

To

a certain extent the rapidity of lenses varies, apart

from inconstancy, with the materials used and sundry small structural details, but the variation it

can be neglected.

ture

is

result

in

generally so small that

when a

very large aper-

use and an exceedingly brief exposure

may be

affected to

small variations, and this those

is

Nevertheless,

who have

is

given the

an appreciable extent by these is

a matter of some

to deal with high-speed

work.

moment to Some lenses


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

103

at// 6*5 seem to be quite as rapid as others at f/6, but the differences are more marked when apertures of between f\\

and// 5

are in question.

DEPTH. Strictly

points

speaking only one object point out of a series of

all at

from the camera can be in

different distances

focus at one time; but, practically, no want of sharpness

can be detected in the other points provided their images are not blurred

beyond

maximum

limit of "

certain limits.

If

permissible confusion "

definitely the positions of the nearest

and

we fix such a we can express

farthest points in

approximate focus, and so gain a clear idea of the " depth

Thus

of field."

in

image q of a point

fig.

p,

4

if

the lens

l produces a sharp

then other points within a depth c to

Fig.

4.

d will also appear to be in focus, and the positions of c and d can be fixed if we decide on the maximum amount of confusion allowable. The point c limits near depth, or the distance from c to p, while d limits far depth or the distance from p to

We

d.

can

fix

any

limit

of confusion,

but

T -J

-

in.

is

amount allowed, though a smaller limit, say necessary if we want really acute definition.

generally the

2^0

in., is

As a

rule

it

is

most convenient

extra-focal distances of the nearest

sharp focus.

Thus

the depth

to express depth

and

shown

4

is

best de-

d from

F,

the front

in fig

scribed by giving the distances of c and

by the

farthest points In

principal focus of the lens.

In the case of a lens focussed on a very distant object there

is

no question of

far depth,

near depth alone

exists,


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

io4

and when found

it is

described as the " hyperfocal distance

"

for the particular stop.

the limit

If

distance

of confusion

always equal

is

focal length divided

by the

y^

is

hyperfocal

the

in.

ioo times the square of the

to

ratio

number

of the stop

thus

;

with a six-inch lens and stop //8 the distance

is

36 divided by

This hyper-

distance

focal

8,

which

serves

is

450

or 37^

in.

ft.

purposes.

several

ioo times

First,

when

distance of the nearest object in approximate focus

we

focus sharply on an infinite distance.

Second,

the

is

it

it

is

the

we should focus to obtain a maximum depth of field, for when we so focus total depth

distance on which

amount of

extends from half the hyperfocal distance right up to Third,

a constant factor in

it is

depth, and

To

may be

all

infinity.

calculations relating to

truly described as the "

depth constant."

when

find the limit of near depth

focussing on a

near distance, with a lens of constant aperture, multiply the distance by the depth constant

sum

and divide the

of the distance and the constant.

result

Far depth

is

by the found

by multiplying the distance by the constant and dividing the result by the difference of the distance and constant.

Thus 10

ft.,

if

the constant

is

30

ft.

and we focus on a distance of

the distance of the nearest object in focus

times ten divided by thirty plus ten, or 7^ of the farthest distance in focus

by

thirty

minus

for the centre

"

ten, or

5

ft.

is

is

thirty

while that

thirty times ten divided

These

results are only correct

of the image excepting with well corrected

flat field " lenses.

be useful

1

ft.,

The

following table of constants

may

:

HYPERFOCAL DISTANCES OR DEPTH CONSTANTS FOR STOP //8. Focal

length


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

we

If

divide

we

succession,

by

constant

the

2,

105 &c.,

5,

4,

3,

in

get a series of distances of "consecutive

depth," such that

we

if

focus on any one of

them the two

adjacent dimensions are the nearest and farthest distances in focus with the stop for

Thus,

which the constant

and

15, 10, 7^, 6,

5

ft.,

depth extends from 6

f/8,

depth

calculated.

10

to

ft.

we use//i6,

If

ft.

shown by the second dimension from the distance

is

focus, so that focussing

from 5

is

f/8 is 30 ft., we get the series, 30 and if we focus on, say, 7^ ft. with

the constant for

if

to

ft.

15

on i\

On

ft.

ft.

in

with// 16, depth extends

this principle a depth-indicating

focussing scale can readily be set out.

With inconstant lenses depth theoretical

may

amount, while

vary to a large extent.

spherical

it

Generally speaking, positive

reduces

aberration

varies slightly from the

spherical aberration exists

if

all

depth distances,

while

negative aberration increases them.

The

length the less rapidity

as in

the

greater

aperture

and the greater the

and considerable depth are both desirable

hand camera work, a

focal

Hence, when great

the depth available.

is

qualities,

lens of short focal length

is

absolutely essential.

FOCUSSING SCALES. When

focus

is

secured on a certain distance the exact

camera extension can be recorded by a mark on some convenient portion of the apparatus, so that the camera

may

be again set to the same mark when the same distance

is

be focussed upon. scale, trial,

but

it

is

A series

not usually possible to

and some have

to

to

of such marks forms a focussing fix all

the marks by

be determined by calculation.

It is

easy to find the mark for an infinite distance by focussing

on a very

distant object,

and

also

one or two marks

objects at extra-focal distances of from

these marks

;

5

to

10

for near ft.

from

others can then be found by the following


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

106 rules v

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The distances represented by any two marks on the

scale are inversely proportional to the respective distances

of those marks from the

mark and the way

ft.

5

between the

between the

number

of

from the

The mark

and 10

to that for 5

half-

A

ft.

by dividing the space

set out

by

ft.

different factors.

beyond the

actual extension of the camera

is

mark

and one halfway

ft.,

mark represents 20

ft.

marks may thus be

mark

the infinity

if

are both determined a

two represents 10

infinity

infinity

Thus,

mark.

infinity

mark

infinity

always equal to the square of the focal length

divided by the extra-focal distance of the object in focus,

dimensions being in inches, and by

all

when

out marks for any distances

this rule

we can

set

mark alone

the infinity

is

known.

The most convenient series of distances to show is the one of " consecutive depths " before described. The infinity mark is, of course, included in this series, the scale marks for

which are

all

equal distances apart.

circle of confusion of 1/100 is

equal to 1/100

in.

in.,

multiplied by the ratio

stop for which the series

number

Thus, with a

calculated.

is

Allowing for a

each division of the scale

of consecutive depths for//8, each division

is

-

o8

of the series

in.

TYPES OF LENSES.

A

wide angle lens

exceptional obliquity,

is

one that passes

and

its

image

cover an exceptionally large plate.

mount

to allow very oblique

must be

It

light pencils of will,

therefore,

must have a short

complete pencils to pass, and

specially well corrected,

increase with obliquity.

field

as

aberration

tends to

Exceptionally wide angle lenses

are usually slow, as very oblique pencils will only give decent

definition with small stops to

;

big pencils are also

more

liable

be mutilated by the obstruction of the mount, which

As a loss of light near the margins of the plate. " wide" or "narrow," called we the angles to guide rough

means a


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES

may

consider a lens to cover a wide angle

dimension of the plate that focal length, while

its

I07

covered

A

covers

is

when

the greatest

equal to or less than

the greatest length of the plate

than two-thirds the focal length the angle

is less

narrow.

if

it

wide angle lens can, of course, be used

narrow angle on a small

is

at a

plate.

Doublet lenses consist of two separated lenses with a between

stop

;

" single " lenses

usually consist of several

lenses in close contact with a stop

"View"

bination.

" single

on one

"landscape"

or

" variety, are usually

;

they are therefore slow.

of the

medium angle They are in-

but the variations in aperture are so

variably inconstant,

small that they

are

very imperfectly corrected for

astigmatism and distortion, and only cover a with a small stop

com-

side of the

lenses

may be

disregarded excepting

when copying

or enlarging, for which purposes such lenses are not well

Their

adapted, though often used.

which they are most

for

titles

suggest the work

suitable.

Doublets styled "Rectilinear," "Symmetrical," "Aplanats," or "

Euryscopes

" are

errors except astigmatism,

Most

less quantity.

will

constant and corrected for most

which always cover a

exists in greater or

medium

and a moderately wide angle with a small will

angle with f/8

aperture.

Some

open out to f/6, but will then only cover a very moderate If the

angle.

mount

is

short enough, a very wide angle can

be covered with a small stop, but in such a case the marginal definition

is

somewhat

imperfect.

Anastigmats are the only

lenses that will cover wide angles perfectly,

and many of

them

High

will

do so

at a relatively large aperture.

and good correction over a large but well

A

it

if

should be noted that cheaper types

for

will

work

most ordinary purposes.

anastigmats possess

is

well at

The

//8

do equally

will

neither a wide angle nor extreme rapidity

mid-angle lens that

rapidity

field are their characteristics,

is

flatness

is

required.

good enough of

field

that

of advantage mainly in copying,

and


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

108

Apertures of

not by any means essential for other work.

//6 and over are only required

extremely rapid shutter

for

exposures or for short exposures in bad

light.

Aldis, Collinear, Planar, Unar, Tessar, Protar,

though

are anastigmats,

lenses

centric

the

The Cooke, and Homofact

not

is

indicated by their names. Portrait lenses are doublets of extreme rapidity (//4 or

thereabouts), highly corrected for direct pencils but not for

oblique ones, the perfection of which

sake

and

of rapidity,

They

portraiture.

The Grun

lens

sacrificed for the

is

much moment

not really of

is

is

of the most extreme rapidity, and

is

The rapidity

specially intended for short exposures indoors. is

in

often show considerable distortion.

gained by peculiar construction, and at the sacrifice of

acute definition. fluid,

and

is

It is

a doublet lens

therefore heavy.

apparently more rapid, and

Its

filled

with a special

advantages are, that

it is

also gives greater depth than

other lenses of similar aperture.

Uncorrected lenses are sometimes used

for the sake of

Simple lenses with a stop are thus em-

soft definition.

"

ployed, while the

Bergheim

"

is

a very special type of

uncorrected doublet of adjustable focal length.

The Telephoto

lens

one designed

is

to

extension of the camera and an extreme focal length

is

adjustable,

the camera extension

point being a long

may

way

and when

very large

appear

is

scale

set to,

say, three feet

in front of the lens.

on small

images.

distortion, and,

The

not exceed one foot, the principal

being very long, only a small angle lens can only be used

work with a short

focal length.

The

is

plates,

The mount

included, hence the

though

it

produces

only aberration likely to

though curvilinear

effects are

not

met with, perspective may be badly distorted with The Adon is a rapid some patterns of the Telephoto. variety of Telephoto lens of a rather more convenient often

pattern.

All Telephoto lenses are very inconstant, so

much


PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES.

IO9

so that with near objects the ordinary rules of exposure, &c.,

not apply.

will

The

lens

Special rules are therefore adopted.

adjusted to

is

produce an image

on the

required scale by altering the separation of the front and

back combinations, the former being a positive doublet of ordinary type, and the latter a negative combination which

The

magnifies the image formed by the front doublet. ratio of magnification varies with every adjustment,

easily

is

determined with the aid of a scale on the lens mount.

By considering

first

then multiplying

by

but

the

all

the action of the front lens alone,

and

essential factors (such as aperture No.)

the

magnification,

effects

of

inconstancy

are

eliminated.

Supplementary lenses are single lenses added to ordinary photographic combinations to modify the focal length and size of the image.

If themselves of great focal length

in substance, they

do not materially disturb the corrections of

the other lens.

A

thin

negative lens increases focal length by

slightly counteracting the

convergency of the

while a positive lens has the opposite

The change

the focal length.

and

Two

the following rules.

light pencils,

and shortens

effect,

effected can be estimated

by

lenses in contact have a focal

length equal to the product of their focal lengths divided by the sum, the focal length of a negative lens being treated

Two

as a minus quantity.

separated lenses have a focal

length equal to the product of their focal lengths, divided by their

sum minus

the

amount of

separation, which

Two

distance between their principal points.

is

the

single lenses

close together are practically in contact, but a single lens

cannot be placed in contact with an ordinary doublet of the " rectilinear " type; there must always be a separation equal to at least half the

length of the doublet,

supplementary

is

position

for

lens

placed.

a supplementary lens

wherever the

The most convenient is

generally

of the original lens, but a negative lens

is

the

front

best placed at


no the

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY. back, as a

smaller

extension of the camera

is

then

required.

With a

fixed focus

camera unprovided with any focussing

arrangement a positive lens can be added to shorten the focal length,

and thus bring near objects

supplementary lens used for

this

purpose

is

into focus.

A

often called a

" magnifier." Its focal length should be equal to the distance

of the near object, hence a set of magnifiers

is

generally

required. C.

Welborne Piper.


Ill

The Hand Camera* AN ELEMENTARY ARTICLE ON

ITS

MANIPULATION.

MONGST the very large number who have acquired a hand either as a means

camera,

towards

summer

records

securing

perpetuating

memories

holidays,

it

or of

would

be interesting to know what proportion

forehand taining to the subject of few,

and

it

have the

hand camera work.

studied

literature

Probably very

therefore seems superfluous to give advice

the type of camera to buy, as

it

is

beper-

more than

on

likely that

the reader will be already the happy possessor of one 01 the various

makes on the market

at the present time.

Instead then of advising " what to buy "

deavour learnt

It is

to a

we

shall en-

few pages to give advice on matters

by actual experience and practice, and such, we

hope, as

has

in the next

may be

of practical use to the beginner.

only comparatively recently that the hand camera

come so prominently to the fore both as an adjunct summer holiday, or as an important accessory to the

picture-maker's outfit.

This

made

is

partly

owing to the great increase that has been

in the sensitiveness of the dry plate, the introduction


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

112

of the daylight loading rollable film,

of small but highly efficient folding

Each of

these two distinct types has

and having employed is

at various times

which

difficult to say

points, it

obvious

or magazine camera are, that

always ready for use, usually in focus, and the plate

is

For the purposes

or films in situ ready for exposure.

which used

good

its

one or the other,

The most

preferred.

is

Box Form"

advantages of the " it

and the production

and box form cameras.

camera

this class of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; street

advantages

;

&c, &c.

scenes, groups,

folding,

little

or,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; these

almost a sine

;

qua non

the

method and

makes an

instru-

for long tours

too, the focussing scale,

when

To

the

more

which

will

admit

cumbrous impedimenta are inadmissible. advanced worker,

mechanism

often called, " pocket

as they are

ease of loading in daylight with rollable film this type

are important its

chance of going wrong.

cameras have also very distinct advantages

ment of

for

in fact mostly

is

and, moreover, the simplicity of

gives the beginner

The

intended and

is

of a general view or a " near to " one of a single figure or

group

will naturally appeal.

of the lens, which is

of

Its

the worker

to

various

types of hand cameras such

other of these two

spread popularity.

some experience

have gained for one or the

that

points

with

These, then, are just a few

a very necessary feature. the

extension will often permit

double or single combination

use of either the

of the

Were

possible to

it

a wide-

combine the advanhand

tages of both in one, something approaching an ideal

The

other hand cameras most in use

camera would

result.

at the present

time are but variations of these two, which

may almost be looked upon

as primary types.

The

differ-

ences in the several parts of the camera are, however,

The

numerous. shutter

may

lens

may be

fixed

operate directly in front

of,

or

focussing

;

the

between or behind

the lens, or as in the case of the focal plane directly in front

of

the

sensitive

film

;

the

methods

employed

in


THE HAND CAMERA. may be

loading are many, and

113

for plates or films in sheaths

or in dark slides, films in packs or rollable film, and so on.

Perhaps,

however,

more

a

" full-size is

finder."

It

is

what

a contrivance

is

enabled, by means of a

reflector,

known

is

as the

with which

one

not only to see the

object on the screen, but to focus right up to the

moment

of

For figure work, where the correct composition

exposure. is

in the

feature

distinctive

cameras of the more expensive kind

the desideratum, and for

rapidly

form of camera has no equal the former class of work

by reason of

is,

it

moving objects

this

unfortunately, however, in

;

rather con-

its

spicuous appearance, apt to attract more attention from the " victims " than

is

quite desirable.

With these few

brief

remarks

let

us

now

pass to what

will be of perhaps more interest and use to the reader.

THE HAND CAMERA We

will

IN USE.

suppose that you have one of the two types

of camera briefly referred to above, and that at the time of reading this you are to a

both as to

powers or

its

foremost in importance of this essential

your negatives

is

more its

the lens.

feature that the

will

or less extent ignorant

manipulation. It is to

technical

be mostly due.

The

First

and

the quality

excellence

beginner

of

who

has recently acquired a small camera for say half-a-guinea

must not expect that

will

the considerably if

he

will

much

his

instrument to be

fitted

have such wide capability as one

more

with a lens fitted

with

costly anastigmat, but nevertheless

from the very commencement recognise just how

his lens

may be expected

to achieve,

he

will

be well

along the path toward securing satisfactory negatives.

The

first

point that the amateur ought to be conversant

with in regard to his lens

is

what

is

generally called " the

working aperture," and which means the

size of the circular


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

114

opening of his lens with which a perfectly sharp image the extreme corners of the size

to

With the more highly

obtained.

lenses

present day this working aperture might be/5,/6, the cheaper varieties, however,

fix

with

known

usually that

is

of the

&c,

as

but for an explanation of these terms and further

;

information the reader

book on

As is

it

can be

use

plate in efficient

" Lenses,"

referred to the chapters in this

is

and on

"

Negative-Making."

be readily understood, the smaller the aperture

will

the less the quantity of light that can pass through in a

given time

we

shall

therefore, in

;

knowing the

have to commence with the

size of this aperture, first

factor that helps

towards correct exposure, and consequently a rough idea as to

when

that exposure

importance

is

likely to

a countless variety used on the

and but

day,

be

to the lens is the shutter.

service

little

efficient.

Next

hand cameras of the present

would be rendered

He

by a detailed description of any.

to the reader

has his camera, and

with his camera his shutter, and he naturally wants to the best of

him

is

The

it.

words

one may be

told that this

exposures from gives

more

1

its

range of capability,

On

purchasing a camera

or that shutter gives a range of

second up to y^uth, or that another exposures.

Probably the

truthful, for the instantaneous

may be anything

time and

latter is

varying speeds.

its

make

best possible advice that can be given

to find out, as with his lens,

in other

in

There are of these

instantaneous

from x^th second to

-^-th.

Too much

reliance

should not

be placed on these statements, and we would urge the possessor of a camera with an unknown shutter speed to

make himself acquainted at the outset with an approximate From time to time there have appeared idea of its rapidity. in the photographic press many descriptions of means, more or less complicated, by which one may test by experiment the speed of his shutter. One such method which needs no special apparatus was described in the " Amateur Photo-


THE TRYSTING PLACE. By JOHN C. DOUGLAS.


THE HAND CAMERA.

ll<

grapher" of February 19, 1903, and was found by actual be

trial to

far

simpler perhaps than

somewhat condensed,

Turn a

;

down and

place in front of a dark

of white paper to cover the

a piece

place

The method,

reads.

it

here given.

bicycle upside

background interval

is

between three spokes of the driving-wheel near the

which

rim, use a fast plate in the camera,

placed as near the cycle as

practicable, the

is

some known

Then

rate.

should be

ground

glass

Let a friend now

being parallel to the plane of the wheel. turn the crank at

latter

take a photo-

graph and measure the streak made by the paper on the

The speed

resulting negative.

of rotation of the wheel

known, the angle through which

known, and a comparison of

it

this

turns in a second

with

angle

is is

the angle

through which the wheel has turned, obtained by measuring the streak in the picture, will give the time of exposure.

There

is

a simpler way.

Carefully pack

and send

one of

to

the well-known dealers with instructions to test speed of shutter.

There

is

which undertakes

one well-known London house to

scientifically

test

way will do as long as you find the Knowing now the working aperture

either

it

of any

Anyhow,

shutter for a nominal charge of a few pence.

the speed of your shutter,

at least

the speed

speed.

of your lens and

but remains to choose just

that plate or film which, under the conditions in which will

work,

exposure.

is

you

of just a sufficient rapidity to ensure a correct It

will

be necessary here to

call

the

tiro's

and

films

attention to the fact that at the present day plates

can be bought of a widely different degree of sensitiveness,

and is

that all the recognised brands

known

as a speed

number.

on the market have what

The speed number

is

higher

or lower according to the sensitiveness of the emulsion with

which the support

is

coated.

" extra rapid " are not of the

An

Again,

all

which are styled

same degree of

sensitiveness.

exposure that would be amply sufficient for one brand


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Il6

might not be correct

It therefore

for another.

possible to use that one plate only

mistakes

made by

idiosyncrasies

little

changeable-

is

All plates have their

some develop slower and gain density

;

and

quicker, others vice versa,

if

as

far

one of the greatest

;

the majority of beginners

ness in reference to the plates used. little

behoves the

a choice of one plate, and as

make

beginner to

stands to

it

knowledge and fewer good negatives

reason that

be secured

will

the beginner hover between several brands of plates of

widely different characteristics.

The

next and most important point of

camera man, concerned,

is

knowing the strength of the

various times of the day or year less actinic is

is

for, say,

power of

to judge

middle day in June than

by the

light

tripod, to a

more

who

it is,

or

and very large

to give

As

December.

had by a

eye, recourse is

little

in

to judge,

is difficult

photographers, especially those

meter."

is

Light at

light.

said to be either

an extreme example, the same time actinic

hand

in other words, a considerably shorter exposure

;

required

to the

all

exposure of his plates

in so far as correct

this

difficult

number

of

use their cameras on a

mechanical device known as an " actino-

Briefly described,

which on exposure to

it is

light

a strip of sensitised paper,

darkens to a standard

tint in

this gives

a basis

a time varying with the strength of light

;

on which to calculate the necessary exposure.

Hand camera work door photography, and

more equable, and a

is,

light

little

however,

essentially

out-of-

are considerably

conditions

judgment, coupled with the high

excellence and wonderful latitude in exposure that the

modern day

plate gives,

makes

it

hardly necessary at the

outset to advise the beginner for ordinary

actinometer.

Instead, however, there are

work

many

to use

an

small useful

pocket-books on the market which contain amongst other information tables that give the light values for each

such a one

is

month

Wellcome's " Photographic Exposure Record."


THE HAND CAMERA.

To

the beginner

will

it

117

be found of material assistance,

exceedingly simple, and with a

judicious allowance for

little

the varying conditions of subject, distinctly helpful as a guide

Here, for instance,

toward a correct exposure. of the light table for

May

Sunlight

9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Sun through

Diffused

light clouds

light

X

.

an example

1

and 5 p.m.

5

Dull

1

$

6

8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 7 A.M.

is

:

1

1

6

i

1

3

These are the approximate exposures

would be

that

required with an " ordinary " plate and a lens working at

/8

the subject to be photographed being described as one

;

having a strong foreground,

With the

to the camera.

i.e.

a good deal of shadow near

plates of a speed that

probably use in a hand camera

one would

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; say Barnet Extra Rapid

the exposure would only be one quarter as long for the subject, itself

and

was,

if

we

space without

used,

will

say, a

much

more rapid

same

plate the subject

snapshot of figures on an open

dark shadows, a

would take

in exposure

are the

as well as the

place.

The

still

greater reduction

principles of exposure

same whether a hand camera or stand camera be

and are treated

at greater length

in the article

on

Negative Making.

Knowing shutter,

the aperture of your lens, the speed of your

and the

rapidity of the plate

you are using,

needs but reference to your " light table

" for

hour to determine what length of time

shall

will

the

it

now

month and

be given that

ensure correct exposure for any given subject.

Having found

this correct exposure, the greatest difficulty

toward producing a good negative in this

book

will refer

more

is

overcome.

Other writers

specifically to the development


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

Il8 of the

negative, so that

not proposed to give here

is

it

any but a very brief description of

perhaps most

this

To

interesting phase in photographic procedure.

who let

it

are not developing their

own exposed

those

plates or films,

be said at once and plainly that they are deliberately

foregoing one of the chief pleasures connected with turning

work to

their photographic

palls

is

one many times

watch a

a pleasure that never the

consummation

for the trouble

which making

even on the oldest workers, and

that repays

To

pictorial account.

correctly exposed plate developing

is

the exposure has involved.

Development

is

not

difficult,

and although,

different developers for different subjects, for the

as time goes

becomes more experienced

on, the worker as he

it is

knowledge to know when

this course is

advan-

As a developer, a solution of Adurol can be Properly compounded there is recommended.

tageous. strongly

nothing messy or staining with

it,

and

for ordinary every-

day out-of-door work development may be

Such a solution

chanical.

is

made up

purely

as follows

Carbonate of soda

.

.

.

.

.

5 oz.

.

.

.

.

.

2ยง

oz.

15 oz.

dissolved add

:

Adurol filter

me-

:

Sulphate of soda

Water

then

use

beginner to vary his developer until he has gained

sufficient

When

will

not advisable

^

.

oz.

through blotting paper and mark bottle

ADUROL SOLUTION. For use one part

This, solution,

if

to seven parts of water.

properly compounded, will give a clean bright

and

will

keep

longed development

for a considerable time,

will

show no tendency

and

in pro-

to stain.

As

hand camera exposures generally betray a tendency to under exposure, the metol and hydroquinone one solution


THE HAND CAMERA.

II9

developer given in " Negative- Making " deserves attention

on account of

ment

energy, whilst time or factorial develop-

its

offers especial

advantage in hand camera work.

THE HAND CAMERA As probably the

greater proportion of the readers of this

whom

short article are those to

be the most

will

sary, if

two

etceteras that

burnings.

First of all

one that

are going

plates or films

may

will fold

and

;

it

save you later on

bright

slight

may is

If the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; some

one or two working

trial plates,

six

this fault

Owing

lamp become

all

shutter,

is

which in

dozen negatives

A

to

fogged

sufficient light

would have been

discovered and easily remedied. to

elastic

so that he

satisfactorily.

damage, unseen, to the

become jambed owing

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

light

photographer

sunshine of June allowed just

been developed

heart-

also take the few necessaries

through to effectually fog some plate

one or

many

up and burning a small night

fixing

see that everything

owing to a

more

be neces-

will also

neglect of this the writer's holiday negatives were

the

little

be sure and take a small lamp

especially methodical he for developing

or

is

for a

intelligent work, to take

bands, and some light-proof paper.

may

away

such a one costing but a shilling

do,

will

holiday

and with your camera you are

you are trying to do

little

fabric

You

period,

some dozens of

taking

summer

to the preparations needful before

on one's holiday.

or less extended

the

exposed negatives, some

prolific in

may be devoted

space

starting

ON TOUR.

IN USE

spool

;

had a

at

once

of film

may

uneven winding, and a dark room

to the daylight loading

man an unexpected

necessity.

In changing plates at night time the ordinary bedroom will do, taking care to see that

no bright

light,

such as a

gleam under the door or through the window from a gas outside,

is

in a direct line with the plates.

jet

Always pack

the plates film to film, wrapped in their original papers

and


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

120

placed in their empty box

box as to where the subjects, thus

make a

;

distinctive note

on the

and an outline of

plates were exposed,

:

Wednesday, June 16. " Groups on Pier and Promenade."

Hastings.

Diffused light, /8,

There

is

much need

not

camera work

mark each

to

^th

second.

in the earlier stages of plate,

and

in

hand

most instances

these brief particulars on the plate box will be a sufficient guide. If plates are being

used in reloading your camera, a

sharp tap on the edge will dislodge any particles of dust

never dust them with rags or brushes

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

this

method

is

a

productive cause of subsequent " pin-holes."

Another important item that the beginner would do well to observe

is

:

place the order for whatever quantity

some time before

of plates or films are thought necessary leaving

This

home.

means

you

that

will

get

your

plates fresh, and probably coated with an emulsion of a

uniform speed, instead of a possible variety of makes of an

unknown age and If

it is

rapidity.

to the seaside that

you are going, there

is

no need

indeed, you would

to choose a very rapid brand of plates

;

be courting disaster were you to do

so,

being ample for seaside work during the

medium speed summer months.

a

In our own practice we take one brand of plates of two speeds, half of

medium rapidity, medium these

the rapidity of the

;

work or market-places, where

the other

fast,

or double

latter are

used

for street

their greater

sensitiveness

counterbalances the prevalence of shadow. If

you are a

cyclist,

stringent precautions

the camera free the

mysterious

and carry your camera with you, very

must be taken

to

keep the inside of

from dust, as owing to the constant jarring dust

particles

have

always

the greatest

predilection for the most important portion of the plate.


FOR

.

.

Hand Camera Photography I5he

BARNET ORTHOCHROMATIC

PLATE YELLOW AND GREEN SENSITIVE

?

3

3

HAS ALL THE QUALIFICATIONS ESSENTIAL FOR THIS

CLASS

OF WORK,

AND CAN BE USED WITH ADVANTAGE AT ALL SEASONS OF THE YEAR.

E


THIS

MEDIUM HAS STOOD

THE TEST OF YEARS, AND IS

STILL

MADE ACCORDING

TO OUR VALUABLE OLD FORMULA.

^

ns

nc

^

qUSED BY THE LEADING^ ARTIST RETOUCHERS.

^


THE HAND CAMERA.

The methods

that have

123

been advocated from time

Some

many.

are

bar; others will

to time

when

as to the best position for carrying the camera

cycling

advocate a carrier on the handle-

will

you that behind the saddle

tell

is

the

best place to carry the camera; but, notwithstanding just

a

little

inconvenience

very hot

in

weather,

we

strongly

advocate the web strap and the camera slung across the shoulders

and

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in this position the

weight

is

hardly noticeable,

jarring quite obviated.

The

next lesson

may now

suitably be called " Exposing

the Plate."

We for

will

suppose you have reached your destination, and,

example, we

will say at

camera man such a place

The moving

figures, the

is

a market-place.

To

the

hand

usually prolific in possibilities.

groups at the

and the freedom

stalls,

from observation with which exposures may be made, are

some of the

factors that help to give the

for seeing suitable subjects

needed

in

camera plenty of

Presence of mind and a quick eye

material to work upon.

such a place.

are

the two qualities that are

Don't get excited or impatient

make up your mind what you want and devote a thought before releasing your shutter.

If

little

you have not

already done so, work out the exposure that you think the subject

demands, making

the

allowances that

may be

necessary, as, for instance, the distance at which you propose

exposing, whether the figures are in the shade or not, &c.

Next from

afar note the position of the various items, such

as baskets, &c.

the subject

is

;

see which will be the best position so that

well

lit.

It is

recommended

that at

first

the

sun should shine on the side of your subject or diagonally across your shoulders from the back, thus obviating any

very pronounced shadow contrast, for

shadows that

difficulty

may

arise in

adage, " expose for the shadows and care of themselves,"

is

it

will

be owing to the

development let

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

old

the high lights take

a good one for the beginner.

Having


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

124

now made

sure that

is

opportunity you

first

The

film unobserved.

as

arise

this

his eyes intent

wonder

from the

become

the market folk

if

and

of buying

and

finder," which, after all is said

Given a

pense with

it,

and

as

"view

finders,"

he

he must not

a group of people in their charac-

Probably

selling.

this is all

placed on the " view

is

and done,

astonishing

is

it

without the finder altogether.

is

seldom necesto dis-

how soon one can do

Let the beginner will

move-

back bent

and a determination

practice

little

his

interested in his " goings

camera instead of

owing to the implicit reliance that

eyes

finder,

his resulting negatives betray

teristic attitudes

plate or

photographer

of the

fault

market people to

on the mirror or

earnestly staring at the

sary.

continuing along so

may change your

If he will persist in stalking about with his

ments.

on,"

plate,

to the selected

great majority of failures in such

attracting the attention of the

and

up

ready, stroll

and quickly expose your

position

that at the

work

all

train his

soon find by actual ex-

perience that he will be able to secure quite as good a selection of subjects,

and without being nearly so

liable to

attract attention.

If

it

found that the figures or group are painfully

is

conscious of the

brought into play

presence

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; be

of the camera, tact must be

aggressively unconscious that one

attracting any attention whatever,

about the

last

thing that

is

and

that photography

being thought about.

A

is

is

pipe

can be ostentatiously loaded, a placard on a hoarding can or, in fact, anything that may suggest itself to man with the camera until watching his time opportunity may come when a successful exposure may

be studied

;

the " wily "

the

be made.

At

first,

posure, you blurred.

even although giving only

may

This

is

find

^th

on development

of a second ex-

that the picture

is

because on rapidly bringing the camera

into position you released the shutter before the

camera


THE HAND CAMERA. was quite at the

still.

There

commencement

however,

will

is

give you the

you

tell

Practice,

confidence that means being at the

and thereby securing a sharp image.

moment of exposure, Some operators will

hold your breath as a cure, others

to

and so

deflate your lungs,

you

his cures for a cold,

25

"shake"

often this tendency to

of hand camera practice.

and self-possessed

quite calm

1

will try

them

say

will

Mark Twain and

on, and, like

and

all,

will,

perhaps,

succeed none the better. If

your camera

one of the folding

is

different extensions,

it is

type,

seldom advisable

to

and capable of work with the

bellows racked out so that everything

is

may be

over general view

is

all

very well

wanted, but

it is,

when a sharp

all

This

in focus.

to say the least, a disadvantage from

an

interesting, as well as a pictorial, point of view, if in expos-

ing a plate on a figure as close as ten to fifteen feet you also

secure the detail in the architecture of

hundred yards away. a

some houses two

Just a slight blur amounting only to

softening in these latter

would have thrown up more

prominently the object photographed, and would do

much

to centre the interest.

Next there

will

come

moving objects such as

&c,

will

a time

when photographs

trains,

men

of rapidly

&c,

walking, cycling,

be the reader's aim, and these owing to the more

or less rapid

exposure.

movement will require a The little table herewith

proportionately brief will

give

a rough

estimate of the exposure necessary to secure sharpness

Walking

:


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

126

is

how

be seen, however, from this

It will

object.

useless

it

to attempt an exposure on a subject that requires say

^th

second,

known

to

work

when

speed the shutter

greatest

the

^th

at is

second, also

that at such a time of day,

plate in use the

and with the

Nor

only result can be gross under-exposure.

The moving

well advised in attempting.

are

these

the ordinary outfit

the subjects that the amateur with

is

calculation shows

if

train,

is

we know,

always has a fascination for the beginner, but he should

remember

even

that

if

can

he

enough

short

a

give

exposure for a railway train travelling at

fifty

an

miles

come up to his expectations, and an exposure ten times as long made on a train just starting will usually give an infinitely more pleasing reBreaking waves are also another temptation upon sult. hour, yet the result will seldom

which a

little

a second this will

is

may be

advice

the exposure required

—a shorter

;

A

so undesirable.

is

dull

it

is

;

often

is

best to hold one's

To

practice.

single figure a height of three feet from the

often

day

in the resulting print.

varying heights at which

camera can only be found by

right

exposure than

sea foam and a blue sky have a tendency of both

coming out white

The

about one-thirtieth of

;

destroy the signs of movement, and give the water

a petrified look that the best

offered

accentuate a

ground

higher for a general view.

A

desirable than a high one

—painters

low view point

is

about

is

more

in fact nearly

always take a low view point.

made some few You must not expect to

Having now indicated.

with every exposure

a

you more than pages of

do not be too a

little

exposures, develop as get first-class negatives

practical experience will teach

Go

letterpress.

slowly at

lavish with your exposures,

good negative aim

at turning out

one

first,

and

and when you get really

good

print

rather than dozens of mediocre ones.

Study diligently the

other articles in this book, for they

have a more or

all

less


THE HAND CAMERA. direct bearing

1

be well advised

if,

after

will

some months of hand camera work,

and when you have mastered the smaller craft,

You

on the work of the hand camera.

27

you make up your mind

details

of the

and instead

to specialise,

of snapping everything that comes along, from a breaking

wave

you may become

one better than the majority. graphic paper weekly, and

a photographic society. invested,

some

one type of

to a roadside cross, devote yourself to

subject, so that in time

and don't give

failures.

if

in this particular

Invest in a copy of a photopossible

become a member of will

be money well

in because at first

you may have

In each case

it

Steady and persistent striving

that will lead to

is

the

way

success in photography, as in everything

else.

Edgar H.

Carpenter.


128

Hints on Amateur Portraiture*

7-TMflv

^

M


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

1

29

APPARATUS.

A

hand camera may sometimes

portraiture

as a rule a stand (tripod)

Not only does

it

— but

desirable for several reasons.

is

enable one to give a generous exposure,

a second or more) without fear of the camera moving,

{e.g.,

but

enables one to

it

of foliage,

&c, and

of the change from

upon a view

fix

camera, and go up to the bit

be used for outdoor

full-length figure, groups, figure studies

i.e.

sitter to

point, leave one's

arrange a fold of drapery,

return to the camera to see the effect

same view point

the

as before.

the camera being properly placed one has

we

thinking about whether

no need

Also, to be

are aiming straight, holding

it

&c.

level,

Focussing Screen.

—A stand camera

usually

is

provided

with a ground glass focussing screen, and for portraiture this has only to be used a few times to be appreciated.

placing of the figure

and

it is

by no means easy to space out the picture quite

satisfactorily

Swing back

is

when

back.

a small view-finder It

is, if

relative positions of

one's only means.

camera and

it

various portions of the picture,

one to use a larger stop

A

swing

(sharp focus)

of

but this at times enables

in other words, give a shorter ex-

— than would otherwise be practicable.

long extension of the camera bellows

tage soon appreciated, as sitter,

a mistake.

enable one to exercise some measure

of control over the degree of definition

posure

is

figure the

not absolutely essential, at any rate highly desira-

Not only does

ble.

is

sometimes thought that the swing

is

only used in architectural work, but this

For certain back

The

a matter of very great importance,

is

it

And

portraitist often

long bellows

is

incidentally

wants to

another advan-

when a large scale picture is may be mentioned that the copy other portraits, when again a

or use a long-focus lens

wanted.

is

enables one to get nearer the

it

greatly valued.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

130

A

also

rising front

considerable

of

often

is

help,

enabling us to shift the " placing of the figure " on the plate

without altering the relative position of camera and

In fact we

sitter.

roughly say that the rising front enables

may

us to

add or remove space above and below the head,

which

is

often equivalent to altering the apparent tallness

or shortness of the deal to

sitter,

with conveying a truthful impression of the sitter.

do

The focal length of beginner

may have a good

a point which

is

lens

is

apt to go astray.

one of the points where the

Very often he has but one

lens of length suitable for ordinary landscape work.

This,

probably, has a focal length between 5 and 6 inches, in the

case of a quarter-plate outfit.

away the

sitter's

With an adult

io t0 ^4 natural size

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

something

say,

long on the ground glass.

less

sitter

10 feet

may be about

head, with such a lens,

than half an inch

This seeming too small, the photo-

grapher approaches his subject to get a larger scale of picture*

and consequently

focus a larger scale picture the

sitter,

which increases

gets a degree of distortion

as he gets nearer his subject. is

But by using a lens of longer obtained without going so near

and consequently without apparent

proportion.

short focus lens of the doublet type he can clear to himself in a few minutes

Take any

distortion or

If the reader has a long bellows camera and

make

all this

by a homely experiment.

object, a vase, book,

adult head, say 9 inches or so long.

&c, about the size of an Set up the camera at

10 feet and focus the object with the 5^-inch focus lens.

With a

strip of

paper applied to the ground glass tick off

with a pencil the length of image

Now

remove one portion of the

of the selected object.

lens,

i.e.

either the

back

or front half, re-focus without changing the position of object It or camera, and again measure the ground glass image. one thing to know that such and such " must," " will,"

is

"ought "to be

so-and-so,

actual personally

and another thing

made experiment

that

it is

to

know from

so.

Therefore


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

131

experiment should be made by every

this

beginner

in

portraiture.

what has

Choice of a lens naturally follows from

been

The

said.

may be contemplating

reader

just

the purchase

of a lens especially for this purpose, and asks for guidance

on

(1) focal length;

Focal length. is

" going in " for

on whether he

head and shoulders only or

The

figures as well.

from a given

(2) type of lens.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; This must partly depend

length

full

larger the scale the longer the focus

standpoint.

Therefore a longer focus

will

be more useful for head and shoulders than for standing Again, he must bear in mind the size of the room.

figures.

A

we need to get well away we may not be able to get in as much we wish to include. For outdoor work

long focus lens means that

from our

or

sitter,

of our subject as consideration

this

not

will

trouble us.

often

For

length figures a focal length of double the length

be found

side of the plate will

Thus

useful.

half-

of the

for a

4x3

a matter of costs,

may be from 6 to 8 inches. This will in many cases be governed by i.e. how much the worker is disposed to

pay

But

picture the focal length

Type of Lens.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

for his lens.

amateurs,

let

us say,

in

Do

costly, they are bulky,

stoop

down

price

is

so

much

any case, as an amateur's advice to not buy a portrait lens.

and

that the quality for

usually supposed

aperture),

is

modern

often

type.

may be used

the rapid

door work portraiture.

working

at

are

to

be paid,

which the extra

viz.

rapidity (large

annulled.

All things considered,

of

They

in nearly every case one has to

at full aperture.

symmetrical these

we recommend a

This usually works

are

stigmatic lens

about //6*5, and

Next come lenses of

type,

working at //8.

quite

quick enough for ordinary

Next cheaper are the

//n.

at

For out-

single landscape lenses,

Indeed, for a well-lighted room or a

conservatory this type

of lens

holds

its

own

against

all


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

132 others

when

good

quite

get

with

portraits

unmounted, about

costing,

ordinary

6d. each,

we can

Finally,

soft definition is appreciated.

spectacle lenses,

provided we do not

look for great speed or very sharp definition over a large

These lenses can

area.

card

with a

tube,

meniscus form the

is

easily

be mounted on a home-made

the best

;

the concave side turned towards

and the stop between the lens and

sitter,

The

blackened card.

stop of

fixed

First

sitter.

ascertain the equivalent focus of the lens by focussing a distant object,

and make the diameter of the

circular opening of the

As

stop ^g of this equivalent focal length.

to the position of

the stop, focus on a building and get a friend to shift the stop

and

to

fro

you get the position of most even

until

and

definition, illumination,

The

visual

ground

one must

glass,

focus as sharply as possible on the

first

and then bring the ground

How much

nearer " the lens. the kind of glass

and

approximate correction. or, say,

^

depends on

and curvature of the the

focal

length

(This, for a 7-inch lens,

as

lens.

the

would be

In portraiture, however, we do not

J inch.)

want the sharpest possible definition therefore

glass ,a " little

this " little " is

focal length

In general, we may reckon

fa

of such a lens will not

foci

Therefore, to get the sharpest definition on the

coincide. negative,

least distortion.

and chemical

we should only take about

for pictorial effect,

and

half this correction (say,

I inch with a 7-inch lens).

SIZE OF STOP. The

size

of the stop to be

used in portraiture and

the degree of definition are matters calling for a hint or two for the beginner,

who

is

often tempted to think that the

sharper the definition the better the picture.

means

so,

and especially

general impression special detail.

is

This

in the case of portraiture,

is

by no

when

a

of far greater importance than any

Let the reader pause a

moment and

attempt


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

133

accurately to draw or describe the exact shape of the features

of any tolerably familiar acquaintance.

It is

easy to get as far

"a prominent nose, firm lips, laughing eyes," &c, &c, but when it comes to exact shapes, sizes, &c, what then? A as

friend

may have

shape,

size, colour, position,

the portrait.

True,

other factors.

;

we may know its exact

is

not that which makes

a scar on his cheek it

But an experiment

dogmatising raises antagonism. take two portraits of the

among many

but only one

part,

is

it

but

same

will often

Therefore,

convince when the reader

let

Let one be "sharp-

sitter.

even to the collar stud and pattern of the

all-over,"

tie,

&c.

Let the other be only just sharp enough to show shapes and forms, but not to

show the threads of the draperies or

hairs in eyebrows, &c.

Or, again, print a

negative on smooth paper

single

sharp-all-over

and on rough, and

let

the

com-

parison of results speak for themselves.

No is

rules can be laid

down, nor are they desirable.

better to look at one's sitter,

and then slowly

It

close one's

eyes until just the desirable degree of softness of definition is

seen through the partly-closed

aim

to get this effect

lids.

on the ground

Note

glass

this,

and then

by changing the

stop and using the focussing screw.

One is

principle

seems of general application

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

viz.

that

it

not good for pictorial purposes (landscape or portrait) to

have such sharp or such fuzzy definition as to extreme.

to itself for either

If

call attention

one part of a picture be

conspicuously sharp or out of focus as compared with the

extreme

this

rest,

part,

neighbouring parts, itself.

Portrait

have but also

little

is

by sheer force of contrast

and other lenses of depth of focal

large aperture are apt to

field or

some have curvature of the sharply defined,

telligible.

Or one

depth of focus, and

field as well, so that

such a lens we may have one eye portrait

to the

apt to call (unworthy) attention to

in a

with

" three-quarter

and the other eye almost unin-

part of a man's beard

may look

like


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

134

and the other part

pin-wire,

cotton-wool

like

or

smoke.

Clearly such inconsistencies have only to be mentioned to

At the same

be condemned.

time, a warning against the

other extreme (monotony of definition)

One

symptoms of

of the

epidemic

is

We

focus."

is

equally called

the all-absorbing desire to " get

Kate or uncle

see cousin

background of brick

for.

the early stages of the photographic

The

wall.

Tom

print

it all

in sharp

posed against a

shows us every

leaf,

every joint of brickwork, every button, every stripe of the

garments. detail.

The total is a bewildering mass of irritating The more the eye looks the more irritated it

becomes.

This naturally brings us to the vastly important

subject of

BACKGROUNDS. It is

not too

pictorial

thing

much

portrait

is

is certain, viz.

largely

due

that

is

good

portrait without a fore

to say that the success or failure of a

it

{i.e.

make a good

suitable) background.

behoves the amateur never to lose sight of

This point

is

One

background.

to the

not possible to

It there-

this factor.

here insisted on, because in the majority of

cases the amateur's

first

portraits are obviously taken with-

The

out any thought whatever being given to this matter. victim

is

made number to

bewildering

stand

some other

a brick wall,

with

a

of lines or joints showing, or against

a trellis-work screen, which ivy or

against

foliage,

patch of light to catch and

may

or

may

where every irritate

not be covered with leaf has

the eye.

a glittering

Or perhaps he

stands in the middle of the lawn, with a fowl-pen or row of

houses in the distance.

If these are sufficiently sharp to

recognisable they appear as objects of ugliness, or focus they form distracting blotches. are

made

in a

room we have perhaps a

is

only one rule to be laid down,

be

out of

If the experiments

fidgeting wall-paper

pattern, or irritating patches of pictures

There

if

on the

viz.

wall,

&c.

that the back-


C/5

pi

(4

u H z w

< pa

H O


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. ground, whatever itself,

may

it

must not

be,

and therefore away from the

The background building, should do tatiously.

attract attention to

portrait.

of a portrait, like the foundation of a

important work unosten-

vastly

its

may be

It

135

or

light

dark,

may be

it

plain,

graduated, or have some pattern or design, but in no case

should

which

compete with the

it

Now

portrait.

the two things

extremes of definition

attract the eye are

(i.e.

sharp-

ness or fuzziness), and extremes of chiaroscuro (light and

We

shade).

must, therefore, be at

some pains

to avoid

these extremes.

For example,

we have a

if

portrait slightly softened in

definition against a sharply-defined wall-paper pattern, or unintelligibly-out-of-focus object, then the

assuredly attract to itself far too if

much

background

attention.

will

Or, again,

the portrait be sharply defined against an equally sharply

defined background, then they will compete with each other,

and

the background, instead of attending to

and doing what back, will

seem

name

very

its

to

come

tells

it

as forward as

own

its

business

to do, viz. to

though

it

keep

were on a

level with the figure.

Then shade

again,

if

contrasts

example,

our background exhibits strong light and

unduly

will

it

framed and glazed

strong light patches.

reflect

foliage,

patches

of

attract

pictures

a wall

often

Similarly the shiny leaves of

showing

sky

For

attention.

on

through

openings

of

buildings, or leafage, &c.

Lininess gate, or

masonry,

is

a quality better absent in a background.

row of

a wall

palings,

showing regular

a bookcase, or panelled woodwork are better

avoided, unless the worker has experience and to put

A

lines of

them

into a duly

subdued

skill

tone, or light

enough

and shade

value.

Contrasts.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; In

thought desirable,

general, it

will

where

strong

contrasts

be found better to put a

are light


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

136

figure against a

dark ground, than a dark figure against a

light ground.

Gradation.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The

question of a

shade) or graduated background left to

that a slightly varied likely to flat

a matter which must be

is

may demand may be said

the taste of the worker as the occasion

both are useful and desirable.

a

(even in light and

flat

ground

In general,

;

it

more decorative and more

is

harmonise with and therefore help the figure than

ground, which, by

very monotony,

its

may

attract

Again, a background varying somewhat in light

attention.

and shade enables one

to accentuate a contrast here, or

subdue a contrast there as occasion may demand. In general, one

may

say that a ground

upper

have more of

its

liable to give

a top-heavy and dramatic

light tones in the

varied should

if

half,

otherwise

effect

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

it is

not

style

uncommon in the crude early Victorian days. The amateur will be wise to hesitate before spending much money in the purchase of commercially-made backThey

grounds.

and proper, and most useful

are right

studio

properly-equipped

something more homely few suggestions that

is

may

and ready

We

preferable.

in a

studio

can only

offer a

serve their intended purpose,

on the look-out

of stimulating the reader to be suitable

domestic

but for the

;

An

to hand.

viz.

for things

open doorway often forms Again, by suitable choice of

an excellent dark background.

may be made to act as a graduated Some excellent studies may be made with this

angle the door

ground.

itself

hint as a starting point.

Curtains as free of pattern as possible and of a soft

non-shiny

material

are

often

may be used often with Brown paper some 5 ft. wide

blanket again

rolls

a few

at

carpets)

:

this

duster folded

pence

per

makes up

into

an a

A

useful.

yard

or

so

(used for

and

or

yellow

excellent effect.

excellent

ball

grey

is

sold

in

underlaying

background.

A

dipped into a plate


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. of

powdered whiting enables us

1

one

to lighten

37

and

part,

lamp-black applied with another duster gives us a means of darkening others. The paper should be laid flat on the floor or nailed

kettle

up against a

of boiling water

applied white or black off

when

it

prevent so

will

the background

If the

wall.

flat

steam of a

allowed to play briefly on the

is

much powder falling

A

moved.

is

thin

wooden

lath

This

should be nailed to the paper at the top and bottom. prevents the paper tearing quite so readily.

Background

stand.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;We have not space

may be made, but content

this

hint that a large clothes-horse

ground fixed

to this

If a curtain

pins.

these rings serge " is

on

to

ourselves with the alternative

may be

used,

and our back-

by means of a few tacks or drawingused

is

brass rings sewn to

how

to describe

French

made about

it

convenient to have small

is

edges at six-inch intervals and hang

its

ft.

5

A

nails.

material called "art

wide, in various colours

and

at

a moderate price. Position

background.

of the

room one can

ordinary

the ground by so or less light

falls

importance.

turning

upon

And

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; When

alter the light

it.

it

this

This

is

working

or that

way

In general

it is

more

to get this to full advantage the back-

ft.

7

ft.

high

wide.

best to have the background a couple of

more away from the figure. reminder to get the background feet or

that

a point of great practical

ground should be as large as convenient, say

and not less than 5

an

in

and shade value of

This just

will serve as

slightly

out

a of

focus. It

that

it

is

sometimes possible to arrange a small screen so

casts a

little

shade on the background, and converts

what might be a monotonous blank space into something slightly

more

from the

interesting, but not sufficiently so to detract

portrait.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

138

REFLECTORS. These come next a second

again

clothes-horse

material of the reflector

vided

it is

white.

prove

will

not of

is

We may

much consequence

its

put out of action by the printing ink.

one as the

The

other as the background manipulator.

keep in the same position

way and

this

in the

screen

mind

is

effect

in

his

so that at any future time this or that effect

Two

points should be observed

that the reflector not only reflects the it

on

to the

cases throws

shadow

some

accentuated

its

between the

reflector

effect,

on

When

obtained.

and

and

window

:

first

light falling

side of the figure, but in nearly

light

to the

also that the nearer the reflector

is

on the

effect

on the focussing

produced he should observe and store up

can be obtained.

all

should

sitter

the relative position of background, reflector, camera

and window,

upon

the

while the student keeps his head

that,

But of course as each

glass.

enlist the sitter,

room, and the reflector

under the focussing cloth and watches the

ground

better than

In order to see the

services of a couple of patient friends,

moved

is

surface has been

an admirable plan to

is

it

pro-

thus use a sheet or tablecloth

nothing, although a large proportion of

effect of the reflector

The

useful.

Indeed, a newspaper

or plain white paper.

Here

importance to backgrounds.

in

that

sitter

is

background or wall

to the figure the

more

by increasing the distance a more diffused, even

effect

working in a room with two windows

care must be taken not to produce a cross light effect.

may

arise if

light

coming through one window and the shadow

one side of the

figure

This

be illuminated by the side by

light entering

by the other window, and reflected on to the

shadow

of the figure.

side

from one extreme of no reflected light,

This

is

The beginner

is

apt

reflector to the other of too

and may be even tempted

a grave mistake.

as large as the background.

The

reflector

to fly

much

to use a mirror.

may

desirably be


FOR PORTRAITURE FOR

"AT HOME" PORTRAITS ROOMS

LIGHTED

POORLY

DAYS

DULL

FOR

OR

IN

Barnet Rocket, and Extr©L Rapid Plates PHOTOGRAPHER WITH THE

FURNISH

THE

UTMOST

POWER AS REGARDS

q BUT

ORDINARY

FOR

THE LIGHT GENERAL

PURPOSES

>€

WHERE

FAIRLY GOOD. AND FOR ALL

IS

WORK. WE

STUDIO

OVERWHELMING CUSTOMERS.

SPEED.

EVIDENCE

NUMEROUS

PROFESSIONALS

BOTH

AMATEURS. AS

OF

HAVE THE

TO

AND

THE SUITABILITY OF

BARNET MEDIUM PLATES


BARNET

THE

Self-Toning Paper

GLOSSY. MATT,

AND POST-CARDS.

THE USUAL TONING BATH WITH AND PERMANENCY REASON

OF THE

GOLD CONTAINED

IS

LIBERAL IN

IS

ASSURED BY

AMOUNT

THE PAPER

q THIS PAPER STANDS QUITE

ALL

OF

ITSELF.

AHEAD OF

— WHOLE BATCHES OF UNIFORMLY TONED.

OTHERS

PRINTS

DISPENSED


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

Of

course,

goes almost without saying that in

it

door work we seldom, times a light wall,

sail

say that in indoor

ever,

And

work a

may well happen that and

if

it

the walls of the

it

and shade.

means whereby the

It

are effectively re-

Or again we may with marked contrast

get strongly

But

any case the golden rule

in

If a reflector

must not be so ostentatiously employed

to the

at

give very charming

room

" Ars est celare artem," prevails.

art,

out-

though

would be quite a mistake to

scattering the light.

effects of light

reflector,

reflector is always needed.

deliberate purpose desire to

of

need a

&c, may

of vessel,

effects of this nature.

flecting

141

be used

as to attract notice

The

has been secured.

effect

observant worker will soon see the difference obtained by using a large reflector at some and a smaller one near to him.

little

distance from the sitter

The former

is

generally pre-

ferable.

Lighting.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This

is

Do

the crux of the whole matter.

not forget William Hunt's saying that picturesqueness

The

matter of light and shade. places

(when working

his sitter

window for

the

light

a

a room) as near the

in

as possible, with the result that half the face

strong light, the other half in

is

beginner nearly always

strong shadow.

and ignoring the shadow, he

is

in

Exposing

greatly under-

exposes, and then, wrongly thinking that prolonging develop-

ment

what

will rectify

obtains a black

in truth

and white

will

it

tend to exaggerate,

These three mistakes

effect.

(harsh lighting, under-exposure, over-development) are the

cause of quite nine out of ten early It is

is

nothing

in art one little

or

Pictorial

breadth shade,

failures.

a safe working hypothesis quite

may

white and

translate this

that in nature

nothing

quite

by saying that

nothing should be quite white effect

depends

upon

two

and

in a picture

or quite black.

chief

factors:

in

the

arrangement of the masses of

and

(2)

gradation

of shadows.

there

black,

If

light

(i)

and

your shadow


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

142

portions are fairly right in tone value the high lights will

Applying

frequently look after themselves. portrait

work

can take

in a

this to

all

room we must remember

range of light and shade greater than our

in a

negative can record or our printing papers yield. is

that the eye does not, at

shade

our

that the eye

first,

Hence

realise the strong light

it

and

of interior lighting, or at any rate the un-

effects

trained photographic eye does not realise

how much stronger

the difference of light and shade will probably seem to be in

the print than in nature.

The

nearer the

window

the stronger the light, but as the

sides are not proportionally strengthened the nearer

shadow

window means the stronger the contrasts, unless proper and position of the reflector.

the

care be taken about the size Portraiture

is

no exception

the shadows/'

pose for

thinking that

against

the exposure

is

to the general rule of " ex-

therefore

the beginner guard

let

window the

the nearer the

a rule in this matter.

shorter

Indeed, the opposite

might more often be the case, on account of the contrast being likely to be greater than the

effects

negative

or

printing process can adequately render.

Where

the composition includes only a very small bit of

strong dark then at times

we may

ignore this and adjust our

exposure for the more important proportions of dark, but not darkest part. will

It

be found advisable to give a somewhat

fuller

exposure for those arrangements of light and shade which give

a

picture chiefly

often called

Rembrandt

shadow

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

for instance, in

what are

lightings.

DEVELOPMENT. This

calls

only for a few words to the worker

familiar with this subject in general.

who

is

In portraiture we do

not, as a rule, desire such a great range of contrast as in

ordinary landscape.

Our high

lights are

not so bright, our


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

shadows are not

Again, we do

dark.

so

relatively

143 not

usually desire so strong a light for portraiture as a sunlit

Hence,

landscape.

range of densities

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in general

we do not desire so long a much contrast in a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in other words, so

Other things being the

portrait as in a landscape negative.

same, this means one of two things, either shorter time of

development or more water

may

contrasts

As a rough

one may say to the beginner

start with,

your landscape negatives take

six

that

so

developer,

the

in

not be the same.

sort of guide to

in portraiture that if

minutes to develop, then

your early portrait experiments should not be developed for

more than four or four and a

Of

half minutes.

course,

experience will justify the worker modifying this to meet his

own

requirements.

In the not unlikely case that the reader has already covered the " quite best " developer

now on

twenty

conviction.

be said

the market,

If,

the negative,

is

dis-

the eighteen or

desire to disturb this

may

seeking advice, a word

an unprejudiced

Metol, Rodinal, or Ortol. failures will

we have no

however, he

in favour of

among

being given to

trial

Seeing that the beginner's early

most probably be due to excess of contrast

in

member

of

we suggest metol because

shadow

that class of developers that bring out after the high lights

this is

a

detail quickly

have made their appearance.

then,

If,

the worker guards against prolonged development, he will

not err on the side

of excessive

contrast

exposure has been enough to impress shadow It will suffice if

what

the

practice

writer

provided the detail.

one formula be given as an example

has

found quite

satisfactory

in

of

actual

:

Water 18

oz.,

When

soda sulphite

decant or metol,

i oz.,

soda carbonate

dissolved, allow any sediment to settle, filter

off the clear part

and make up

This single solution

is

;

add

i

i

oz.

and

drachm

to total bulk 20 oz.

used just as

it

now

is,

and

will


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

144

keep

A

working order a month, but

in

week

is

gets slower with age.

it

a desirable limit of keeping time

best results

if

are desired.

The image

of a correctly exposed negative appears in

according

seconds,

ten to fifteen

brightness of high light, and so on.

temperature,

to

With most

plate,

one

plates

should get a nice soft range of gradation in about twenty of appearance.

times the time

Thus,

the image

if

first

appears after twelve seconds' immersion in the developer,

may

carry

on development

or four minutes. contrast,

for

If this ratio is

we can

we

twenty times twelve seconds,

found to yield too

easily prolong the time of

little

development

for

greater contrast.

With some little

plates

may be found

it

necessary to add a

potassium bromide to the developer

The

in detrimental degree.

if

fog

is

present

quantity of bromide for the

one grain per

foregoing developer

is

ounce,

twenty grains for the twenty ounces.

ten

or

to

at the rate of half to

But as the presence of bromide

in the

developer tends to

hold back shadow detail in the early stages of development, its

presence

is

not desirable unless some peculiarity in the

particular plate

demands

it.

PORTRAIT The as

tiro

may

synonymous

they do to portrait

painters

portraiture.

hitherto have regarded these two terms

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as

many Nor

versus LIKENESS.

meaning "the same

photographers. find is it

fault

to

This

with

is

thing." just

average

And

photographic

be wondered at that the majority

of professional photographers only aim at supplying nesses

when

so

where good

like-

their patrons ask for nothing different.

Happily, however, there are a certain number of professional

portraitists

who

are

aiming

at,

and oftentimes

succeeding, in adding to the likeness that characteristic yet


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. indescribable subtle something which

makes

it

1

45

a portrait as

well.

If

we took

at

random a score of

portrait

examples of the

more advanced amateurs and a like number of ordinary professional works, we should probably find the latter showing better technique, but the former would show us better portraiture. in a

This point, therefore, should teach us to see that portrait

we must aim

avoiding the air of self-conscious-

at

ness in the sitter which accompanies the professional studio

As some people have a special set of (theoretical) morals which they assume with their Sunday clothes, so

example.

others

seem

to

series of

have a special

and poses which they assume portraits to

much

in the

abnormal expressions

for the sake of photographic

same way

as Sir Joshua's sitters

have spent their whole existence

prunes,

in

seem

saying " Plums,

and prisms."

In a portrait we seek to find some intimation of the character of

the

person,

outward form and shape.

something This

in

may be

addition

portrayed in

different ways, independently or conjointly.

the lolling pose of the indolent

sitter,

to

his

many

For instance,

the alert wide-awake

turn of the sitting or standing figure, the pose and poise of the

head on the shoulders, the

facial

expression,

the

position and suggested action of the hands, the engagement of the whole body, the dress

:

these are

some of the matters

which properly engage the attention of the

portraitist.

And

one or two very brief hints may serve to indicate some of the lines of study

Pose of Body.

and observation.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;A

resting, leaning back, reclining

does not harmonise with a wide-awake alert

pose

facial expression.

Again, the pose must be in harmony with the surroundings.

Thus, a reclining pose would not harmonise with a rocky background, nor should we usually look for a dramatic pose

surrounded by flowers and

foliage.

A

child holding a toy-


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

146

boat would look " out-of-place

" in the

midst of a garden or

with a woodland background.

Head.

—The

and balance of the head on the

position

shoulders are vastly important factors in conveying character.

The

reader,

memory

doubtless, will readily recall the

some one who wards, or has

habitually hangs his

a

it

bit

little

on one

of

head forward or backside

— this

latter trick is

often the result of astigmatic vision.

Hands. pose

— Most

people

have some characteristic hand

which they unconsciously assume when

engaged

in

they

are

One

an interesting conversation or occupation.

man twiddles his watch-chain and another

similarly patronises

another dives his hands into the lowest

his moustaches,

depths of his pockets, while another seems to fear his coat is

slipping off his person,

So many of our hands

? "

The

question

Perhaps the best answer "

We

What am I to do with my shows how self-conscious they are. "

is

an

artistic (poetic)

need not trouble about the hands

more important flowers

away

and so on.

sitters say,

on the

to

think

table,

or two points are

hand

The

straight.

spicuous either by reason of

not desirable to place

A its

is

the

size,

For

more shapely and

fingers are preferable

hand

If

vertically

it

mind

matter.

worth bearing in mind.

instance, the edge or side of a

look larger than in shadow.

sitter's

some other

graceful than the back or palm.

curved rather than

e.g.,

It is

about the arrangement of the

&c," and so turn the

from the self-conscious hands to

One

evasion

present.

at

in

strong light will

hand be

at all con-

pose, or lighting

it

is

under the head.

Photographers sometimes try to evade the subject of

hand posing by arranging them out of expedient, as often as not, carries

showing that

The hands

it

is

its

sight.

But

this

own condemnation by

a forced and not natural arrangement.

are often

an important factor

success of the portrait, therefore to hide

in the general

them

is

an obvious


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE.

One should

mistake.

always observe

whatever comes behind the hands

147

the tone

— clothes,

value

table,

&c.

of

— so

as to avoid excessive contrasts.

— For portraiture

Facial expression. forced.

Our aim

character,

and it is not unreasonable

shall

us

is

know some one who companionable

ful

to say that our preference

usually a light-hearted

who

but

fellow,

it

might be true

is

which can

easily

be applied in

Posing.

way

many

expression to avoid

am-being-photographed involuntarily

fits

To

portray

would not be true

at the

moment.

This

an exaggerated instance to point the moral,

of course

The one

has a violent

our friend in a towering rage.

though

portraiture,

also

Most of

and cheer-

or person which, like the prover-

one of these quite abnormal

in

best

is

some one thing

bial red rag, puts

him

should never be

to his virtues rather than his vices.

be given

antipathy to

this

produce a record of the person's

to

"

is

other directions.

the conscious "know-I-

look which so

many people almost

assume before the camera.

—There

is

a

common

to pose one's sitters

is

saying to the effect that the to leave

them alone

i.e.

to

engage them in some interesting conversation or occupation

and

to watch

and wait without

that they are being watched,

letting

them even suspect

and then having observed some

characteristic turn of the head, disposal of the hand, facial

expression, to store this

up and arrange

for its

continuance

or revival.

The amateur

has one great advantage over the

fessional, for the latter perforce has sitters

per day,

many

of

whom

But the amateur generally his acquaintances,

he

pro-

many

may

selects his

and can previous

in half-an-hour's gossip,

to " execute " so

not have seen before. " patients " from among

to the operation

engage

such as easily follows when portraits

of mutual friends are being examined and criticised.

Orthocbromatic Plates and

Colour Screens are often

ruled out of court for portraiture, on the not always sound


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

148

assumption that they entail exposures impracticably long.

For ordinary room portraiture they can generally only be

employed under such favourable conditions a

a steady

plate,

fast

necessitate exposures

as a

good

light,

and screens which do not

sitter,

But

beyond two or three seconds.

for

outdoor portraiture under favourable conditions their use by

no means need be exceptional. truthful rendering slight

is

Moreover the gain of more

quite worth the risk of occasional or

movement rendered probable by

the increased time

of exposure.

The

directions wherein

lie

some of

more noticeable

their

advantages are better rendering of tone, value of drapery, colours,

and

textures, a

marked advantage

also in the ren-

Moreover

dering of various complexions and hair colour.

they considerably reduce the work of the retoucher, and also often convey a certain atmospheric quality in lieu

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

of a better

to a portrait

which

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; using

this

term

nearly always

is

absent in portraiture with ordinary plates.

Of course

for entirely satisfactory results

one must use a

plate sensitised for all colours with a suitable colour filter

or screen.

This often entails increasing normal exposure

about 40 times, resulting in an exposure too long except

under very favourable conditions.

and of course not so

But by the use of a paler

truthful colour filter results vastly

better than those obtained without screens

Thus a

six

may be

obtained.

or eight times yellow or pale orange screen

enable us to get a

full

may

exposure with an exposure of not

more than a second. Vignetting

is

not nearly so

much

in

ten or fifteen years ago, and this change able direction. that

its

But

it

vogue as is

was some

it

happily in the desir-

should not be too hastily concluded

general avoidance should be followed by

its

absolute

Occasionally the vignetted portrait

is

entirely

exclusion.

successful

and

satisfactory.

In such cases we

observe the following conditions.

The

may

sitter

generally is

simply


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. dressed

i.e.

149

absence of marked patterns or contrasts.

The background is

draperies are. white or light.

though not quite white, and out pattern, though

it

and shade. The pose ing at the camera.

of the plain variety

is

i.e.

may be somewhat graduated

is

so arrranged that the sitter

There

is

is

with-

in light

not look-

absence of very sharp focus in

The

any part of the picture.

The

fairly light,

face

not very

is

much

darker

or lighter than the background. Relative Position of

Camera and Sitter

does not usually receive the attention

Very often he supports

amateur. tripod,

seated

and

his

is

a matter which

deserves from the

it

camera on an ordinary

this usually brings the lens too

high up above the

This looking-down-upon the

figure.

sitter

effect

and unpleasant view. We see too much head, and his shoulders seem too high, which

often gives a distorted

of the top of his

at times gives a suggestion of

to our sitter the

humpback. The nearer we are

more marked

exalted view point.

the evil effect of this too

is

Moreover,

the floor of the

if

room be

seen this elevated position of the lens gives an unpleasantly exaggerated perspective

effect,

and seems

suggest an

to

uprising rather than a level floor.

Draperies often go a long way in the making or marring of a portrait.

The former

is

very noticeable in

masterpieces of painting, while

the latter

is

many of

the

the rule

in

With so many people there seems what gardeners used to call a " throw

photographic portraiture. a lingering tendency to

back

"

i.e.

return to primitive and wild forms.

a photographic portrait so often means, ancestral war-paint

and

feathers, at

any

if

Dressing for

not returning to

rate putting

on

their

newest and most striking and startling up-to-date latest fashion garments.

If anything is calculated

conscious expression either of vanity in in

man, surely

it

to induce a

woman or

discomfort

seems to be the putting on of new clothes.

The portrait student

will

do

well to

make

careful notes of

the tone value for light and shade effect of various colours


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

i5째

and

those that

new

clothes

and put on

by reason of being well worn and have had

fit

time to accommodate themselves to their wearer

may

;

Strong contrasts, such as white lace on black left

stripes,

Fur

Such marked

alone.

be "noisy"

&c,

always useful, and often very helpful.

is

stiff

dangerous, and best passed by.

are

more

clinging materials are

and hard

are

silk,

differences are very likely to

Again, pronounced patterns,

in the picture.

checks,

but also

what to use and what to avoid.

offer suggestions as to

best

may

such as are usually worn, so that he

textures

advise his sitters not only to eschew

Soft pliant

graceful in their folds than are

Well-worn velvet often gives beautiful

things.

passages of light and shade. If lace

is

worn

it

quite white.

The

photography.

Ladies

less

other head-gear, but

better

is

jewellery

may wear

it is

slightly

tinted,

visible

hats

and not

the better

for

and

and bonnets

seldom indeed that a man does

not look better without than with his hat.

In that

arranging draperies

of light

the student should

chief pictorial purpose

its

and shade,

to

show

is

remember

to give agreeable masses

graceful

and harmonious

lines

and forms, to suggest the general disposition of the form of the person wearing

it,

and never

qualities of texture or colour. its

soft

outline has always

most useful aids

to

draw attention to the

Hence

it

is

that fur with

been esteemed as one of the

in portrait draperies.

Due harmony and

fitness

should be observed between

the tone value of the chief draperies and background. figure in light

dark draperies

is

A

seldom satisfactory with a very

ground.

The Placing of the Figure in

the Picture space

important than the beginner might suppose.

is

We

far

more

can only

mention one or two of the more important matters, and refer

him

to

this

subject as

illustrated

pieces in our public picture galleries.

The

by the masterfigure

must not


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. be so large or have so

movement would bring him

slight

the

on a quarter-plate, frequently

head and shoulders

makes the mistake of overcrowding his the head comes too near the top of the of tallness

with

contact

in

photographer, in his desire to get a

The young

frame. large

space round him that a

free

little

151

may be conveyed.

If

picture space.

picture a false idea

Conversely,

there be too

if

much space above the head the impression may be equally false in conveying the notion of a short and stumpy figure. If there

then

be a marked excess of space in front of the figure

may

this

backing

easily give the notion of a figure

out of the picture

;

and

be too much side

similarly, if there

may imagine

space behind the figure one

the figure to be

passing out of the picture on the face side.

Trimming

the

Print

a matter calling for great care on

is

In

the part of the portraitist.

may

matter one

this

often

glean useful hints from the study of engravings and etchings

by

us choice while a

The use of a large how much shall be left

of eminence.

artists

as to

small

plate

gives

often

because we have not quite or the figure has picture

moved

when

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

if,

prompted

to imitate the style of

style

the ground glass

the

introduce

As we

starting

budding

some brother

time-honoured

may be is

professional,

with

table

vase

of

are not dealing with studio portraiture this

does not concern us just now.

But

as the

style

traiture

tiro

photographic portraiture, he

pardoned

flowers.

after

effect,

placed the figure,

had been composed.

Accessories, Furniture, &*c.

and

here or there,

overcrowded

an

satisfactorily

slightly

plate thus gives

anything

so

would be quite out

formal of

Ordinary people in their

harmony

with

for

just

the

own homes do not

home

por-

suggested chief idea.

as a rule put

themselves with their backs to a wall and give up their time to staring into vacancy.

Nor do

they find

much com-

fort or convenience from the too close proximity of small


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

152

top-heavy tables overloaded with vases, picture-frames, and other drawing-room nicknacks.

have a practical one, and

you

elect to use a table

be

it

real,

and appropriate.

practical,

A man

may have a

book and paper-

writing-pad, or

A woman

knife, a pair of gloves, &c,

&c,

basket, fancy work, knitting,

and

If

the articles on

let

or

may have her worksome other outward

visible sign of her laudable occupations.

The "engagement" always be quite

who does not

or occupation of the figure

To

real.

instrument

play this

your ignorance of your

must

put a violin into the hands of one

for

craft,

is

at

once to betray

almost certainly

he

will

O

Fig.

hold

But

Fig.

i.

such a way as to show that he

it

in

if

he be a fiddler he

wi' strings,"

violinist.

when handling

his

most "little

but also his hands, which without the

strument seem ungainly, graceful

not a

probably have his

will

characteristic facial expression

box

is

2.

directly

he

will at

begins

to

in-

once seem natural and handle

his

favourite

companion.

Some Schemes of Lighting diagrams (Figs. 1-6).

home

are

studio to be a square

centre of one

on our

in

the

in the

accompanying

several

suppose the

room with a window

of the side walls.

right

shown

In each instance, we

in the

This window opening

ground "plan

is

arrangements


HINTS ON AMATEUR PORTRAITURE. shown. circle

In each case the

sitter

is

153

represented by a small

and the position of the camera by three small

dots,

which may be taken as suggesting the three points of a tripod.

The double

ground and the In Fig.

we show

1

behind the

line

the back-

is

the beginner's usual plan of placing

the figure close up to the window. flector are usually

show

sitter

single line the reflector.

their position

unknown most

Background and

in the first

efforts,

but

re-

we

likely to give the best effect in this

In such a case as

undesirable position.

few

this the

exposure

should be generous without being excessive, and a dilute developer

will give

a softened rendering of what probably

OM to ÂŤ

Fig.

will at best

Fig.

3.

4.

be a somewhat harsh black and white scheme of

lighting.

In Figs.

2

and 3 we keep the camera

position as in Fig. Fig. 2

sitter further

less contrast

from the

between the

exposure in such a position than,

if

in

the

same

but move the other factors in the case.

shows us a more promising arrangement.

we have our be

1,

as long as, in Fig.

away from the window.

light will

1,

By

light,

Here

so that there will

and shadow

The

sides.

not need to be any longer

although our

sitter is

further

varying the angle and position

we can in such a position get a considerable range of differences between the light and shadow sides.

of the reflector

F


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

154 Fig. 3

is

such a position

inserted as a warning, for in

we should have a practical absence of shadows and consequent flatness and loss of pictorial interest.

as this

Fig. 4

shows us a position which

considerable measure of pictorial style of

arrangement we can

capable of yielding a

By

this general

get various shades of the so-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; or what a friend

called

Rembrandt

moon

" style of lighting

light,

while the greater part

lighting

is

effect.

i.e.

more

a

is

in

position calls for generous exposure

calls the "

new

or less narrow marginal

subdued

tones.

This

and cautious develop-

ment, with watchfulness against carrying development

Fig

enough

Fig.

5.

to blacken the

shadow

the high lights are duly subdued

In a case of sitter

this

to

6.

details in the print before

and modelling suggested.

kind the half of the window next the

may advantageously be draped

These help

far

subdue and soften the

with

light,

lace

curtains.

and so minimise

the vigour of contrast. Care must also be taken to shield the

upon

lens from the direct light of the

window

this be not done the negative

very likely to show general

fog,

due

to light scattered

In Fig.

5

is

falling

by the surface of the

we have a modification

of Fig.

it.

If

lens. i,

but being

window our contrasts will be less marked. we arrange a screen of very thin muslin or waxed tissue paper in the position shown by the dotted line we can get further from the If


HINTS ON AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY. vastly better modelling

and very

soft

round

155

But the

effects.

muslin screen means a certain increase of exposure. In Fig. 6 we have a position which

good

is

capable of giving a

variety of modelling according to the size

and position

This also enables us to use our lenses of

of the reflector.

longer focal length. It

may be noted

also that the

same background would

appear lighter in such position as Fig. 3 or Fig. gets direct light from the window, than positions as in Fig. 4 or Fig.

throw some

light

Conclusion.

upon

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

it,

5.

Of course

Indeed,

ment and regard experiment. conclusions

On too

it is

would-be

wiser for

him

to

the other hand, let

from

must

4.

be

not

too great con-

suspend as

it

such

the reflector will

portraitist

the foregoing notes

harshly

in

even in such position as in Fig.

content to take anything herein said with fidence.

where

6,

would

it

his judg-

suggestions

for

him beware of drawing

a few such

experimental

trials.

F. C. Lambert,

M.A.


56

P.O.P.

HE

above heading has no

ference

but

is

viation

method of

scarcely any need to

is

with

He

it.

he does not the

term

peculiar

mean other.

nineteenth

pho-

nowadays?)

convenient abbreviation to the proper True,

I

know one amateur

more than any

far

with

the term carried

a

loving

" P.O.P."

some occult meaning

the exact meaning.

has

somehow

When

gelatino-chloride of

This limitation

is

they

silver

other,

intonation

invariably says "pop-papers," so I realise

limitation.

or

ask

presume

To many minds other for

received a

P.O.P.

they

emulsion paper, and

no

becoming almost universal now,

irrespective of the fact that albumino-chloride

chlorideare also printing-out-papers. this article I

strenuous

the late

photograph

who probably uses this method and who always speaks of it if

the

I

periods has compelled

Printing-out-Papers.

in his voice as

that

of

who does not

to adopt this as a viz.

suppose

printing.

early twentieth-century

name,

a

photo-

there

life

(and

describing

graphic

explain

tographers

abbre-

universal

the

used in

particular

and

re-

to temperance drinks,

So

and

collodio-

for the purposes of

propose to stick to the P.O.P.-ular idea rather

than a scientifically correct rendering, and shall therefore deal with the well-known gelatine emulsion papers only.


157

p.o. p.

It

number

has been said times without

amateur

in

that the advent

inaugurated the reign of the ubiquitous

of the dry-plate

Doubtless

photography.

But

!

venture to

I

add to that the statement that the dry plate alone could never have accomplished

an influence as

in

ever the dry plate

P.O.P.

is

it,

and

that P.O. P.

had as

large

making easy and popularising photography

And

had.

this

because

queer,

is

not the easiest process to work after

all is

and

said

There are so many ways of spoiling a batch of

done.

prints that

tackle

one often wonders why the beginner does not

bromide paper or gaslight paper

undoubtedly

is

one can

that

what one

see

The

first.

is

reason

doing with

P.O.P., and that does away with the feeling of blind guess-

work

that attaches to one's

papers.

first

attempts with development

However, P.O.P., with

holds the field

among

its

visible

image, certainly

beginners, and the consideration of a

few pointers in producing good results with certainty should

be acceptable.

The

instruction sheets issued by the manufacturers of

Barnet P.O.P. say

:

Care should be takenâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; (1) the different

solutions

;

(2)

keep the prints moving

to to

keep separate dishes

in

for

working P.O.P., and never use them for any other purpose; (3) to use only the best chemicals; and (4) to be scrupulously clean in

all

operations.

To

these points

be added one or two others, equally important keep the papei printing,

in

good

condition before, during,

keep

previous to toning; to

equable temperature

;

and

all

to carry rules

or fixing)

;

and

to

after

solutions at an (2)

greater refinement by keeping each dish for ticular use (washing, toning,

may

e.g.

and its

(4) to a

own

par-

and by regarding

the necessity for chemical cleanliness to apply to the manipulator's

hands and

fingers just as

much

as

it

does to dishes

and measures. Taking these points

seriatim,

the need

for constant


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

158

movement

of the prints

a very real need, because unless

is

and equal access

the various solutions have free of the prints

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;front and

chemical action

toned

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; at

the

or washed prints,

imperfectly fixed

The method

which will ultimately discolour in patches.

moving the

seem

ing a plate,

is

if

workers

Such a plan might

it.

The

correct

one

to feed the prints separately into the bath, each

is

This

face downwards.

done with the

is

right

hand

keeping the mass of prints on the move with the

Thus each hand

is

left

touches the other until the whole batch

is

whilst

hand.

and never

kept in a different solution,

hands can then be used

of

kept rocking, as in develop-

is

Far from

sufficient.

it is

Many

worth mentioning.

the dish

for single prints, but not for batches.

answer

way

prints

to think that

to all parts

same time unequal

and hence patchy, unequally-

inevitable,

is

or else

prints,

back

Both

transferred.

one bath, and the whole batch

in the

kept constantly on the move by inserting the fingers under

up

the prints and continually bringing the bottom ones

This can be done singly

top.

of a dozen or fifteen prints attention,

;

in the case of small

but larger batches need quicker

and the bottom ones should be withdrawn

then quickly separated with the fishing

hypo

another

for

each hand

in

its

dish

one of the solutions

is

holds good

show the

is

effects of

evil

Besides which

it is

advisability

of keeping

most plainly seen when

in use

in the case of other

are

hand, whilst the right

left

The

lot.

own

in lots

They

of three or four at a time with the right hand.

is

to the

batches

;

but the method

solutions,

still

which do not

contamination so unmistakably.

a good habit to cultivate until

it

becomes

automatic.

The second self-evident.

legibly

point should not need elaboration

Dishes

marked

can

" washing,"

now

be

obtained

" toning " and

each dish should be religiously kept for purpose.

its

;

it

is

which are

" fixing," and

own

particular


ROBIN'S NEST. By J. W. STAMP.


159

P.O. P.

The

used, but

most emphatically

Cheap gold cannot be good, because gold

the gold.

to

gold the world

is

at cutting the already

and any attempt

over,

It applies to

be axiomatic.

third point should also

chemicals

all

phenomenally

low price of gold chloride can only result in a diminution of the quantity of the precious metal present in the salt the detriment of results.

&

worker Burroughs

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to

I suggest that for the occasional

Wellcome's tabloid toning baths are

probably the neatest and best way of compounding the baths,

firm

and the purity of the chemicals

putting them

Allied to this point

one batch of

prints.

silver printer to

Hypo

is

This

commit.

at 2d. per lb.

is

bath

although

it

the use of hypo is

for

more than

a most heinous offence for a

There can be no excuse

either.

and

whilst

"cheap enough

two pennyworth of hypo fixing

guaranteed by the

is

up.

will

economy

to eat,"

make over

half a gallon of

to attempt a second use of

it is

false

may

apparently work

it,

all right.

Clean dishes and measures are easily attained. A small stiff brush and a little Monkey Brand soap, plus elbowgrease, will

do the

trick.

But

I

have seen printers who

would spend a quarter of an hour scrubbing and who yet would have the impudence

their dishes out, (I

can

call

it

nothing else) to eat apples or oranges whilst attending to Naturally, the result was red patches their printing frames.

(where the fingers had touched the paper), which refused to tone, and the poor paper manufacturer was blamed because the printer was "quite sure his dishes were clean." Another

way

in

which one may unconsciously

Many

sin.

persons

are liable to an imperceptible perspiration in the hands finger-tips of

P.O.P.

same

is

which they are unaware.

this

extremely sensitive, and the effect

as that caused

to wash the hands

P.O.P.

To

by greasy in

fingers.

borax and

A

water

is

and

exudation

much

the

simple remedy

is

before handling


BARNfiT BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

l6o

CARE OF THE PAPER. Care of the paper

and

attention,

packed,

all

is

another point that

Barnet P.O. P.

in white paper,

first

and a sheet or two removed

When

for

out

in

made and

in exactly the

same manner and not

somewhat dangerous, but its

original

opened

use,

the re-

heavy

fairly

awaiting toning should be treated

Metal boxes for

drawer.

is

original casings,

its

and the packet kept between the leaves of a Prints

carefully

a packet

immediate

mainder should be wrapped again

book.

worth

well

is

sent

then in waterproof paper, and

a non-actinic envelope.

finally in

is

storing

the P.O. P.

if

lying loosely in a

left

and

papers is

are

prints

kept wrapped in

damp-proof-paper packing no harm should

arise.

In the printing frame also some precaution should be taken to prevent

damp

getting

to

paper, or

the

expansion and cockled paper.

unequal

which have not been

in use for a

will

it

Printing

cause

frames

day or two pick up a

of dirt and moisture on the cloth backs.

The

lot

best pre-

ventives of trouble arising from this cause are rubber sheeting as used in platinotype printing, or two or three sheets of celluloid.

These

also help to ensure perfect contact

negative and paper at

all

between

points.

TEMPERATURE. The which

is

temperature of photographic solutions very

much

and read of workers until

the cool

operations,

is

neglected in this country. in other

of evening

a subject

We

hear

who have to wait commencing chemical

climates

before

and even then they use cool well-water or adopt

the method of adding ice to their solutions.

The

reader usually feels thankful that he does not need

to resort to such practices in this country, forgets all about

in England

it.

In

and then promptly

reality there is just as

much need

to study temperature as anywhere

else,

here

although,


summer weather

judging by the recent samples of

have experienced, there

But

in

very

is

i6r

â&#x20AC;˘

p.o.p.

little

we

that

necessity for ice-water.

may be done.

the reverse direction a great deal

Almost every kind of chemical action may be accelerated by heat,

and whether we are developing, toning, Plate development

washing, this rule holds good.

the province of this article, but toning If the toning bath

subject.

is

is

fixing, is

or

outside

a big part of our

made up from

ordinary tap-

water drawn from the mains during any but the hottest

months of the

be experienced in getting

year, difficulty will

good tones with ease and excessive heat has

its

regularity.

On

the other hand,

dangers as well.

In the case of P.O.P. the most evident danger of melting or even paper.

A

preferably

softening

simple plan

made

is

is

that

the gelatine coating of the

to purchase a small

entirely of glass

(mine cost

thermometer,

is. 6d.),

and

to

accept as a general rule the dictum that no bath should be

below 6o c

F. or

above 70 F.

In the case of the toning bath

may be attained with warm water,

this heat

first of all by making part of the solution and the prescribed temperature can be maintained by having

an outer and larger dish containing hot or warm water. In this larger dish the actual toning dish may lie or even float,

and the contents of the inner dish can be kept

at

any

re-

quired heat by additions of hot or cold water to the outer dish

and

this

without dilution of the toning or other solution.

To

a P.O.P. worker struggling with a batch of prints in a cold

dark room or domestic kitchen or bath-room the adoption of At 65 ° F. the above method will probably be a revelation. toning becomes a pleasant and expeditious operation, and, still

are,

more, the tones obtained in a bath at this temperature to my mind, finer in quality than those reached by

slower or quicker baths at lower or higher temperatures.

With the

fixing bath the effect is not so

naked eye, but a

little

apparent to the

careful reasoning will prove that the

F*


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

162

same

The

rules hold good.

fixation of a paper print

not a

is

Some

thing that can be readily judged by the eye at any time.

old-fashioned printers with twenty-five to forty years' constant

every-day experience will print

able to

me

tell

tell

you that they can

exactly what the appearance of a properly

fixed print should be,

and

I

which allows

scientific rule,

much

prefer to

work by a more

time for the complex

sufficient

chemical operation of fixation to be complete. a

moment,

pose,

and

when a

see

But never a one has been

Perhaps they can.

fixed.

is

that a quarter of an

hour

that the prints are kept

is

Suppose, for

allowed for this pur-

moving during the whole

time in a solution at about 6o째 F. (either natural or induced

by other means as suggested), there

every probability, nay

is

more, a certainty that such prints are thoroughly

more usual course of

take the opposite and, unfortunately,

A number of prints

paying no regard to temperature.

been toned and await the

Now

fixed.

The requisite

fixing bath.

have

quantity

of hypo crystals are weighed out (sometimes guessed) and

The immediate

water added from the tap.

or 20

ing of the temperature 15 point,

,

effect is a lower-

sometimes even to freezing-

and the only natural inference

is

that the necessary

chemical action cannot take place in the same time as when

normal temperature

is

maintained.

word of warning may be given. ing water be peculiar

effect

appear to be to

be sticking

removed

will

put the hypo water,

added

to

hypo

may be

slightly

In this connection a

On no

observed.

account should If this is

crystals.

Some

of the

melted by the heat and

tightly to the

bottom of the

cause trouble afterwards.

A

will

dish,

crystals

be found

and

if

good plan

not

is

to

crystals into about half the necessary bulk of

which should have a temperature about 8o째 F.

Solutionis thus quickly obtained, and the total quantity

made up at

boil-

done a very

is

then

with hot or cold water as needed until the whole

normal heat, and

means of the outer

finally this

dish.

The

temperature final

is

is

kept up by

washing of prints

will


163

p.o.p.

also proceed

and

I

shall

more

show

effectively if the water is not too cold, later

that this

not a difficult

matter to

manage.

VARIETIES OF Having cleared up some

P.O.P.

again at the beginning and see

be worked

in order to

First of

produce pleasing and lasting paper.

the choice of a

all,

we will now how P.O.P. should

of these points,

commence

P.O.P. has nowadays been reduced to a

thin, glossy

and matt,

really

is

tinted

cardboard

and white.

stiff

enough

ordinary purposes without mounting, variety of ways.

It is

The

of

and Barnet

fine art,

papers give us a good selection to choose from

which

results.

The manufacture

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; thick an^a

thick paper,

in small sizes for all

may be

utilised in a

sent out cut to the regulation size,

with orthodox lettering on the reverse side for post-card

purposes

;

also in ordinary photographic sizes,

from which

by suitably masking portions of the card, very pretty Christmas

and Greeting Cards can be made

up.

Many

other

means

of utilising this sensitised card will suggest themselves to the " mind ; for example, Menu Cards, " At Home

inventive

Wedding Cards, commercial name and address The treatment in no way differs from that The matt paper will naturally necessary for ordinary P.O.P. appeal to the more artistic workers, and by the use of Invitations,

cards,

&c.

various toning baths a large variety of colours

and purple

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; may

But, after

be obtained.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; brown,

all, it is

red,

the glossy

more generally used. This is what most folks mean when they say " P.O.P.," and it cannot be gainsaid

paper that

is

that for small

work and any subject

detail present in the negative to is

I

no method that

that requires the fullest

be shown in the print there

will give finer results.

For

tint of

paper

have a decided bias in favour of the mauve, because white

paper tint

is

apt to turn a bit yellow with age, whereas the

seems

to fade to a white.

For the pink

I

mauve

cannot say a


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

164

good word

at

but

all,

hand

there to

For small

sizes

cabinetâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the paper For

it is

a question of taste, and the tint

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; C.D.V. J is

plate,

are

5x4,

and \

plate or

best purchased in packets of cut sizes.

who make

larger sizes, or for workers

the sheets

is

desired.

if

best.

When

cutting

all

sorts of sizes

up sheets of P.O. P.

(they always have a strong curl and need a

good

grip),

it is

certainly advisable to wear a pair of white cotton gloves,

also to

remember

...sizes

that metal

not a good thing for sensi-

is

Therefore, the sheets should be doubled to the

tive paper.

wanted and a bone paper-knife used

-utt ing

actually

for

up.

PRINTING. All to say

now ready for the how that is done ?

actual printing.

is

Is

The paper and

it

necessary

negative

are

brought into contact in the usual printing frame, and then

exposed to

light until the desired

depth

is

reached.

This

can be judged by occasionally opening the frame and looking at the progress of printing

that

too frequent, or

if

;

if

but

it

made

must be borne

in

mind

in a bright light, these

glimpses will result in a degradation of the whites of the

photograph.

Direct

P.O. P. printing

:

sunlight

at least,

dense negative may demand avoided

it

Use the sunlight may be

possible.

if

or, failing that,

should

never be used for

" hardly ever."

An

exceedingly

sometimes, but

can also be used

should be

best shade light obtainable,

resorted to by pasting tissue-

paper over the front of the frame to diffuse the electric arc

it

in this way,

and

The

light.

will

be found

quicker than winter daylight.

A

little

thought and coddling should be devoted

abnormally thin negatives. light

and

paratively

lightly

good

only yield

flat

If printed carefully in a

to

quiet

toned to a chestnut-brown colour com-

results

may be

got from a negative that

slatey-coloured prints

when printed

will

in

a


165

p.o.p.

and toned

strong light

Good

to the purple stage.

only be

and purple- blacks can

obtained from

which have a good range of contrast

that

:

purples

negatives

to say, nega-

is

which have been well exposed and development carried

tives

rather

far.

The depth

of printing must be regulated by the bath in

which the prints are intended

to

Sulphocyanide

be toned.

and tungstate baths cause least loss of depth during toning,

and bicarbonate baths cause the

whilst phosphate

greatest

of reduction, with the exception of platinum baths,

amount

which need

deeper printing.

still

These

differences

are,

however, not so great as one would suppose, because whilst a print intended for platinum toning should be

and be decidedly which

is

undergo treatment

to

in the

lights,

and

be

to

Experience

over than a finished print should be.

all

strong

sulphocyanide bath

needs to have some detail showing in the darker

fairly

tinted over in the high lights, even a print

soon show the correct printing depth.

will

Occasionally one's judgment of the depth of printing

may be

upset by the colour of the image during printing.

Sometimes red.

it is

quite a blue colour, at other times a bright

I believe this to

be accounted

for

by the presence of

moisture in the paper, because a freshly-opened packet will

one that has been opened and

print blue, whilst

left for

any

length of time in a damp atmosphere gives the red-coloured prints.

I

find that a blue print loses

quent toning and a blue print

is

fixing

carried a

little

the paper

is

in the subse-

Consequently

further in printing.

extreme case of an atmosphere that

when

more

than a red one does.

is

both

quite limp I find that

contrasty prints than with fresh brittle paper.

hardly be

safe to

make experiments

with

In the

damp and warm, I get much more

damp

It

silver

would paper

on valuable negatives, otherwise there might be here the

germ of a method negatives.

for getting bright

snappy prints from

flat


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

i66

VIGNETTING. Many

a negative can be made to give more pleasing

by vignetting, especially

results

in

Various

portraiture.

devices are on the market for obtaining the soft delicate

Of

gradations that form the charm of a good vignette. these ready-made appliances

mend

the "

articles

made is

I

can, from experience, recom-

Golden Vignetter."

which

I

give results that are

These are

with successive layers of tissue paper, as in Fig.

opaque paper or cardboard, and

F,<s

two,

have also home-made

hard to beat.

i, 2,

and 3 represent one,

1

r,f.

and three thicknesses of

2

each with a

tissue paper,

larger opening than the preceding, whilst the centre

open, but

is

in use.

and the

edges serrated as in Fig.

the real secret of vignetting

2, will

:

give very

good

For

results

Herein

if

lies

the distance from the vignetter

to the glass side of the negative is

quite

when

all

kept at a sufficient distance from the negative.

appliance

is

in a piece of cardboard,

covered by a diffuser over

Even a simple hole cut

o

i.

is

not sufficient

when

the

just fastened to the front of the printing frame.

soft vignettes

it

should be at least one inch away, and


ONE OF THE MOST HIGHLY FINISHED AND CAREFULLY PREPARED PRINTING

PAPERS

IN

EXISTENCE

IS

.

.

.

BARNET P.O.P. GLOSSY AND MATT SURFACE UNIFORM

IN

q GREAT

QUALITY VARIETY

OF

TONES

BUT

READILY OBTAINABLE,

FREE

FROM DOUBLE TONING

ENAMEL SURFACE IN

J

THREE COLOURS MATT.

P.O.P.

I

WHITE PINK

MAUVE

WHITE ONLY.

POST CARDS

GLOSSY AND MATT.

FULL INSTRUC-

TIONS WITH EACH

(

PACKET.


BARNET Ma^tt P.O.P.

FOR

THE PHOTOGRAPHER WHO AIMS

AT

PICTORIAL

EFFECTS.

NO

BETTER

^

PAPER CAN BE RECOMMENDED.

q THE SURFACE TOO MATT.

q THERE IN

IS

A

MATT. BUT NOT

IS

v<

Ng

ve

v<

RICHNESS AND DEPTH

THE SHADOWS NOT OBTAINED

ANY OTHER MATT

P.O.P.

q the

is

richness

Ng

v<

IN v^

enhanced by

the beautiful tones of the paper,

which range from a cold black to

a

giving

Warm carbon

vandyck -

like

brown,

effects.

^


169

P.O. P.

the front of the frame must be built up to that height in

order to hold

It is usual to

made

good shade

recommend

light,

frame, in order that the light

and

paper, course, is

may

much

easier tissue

when Old

find

I

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; when

it

can get

I

Of

it.

Sol absents himself for days at a time, as

his present habit, I

have to adopt the

first

method, but

I

that I get softer vignettes in direct sunlight with

do

the tissue-paper diffuser than I

without

creep under the vignetter

whole of the vignetter with a sheet of

print in direct sunlight

must admit

that vignette prints be

with constant turning of the

Personally,

in all directions equally. to cover the

such as

large sizes,

should be considerably

this distance

increased. in a

For

at that distance.

it

and upwards,

\ plate

in a

shade

light with or

it.

TONING. prints, we proceed to tone them. A how many should be manipulated at a

Having made our word or two as Whilst

time.

to

do not advocate

I

single

this direction.

I

many

have toned as

as

or

prints

couples, preferring fairly large batches, there

is

even

a limit in

450 cabinets and

C.D.V.s. mixed in one batch in a large dish under the pressure of business circumstances, but

mend

I

cannot recom-

upon

the practice, nor should I like to be called

to

swear that the whole of that 450 were alike in colour, or

even that each print was

free

from

patchiness.

cabinets, seventy or eighty quarter-plates, or about a

C.D.V.s.,

make a

Fifty

hundred

very comfortable lot for an experienced

hand, whilst a beginner will find twenty prints at a time quite as

much

as he can

manage.

Before toning P.O. P. prints certain free silver

it

necessary to get rid of

is

and other soluble

usual to

recommend

paper.

It is

washed

for this purpose.

Herein

salts that are in

the

that the prints be well I

differ

printed instructions issued with P.O.P.s.

from the usual If the

washing


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

170

method

is

adopted the presence of

and unless the

water,

free nitrate of silver

by the milkiness caused

instantly detected

first

washing

is

very expeditiously

performed and a fresh water bath substituted, tendency to

has a great

silver

make

photograph turn yellow.

made

times

are iron.

of iron

this free

the whites

metal

of the

we use

Again, the water that

almost invariably conveyed through

pipes

mains

Water coming through such pipes nearly always

carries particles of the metal with

betide a print in the

first

these floating particles

!

it

in suspension,

wash water

and woe

that encounters

any of

Black spots invariably result, and

very often they take the shape of comets with long

Now

which are particularly annoying. be avoided salts,

silver

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; some-

in fact, I believe all the larger

;

is

wash

the

in

instead of trying to wash out the soluble

if,

we proceed

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is

to convert

them

into insoluble chloride of

but soluble in

to say, insoluble in water,

hypo,

and therefore discharged by-and-by

bath.

For

this

ordinary table

tails,

these troubles can

purpose a bath

salt,

is

in

the

fixing

prepared composed of

one ounce dissolved

in a pint of water,

using larger proportionate quantities for larger batches of prints.

With a paper containing a

acid as well as silver,

it

may be

large proportion of free

advisable to add to this salt

bath a crystal or two of washing soda, but it

necessary

there

is

when using Barnet P.O. P.

no milkiness, because the

I

have not found

In the

free silver

is

salt

bath

immediately

converted into a chloride, and in addition to that

all prints

are brought to one uniform red colour, which enables the

progress of toning to be very easily judged.

be taken when inserting the dry prints into

no bubbles of prints,

air

Care should this

bath that

adhere to either front or back of the

otherwise the

conversion

into

chloride

will

be

unequal, and patches of a different colour will show after toning.

These patches

will

be found to correspond with

any bubbles that have not been wiped away in the

salt


171

p.o.p.

bath.

If a

batch of twenty prints are inserted singly, and

each one freed from

bottom one

print) will

put

is

The

bubbles as immersed, the

first

(or

be ready to come out by the time the

last

in.

extraneous

salt

now needs washing away, but as

water this need not be a long job.

salt is so easily soluble in

At the same time

may

the salt

it

should be carefully performed, otherwise

upset the toning bath, retarding

even stopping

entirely

it

employed and the

table

for

a while.

prints passed singly

If

its

action, or

two dishes are

from one into clean

water in the other, draining each print between the dishes

second dish,

until all are in the

will readily

it

that a very large proportion of the salt

No.

probably nine-tenths of

1,

dish No.

1

back again

Throw

it.

be understood

behind

is left

the contents of

away, replace with clean water, pass the prints in the

same manner, and a

large proportion of

the small quantity of salt carried into dish No. 2

be

left

times

behind.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; say

left in

in dish

minutes

for five

the prints

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

at all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;there

will

be not much

not enough to

events,

must again

be repeated four or

If the process

affect

five salt

the

toning bath.

Some

toning baths should be

using, whilst others are

so

in

advance.

made up

at the time of

improved by making up an hour or

Sulphocyanide baths are ready for use

immediately the red colouration (which shows on has disappeared.

This

is

first

mixing)

usually but a minute or two, and,

on the other hand, the bath seems prepared some hours in advance.

to

work

just as well

if

Formate, bicarbonate,

and borax baths should only be mixed immediately before use,

while phosphate and tungstate baths are

keeping about an hour before use.

extreme case, and

week

old.

is

not in

full

An

better

acetate bath

is

for

an

ripe working order until a

Platinum baths are best directly they are mixed.

Sulphocyanide has by some means or other become the standard bath, although

it

does not strike

me

as an ideal


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

172

toning compound. Yet if

much

the formate bath was as

and experimented

studied

would prove a better toning agent but sulphocyanide always given a first place on instruction sheets, and is

with is

hard to name a better. Probably

it is

it

;

If the bath

almost invariably the one used by beginners.

made up from weighed-out

is

chemicals, great care should be

taken to ensure absolute cleanliness in the bottles in which

A

stock solutions are kept, especially gold.

bottle intended

for storing gold should be washed out with

ammonia and

water or hot strong soda water, and after rinsing should be again washed with dilute hydrochloric acid, followed by wash-

As gold

ing in plain water.

to the action of light,

around the outside of the

pyro bottles are

With

all

tion shall be

made

such circumstances

formed

and make up

it is

frequently not.

is

away (which

I

all.

If

may

pos-

The The bath

will

If sulphite is

wasteful)

sometimes

clear,

but more

used as a constituent of the

Old

should be freshly mixed.

is

is

that this does not

is

It is a

solutions of sulphite

debatable point whether

an advantage or

not.

I

cannot

many workers decreased tendency towards double tones when using

myself say that I see any great gain in

it.

that the gold solu-

and then the only pos-

peculiarity

are useless for this purpose.

find a

is

dictated by a real need, for under

to throw the stuff

the presence of sulphite

such as

very likely that the red colouration

fresh.

always happen.

it

is

glass,

sulphocyanide bath, you

will refuse to disperse,

procedure

bath,

deep amber-coloured

but blue

to the other constituents last of

sibly realise that the rule

first

effect,

gold toning baths the rule

added

liable

has practically no protective action.

of,

this is neglected with the

sible

A

bottle.

same

glass bottle will have the

somewhat

solutions are

a good plan to paste brown paper

it is

must admit

attached to

its

use,

it

it,

but

has not the slightest disadvantage so probably

Don't overstep the mark, however stop toning action almost entirely.

it :

is

wisest to include

an excess of sulphite

it.

will


p.o.p.

173

Sulphocyanide (among other objections) has an

paper,

un-

tendency towards softening the gelatine of the

pleasant

and very often leads to frayed edges. These are when prints have been trimmed before

extremely annoying

Some makers recommend an alum

toning.

toning, in order to counteract this. at

all,

and

find

it

weak formaline bath

is far

formaline to the toning bath of formaline to every

way

A

it

has no

personally

add the

preferable, because

In

fact,

I

using about three drops

itself,

But as a matter of fact

ounce of bath.

to prevent frayed edges

never touching the edges at

carefully,

bath before like the idea

a frequent cause of unequal toning.

detrimental action on toning.

the correct

do not

I

all

to handle prints

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; never

hold of a print at any time, but allowing

to

it

really taking lie

on the

on the palm of the hand.

fingers or

When

working a sulphocyanide bath

it

is

needful that

all

prints intended to be toned in the bath should be inserted

dropped

in very rapid succession, or else

very quickly separated.

allowed to get a

If

fair start

in in

first

selves,

few prints seem to attract

and the

double tones,

The

all

later prints will suffer

and other

and

signs of

if

practicable),

the gold to them-

from pink half-tones,

an exhausted gold bath.

only practical way of working seems to be about as

follows

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Sufficient bath is prepared for the batch of prints.

This batch

Twenty

is

number

for

will

vary in size with the

enough

for

a beginner and

for the prints to

be separated at

They must

entail the use of

?tot lie

more

all

close

gold.

skill

of the worker.

fifty

a comfortable

The bulk

one more advanced.

must be adjusted with the idea of having

tion.

in

before introducing others (which

would be a very comfortable way of working the

a pile and

one or two prints are put

of the bath

sufficient solution

times by a layer of solu-

together.

This need not

Within reasonable limits

tion of the bath will only increase the length of time to reach a given colour stage.

A

very safe strength

dilu-

needed is

one


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

174

amounts of other

grain of gold (with proportionate

fifteen or twenty ounces of water, or

same quantity of

in the

This quantity of bath

water.

point to the use of a largish dish for toning, and

good

iox

No

practice. 8,

will

a very

it is

should be smaller than

toning dish

however small the prints may

than this does not allow

salts) to

two doses of " tabloids"

sufficient

Anything smaller

be.

room

for the constant

movement and changing position of the prints. Having made up the bath, the prints are lifted out of the wash-water They should not be drained at all, or in one loose pile. else they will begin to lie closely together, start

whole

pile

the other (face

all

over.

will

The

dropped into the toning bath and quickly

is

swirled around with the

is

and toning

from the edge instead of being equal

down

left

hand

first

one way and then

Meanwhile, the

of course).

right

hand

constantly bringing small lots up from the bottom of the

pile to

be separated by the

left

hand.

After a few minutes

of quick manipulation in this way, one can take easier,

and bring the

prints

up

each one for change in colour. the surface)

is

singly,

As

it

a

little

quickly examining

the desired colour (on

reached, the prints are thrown into a dish of

running water to await

fixing.

All toning operations should be conducted by gaslight. If daylight

is

used,

it

the prints,

and then

colour.

find

I

must be very dim

it is

much

for fear of fogging

very difficult to judge changes of

greater certainty in judging colour by

gaslight.

The phosphate bath is a very good make of P.O.P.,

not suitable for every

rable for Barnet papers.

It is

one, will

and, although

be found admi-

an extremely quick-acting

bath and the prints need careful watching and quick attention. It is

not so liable to give double tones as sulphocyanide.

The

tabloid phosphate preparations give a bath identical in

composition to that recommended with Barnet papers,

if

the

quantity of water mentioned in the tabloid instructions

is


p.o. p.

This

doubled.

stronger bath

a more convenient strength in use, as the

is

much

is

too quick acting for

The method

or four prints at a time. prints

175

more than three

of manipulating the

the same with this and other baths as with the

is

sulphocyanide, with one

when

Bennett,

Mr. H. W.

possible exception.

lecturing before the R.P.S. recently, pointed

made up

the phosphate or formate baths are

out that

if

distilled

water in place of ordinary tap water, there would

cease to be any necessity for

all

go into the toning

prints to

bath at one time, and they can be inserted

No

at a time. try

it

doubt he

because

am

I

sulphocyanide, that

is

The formate bath

it

from force of habit.

knowing

good

other to

"

on

softening

and

the it

prints

at

manner than is

:

good

So

is

the

from

far

even a tendency to harden

is

be handled

in

a

much

A

a sulphocyanide bath.

it,

respectful

less

good formula

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Soda formate Soda carbonate Gold chloride Water .

.

.

.

.

â&#x20AC;˘

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

according to speed desired. salt to

Two

obtain, tabloids,

but

is

each

chloride, dissolved in

*5 grains

.

is

the

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

2

.1

grain

20

to

Soda formate

of

formate

40 ounces

not an easy

is

readily procurable in

tabloid

compound At

full

extremely quick acting, almost too quick in

weaker bath

will

be

found

far

more

form.

and

20 to 40 ounces of water

a bath practically the same as the above. it

One

qualities.

emulsion.

the

of

there

all,

in

its

at

" wants

bath

of formate over sulphocyanide

gelatine

can

peculiarities

little

toning

things, a

appreciate

fully

decided advantage effect

The

it.

compounds do not show themselves

of different toning

Like

who

a great favourite with those

is

have had any long experience with

first.

one or two

always forget to

I

so used to the other way, as with

do

I

but

correct,

with

gold

will give

strength fact,

and

comfortable


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

176

distilled water

Mr. Bennett's remarks re

to use.

have special application to

Gold chloride

in

seem

to

this bath.

combination with soda bicarbonate,

soda tungstate, borax, and even washing soda, have their advocates, but there would not seem to be any special advantages over those combinations

mentioned.

already

Soda acetate appears to be somewhat unsuitable for gelatine P.O.P. unless used together with sulphocyanide, and in

one might as well use the plain sulphocyanide

that case

bath.

For matt papers platinum toning

will yield

an excellent

brown tones without any suggestion of purple. bath prints do not assume the colour they will

scale of pure

In

this

They tone through

eventually dry. to a violet

exactly

purple, and a

when

to

stop

A

toning.

leaving the toning bath will dry

toning

is

pushed

stages of claret colour

experience

little

is

needed

rich claret

up a good

to the violet stage

to

know

colour on

sepia, whilst

if

a very rich dark brown

results.

Prints intended for platinum toning should, as already indicated, be very strongly printed, as considerable reduction occurs.

leave the platinum bath the prints

As they

should be placed directly into an alakaline bath for a quarter of an hour before fixing. veniently

made up by

This alkaline solution

soda in a pint of water.

Formula

for

con-

platinum bath 10 ounces 20 grains

Water salt

Potassium chloroplatinite

:

.20 grains

Citric acid

Table

is

dissolving a tablespoonful of washing

.

.

2

,,

or tabloids according to directions.

SELF-TONING PAPERS.

A

brand of P.O.P.s which are now coming into great In these papers favour are the so-called self-toning papers. the necessary

amount of gold

is

apparently incorporated in


177

P.O.P.

the emulsion

itself,

and toning

effected

is

by simple soaking

in a solution that will

reduce the gold to the desired colour.

For the purple tone

that

seems

to

be the desire of

ginners the alum and sulphocyanide formula

by the makers

warm tones mended for

I

is

be-

all

recommended

certainly the best, whilst for distinctly

have found the

bath as already recom-

salt

ordinary P.O.P. an excellent one.

Self-toning

papers should not have preliminary washing whichever bath

They

used.

is

are inserted dry (with

as regards bubbles),

and after about

due precautions

all

minutes' immersion,

five

during which they are kept moving as in a toning bath, they should receive a good washing in the manner before inBy the use of this dicated, when they are ready for fixing. class of is

paper at

one bath

least

is

dispensed with, and there

a delightful certainty with which a large batch of prints

can be brought to the same colour without a suspicion of

double tones or even of unequal toning.

FIXING BATH. The

fixing

bath of necessity follows

In this the desired action silver salts,

is

all

toning operations.

away

to dissolve

and leave only those

that have

sensitive

all

been reduced by

the action of light and coloured by the toning bath.

commonly supposed soluble in hypo. the

first

This

is

because the action

When

immersed

prints are

action that takes place

salts

some extent

to

truth,

whole

complex.

the silver

that

is

true,

is

It

is

P.O.P. are

of

but

it is

not simple

not

but

in a fixing bath the

the conversion of the silver

chlorides, citrates, &c. (insoluble in water), into silver thio-

sulphate of hypo

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;also insoluble if

sufficient

important that the hypo

in water, but soluble in

time is

is

given.

But

really in excess,

it

and

an excess is

highly

this is best

by having a large quantity of solution, not by means of a small quantity of strong solution. A very safe practice is to have two fixing baths, and after allowing the

ensured


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

178

usual ten minutes in one to transfer to the second fresh bath.

It

may seem an

unnecessary refinement, but when

lasting prints are desired

The

the only safe course.

it is

ammonia

addition of small quantities of strong

the fixing bath

an objectionable practice

in that

unmanageable.

I

well

and become

prints curl

remember one

large batch of prints

In the wash water they

manner.

that I treated in this

me

curled to such an extent that the "guvnor" asked

they were " pipe lights," and the time they took to

was appalling.

should

when

a decided advantage

It is

bath has no acid tendency,

to

it is

causes swelling of the

it

an extent that the

gelatine to such

To me

advocated by some workers.

is

and,

be decidedly alkaline.

the fixing

platinum toning,

after

This

if

mount

be

can

condition

acquired by the addition of a few crystals of washing soda without resulting in any unpleasant curling.

WASHING. Having

fixed our prints,

hypo and the

silver salts

most tedious of

shown

it

method of placing

water for two or more hours if

hypo

removed.

is

not at

all

This

prints

the hypo It

the

running

in

is

On

washing

and expedi-

satisfactorily

must be remembered, however, that

clings to the paper

much more

tenaciously than

much

salt.

longer

Half an hour of such treatment, every print having

separate

the water

attention with

warmed

to 65 째

should be satisfactory from every point of view. the matter easier and not throw too the water baths, I find front

is

satisfactory.

Therefore, the action must be continued for time.

remove the

to

prints are treated as described for

previous to toning, tiously

now remains

the processes, because experience has

all

that the old

the other hand,

it

holds in solution.

it

a

and back, under the

hypo before putting

into the

much

good plan tap, thus first

to

Fahr.,

To make

responsibility

wash each

removing

wash water.

all

on

print,

surface


HILL AND DALE. HORSLEY HINTON.

•By A.


179

p.o.p.

If prints are treated throughout in the

manner

there should be no need for a hardening bath at prints are at all soft the use of formaline

mended.

to

is

indicated, all

but

;

deprecate the use of alum with P.O.P.

I

if

be recomIt is

not so efficacious as formaline, not so easily washed out, and is

more

likely to

cause trouble through

Formaline also has the advantage in that the toning bath

(if

natural acidity.

its it

can be added to

sulphocyanide), to the fixing bath, or to

the washing waters without detriment to the chemical action in progress.

may be dried may be

P.O.P.

or the surface

with the natural surface of the paper, modified.

Matt papers, of course,

are not intended to be altered, but glossy papers can be given

an almost mirror-like surface by squeegeeing on surface such as

be allowed

glass

is

whiting, after which

The

chalk

is

well

The

glass.

to dry first

The

water.

good

to a polished

prints should preferably

and then soaked

for

a short time in

prepared by thorough cleaning with is

it

dusted over with French chalk.

rubbed on and polished

same

off at the

operation, care being taken not to rub too hard or the surface

of the glass

down on

The wet

itself will suffer.

print

is

then laid film

the prepared surface of the glass, a piece of rubber

sheeting or celluloid or oil-baize laid on top, and the squeegee

can then be applied with considerable pressure in order to expel

all

When

air-bubbles.

been removed the

good draught

glass

to dry.

the temporary covering has

and adhering

The

print are placed in a

drying must be most thorough.

Any

attempt to remove the print whilst the slightest damp-

ness

is

present will cause disaster.

In summer time they for a

may, when apparently dry, be placed in direct sunlight few moments when they taneously. nail,

If not,

and a steady

will generally leave the glass

one corner can be raised by the pull

will

remove the whole

winter time slight warming near the of the heat of the sun.

fire

may

spon-

finger-

print.

In

take the place

Glossy post-cards treated in this


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

l8o

manner have a very

The

finished look, also other glossy cards.

card P.O.P. although

does not need mounting, makes

it

excellent prints which need no stiffening for

glazed surface.

They

mounting with

are best attached to the

narrow edging of hot thin glue.

mounts by a

Glossy P.O.P.

may have

surface modified in the reverse direction by squeegeeing

its

ground

to

obtained

glass or matt opal.

is

The beauty

of the surface so

variable according to the fineness of the grinding

of the glass.

Such glass,

for instance, as

is

used for high-class

focussing screens will yield a beautiful velvety matt which is

quite different from the surface of matt paper, and which

for

some purposes may be

preferred.

French chalk

is

not

suitable for use on matt surfaces and should be replaced by

the waxing solution sold for use with Barnet carbon tissue in

double transfer process.

Throughout this

article

to repeat formulae that are

it

has not been thought necessary

found in every packet of P.O.P.

Only those are given which imply a departure from the beaten track.

W. E. A.

Drinkivater.


i8i

Bromide Printing* ENLARGING AND CONTACT PRINTING WITH BROMIDE PAPERS.

N

the following article very

little

has been said about apparatus, since

this

a

is

Thus

quantity.

purchasable I

have been

enabled to devote more space to

what

quantity

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

not a purchasable

viz.

manipulation in

general

optical

of

the

process,

which are included a few

principles which

effective working.

economical

the

govern

it

for

the

most


1

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

82

The

work, with some slight modifications. printed image

is

that the

fact

latent or invisible should not be regarded

by the uninitiated as a deterrent feature, since the exposure and development can be so adjusted as to render the production of a print perfectly under control, the graphic value of the negative being secured in the positive at

The daylight

printing of

enlargements may be

subsequent manipulations

the

or artificial light,

will.

carried out by

being the same. Artificial

light

is

made

at

being a

preferable, since, the light

may be recorded and

constant, exposures

any time with certainty as

duplicate prints

to the exposure

this is

;

impossible with daylight, as the actinic value of the light

never constant even

if

a north aspect be chosen.

is

shall,

I

however, give a brief description of the apparatus required for printing with

both sources of illumination.

The general principles are as follows The whole surface of the negative is

:

as evenly illumin-

ated as possible, and the image projected by means of a lens

on

to a screen in a dark room.

Fig.

i

shows a

dia-

grammatic sketch.

I

.fcrerjv-

LcnJ

neacttilUf ifIn

Fig.

The

sensitive

exposed to the

paper

my

i.

supported on the screen and

light passing

a developable positive

not

is

source of

mi nation..

through the negative and

image thus being obtained.

lens, It is

intention to describe in detail any special form of

apparatus for either method

of printing, since

depends upon the opportunities and

so

much

accessories available to

the worker, but rather to give the essential requirements for

carrying out the work.


BROMIDE PRINTING.

I8 3

For daylight, a window or an aperture preferably

wall,

facing north,

inside of the wall the back of an ordinary

an outside

in

Against the

necessary.

is

camera

is

placed,

would

with the negative in the place where the dark slide

and a piece of ground

be,

The

it.

glass

some two inches

in front of

glass side of the negative should face the

and should be

inverted.

If

buildings,

light,

other

or

trees,

objects be in such close proximity as to obstruct the light,

a reflector must be used, placed at

secure the greatest

amount of

light

such an angle as to

from the sky

;

an angle

licjlvt

I

m

/

Cctme/a /Js

.5

Fig. 2

of 45

'

is

about the correct position, but

adjustable.

The image

is

it

made

should be

thus projected through the lens

of the camera on to a screen, which, the camera being a fixture, is

must be movable.

The

unlimited, depending solely

It is hardly

that

amplification of the image

upon the

definition required.

necessary to state that no actinic

which passes through the negative and

admitted into the room.

A

is

except

must be

diagram of the general arrange-

ment of a daylight enlarging apparatus There

light,

lens,

is

shown

in Fig. 2.

another form of enlarging apparatus which

may


1

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

84

be used

for either

camera body

in

day or

artificial

which the sensitive paper

since the degree of enlargement

apparatus, and

camera

light,

the

in a dark

consisting of a is

enclosed

;

but

limited to the size of the

is

same work may be done with one's

room

as described, the possession of such

an instrument seems to

me

totally

unnecessary,

and not

worth describing.

For enlarging by is

more

rather

light,

artificial

due

elaborate,

and

special form of illuminant,

the apparatus required necessity

to the its

of

some

seclusion from the dark

room.

Those who would construct their own lantern should know some of the optical considerations necessary for the As before most efficient illumination of the negative.

..-"'Object4.v(r~-JX\

Fig.

it

is

ÂŤ

;;

rff&Trvtnxvtixm*

Coruferujcn

**

stated,

C-.:-

3.

all-important that the negative be

as

evenly

illuminated as possible, and providing this condition be observed, the choice.

method of doing

But, where

it is

it

is

entirely a matter

of

a question of efficiency rather than

economy, we have only one method to adopt

;

this consists

of the use of a condenser. It is

not possible, in the space at

my

disposal, to enter

into the details necessary for the construction of an enlarg-

ing lantern, the principles of which are identical with those

of an optical lantern

;

on the other hand the proper mani-

pulation of the instrument

general principles which

is

of great importance,

must be adhered to

efficient working are necessary.

Fig. 3

is

and a few

for the

most

a diagrammatic

sketch of the principles controlling an enlarging lantern.


BROMIDE PRINTING. a

and

source of illumination,

the

is

I8 5

most

the

for

working should approach as nearly as possible a

effective

mere point of

light of great intensity

;

hence an arc

light is

the best to work with. the condenser, consists of two plano-convex lenses

b,

with

placed

their

They

convex sides nearly touching.

have for their purpose the condensing or collecting of the rays

of the illuminant and projecting them

through the

negative c to a focus in the centre of the lens d, whence

they are transmitted to the screen

Now

e.

essential that the illuminant should

it is

be so placed

come

that the rays projected through the negative should

to

r--.

Fig

a focus as near the centre

4.

of the

objective as possible,

In

otherwise there will be a loss of illumination.

degree

the

of

amplification

the objective to the negative,

governs

and

the

this

way

distance from

this in its turn

the distance of the light from the condenser.

governs

Fig.

4

will

illustrate this.

Let the hard

lines represent the correct position of the

illuminant and lens for a certain degree of enlargement, then a greater degree were required

it is

between the lens and the condenser would be fore, in

less

;

there-

order that the whole of the rays collected by the

condenser light

if

obvious that the distance

may

pass

through the

lens,

on the lens side must be altered,

the focus

and

this

of the

can only be

G


1

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

86

done by increasing the distance of the condenser, as illustrated by the dotted

from the

light

This

lines.

a

is

most essential point in the effective working of a lantern,

and when the position of the

lens

found

is

for the size of

enlargement required, the carrier containing the negative should be removed, and the position of the light found by adjusting

the

it

till

it

gives a clear evenly illuminated disc

With regard

screen.

the

to

various

of

parts

on the

apparatus a few brief words will suffice to guide the worker in his choice of an instrument.

The Ilhiminant. tion I

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The choice of the source of illuminaâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and convenience.

governed by two factors

efficiency

use the word convenience in the broadest sense.

before stated, a point of light

form, the reason for which

must be central will

is

is

obvious,

for,

As

efficient

since this point

to the focal axis of the condenser, the rays

be more evenly distributed over

Take as an

most

optically the

its

surface.

illustration the difference

between the point

of ignition of an electric arc and that of a flat-flame burner.

Say the

flat

flame had a surface area of 2 inches square, then

we should have

light radiating not

only from

since a condenser

is

impossible to bring at

once

the

;

its

simply a lens (with a focus), all

area

it

;

and

would be

the points of light into optical focus

hence we get an uneven distribution of rays over of

surface

possible,

centre, but

its

also from innumerable points contained within

and

universally

the condenser.

On

the other

hand

it

is

better, so to diffuse the light as to present a

illumined surface over the whole area of the

condenser, and thus produce a result similar to that which obtains in daylight enlarging.

This

is

undoubtedly the best method of illumination,

but unfortunately the means of doing light,

the extent of which

is

it

involves a loss of

governed by the diffusing

medium employed. Few of us, however, are able to indulge and so we must take the next best thing.

in

an arc

light,


BARNET G^LsligKt Pamper

GLOSSY AND MATT ALSO

GASLIGHT POST CARDS PRINTED BY THE LIGHT OF A GAS

FLAME

IN

AN ORDINARY ROOM. q NO DARK-

ROOM REQUIRED. AN

IDEAL

PASTIME FOR WINTER EVENINGS. «*


BARN ET Snow Enamel

A

UNIQUE PRINTING PAPER, BRINGING THE BEAUTY OF GLOSSY P.O.P. PRINTS WITHIN

THE

SPHERE

OF

PRINTING

BY

ARTIFICIAL

Nsss^NgNg^Ngvj

LIGHT.

q IT IS A BROMIDE PAPER, HAVING A HIGHLY ENAMELLED SURFACE, GIVING A PURITY OF EFFECT AND A RENDERING OF MINUTE DETAIL ESSENTIAL IN SOME CLASSES OF WORK.

n* v«

BARN ET Enamel SIMILAR TO SNOW ENAMEL. BUT WITH

CATE PINK

TINT.

^€

m:

n?

vs

A

DELI-

v<

^

ALSO CARD.

IN PACKETS.

SHEETS

OR

ROLLS.

FOR PRICES. SEE END OF

BOOK.


BROMIDE PRINTING. Acetylene

is

1

a good illuminant, and owing to

89

high

its

actinic value can be used with a comparatively small point Its use,

of ignition.

however, involves extra and somewhat

bulky apparatus, and unless a considerable amount of work is contemplated so that the apparatus may be kept in

to the

the advisability of going

much doubt

constant use, I very

expense when such an excellent substitute

is

be

to

found in the incandescent mantle and ordinary coal

gas.

Personally, I have used this form of illumination for several years,

and without any

burner and condenser

;

I

medium between

diffusing

have never found

my

be excessive even when doing work as large as 40

The

the

exposures to in.

x 30 in.

longest exposure ever required was that for a negative

intended for contact printing, and for a 36

A

one

from

only

requires

Magnesium ribbon

x 30

in. print,

from a negative made expressly for

print

similar

enlarging

in.

fifteen minutes.

with// 1 6, the time was

will find

three

to

no place in

my

minutes.*

category, since

be extremely unconducive to the economical working of the process. There remains but I

have proved

oil-lamp,

the

it

to

and

as

a form

of illumination,

providing I

used

a lantern with this form of illumination for five years,

and

cleanliness

is

observed, a very excellent one indeed.

never once had occasion to regret

was kepi clean purchasers

is

!

One

Should

5).

it

But

efficiency.

point I would impress

it

upon intending

of burner

to secure the pattern

the "duplex" (Fig. diffuser

its

known

as

be desirable to use a

between the burner and condenser

in either

method

of illumination, in order to present a sheet of light to the face

of the

ground

condenser

glass in

it

is

advisable to

employ

finely-

preference to any other medium, as this

involves the least loss of light.

Two

sheets of glass

may

* Should the worker find that he gets an image of the mantle on may be got over by lightly etching the glass

his screen, the difficulty

chimney with some sand-paper.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

190

and

be required

if

so they should

be placed about one

inch apart.

The Condenser.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This

is

generally in the form of two

plano-convex lenses mounted together, sides nearly touching, as

This answers the diameter

fairly well

large a

is

shown

with their convex

in Fig. 6.

with the smaller

good deal of

light

sizes,

may be

but when lost,

hence

the advisability of employing a diffuser.

The Lens, or

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This

Objective.

is

a factor of great im-

when the expense is some consideration should be

portance in the enlarging lantern, and of no great material import

That the lens which took

given to the optical efficiency.

the photograph will serve to enlarge

wicfc

Fig.

5.

some cases may be it

and

will

6.

the best one to use, but

possess certain desirable features.

focus

true enough,

is

wvck.

Fig.

in

it

If

it

it

must

be of too short a

be too near the condenser to be

generally

within the focus of the light from that side, and will therefore

be unable to pick up

all

the rays of light emanating

therefrom, thereby engendering a loss of illumination and the presence of a coloured ring disc of light

on the screen.

on the outer edge of the

Figs. 7

and

8 will

show

this

clearly.

In Fig.

7

short a focus stituted the is

we is

see what

used, but

happens when a lens of too

when one

of longer focus

is

sub-

whole of the cone of rays passes through and

utilised (see Fig. 8).

half-plate lens

on a

Hence

it is

advisable to use, say, a

quarter-plate apparatus.


BROMIDE PRINTING.

The

IQI

type of lens used should be of the rapid rectilinear

form, and have as large an effective aperture as possible.

One

of the latest forms of

lenses are the best, owing

flat field

A

to their fine definition with a large aperture.

may be

lens

used,

and has the advantage of

portrait

rapidity, but

its

circle of definition is very limited.

The Dark-room Light. portant

factors

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This

one of the most im-

is

work,

successful

in

and deserves some

^m

light.

Fig.

consideration.

You must

rapid bromide paper

an ordinary dry plate

is

Now than

follows, therefore, that a light ten

times stronger^ may be used. is

are doing. less sensitive

what you

see

about ten times it

;

7.

The

colour of the light also

of great importance, since the depth of tone of a positive considerably with

varies

yellow or canary tint

is

different

Undoubtedly a

tints.

the most effective.

lit/Jd. ]-":

Fig.

So long there

is

of

the better

as the light it,

8.

is safe, it

intensity

see our manipulation.

of a light

square of the distance from

That source

is

is

immaterial

how much

except that the greater the area of illumination

we can

ntensity of light radiating from

The

is

is

its

The law

source

is

of the

as follows

inversely proportional as

:

the

its source.

to say, if the value of

a light at one foot from

equal to 100, then at two feet

it

will

its

be equal to


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

192 25,

in,

at three feet

four feet 6*25,

at

follows from this, then, that

and so

It

our light has no effect on a

if

piece of bromide paper at a distance of one foot,

period of five minutes, at two feet

it

and

for a

may be exposed without

danger for twenty minutes, and at three

feet for forty-five

For the "safety" of the lamp a good deal depends

minutes.

upon the form

of light used.

an oil-lamp

If

on.

chosen, one thickness of canary fabric

is

should be sufficient providing the distance between the burner and the fabric be not ordinary gas-burner

is

one or two pieces of

An

less

than six inches.

If

used, one thickness of the fabric

an

and

tissue paper.

incandescent mantle requires two thicknesses of the

Yellow glass may be used

fabric.

if

preferred, but

covered with some diffusing medium,

must be

such as tissue-paper

on no account should a dark-room lamp be used, either in negative or positive work, without the light being diffused.

In the construction and testing of a dark-room lamp for

bromide work the following methods may be adopted. large

work be contemplated, an area of not

less

If

than one

square foot of illuminating surface should be used.

Obtain

light

from as many sides as possible, but from the

front or working side the light eyes.

It is

convenient to use the lamp for negative work

by interposing a screen of ruby Test the half of

must be shielded from the

which

light is

fabric.

by exposing a piece of bromide paper,

shielded, at a distance of six inches from

the lamp, for a period of half an hour, and develop a strong developer.

it

with

Should there be any signs of fogging,

cover the fabric with one thickness of tissue-paper and repeat the

test.

Continue to do

" safe," but

this if necessary

till

do not add so much tissue-paper

the light

is

as to reduce

the light to the same degree as would obtain by the use of

an extra thickness of canary safety of the

lamp

to the

fabric.

Having

certified the

above extent, a piece of bromide


BROMIDE PRINTING. paper at two feet from the light

The

hours.

is

safe for a period of eight

mental time to any degree he

The Negative. bromide from

is

by

and so obtain a

may be used

of negative

made for the process. When we are not quite so dependent

for printing

on the quality of the negative, as the

With

penetrating.

for

obtained

far the best results are

specially

used

likes,

light.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Any kind

printing, but

negatives

daylight

reduce the experi-

worker may, of course,

correspondingly stronger

193

essentially

be a thin one, but of

and here

let

me

With regard

more

is

should

gradation and detail

word of advice

give a

developers to use.

full

light

negative

the

light

artificial

the

as to

best

to the production of density

detail in a negative, all developers are alike, time being

and

the only interfering factor

development there

is

;

but, with regard to the stage in

which these same make

at

their appearance,

a wide difference between the various developers.

Roughly speaking, some produce density slowly following

others produce detail

;

slowly accumulating

must choose, the reason Since

is

it

It

later.

essential

for

is

which

the density

first,

from the is

the detail

first,

latter

kind we

obvious.

that the negative

must be

fully

gradated, clear and brilliant, without fogging or clogging of the shadows, follows that

A

and

it

at the

will

same time possess

be what

is

technically

developer which produces the density

all

known first

detail,

it

as " thin."

and compels

us to wait for the detail, obviously cannot give us the above essentials.

But where we can get the

full scale

of gradation

almost immediately, and control the density at

and

detail

will,

such a developer must be used.

that, in

my

for the

paper

And

let

me

here add

experience, I have found that the best developer is

the best for the negative

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; with

modifica-

tions, of course.

There are two developers most

One

is

suitable for the work.

a combination of metol and hydroquinone, and the


ioo grains


BROMIDE PRINTING.

195

much

composition to that of a dry plate, but

The

process necessary for the

deposit of silver

same

precisely the

is

although the manipulation

less rapid.

graphic

production of a

as for a negative,

required to be rather more

is

delicate.

The

simple chemistry

When

is briefly this.

on the paper

light acts

emulsion, which change

it

a change in the

effects

only rendered visible on develop-

is

The extent of this change has a two-way limit, technically known as under-exposure and over-exposure. The actinicity ment.

or power of the light, or the period of

its

duration, acting

the paper after passing through the negative,

necessary change in the emulsion

insufficient to effect the

in all

and various

parts, to yield

This

positive or development.

On

is

the other hand the exposure

longed in

or

all

a correspondingly correct the under-exposure limit.

may have been

to

some

decompose

it,

or render

it

the production of a graphic image.

By

over-exposure.

irremediable

this

we

see

action of light on

an extent that

the

an emulsion may

image

is

and com-

is

we

for

the limit of

under-exposure

that

chemical and physical control, providing

The

limit

change

beyond control

This

over-exposure

but with

;

too pro-

parts, in which case the

effected in the emulsion has passed the

menced

on

may have been

have

is

both a

be not excessive.

it

effect

a change

to

such

developable to a limited or fixed

extent. I

due

emphasise

this

Development bromide of

The the

statement because so

many

failures are

to ignorance of the fact. is

simply the reduction ot the light-affected

silver salt to the metallic state.

rapidity of reduction

reducing

agent,

but

is

governed by the strength of

over-exposure

rapidly than under-exposure with

a

develops

more

developer of similar

strength.

Providing there be

sufficient

of the reducing agent present


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

196

a weak, or

dilute, developer

as a strong

effect

since

the effect

ment

it

and

will produce precisely the same

time being the only consideration

o?ie,

the exposure is only

of

were better

to

the possibility Oj

and

;

on develop-

visible

have the reduction under

co?itrol

and

rectifying faults, both selectively

generally.

The is

perfect reproduction in the positive of a negative,

wholly dependent on the actinicity of the printing

light,

hence we may never be able to get the correct exposure a certain negative

;

for

but practically, the scale of gradation in

the negative can be reproduced inversely in the positive. this possibility is

In enlarging,

we

somewhat

generally speaking,

when once

scale of gradation has

the light used,

it

and

;

therefore,

a negative with a particular

been found to be most

effective with

should be kept as a sort of standard guide.

While under-exposure cally

since

restricted,

cannot alter the distance of the printing light

physically

is

irremediable,

exercise

we can both chemiamount of

considerable

a

control over excessive exposure, providing the emulsion has

not been affected to a state of decomposition. control

is

Physical

rarely necessary, except in the case of selective

repression or accentuation,

when

glycerine

the developer to restrain development.

may be added

But

if

of weak development be employed, the same control exerted,

and

When

for the

to

method

the

may be

same purpose.

a soluble bromide, such as potassium bromide,

is

added to a developing solution, either before or after the first appearance of the image,

by a rather complex chemical

reaction, the parts of the emulsion least affected

are

more

difficult,

or at least require

to the metallic state, the

bromide

more

at the

by

light

time, to reduce

same time having

a preservative action from decomposition over the whole of the

emulsion.

If

an excessively over-exposed print were

developed without the presence of a bromide, restraining element, the

or

other

image would consist of a mixture of


BROMIDE PRINTING. decomposed and reduced and

muddy,

presenting a

silver,

flat,

horrible appearance.

By

the addition of a bromide, however, the development

may be governed by

of the print

the depth of tone of the

shadows, or parts most affected by parts to the will of the

we

197

bromide

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

nearly in direct proportion

must, since the effect varies quantity

the

with

my

doubt

exposure

statements as

my

of

may

readers

the hopelessness of under-

to

warming

the

fog

the

the foregoing brief outline of the chemical

and

me, such

believe

;

&c,

paper,

Some

added.

leaving the other

light,

as indeed to a great extent

of

are

methods

as

only tending

use,

little

to

emulsion.

Now,

if

physical conditions pertaining to exposure

and development

be borne in mind during the manipulations of the process, I

am

confident that the worker will have every chance of

Bromide paper, although of

being successful. stitution,

treatment that

it

Its

takes

easily

solutions

and

on

stains

I recently

is

some

letters,

had been Elliott

&

and

it

beautiful, but

it

Keep

in

[your

clean.

must be kept

a drawer in

in a

five years old,

my

study

among

was as good as a batch of paper which

me

specially

made

Sons

some experimental work

for

chemical

a false idea

and markings.

used an opened packet

which had been put away

of

quite

It is

delicate con-

and you keep your paper

fingers clean

keeping quality

dry room.

handled.

properly

if

amount

stand an enormous

will

for

that

month by Messrs. I

was

at the

time carrying out.

The use

of a drawing-board, or similar apparatus, as a

screen for focussing on, and for pinning up the bromide

paper ready for exposure, enclosing

it

is,

in

my

with this method the amplification it

needs but a

times appear

opinion, far preferable to

between pieces of ground and plate

little

is

bound

glass, as

to be limited

;

care to remove the bulges which some-

when pinning

the paper on the screen.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

198

To

print, or expose, either

the negative

is

towards the

glass side

the

by daylight or

artificial light,

placed in the carrier upside down, and with of

source

and

illumination,

and

focussing effected by racking the front of the camera in

The

out in the usual manner.

screen should

either be

painted white, or covered with white paper, and must be If the

perfectly rigid.

good plan

camera or lantern be movable

it is

a

to fix the screen against a wall.

Should the lens require stopping down

in order to secure

greater definition, the law relating to the ratio of exposure to the

"/"

values

is

absolute in this case

;

therefore

exposure of one second be required with/ 8, then/

and so

require two seconds,/ 16 four seconds,

is

use

an

hardly necessary to say that the

It is

away

greater the amplification, the farther

will

be the lantern

from the screen, with a corresponding increase Curiously enough, however,

posure.

an

will

The

on.

of a piece of yellow glass in the place of the lens cap

absolute necessity.

if

n

I

in the ex-

have found

out,

and

other workers have corroborated, that the law of the intensity

But there

of a light does not hold in this case. practical

by a for a

method

simple calculation,

10x8 was

is

a very

of estimating the increase in the exposure

5

seconds, and

time for a 15x12.

Say the

as follows.

The area

it

is required to

exposure

know

the

in square inches of the greater

enlargement (15x12) divided by the area of the smaller

(10x8) multiplied by the time

for the

smaller, gives the

required time for the larger print.

Example

I :

^

X

I2

10 x 8

x

5

= ^â&#x20AC;&#x201D;^ x 5 =

11-25 seconds

80

This must on no account be taken as a fixed law, but simply as an excellent guide for the

Trial Exposure.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; In no

preliminary operation be omitted. it is

if

trial

print

must

this

to 12

x 10

simple, but for larger work must be

only for the sake of economy.

exposures.

For prints up

case of a

first

somewhat elaborated,

Focus your image, and


THE MOST EFFECTIVE ENLARGE^ ^ MENTS ARE MADE ON

B A R N E T Bromide Papers ROUGH OR J» -»» SMOOTH ORDINARY, FOR

RESULTS

BRILLIANT

ROUGH OR SMOOTH J» PLATINO-MATT, OF DELICACY FOR SOFTNESS AND EFFECT.

9

5

5

9

5

TIGER TONGUE AND CREAM CRAYON, ^ SPECIALLY SUITABLE FOR TONING 5 TO SEPIA COLOUR. ORDINARY q SMOOTH

5

5

MAKES

ADMIRABLE PAPER NEGATIVES, OR PAPER TRANSPARENCIES FOR

HOME DECORATION.

5

5

5


Tiger Tongue Bromide Paper SPECIAL ROUGH.

THICK

WHITE.

AND THICK CREAM.

A MAGNIFICENT PAPER GIVING BROAD EFFECTS, AND SUITABLE

FOR

EXHIBITION

WORK.

VERY EASY TO WORK WITH ANY ORDINARY DEVELOPER.

"3

TONGUE TIGER BROMIDE PAPER, Qctra.

Rovnh Sixrfice

Barnct

^3

5


BROMIDE PRINTING.

201

with yellow glass in front of the lens, place a small piece of

bromide paper over a

the

typical part of

image on the

screen, preferably containing both high light

Expose by removing the yellow

and shadow.

and coimting by

glass

means of a watch or similar instrument. This trial piece must be developed with a developer of normal strength, and developed as

far as

ever

it

For larger work

will go.

advisable to use, say three pieces of paper for the posure.

a piece

First,

is

image, a triple exposure

it

is

ex-

trial

placed over the densest part of the is

made by

then

covering the paper

with a piece of card, and giving three exposures of equal

duration by uncovering a third part of the paper at definite

Thus,

intervals. will receive

if

one-third received 5 seconds, two-thirds

10 seconds, and the

means we can

last 15

seconds.

By

this

find the exposure necessary for the densest

part of the negative to just print through.

The

other two pieces of

paper are

trial

now

placed on

the lightest part of the image, and an intermediate, or half

and the determined exposure given. From

tone, respectively,

the results obtained

we

are able to judge with considerable

accuracy the length of the scale of gradation, and the depth of tone tive

it is

and

possible to acquire with that quality of nega-

light.

The exposure

may now be proceeded

of the large sheet

with.

be required, the paper

If the greatest possible definition

should

first

be thoroughly wetted, also the surface of the

enlarging-screen,

and the paper,

placed in the position fectly clean

to

wet sponge which

after

say

to

the paper

condition,

will

is

free

some

from

three

grit

A

per-

may be used

in the paper.

Needless

be in a very greasy and slippery

and must be handled with great

stretches considerably,

for

being allowed to drain,

occupy on the screen.

smooth out any bulges or creases

to

it

it is

it is

care.

When wet,

therefore advisable to soak

or four minutes.

It

it

must not be pinned


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

202 to

the

should

;

allowed to support

but

screen,

suction

may be sponged

exceed

exposure

the

On

over at intervals.

reducing

corresponding degree any diffusion in the image.

found

it

to

a

have

I

this very beneficial in architectural subjects.

After exposure, either in the wet or dry state, is

own

its

minutes

drying, the paper

thereby

will contract to its original state,

by

itself

fifteen

immersed

complete absence of

rest of

do

to

of the print, place

more

three minutes,

if it

the print

so as to ensure

full

with water,

under, then

it

Allow

through and under.

it

this

the following method^

air-bells,

Fill the dish nearly

efficient.

one end

and

in water,

is

the

most

and taking

slowly pull the

to soak for at least

it

be thick paper, then pour

off the

water and, standing the dish on end, allow to drain com-

These manipulations are absolutely necessary

pletely.

Weak Development.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Before giving my method

The

process.

it

it

with a strong developer and snatching

out immediately

against

the

all

technique, clearly scientific

it

shows signs of over-development of

principles

efficient

and

is

economical

showing a want of the most elementary

knowledge of the process. have shown, the complete reduction of the

Since, as I silver is entirely

dependent on a sufficiency of the reducing,

or developing agent, providing tion of

weak

method of developing a bromide

too prevalent

by flooding

of

word on the rationale of the

development I wish to say a

print

for

working.

facility in

development

in percentage

will

same

we have

that,

then the dura-

in direct ratio with the strength

Hence,

by volume.

speed of development cisely the

be

at will,

if

we can

regulate the

and eventually produce

state of reduction quickly or slowly,

obvious what advantage

is

preit

is

gained when we consider the

question of individuality and certainty of results.

The speed strength

of

of development being a personal matter, the

the

developers

given

may be modified

as


£

o

O I

o

TL£

.

A

i

i

IT**

g

j&.

X

I

6


BROMIDE PRINTING.

203

desired, but as the effect of the exposure can only be seen

on development,

very important that the image be

it is

brought up to such a stage,

been reduced to

error in exposure either way, the silver has

no material damage has been done

such a

state that

at the

same time the

scale

first

should there have been any

that,

of gradation

;

while

such

visible to

is

an extent that we can see the whole, or nearly the whole, length of

it.

This state

development." practice

it

Fig.

very

development.

The

I

have called the "first stage of

shows a print

9

much resembles Fig. 10

at

In

this stage.

a platinotype print before

shows the completed

print.

developers given for the negative work are recom-

mended, but the normal solution

is

just half the strength in

both cases, made by doubling the quantity of water.

To

bring a print to the "

at least six times,

volume

little

the "

stage "

first

stage," dilute the developer

times, using the smallest

For a 30 x 24

possible.

exercise a

first

preferably ten

by a

visibility of

gradation, with detail in shadows in this

weak and ghostlike

of crispness.

decide upon exposure

is

is technically

I

known

of tone

tlie ;

is

lights,

and even

a certain amount

and

print,

might say here that correct

as that which will give the

gradation of the negative, with

but

will give the best print

Now

indicated in

the whole of the scale of

and high

state there

future state.

the greatest depth it

use six ounces.

Stop development by rinsing the its

most perfect rendering of

that

I

Correct exposure

patience.

;

it

does not necessarily follow

this is

a personal equation.

weak development be continued the print will pass through all intensities, from shadows of dove grey to deepest If

black, governed of course

by the quality of the negative.

Development may be stopped

at

any

stage,

and a stronger

solution applied selectively to accentuate where desired, but if

this

full

be done, the print must not be developed to

limit,

Depth

otherwise the accentuated parts would be of tone

is

obtained at

will

its

lost.

by strengthening the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

204

There

developer.

one peculiarity

is

development of

in the

bromides, which should be carefully noted and allowed

When

a print

developed and immersed in the

is fully

for.

fixing-

bath, a considerable clearing action takes place, rendering

the intensity print

much

But with an under-developed

greater.

does not happen, or but very

this

and a

slightly,

knowledge of the peculiarity can only be obtained with perience

;

ex-

the intensity of the print should be judged by

transmitted

light.

Under-exposure absence of detail

Now, although

of gradation.

under-exposure

is

by an

in the "first stage "is indicated

in the high lights,

hopeless,

it is

and a much shorter

scale

have previously said that

I

nevertheless a fact that with

weak development you can secure a

which

satisfactory print

has been under-exposed to the extent of 30 per cent.,

when

with rapid development the result would be very indifferent.

Continue with the weak solution "

hang

fire,"

the print seems to

till

and then strengthen very

hangs back, strengthen more, and

if

slightly

there

development you may add as much as you get

no

The

it is

advisable to omit

;

the manipulation

it

is

like but

still

further

you

will

with the formulas given, except in

account use exposed.

In

it

with prints

all

cases

of gradation

if

it

the

it

from the com-

when required from a dropping much more delicate and certain.

unnecessary to use any in the "

scale

if it

use of bromide plays such an important part in

pound developer and add It is

;

no

further reduction.

development that

bottle

is

first

stage " developer

hot weather.

that have

On

no

been much under-

has the effect of steepening the

development

is

stopped within.,

the limit of reduction.

Over-exposure

complete detail,

is

visibility

but of a very

indicated in the

"

first

stage "

by a

of the whole scale of gradation and flat

appearance, there being

ence between shadow and high

light.

If

all

little differ-

checked

at this


BROMIDE PRINTING. stage, over-exposure to the extent of

205

may be

ioo per cent,

controlled and rectified to give a satisfactory print.

If very

excessive add three or four drops of bromide to your

developer,

and continue

developer in

stages

for a little

from

now

;

quarter,

half,

weak

strengthen your three-quarter, to

normal, adding three drops of bromide per ounce

of de-

veloper at each stage, and continue development with this till

the desired depth of tone

obtained.

is

and control during development is and best method of producing a bromide

Slight over-exposure, at

once the In

print.

safest

my own

practice I invariably over-expose to the

extent of from 5 to 10 per cent,

from the

trial slips.

At the

"

on the estimation obtained stage " the

first

developer

is

increased to one-sixth normal with one drop of bromide,

then in stages as required up to the normal, with the addition of one drop of 10 per cent, bromide at each stage.

you can work your

regard to individuality print,

having

it

will

With

with the

completely under control.

Sponge development may be applied with equal

facility.

Exceptionally hard negatives and those which have been

under-exposed,

containing

great

contrasts,

may be

suc-

cessfully treated in the following way.

Obtain necessary

the to

correct

just

print

exposure

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

that

through the

is,

the

highest

exposure

light

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and

develop with a normal developer to the limit of reduction.

Having found three

or

four

this,

increase

times.

diluted from six to ten times

desired intensity.

judgment, but a perform

it

This at little

it

Develop till

first

for the

it

intended print by

a normal solution

with

has attained nearly the

will

entail

practice will soon

some

careful

enable one to

with accuracy.

Fix and wash the print, and then bleach and intensify as described under intensification.

By

this

means negatives used

for

process_may be equally well adapted

to

any other printing

bromide work.

In


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

206

should be judged by reflected

this process prints

by transmitted

Combination Printing. fascinating

not

light,

light.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Here we have one

and necessary adjuncts

of the most

Now

to pictorial work.

with regard to the manipulation, combination printing in the bromide process

considerably more difficult than in

is

any printing-out process, but not by any means beyond the capabilities of the tiro, while at the bilities

same time the

possi-

with regard to effect and individuality are infinitely

greater than with any other form of photographic printing.

The

simplest form

carried out

development,

in

by a double exposure before

:

which case the exposure

termined beforehand

for

both land-

first,

;

or

by printing and developing the

and re-exposing the wet paper for the sky, need be

for the landscape only

which case the exposure

in

This may be

that of sky printing.

cloud or sky negative must be accurately de-

scape and

landscape

is

two ways

in

very accurate.

The

method

first

is

an extremely risky and uncertain

business altogether, and as after a very few efforts

up

in disgust, I

merits,

if it

The

gave

I

perhaps not competent to speak on

it

its

has any.

second method, on the

simple and It

am

efficient,

needing but a

contrary, little

extremely

is

care and patience.

must be remembered that bromide paper

application of the developer

and more so

in

becomes

after the

slightly less sensitive,

some

the presence of bromide, so that

allowance should be

made

for this if the print

is

exposed

several times. If the

that

go

it

depth of tone required in the landscape

may be developed right out

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; then the

printing

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is,

and development of the sky

simple matter, being controllable at

is

as far as is

such

it

will

a very

will.

Ascertain the exposure for the landscape, and develop with a normal developer as far as

it

will

go

;

it

then rinse the


BROMIDE PRINTING. and allow

print

to drain

207

by standing the dish on end.

your sky negative in position, and

place

found make

if

Now

not already

exposures for the sky, and develop with a

trial

The wet but drained

normal developer.

print

now

is

placed in the proper position on the screen by holding

and allowing the bottom

carefully but firmly at the top, rest

on or touch the screen

it

to

the yellow glass in front

first,

of the lens enabling this operation to be performed with ease. If the previously

tenth

determined exposure be increased by a

The

should be quite sufficient for a second printing.

it

landscape portion of the

shaded in the usual way with a

print-is

piece of card held at such a distance from the print as to give a marginal line of diffusion about a quarter of an inch

deep

and

;

the horizon

if

must be roughly cut fit

it,

be very uneven the card

at the stated

During the exposure

print.

slowly lowered

till

distance from

card or shield

the

the sharp edge of the horizon

and then slowly

visible,

line

but smaller to such a degree as to

when held

the horizon line

the

to

raised

till

it

is

This

just disappears.

The

manipulation should be repeated several times.

is

distinctly

is

print

now redeveloped and controlled to obtain any desired Where the development of the landscape

effect in the sky.

has to be controlled for any desired

effect,

the sky

may be

developed with a brush or cotton wool, the print being verted

;

some

or, after

in-

technical skill has been attained, the

exposure and development adjusted to suit both printings.

In the case of compound work where landscape

added from another

negative, or figures

are to be included, the manipulation difficult.

I

have found that by

a contact print of curately cutting

it

the

blank space to be

out, lightly paste

filled in

considerably more

far the best

figure or

required position before the

is

first

plan

incident, it

is

make

to

after ac-

on the paper

exposure.

now

is

and

in the

This leaves a

the second printing.

from which the figure was cut

is

and other incidents

The

print

pasted on the glass


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

2o8

such a manner as to

side of the corresponding negative, in

Place the wet developed print

leave only the figure visible.

on the screen

I

have made

gauge with

in the usual way, but in accurate

the projected figure or incident, and

make your

exposure.

eight printings on Barnet platino matt paper in

way when making up a landscape, without any de-

this

of the emulsion

terioration

rapidity

and

stability of

and

;

it

speaks

bromide paper when

well I

for

the

say that the

work only occupied three hours, and the whites remained perfectly pure.

shows a print from

Fig. ii

shows a combination photographed in

and other

my own

Fig. 12

original negative.

the figure of the

print,

The

house.

monk

being

excessive high lights

been manipulated

parts of the picture have also

during exposure. Variation of Perspective. perspective of a picture

is

possibility of altering the

a feature of considerable im-

Thus

portance in enlarging. the perspective

—The

is

in architectural work,

vertical at the time of the exposure,

inclining the screen

In

but

it

this

may be

it

on which the image

a position that the bottom of top.

it

corrected by

projected to such

nearer the lens than the

is

way any converging

is

lines will

be straightened, if

universal

no doubt

also see

generally involves the use of a smaller stop

definition

is

where

faulty owing to the plate not having been

required.

The worker

will

further advantages for pictorial purposes.

Fixing.

—The

better

;

it

may be

bath

fixing

as that used for negatives

of the

— the quicker

is

should preferably be of the acid variety.

seven minutes' immersion in such a bath following

same strength

the print

is

a good formula

fixed the

Five to

is sufficient.

:

Fixing Bath. Hyposulphite of soda

.

.

.

Sodium

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

sulphite

Citric acid

Water

.

1

lb.

.3 ounces f

,,

80

,

The


o .1


209

BROMIDE PRINTING. Dissolve the sodium sulphite and

citric

acid together,

and add to the water in which the hypo has been dissolved. After some use the activity of a fixing bath should be tested,

by immersing

in

it

one half of a

bromide paper, when the yellow

strip of

unexposed

emulsion should

tint of the

instantly disappear.

Prints should be transferred to the fixing bath without

previously rinsing in water.

inlet

J\ 1

outlet

f>

!

jb

,b

i

Fig. 13.

Washing. matter

if

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The

washing of large prints

one has no special apparatus

very efficient

method

is

is

not an easy

A

for the purpose.

on

to support the print in the dish or

a drawing-board, placed at an angle in a bath or sink, and by means of a rubber tube attached to the tap gently squirt

water over the face and back of the print.

may be

print

perfectly freed from

hypo

In

way a

this

in fifteen minutes.

< Fig. 14.

A at a

very excellent apparatus for the purpose can be

moderate

made

This consists of a small narrow tank

cost.

with an overflow from the bottom. (See Figs. 13 and 14.)

The

tank

is

made

of

need not be more than

tin,

2

or

wood made

inches wide.

A

waterproot, and

rod a

is

sup-

ported on two ledges, and from this the paper c is suspended by clips b, and held down by small weights attached to clips at the bottom.

water is carried off

All

from the bottom.

hypo contaminated

Water entering

at a


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

2IO

rate of a pint in half a If

any such vessel

may be made

with a piece of

will

wash a print

bend hanging

in

an hour.

pipe bent as shown in

compo

end being placed

Fig. 14, the long

short

minute

available as a makeshift, the overflow

is

The

outside.

in the vessel

and the

flow must be started by

suction.

INTENSIFICATION. Should there be a lack of depth of tone, or a

finished

print,

may be

it

intensity, in

by a process of

increased

intensification.

For

this

purpose

I

would strongly advise the worker

avoid any formula containing a following

is

one of the very

salt

Soak the print in water

for five

minutes and then im-

:

.... .... ......

Copper sulphate Potassium bromide Water

The

The

of mercury.

best.

merse in the following solution

200

grains.

200

,,

10 ounces.

Wash

print will bleach in about three minutes.

one or two minutes

to

in running water, or four

changes in

for still

water, then apply a 5 per cent, solution of nitric acid for a

minute or

Wash

so.

for

one or two minutes and redevelop with a semi-

normal developer

till

for fifteen minutes.

print

may be

the desired intensity If the intensification

is

attained.

Wash

is insufficient,

again bleached and re-intensified as often

the as

desired.

Greater intensification for

five

is

obtained

if

the print be exposed

minutes to daylight immediately

after

the nitric

acid bath. Still

greater intensification

may be secured

if

a 2\ per

cent, solution of nitrate of silver be used before the developer,

and the developer applied

after if necessary,

Care should be exercised

in using

the nitrate of silver


BROMIDE PRINTING. solution, as staining

is

very liable to occur

too great or an insufficient

Remember

the

that

211 if

the strength be

volume of solution be employed.

same control

by means of weak

development and bromide of potassium obtains here.

REDUCTION. be over-developed, or the intensity too great,

If a print

the process of reduction

experience that

may be

resorted

But

to.

it is

my

processes up to the present time are

all

anything but satisfactory, and their application should be

avoided

possible.

if

The

following

Ammonium

is

one of the best

persulphate

Water

Immerse

made

:

.

.

.

10 grains. i

ounce.

the print in the solution, which must be freshly

each time.

some time before the action commences, but this is indicated by the solution becoming milky, and from this It is

point the print must be carefully watched, and the dish

rocked continuously.

When

has been reached, the print

the desired degree of reduction is

instantly transferred

to

a

10 per cent, solution of sodium sulphite, which arrests further action.

Allow

then wash I

to

remain in

this solution for five

minutes and

for fifteen.

have found that reduction by any method interferes

with subsequent colour toning.

TONING. The

three

primary factors which combine to create

the precedence the bromide process has, or should have, over all others,

are

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; rapidity of production, variation of the range

of tone in black and white, and toning.

the possibilities of colour


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

212

The

facility

with which the

be obtained renders fascinating.

this

many and

may

part of the process extremely

Colour may be obtained

substituting another

various tones

metal for the

in

silver,

two

waysâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; by

or forming an

amalgam. be regretted that the formation of an amalgam in some cases has a tendency to jeopardise the permanency of It is to

the tone,

if

not the image

itself;

and

it is

therefore advisable,

where possible, to secure the tone by substitution. In a paper read before the Royal Photographic Society,

December

1902, I gave a formula for the substitution of

platinum for the

silver,

tone, the beauty of

with the obtention of a fine sepia

which amply repaid

me

patient research in the endeavour to secure

The formula

is

as follows

Potassium chloroplatinite

:

for several years' it.


BROMIDE PRINTING.

The

may be changed

tone

but of greater intensity,

213

to its original black colour,

by immersing in the copper bleaching

and redeveloping.

solution for a few minutes

TONING WITH COPPER. The brown

of tones from purple

following will give a range

to cherry red

:

Copper sulphate, 10 per Potassium

citrate,

cent.

75 minims.

.

10 per cent.

.

r,ooo

,,

66

,,

Potassium ferricyanide, 10 percent.

Mix

the copper sulphate and potassium citrate together,

then add slowly, stirring the while, the potassium ferricyanide.

The

action

is fairly

Wash

rapid.

for half

an hour.

There are many and various other toning formulae colours, for

sulted

;

but

tones, in

for all

which the photographic Press should be con-

among some

which

I

bromide and from

of the most recent

is

one

for sepia

converted the silver image into it

silver

substituted silver sulphide.

Silver sulphide being as stable as the deposited silver of

the original image, the permanency of the print

The

process

sification,

2 per

is

as follows

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Bleach

assured.

then after washing from the nitric acid apply a

cent,

solution

of sodium

sulphide.

stantaneous, and washing for ten minutes to

is

the print as for inten-

is

Toning

is

in-

only necessary

remove the excess of toning agent.

ENLARGED NEGATIVES. Where a number from one negative, or

of large prints have to be produced it is

another contact process,

desired to it

is

make a

often

large print

quicker and

by

more

economical to make an enlarged negative for the purpose.

Three paper, or

different

mediums

bromide paper.

are available

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

glass, negative

Where economy

efficiency is a consideration, the negative

as

well

as

paper is preferable.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

214

There are two methods of carrying out the process by making a

positive,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one

by contact, from the negative

the

;

other by making an enlarged positive, and the negative by contact with that.

which

is

It

a much-disputed

is

the better way, but both have their

In the

first

as to contain

question as to

good

points.

method, the small positive must be so made the essential qualities for a perfect enlarged

all

negative, since

little

or no retouching can be

done on

remedied with

on the enlarged

facility

it,

may be

whereas by the second method any imperfections positive.

In both methods there are one or two points which must

be

rigidly

First, the

observed with regard to the projected image. source of illumination must be perfectly steady,

whether a condenser be employed or not, fluctuation, either in

for, if

there be any

the intensity or the projected rays, of

you

the light emanating from the lens,

will infallibly get

image

softening, or diffusion, in the lines of the glass plates are used, they

must

;

second,

be backed, otherwise

you

a if

will

get diffusion.

In making the small positive, the essential required are

full

detail,

and

thinness,

A

actual clear glass in the high lights. to those given for enlargements

the purpose.

may be used

is

clearness,

one of the best suited

for

Either lantern plates or slow ordinary plates for

may be stopped

making the

at

positive, but in either case they

any desired

Remember, when judging or negative by transmitted

the density, to view the positive

light.

slowly accumulates

although in manipulating bear in mind that he

and points which

is

that they

stage.

Obviously, a developer which produces detail density

without

developer similar

must be well under control during development, so

the

features

it

the

is

the

first

best one to

while use,

worker must constantly

reversing the usual order of things

call for observation.

The

usual depth

of tone and sparkle obtained in a lantern-slide

must be


A NEW BROMIDE PAPER

BARN E T Lustra. MaLtt NOTHING LIKE IT ON THE MARKET. A PAPER OF EXCEPTIONAL MERIT.

GOOD RANGE OF TONES.

q BEAUTIFUL SURFACE. q REMARKABLE PURITY ->•• J* WHITES -^

IN

J» J*

THE

J*

J* q LUMINOUS RICH BLACK SHADOWS GIVING A WEALTH OF DETAIL.

QUICK PRINTING: JUST THE RIGHT ** PAPER FOR CONTACT WORK.

NOTHING NEW TO LEARN WAY OF MANIPULATION.

IN

THE

**

**


ENLARGEMENTS IN

CARBON

ENLARGEMENTS IN

BROMIDE

TONED BROMIDES A

SPECIALITY

CARBON PRINTING DIRECT

BROMIDE PRINTING BY

CONTACT

ON BARNET TISSUES

AND BROMIDE PAPERS


BROMIDE PRINTING.

217

avoided here, since delicacy and the rendering of

all detail

contained in the small negative are of the highest importance

A

if

we would

consideration

get a perfect reproduction in the large one.

manipulation in contact printing

of the

would be of great service since

tive,

equally

all

in

in the

the chemical

character

the

altering

production of the small posi-

and physical conditions apply of

the

negative

if

desirable.

Fixing and washing are carried out as usual, and, dry, the positive

is

remembering that the film side must face the plate

used

is

The

for the large negative.

be supported

when

placed in the lantern in the usual way, light

if

a

large plate should

a printing frame, and focussing effected

in

by substituting a piece of white card

method of obtaining the acme of

Should

in its place.

there be any difficulty in focussing, the following definition

;

is

a good

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Take

ordinary dry plate, and without exposing to light place in the fixing bath

till

all

leaving only the clear film

bromide

the silver ;

wash and

a fine-pointed hard pencil rule a

dry,

number

is

an it

dissolved,

and then with

of parallel

lines

both ways of the plate at about one-sixteenth of an inch

This plate

apart.

focussed,

after

is

placed in the lantern and accurately

which

the

positive

to

be

enlarged

is

substituted.

Now, is

if

a considerable amount of work in this direction

contemplated, with the use of plates for

image, the question of

trial

exposures

is

matter from the economical point of view, strongly

recommend workers

to

in order to facilitate the process this

end a comparison of the

the

enlarged

rather a serious

and

I

would

make a few experiments as much as possible, To

relative speeds of a certain

brand of bromide paper and a certain brand of plate should be

made

;

the paper should be as thin

and smooth

as possible, but should not have a glazed surface. then,

we may use bromide paper

for the trial

Here,

exposure

H


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

2l8

for the plate to the

and reduce the exposure

As

ing degree.

a matter of

waxed,

paper oiled or desired

the form

in

being

there

unnecessary

totally

is

little

negative paper,

;

everything

giving

no

or

point of

and bromide

that

could be

negative for contact printing,

of a

of the grain of the

indication

The subsequent

paper.

correspond-

artistic

x8in. and upwards, the use of

view, for a negative ioin. plates

from an

fact,

operations

the

in

are

process

identical with those given for direct enlargements.

In the second method, an direct from the

original

by contact from

that.

for

of each

made

Although not quite so economical

feature in the facility with

executed, especially

is

and the negative made

method has a

inexperienced worker, this

the

value

enlarged positive

negative,

which any retouching may be

when paper or

pencil

great

used, as the effect and

is

brush stroke are immediately

seen.

bromide paper

If thin

is

used

the grain is so fine that there

eliminate

it

by

oiling or

for the enlarged negative,

no need to

really

is

waxing

;

however,

if,

it is

try

may be

increase the translucency, the following methods

employed

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Take some castor

and apply

oil

warm

changing the blotting-paper so long as the print has tion

become uniformly

back of

to the

Place the print

the print with a piece of rag.

clean blotting-paper, and apply a

and

desired to

between

iron to the back, it

absorbs

translucent.

oil,

The

until

opera-

extremely easy, and any kind of bromide paper will

is

answer.

If

wax

is

then

preferred,

paraffin

wax may be

employed.

A pour

convenient way of using it

in the

it

is

to melt the

on a piece of ordinary paper,

wax and

or to dip the paper

molten wax, and then, placing the bromide print face

downwards on a clean piece of paper on

the back of

it;

paper and apply a hot

blotting-paper, put the

waxed

cover with a piece or two of blotting-

iron.


BROMIDE PRINTING.

219

CONTACT PRINTING. The

manipulations in the process of contact printing

with bromide paper are precisely similar to those given in enlarging,

with

perhaps a few modifications

There

and development.

in

exposure

one great advan-

however,

is,

tageous feature which this developing printing process has over other contact methods, rendering of the quality of the negative

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

almost independent

it

of variation

and con-

of the actinicity of the painting light.

trol

known

It is well

developed

that in ordinary silver printing a pyro-

negative

generally

yields

a finer

than

print

one which has been made with a non-staining developer.

The

reason of this

is

produced by the pyro which

is

simply that the slight restrains the

yellow stain

power of the blue

rays,

one of the primary colours, and the most active of

which white

light is

composed.

It follows,

then, that

if

a

negative developed with a non-staining developer be printed

behind a pale yellow produced. negative

same

Also,

glass,

practically the

inversely,

behind a pale-blue

conditions.

light will

and

if

we

glass

same

effect is

print a pyro-stained

we get

practically the

Again, a negative printed from in sun-

produce a much

printed in shade.

Now

flatter print than if it had been bromide contact printing by day-

by the rapidity of the paper, but the above and physical considerations may be applied to light, and practically they are as follows

light is prohibited

chemical artificial

A

;

dense negative should be printed quickly by a

of high actinicity,

and the

actinicity

may be

light

increased by the

interposition of a pale-blue glass.

A low

thin negative should be printed

actinicity,

and the

actinicity

slowly by a light of

may be

restrained by the

interposition of a pale-yellow glass.

Control over the scale of gradation

is

ing the distance between the printing light

obtained by vary-

and the negative


BARNET EOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

220

To system

carry out the manipulations successfully,

method and

are essential.

To

this

apparatus

This

is

is

end,

of a printing board

the use

or similar

advisable.

simply a graduated board with a burner fixed at

one end and a movable support

for the printing-frame at

the other.

The

made

graduations are

value of the

light

at

at

standard distances, the

These

each point being known.

values are calculated from the law of the intensity of light

mentioned previously. values

up

to one- tenth,

As an example and as the

I

have given the

scale should not be less

Burner

Fig.

15.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Printing

than six feet the worker should

Boards

make

it

complete up to

whatever length he adopts. Printing should never be carried out with a naked flame,

but a diffuser of tissue paper, ground glass, or opal, should

be placed

in front of the

burner as shown.

The

scale may,

of course, be marked out on a table or similar convenient apparatus, but the burner, or source of illumination, should

be a fixed point.

Do

not expose at less than a distance of one foot, as

even with a diffuser there ing.

is

a danger of getting uneven light-

Experiments should be made with a certain negative to

ascertain the effect of varying the printing distance

use of blue and yellow glasses.

I

believe

and the

there

is

no


BROMIDE PRINTING.

221

better printing light than the incandescent mantle, effects

due

overcome by a case.

any

evil

to reduction of intensity from constant use being

This

made

exposure, which should be

trial

exposure

trial

is

carried out in

already described, except that the shield the frame, or there

is

the

any

in

manner

placed outside

is

a special printing-frame sold expressly

for the purpose.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

The same process for development as in may be employed, but when a large number of have to be made a more rapid method is advisable, but

Development. enlarging prints

an accurate determination of the exposure

The method

consists in using a large

is

very essential.

volume of developer

of normal or nearly normal strength,

and adding

time to time

up

necessary.

if

Prints

to

from

it

to whole-plate

size

should not be previously soaked, but pushed quickly under

volume being

the developer, the

allow of this

sufficient to

manipulation being carried out successfully.

If prints

have

to be controlled, or developed only to a certain degree, the

developer must be sufficiently weak to allow of their being

removed

any possibility of over-

to the fixing bath without

development.

Combination printing restricted

than

be carried out

in in

in contact

enlarging.

the

The

work

is

made

placed in the

is

printing frame with the film side facing the light,

"wet print " method be adopted the

may

this difference,

to take the place

Thus, the second negative

of the screen.

more

manipulations

same way, but with

that the glass side of the negative

rather

is

print

is

and

if

the

placed in contact

with the glass side of the negative.

Where

the "

way " of the image

side of the print

is

in contact with the glass

the paper side of the print must be used. slight diffusion

times, but

obviated.

if

the emulsion

will allow,

;

if

not, then

This involves

and the exposure increased by about

the negative be varnished

this

necessity

six is


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

222

GASLIGHT PAPER. This paper, although not

speaking a Bromide

strictly

may be conveniently included here, as it is treated much the same way, with the two exceptions that its

paper, in

slowness

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;allows

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which

ment should be Its

unless

slowness

which case the but

it is

is

possible

is

if

desired,

and

that develop-

rapid. its

may be that The scale of

it

blacks. It

about one-tenth that of rapid bromide

is

of daylight exposure

to

light

only advantage over bromide paper, the tiro

is

gradation

develop

is

enabled to obtain deeper rather shorter. in

it

subdued

gaslight,

in

should be at the back of the operator

decidedly better to develop

in

it

a

light

;

given by

an incandescent burner behind one thickness of Canary Fabric or Bookbinder's Cloth. Intensification, toning,

&c, may be

applied just as with

bromide paper.

The lated

is

ease and

facility

with which this paper

a very great feature

may be employed,

;

is

manipu-

almost any kind of negative

except very thin ones

;

these

do not give

quite such satisfactory prints as those, for instance, used for

"P.O.P." carbon and platinum. If a large

number

to use a fairly large

print

volume

of

made

it is

advisable

developer and push each

under the solution face up.

The quite

of prints are to be

strength of the developer

may be semi-normal

normal, and, as the latitude of exposure

is

great,

accurately-timed exposures are not so essential, as a ference of five per cent, in the time

or

dif-

makes no apparent

difference.

Transfer the prints direct from the developer to the fixing

bath,

which may be of the same strength as that

given for bromide paper, but care must be taken to get a


BROMIDE PRINTING. complete flow of the

223

fixing solution over the

Wash

Fixing occupies about five minutes.

print at

for

first.

one hour

in

running water and do not allow the print to stick together either during washing or any other operation.

SOME BROMIDE VARIETIES. and Bromide

Glossy Bromide

Cards.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Glossy

bromide

paper requires slightly different treatment to the ordinary. It is

not so amenable to weak development.

developer of normal or semi-normal strength

employed, and of

sufficient

volume

Either a

should be

to allow of the print

being pushed under the developer without previous soaking in water.

Streaks and markings very often appear during develop-

ment, but these are merely due to slight abrasions of the surface,

and are

rubbing with a methylated

easily

tuft of

be

left

at the

by

made on

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; This it

is

a very fine institution, inasmuch

require no mounting

;

thus,

if

a margin

round the image, or a border of some kind printed time of exposing the emulsion, a very effective and

finished print

The

is

obtained.

thickness and opacity of the card prevents any loss

of intensity in the image from translucency,

transparent depth

is

and an exquisite

thereby obtained.

Development may be carried out

way

print

spirit.

Card Bromide. as prints

removed from the dry

cotton-wool soaked with alcohol or

in precisely the

as with ordinary brands of paper, but

it

is

same

preferable

not to soak the prints before development.

Although

chiefly

used

equally effective, and material to manipulate Personally,

I

the is

for postcards,

large

prints

convenience of having a

are stiff

not to be underestimated.

prefer postcards of this kind to ordinary

gaslight cards, as the range of tones

is

infinitely greater.


2

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

24

In conclusion,

I

would remind workers

prints should receive a final cleaning

a

tuft

of cotton wool

mounted, and, with a will

silk

soaked in alcohol

after this

if

that all

bromide

by rubbing them with after

they are

they are vigorously polished

handkerchief, using considerable pressure, they

take on a fine lustre without being glossy.

Lustra Matt.

— Since

the

new

above was written a

brand of Barnet bromide paper, called Lustra Matt, has

been introduced.

Personally, I cannot speak too highly

of this innovation, which

paper

manufacture.

surface

papers

is

Here,

— clogging

of

a great advance in bromide the great

deep

objection

shadows

liquidness of

shadow depth almost equal

" ordinary " brand. perfectly

retained,

cannot help saying that

it

being is

absolutely

want.

It is

no

get a

of the

surface gloss.

quite time such a paper

put before the photographic public, as felt

we

to that

At the same time the matt there

entirely

is

absent, and, with an apparently thick emulsion,

matt

to

it

is

I

was

has been a long-

manipulated in precisely the same manner

as other brands. C.

Winthrope Somerville.


225

Carbon Printing*

ARBON

printing

essentially

methods

from

the

describe

also

tions that

may

it

Strange

to

is,

it

any careful and

appear

the initial points are mastered,

and adaptable, as well

And

processes,

many first

initial

reasonable care

The

;

object

is

forbiddingly

difficult

and as soon

becomes the most

difficulties

There

is

are

as

flexible

less

than in

no reason why a

carbon should not result in

in

so

worker

most fascinating of printing

as the

the

other printing methods. essay

widely,

difficult.

worker

it

to

opera-

various

an extent, but certainly not systematic

pro-

used

ordinary

strange and

to

its

other

differ

the

to

so

in

terms

the

cesses,

being

different

fair

prints

if

exercised.

of this

article

is

mainly to describe the

working of the process in detail in such a manner that those unacquainted with all

carbon

printers, the

tive results

of

it

may, from these pages alone, derive

the information that they require to

the

addition,

causes

become

successful

of failure or defec-

being given, as well as the simple description

most it

probable

direct is

method of

hoped

that

ensuring

gleanings

experience in working the process

success.

In

from the author's

may be

useful to

H

many


2

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

26

who have as

long passed the preliminary stages of the work,

methods of

they are original

desired,

departures from

arriving

the

at

result

that have ap-

ordinary practice

peared to be improvements when regarded from the point of view of the worker on a small scale.

Carbon prints

essentially the process for the

is

by

grapher, as

may be secured

equally, in tone

if

;

amateur photo-

variety in

the resulting

without any variation in working, or

number

desired, any

or colour

much

aid so

its

of prints absolutely identical

whether the colour desired be black,

brown, red, or even green or blue. consideration for the worker

And

who wishes

a most important his prints to

be as

and

effect

close as possible in their approach to the depth that he has determined upon,

determined

development

in

that the exact depth can be

is

when

in full daylight

there

further operation to modify the effect that has

There

duced.

is

is

no

been pro-

a fair latitude possible in development,

quite sufficient to cover the errors of exposure within the

of reasonable

limits

care

in

And

working.

before pro-

ceeding to the practical consideration of the work, attention

may be printing

called to the fact that carbon differs from

methods

manner

a

in

appreciate.

However

compensate

for error in

the print

that

all

most workers

may have

other will

to be treated to

exposure or to obtain any special

effect

by developing one portion more than another, the

colour

is

unaffected.

upon when the

It

remains the exact shade determined

sensitive paper

was placed

in the printing

frame.

Carbon

tissue, as the

paper bearing the gelatine film

is

may be purchased from the makers either sensitive insensitive. The inexperienced worker should obtain

called,

or

sensitive tissue, will

certainly

printing, this at first

it is

though as he becomes more advanced he

prefer

to

sensitise

course offering

so

tissue

many

as

required for

advantages.

But

necessary to reduce the chances of failure to the


THE MAJESTIC MAIN By

F.

J.

MORTIMER.


CARBON PRINTING. minimum, and

227

purchasing sensitive tissue the beginner

in

can ensure that his materials are in a condition that renders If he should fail, the reason is the finest result possible. not in his materials but in his working.

Carbon

simply of a

consists

tissue

supported on paper, similar

gelatine

some

the film in gelatine silver printing papers

the sensitive silver salt in the sensitive to light

latter,

;

respects to

but in place of

the former

is

rendered

by containing potassium bichromate

instead of being white like the silver paper

it

is

;

and

very dark,

surface appearance being that of the deepest

the actual

shadow of the

The

coloured

of

film

in

final print.

basis of the carbon process

is

the fact that gelatine

is rendered insoluble by potassium bichromate and subsequent exposure to light. In practice, a sheet of paper is

coated with a film of coloured gelatine which has been

rendered sensitive to the action of light by the addition of

under a nega-

potassium bichromate, and, after exposure tive,

those parts

on which the

light

dissolved away, leaving the image standing. it

sounds

terribly

clumsy and unpromising,

capable of the most delicate effects gradation,

combined with the

and

not acted

has

are

In a description in practice

it

is

perfect rendering of

and vigour,

greatest force

if

desired.

As mined added

gelatine in

is

colourless, the colour of the print

is

deter-

the manufacture of the tissue by the pigments

to the gelatine, the after treatment, development,

&c,

having no effect on this colour.

The tissue

is

only difference between sensitive and insensitive that the former has the sensitising salt incorporated

during manufacture in this

;

the latter

one respect, and

immersion

it

is

exactly similar excepting

has to be rendered sensitive by

in a sensitising bath before using.

Sensitive tissue will not keep in really for

more than seven

to

ten days,

good condition

insensitive

will

keep


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

228 indefinitely

if

stored in a thoroughly dry room.

atmosphere

it

will rapidly deteriorate.

The

are

results

remains

The

permanent.

and manufacturers are

insoluble,

gelatine

and development

exposure

after

nent colours for tissue making.

and thoroughly toughened

In a

film

damp that

absolutely

is

careful to select perma-

With an unfading pigment

gelatine, a print

is

secured as

lasting as anything on a paper basis can possibly be.

The

tissues are

made

in a variety of colours, the follow-

ing being those most useful for pictorial work

A good

Engraving black.

:

pure black, similar in tone to

the black of a print from a steel plate, or closely resembling

platinotype

Warm

when developed

A

black.

in potassium oxalate.

warmer colour than the preceding, but This colour

inclining to a purple-black rather than brown. is

richest

used.

and most pleasing when a toned paper support

X.

^j~*~**ÂťjP*

A

deep brown, very similar

to the

which most etchings are printed.

This

Barnet brown.

warm brown colour, even

and

is

,

in

rich

more than the preceding,

when toned transfer paper is A pure warm brown, very Sepia. rich

the preceding, but

Warm

sepia.

Terra-cotta.

warmer

is

more pleasing

far

used. similar in character to

in tone.

Similar to the preceding, but

A

good

still

warmer.

brown, suitable

red, inclining to

for flower studies, portraits of children, &c.

Red

chalk.

A

good pleasing

character as red chalk

red,

not

crude in

so

itself.

Although green, blue, purple, and other colours are

made, they cannot be recommended

for pictorial purposes.

Transfer pap~r has been mentioned in speaking of these tissues.

It

forms the support of the finished

paper on which the film

is

print,

the

coated being removed during the

after treatment.

The

ordinary form of " single transfer

"

paper

is

a fine


CARBON PRINTING.

229

The prepared

white paper coated with insoluble gelatine. side

slightly glossy,

is

and

on

prints finished

this

dry with

rather glossy shadows, but the lighter shades practically matt.

In commencing carbon printing

some

cure

sensitive

photographic

and

tissue

sizes, in flat

necessary to pro-

is

it

sold

is

it

;

in

all

usual

the

packets of one dozen pieces each

also a packet of the corresponding size of single transfer

This paper must be

paper.

but sufficient allowance the paper

A

is

slightly larger

made by

some powdered alum and

should be prepared,

beyond

this

when

cut.

is

squeegee,

be required, but nothing

will

than the tissue,

the manufacturers

A

else.

one ounce

in

blotting paper

solution of

alum

a pint of water, but

no chemical solutions are required.

The alum

should be dissolved in boiling water, but the solution must be used cold.

The

negative should be strong and vigorous, stronger

than would give the best result in silver printing, and must

be prepared by receiving what a

"safe-edge."

This

is

is

called in carbon printing

some means

edges of the sensitive tissue from

of

light,

protecting

the

so that a margin

about an eighth of an inch wide prints white.

This

safe-

edge may be a piece of lantern-slide binding attached to the negative

on

either the glass or film side, or a

opaque paper may be negative

may be edged

of a ruling pen

overlap the print

mask

is is

in

laid

with opaque water-colour by means

and brush.

mask so

that

In any case the tissue must

its

edges are protected.

If a

being taken from a portion of a negative the cut the

only method

advantage that one mask

The carbon

tissue,

to

adopt.

This plan has the

may serve for several negatives. when received, appears most un-

promising material, resembling than

mask of

the printing frame, or the

artificial

photographic printing paper.

coated on a stout paper, so

it

leather-cloth

The

gelatine

may be handled

more

film is

freely with


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

230 the

same precautions same as

the

that apply to other daylight printing

The frames should be

papers.

silver printing

for

filled in ;

subdued

daylight,

but extra care should be

taken not to expose the tissue to light more than necessary.

Any

degradation of the lighter work

slight

not

will

out

fix

as in silver.

The dark

side of the tissue should be placed in contact

with the film of the negative, taking care that the tissue so placed that

is

slightly overlaps the safe-edge all round,

it

and the exposure made

to daylight

same manner

the

in

as

for silver printing.

There

is

no

visible

have to be devised

must be to

adopt

for

image produced, consequently means gauging the extent to which printing

The most simple select a day when the

carried.

plan for the beginner

to

light is fairly uniform,

is

and taking

negative from which

the

desired, take a rough

Barnet P.O. P. it

print

If only a portion of the negative

must include some of the

paper until

its

appearance

finished print, not dark toning,

carbon print

the

is

from a portion on a piece of

is

just

enough

is

printed

Expose the

lightest work.

what

is

silver

desired in the

to allow for reduction in

and note how long a time

required to produce

is

this result.

Barnet carbon tissue and Barnet P.O. P. are approximately equal in rapidity, and this time

exposure for the carbon

desirable to expose black tissue slightly

warm brown

brown

is

is

latitude

the

fact that a

same depth of

one-sixth less than the time

time being the correct exposure is

it

than brown, and

or red.

best time of exposure

of the test print for black, and one-sixth

there

less

on account of the

black print always appears darker than

The

be the correct

or red slightly longer, not because of any actual

difference in speed but simply

printing in

will

In ordinary practice

print.

in

development,

more

for

the

for red, the test

brown.

more

Although careful

the


BAR NET PLATINO-MATT BROMIDE PAPER

AS

ITS

NAME

IMPLIES,

DESIGNED

IS

TO GIVE THE PRECISE EFFECT OF

A PLAT1NOTYPE

PRINT,

WITH THIS

ADVANTAGE. THAT BEING A RAPID BROMIDE OF SILVER EMULSION

CAN

BE

PRINTING

FOR

USED

OR

IT

CONTACT

ENLARGING

BY

^

>€

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT.

^e


BARNET Carbon Tissue SENSITIVE OR INSENSITIVE.

q

IN

**

<*

INCLUDING PHOTO-

ALL COLOURS,

PURPLE. STANDARD BROWN. ENGRAVING BLACK. SEPIA. RED CHALK. GREEN,

BLUE.

**

IN

BANDS OR CUT

«I

**

<* PIECES.

AND

«*

<*

**

**

EVERY REQUISITE FOR

CARBON

PRINTING

q SAMPLE PACKETS

AND HALF-PLATE BEGINNERS.

IN

BOTH

QUARTER-

PREPARED FOR

ARE

AND INCLUDE AN ASSORT-

MENT OF TISSUE AND ALL MATERIAL NECESSARY

DOUBLE

FOR

BOTH

TRANSFER.

SINGLE

WITH

BOOK

AND OF

INSTRUCTIONS.

BARNET*-?

JG1RB9MUSS0E

FOR PRICES SEE END OF

BOOK.


CARBON PRINTING.

233

attempt made to expose correctly, the more probable

be that the print a good

within the latitude possible

is

attempts,

it

method

this is

not

suggested

is

be recommended

to

for

disadvantage that a

made

is

every time a print

enough

fortunate

preferable.

prints

and developed

It will

be described

sufficiently

The

at once.

later.

exposed may be transferred

transfer

is

rendered necessary

whole of the surface of the

been rendered insoluble, while the soluble portion

remains at the back, and

from the back. ingly

it is

Transferring

simple operation that

difficulty to

therefore necessary to develop is,

however, such an exceed-

it

cannot be said to add any

carbon printing.

Pieces of transfer paper

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one

for

each print

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are soaked

in cold water for four or five minutes until quite limp it is

Print-

very simple in practice, and in every

is

when

work.

has to be

the worker be

required, unless

the fact that practically the

film has

test

to secure several very similar days.

ing by actinometer

The

preliminary

for ordinary

It possesses the distinct

by

it

result.

Although

way

will

for securing

a good precaution to mark

putting in water, as the inexperienced

determining which

is

the face

;

and

the backs in pencil before

may

when they

find difficulty in

are wet.

A second

dish should be filled with cold water, and one piece of transfer taken

from the dish in which

all

are

soaking and

placed in this face upwards, and a print put in the same dish face

downwards

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the face of the print towards the face

of the transfer paper.

limp,

that

and

As soon

the print

as

is

sufficiently

the transfer paper are lifted out together

placed on a smooth hard surface, the transfer paper underneath,

and squeegeed

firmly into contact.

should not be used, but

fairly firm

It is better to

along the print.

Too much

force

strokes in each direction

use a squeegee sufficiently

long to cover the print, so that one stroke makes the operation uniform.

A

roller

squeegee

is

useless.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

234

The

prints

must be protected from daylight

are put into the water

tiveness to light,

may be

and

;

all

carried out

in

have

after this they

they

until

lost their sensi-

subsequent work, development, &c, This

daylight.

full

con-

assists

siderably in determining the extent to which they shall be

developed.

On

putting the print in water

first

though

curl with the sensitive side inwards,

curl

it

will

down

out to squeegee

it

If the

flat.

tendency

to

curl

slightest sign of flattening itself,

from

seconds

fifteen

to

on the dryness of the

stances must

it

as

as

it

is

squeegeeing into contact to

be placed

one

between

partially dry.

depending

minute,

Under no circum-

tissue.

satisfactorily.

done the

stout blotting paper,

for

or

limp to allow the

sufficiently

is

flat

from the water

it

be performed

as the squeegeeing

moderate pressure

it

shows the

it

be allowed to remain until thoroughly

soon

As soon

just before

is

Under ordinary immersing in water may

curling outwards, the best time to take

being

should

taken out.

conditions the time necessary for

entirely

it

very slight,

is

should be carefully watched, and as soon as

vary

If

uncurl again as the film absorbs water, and the

best time for lifting

becomes

tendency

this

vary according to the dryness of the print.

will

it

has a tendency to

it

about twelve to

prints

are to

and put under minutes to

fifteen

If several prints are dried together

they must

be separated by pieces of blotting paper.

They should on no account be this time,

as there

is

left

drying

much beyond

a very decided tendency to become

They should then be put in a dish of cold water, from which they may be taken one at a time as required for insoluble.

development. is

Soaking the prints

in cold water at this stage

a departure from the usual practice, but

it

allows the

worker to develop them singly without undue hurry.

If

several were left drying while others were developed, those

taken

last

would probably be so insoluble

that

good

results


CARBON PRINTING. would be almost an

235

The

impossibility.

cold water will not

injure the prints in any way, but greatly facilitate the subse-

That

quent development.

first

developed may have two or

three minutes' soaking only, that taken last half an hour or

more, but there will be no difference in the working or

final

result.

For development, hot water only

who work

Those

required.

is

the carbon process largely use a specially

deep dish or developing tank, resting on supports, a gas ring or

spirit

made

so that

lamp standing underneath keeps the For the occasional worker,

water at a uniform temperature.

however, an efficient substitute can be found in the usual

For small

household appliances.

bowl

will

prints

answer, provided

and

it

at least five inches

sizes,

any moderate sized

be nearly twice as long as the

deep

for larger work, a small

;

The

bath or similar appliance will answer well. to a shallow dish

objection

that the water cools so very rapidly

is

;

by

keeping a body of water four or five inches deep the tempera-

may be maintained at a moderately uniform point. The standard temperature for working is 105 degrees,

ture

and

if

regular

graphic

carbon printing

outfit,

as

to form

part of any amateur's

essential to success.

is

not available for preliminary

It

test.

the usual temperature for a

The beginner should one

print at a time,

the developing bowl

and is

If a

thermometer

the degree of

trials

must be gauged by the hand, though

more than a rough

to his photo-

ensures uniformity in working, which, in

it

carbon especially, is

is

work a thermometer should be added

it

warmth

difficult to give

is

should be somewhat hotter than

warm

bath.

not attempt to develop more than if

the temperature of the water in

correct

when

a print

is

commenced,

the slight falling off during development will not be of the slightest

consequence, unless the print be over-exposed,

when more hot water should be added. boiling water will

serve

to

raise

A

small kettle of

the temperature before


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

236

commencing a

fresh

A

print.

that that has been used

is

;

however many prints

they will

it

still

emerge

bright,

may be

Prints of different colours

and unstained.

clean,

in

the discolouration of

:

unimportant

may have been developed

should be added to

little

that already in the developing bowl

developed in the same water

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

has absolutely no staining

it

effect.

A

print should be taken

from the dish of cold water and

put into the developing bath, transfer paper downwards, and After a few seconds

kept beneath the surface of the water.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

according to the temperature and the

fifteen to forty,

condition of the tissueâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the colour will be seen to ooze out

from the edges of the should be gently

be

left

a

little

If

corner of the backing paper

from the transfer paper, and

if it lifts

away, leaving the gelatine film on the

easily, gently pulled

transfer paper.

A

print.

lifted

does not come away easily

it

longer,

should

it

and a second attempt made from a

different corner.

The backing paper should be removed even movement, and, is

if

possible, without stopping

;

and

it

very important that the print should be kept beneath the

surface of the water during the operation.

paper should be thrown away, as

The

fluid, semi-jelly-like

seen

is

it

may be washed

Development

is

It

and the loosened its

though a passable

result

consists of a soft semigelatine.

But what

the back or fully soluble portion of the film,

the hot water.

that

it

The backing

absolutely worthless.

mass of coloured

this semi-fluid condition is

which

it is

print at this stage looks as

were a physical impossibility, as

is

with a steady

and

an indication of the ease with

away.

effected

should be

gelatine

by simply soaking the print lifted

and water allowed

progress can be seen

;

in

out from time to time, to run

but apart from this

it

off,

so

should

be kept below the surface of the water, and water made to Although flow gently over it by the motion of the hand.


CARBON PRINTING. the soluble portion of the film

is

237

so soft and easily removed,

the insoluble part forming the image

is fairly

tenacious,

and

with the treatment suggested there should be no risk of

When

injury. it

the print

lifted

is

may be supported on

some of the water flowed over drained, so that

The

again.

its

from the developing bath

hand or a piece of

the

it

or

;

glass,

and

may be simply

it

progress can be judged, and put back

gradually

picture will

become more

clearly

defined as the gelatine unaffected by light dissolves away,

and the operation should be continued sufficiently light,

when

until the print is

should be placed face downwards

it

any remaining solution

in a dish of cold water to rinse off

or gelatine.

An

alternative

downwards

method

is

to simply leave the print face

in the developing bath,

flow from the surface as

it is

when

the print will develop automatically.

from time to time and

A

its

the gelatine will

loosened by the hot water, and

can be examined

It

progress seen.

correctly exposed print should be developed in four

or five minutes.

Like

all

other photographic

prints,

it

appears rather

darker after drying than while wet, and allowance for this

must be made

in developing.

Although the image

by the

fingers or

it

for the advice given to is

tough to bear the hot

must on no account be touched

It is

very

soft,

and

it is

impossible

without removing some portion of the gelatine,

and so leaving a mark. there

it

by coming into contact with the edges of

the dish or other prints. to touch

sufficiently

is

treatment without injury,

practically

no

This

is

a sufficiently good reason

develop prints one at a time, when risk of injury if reasonable

care

is

exercised. It will

line

be recognised that there

is

no sharp dividing

between gelatine that has remained soluble and that

that has

been rendered insoluble, excepting on the surface

;


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

238

in the thickness of the film

to the other.

one condition

the image could be dissolved

When one

print has

it

is

a gradual change from

Part of that remaining to form

away

if

been placed

required. in cold water to rinse,

the water in the developing bath should be raised to the initial

temperature again and a second print commenced, the

work being repeated

until all are finished.

In the meantime, the print

first

developed

is

given a second

change of water, and then placed in a dish containing some of the alum solution previously given.

using plenty of solution, several prints

With

and by

care,

may be put

one

in

dish together, but they must not be allowed to touch each

other while in the solution or in being removed. Prints should remain in the

alum solution

for

about

five

minutes, then be rinsed in three or four changes of water,

and hung up to

dry.

Small wooden clips form the most

convenient method, as they can be readily suspended from a

The

line.

prints

must be allowed to dry spontaneously,

and on no account must the surface be touched

until they

are perfectly dry. It

has been pointed out that

when the

exposed under a negative the action of the

film has

light has

been

been

render a certain part near the face practically insoluble,

to

and

that the condition does not change suddenly, but gradually

merges into perfect

solubility towards the back.

It

neces-

sarily follows that there is a certain part of the film that is

partially soluble only,

and instead

of dissolving rapidly like

the perfectly soluble back, will only dissolve by prolonged

treatment

;

and, consequently, long development will give a

lighter print than

shorter,

as

more of

this

semi-soluble

gelatine will be dissolved.

This

fact

slight over or

provides a very simple means of correcting

under exposure of the

print.

If the print has

been exposed too long a time in the frame and normal development would leave it somewhat dark, longer treatment


CARBON PRINTING. developing bath

in the

will so far

239

reduce

it

that

it

be

will

indistinguishable from one correctly exposed. If the

exposure has been too short the print should be

removed from the bath as quickly as possible and placed cold water.

Development should be continued

considerably

cooler than

usual

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as

Should

of

temperature of

the

gelatine

the

the print

If

bility of

If

is

much it

may be

water

there

is

no

possi-

over-exposed, the longer development will

By

soften.

is

too great for the normal temperature

temperature, however,

raising the is

exercised,

It

and under

greater

ordinary circum-

not desirable to raise the temperature

is

beyond 120 or 125 degrees be resorted to when a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; has

all

prove a sufficient remedy and ensure

stances this should prints.

soon arrives when the

sufficiently, as a point

solvent power

example

the

sufficiently light.

much under-exposed

degree of insolubility

good

is

sufficient

obtaining a satisfactory result.

it is

not reduce

to

remove

this fail to

gradually raised until the print

as will

cool, in fact,

produce any action.

in

water

in

at most,

and

lesser degree of

this

should only

warmth

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 115,

for

failed.

Development may be prolonged even but the risk of injury to the print

is

in this hot water,

considerably increased.

This description has been kept as simple in character as possible

in

order to enable those

printing to carry their

first

commencing

carbon

prints through the various stages

successfully without the necessity of having to study

more

than those points absolutely essential for preliminary work.

In order to become thoroughly familiar with the carbon process, however,

and derive the

full

advantage of

attractive features in their ordinary work,

to give

much more

it

will

its

many

be necessary

detailed attention to the various opera-

tions already described, as well as to others that are equally

necessary

if

anything

elementary work

is

more than

attempted.

the

most simple

and


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

240

Although there are no special

difficulties to

overcome,

and nothing to render carbon printing beyond the powers

made

of

so simple and easy that there

is

of any careful worker, yet the mistake must not be

assuming that the work

is

However simple any process

practically nothing to learn.

may

be,

it

and

requires learning by experience,

it is

only by

careful attention to detail at every stage that success can

may

In the most simple work failure

assured.

be

easily result

from want of acquaintance with essential points or want of care in working details.

To this

a greater extent than in most other processes does

The absence

apply to carbon.

any

of

delicate nature of the

and the extremely

visible

image

film during de-

velopment render thoroughly systematic and careful work

But assuming the capa-

absolutely necessary throughout. bility

working

of

to detail,

attention

and

systematically

there

is

of

giving

careful

no reason why any amateur

photographer should not adopt the process that gives more perfect satisfaction as a

The

than any other.

means

of printing from negatives

variety of effect

combined with richness and

delicacy,

and colour

is

possible,

unsurpassed.

DEFECTS. The

defects

and

already described

and a knowledge of

may

in

the work

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are

not many,

their cause will enable the

worker to

failures that

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; single

arise

transfer printing

take precautions to prevent their occurring.

Should the backing paper refuse to the print has remained a minute or dish,

it

indicates

that

the

tissue

This may be due to keeping

it

strip off easily after

more

in the developing

has become insoluble.

too long before printing,

or keeping prints too long before development, or by overprinting. facilitates

The

cold water bath advised before development

removal of the backing paper, and also prevents

another cause of insolubility from arising, keeping prints


CARBON PRINTING.

24

drying too long after squeegeeing to the backing paper. the tissue

good condition and the

in

is

If

prints not over-

exposed, from fifteen to thirty seconds should be sufficient

time for the hot water to render the removal of the backing

And

paper easy.

it

is

remove

desirable to

it

as soon as

possible after immersing the print, but force should never be

used.

When

difficulty arises

in

hotter water should be tried for this will not

;

removing the backing paper, the degree of heat necessary

be too great for developing, as

partial insolubility of the gelatine right

indicates

it

through the

In extreme cases the gelatine film

may

film.

peel off the

transfer paper instead of the backing paper leaving the film.

This can only be caused by the tissue having become thoroughly insoluble and useless.

The

use of the safe-edge will be readily recognised from

this description.

on by

light is

By

be perfectly soluble

margin

will,

its

aid a thin strip of tissue unacted

preserved as a margin to the print, which will if

the tissue

is

in

good condition.

of necessity, be the most soluble portion of the

film,

and consequently, the backing paper

itself

from the transfer paper

the film with

it.

of the backing paper would be impossible

solubility of

loosen

can be

it

risk of bringing

Without the safe-edge successful removal

shadow formed the margin

it

will readily

at the edges, so that

and pulled away without any

easily lifted

induce

This

;

wherever a dark

of the print, the small degree of

any portion of the film

to cling to the backing

at

that point

paper and loosen

would

its

hold

to the transfer.

STORAGE OF TISSUE AND PRINTS. Sensitive tissue must be deteriorate even It

more

kept very carefully, or

it

will

rapidly than the time previously given.

should be kept in the wrapping paper or envelope in

which

it

is

packed by the makers, or

else in

waxed paper,


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

242

and placed under moderate pressure but

desirable to use

is

it

If prints are not

it

in a printing frame,

within seven or eight days.

developed as soon as they are taken

from the frames they may be kept in a similar manner to the tissue, or in a calcium tube similar to that used for storing platinotype paper.

placed in a tube

If they are

they should be rolled film inwards.

CONTINUATING ACTION. There

a curious property in the carbon process in

is

unique among ordinary printing methods, and

which

it

that

that a print after exposure to light continues gaining

is

is

depth even

in

tinuatini:

This con-

kept in absolute darkness.

if

action

is

almost stopped by keeping the prints

under pressure as advised, and

entirely arrested

it is

them

preferable plan of storing

in

by the

an absolutely dry atmo-

sphere, such as that of a calcium tube.

Prints

may then be

kept for several hours between printing and development without the slightest loss of quality; or in extreme cases

two or three days.

for

If

kept more than a few hours the

extreme dryness renders them very handle

;

brittle

and

difficult to

tube some time

they should be taken from the

before required and allowed to absorb moisture from the air

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in darkness, of course.

Prints that have

manner require longer time

this

become dry in

in the cold water before

they are in condition for squeegeeing to the transfer paper.

In the case of prints being taken from the frames before they are sufficiently exposed, advantage this continuating action air,

fully

in

darkness,

exposed.

when they may become

is

taken of

similar to those

Although expert printers find

advantage in bad weather when printing it

may be

by leaving them exposed to the

is

this quality

slow and

so uncertain and beyond control that at the best

should worker.

be

avoided as too unreliable for

the

an

difficult, it

ordinary


CARBON PRINTING.

BLISTERS Two

other

blistering, the

defects

AND

that

243

FRILLING.

may occur

are

former being the film leaving

and

frilling

its

support at

the edges during development, the latter a similar result,

but in circular patches in any part of the picture.

The most

usual cause

principally through

transfer paper

holds to the

film

prolonged development, as the

is

the

being so coated with insoluble gelatine that water

latter

cannot penetrate from the back to loosen the

With

film.

long development or very hot water the gelatine coating

may

fail

to resist the penetrating action,

and the

film

fail

to hold in consequence.

There are several contributory causes, however, and these

may make a

print blister or

ment, while without them

with normal treat-

frill

might withstand any reasonable

it

degree of development. Careless handling of the print during development

bend the

transfer paper in places

Wherever such a break or sharp bend occurs,

coating.

blisters are

almost certain to appear.

Imprisonment of

when

squeegeeing

blisters

may

and so break the surface

air

between the

into

For

during development.

which they are immersed

for

film

may

contact

and

transfer paper

frequently

cause

this reason the water in

transferring should not

be

drawn from a tap immediately before required, but allowed to stand

first.

The method is

also

paper

very are

of

bringing

important.

ticable

method.

on account

tive plan is to lay

and

and

tissue

in small sizes

In large work

into

surfaces

the

brought together under water,

blistering should not exist, satisfactory

the

If

it

is

contact transfer

this

cause of

it is

the most

not always prac-

of difficulty in handling,

but an alterna-

the transfer paper face upwards on the

squeegeeing board, well flood

it

with water,

lift

the limp


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

244 tissue

from the water in which

downwards on the

it

is

soaking, place

and squeegee

transfer paper,

face

it

into contact.

If the tissue is allowed to soak too long before squee-

geeing into contact there the transfer paper either

is

a very great risk of

when

its

the backing paper

leaving

is

being

removed, or in the form of frilling during development. should be squeegeed down

before

it

becomes quite

It

fiat.

THE ALUM BATH. The alum bath used after development The first is the removal of a slight

serves

due

to the

bichromate in the paper.

With a

to remove,

and there

thin transfer

should be very

moderate development there

paper and

slight yellowness

two

yellow stain

purposes.

this

is

difference

silver printing in this respect, that in

between carbon and

carbon any stain due to incomplete removal of the sensitising salt is

removed

seen at the time of development, and can be If not visible then

easily.

The

afterwards.

it

until all yellow stains

never appear

will

print should be kept in the

have disappeared, or

alum solution

in

any case not

less than four or five minutes.

The second purpose

the hardening of those semi-

is

soluble portions of the film which have been allowed to

remain to form the image, and which have now become the face of the film,

and four or

sufficient for this.

five

minutes

in the solution

After drying the surface

is

is

reasonably

hard.

PRINTING BY ACTINOMETER. The method for

suggested in the early part of this article

gauging the exposure

quite

impracticable

actinometer

is

for

for

preliminary prints would be

general

work.

very simple in practice,

be exposed correctly with the

The use of an

and allows

minimum

of

prints to

trouble.

In


CAREON PRINTING. fact,

when a number of frames

found

245

are in use together

it

will

be

troublesome to refer to the actinometer from

less

time to time and take in each frame as the exposure necessary for that particular negative

given, than to adopt the

is

more usual method of frequently examining each Actinometers of different types are but making one

is

printing frame thin

print.

commerce,

such an exceedingly simple matter that

probably most workers

The most

articles of

simple

will

adopt

method

this plan.

to take

is

and a piece of plain

quarter-plate

a

glass to

fit

it.

Some

white tissue or similar paper as free from grain

possible will be required,

the size of the glass.

and

six or

as

seven pieces should be cut

Other pieces should be cut the

full

length of the glass, but one being half an inch narrower, others a quarter of an inch less than the preceding in each

case until the width of the glass

shown

in the diagram,

all

is

covered in the manner

the widths being a quarter of an

inch excepting the outside

strips,

which are half an inch.

All these should be attached to the glass

by the

and

to

starch, paste, or other colourless adhesive,

glass

each other

and outside

ten thicknesses of the same paper should

be

attached at each end, extending from the end to the dotted line only, a

second piece of glass being used outside these


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

246

Strips of thin

as a protection.

opaque paper across the

tissue paper where shown shaded complete the apparatus. The glasses and paper may be held together by strips of

paper or lantern-slide binding.

In use, a piece of P.O.P.

is

placed in the frame, and

to light the various thicknesses of tissue paper,

on exposure

acting as a negative consisting of squares absolutely regular in

their increase

of density, print squares on the P.O. P.,

the strips of opaque paper preserving the purity of the whites, and allowing the images of the squares to be more

be

an image of the thinnest square

First

readily seen.

and longer exposure

faintly visible,

will

will

cause similar

images of the other squares to appear in turn, the register for the correct exposure of any negative being the highest square that

faintly visible

is

when

that negative

is

correctly

exposed.

The

end of the actinometer are to

extra strips at each

obtain an extra set of squares following those given by the

attached to the

strips of

paper

the line

marked corresponding

A

lines A.

first

glass,

the

first

square of

in opacity to the last of the

reference letter or

number marked on each

square facilitates reference while printing. using an actinometer of this same make and kind of P.O.P. should

It is absolutely essential in

character that the

always be used for

it

and

for

making

test prints

from the

negatives, as different makers' silver papers are not equal in rapidity.

In order to obtain the correct number on the actinometer scale for a carbon print from any negative, a rough print of that negative or from a part of it should be taken

on

silver paper,

same time

and the actinometer put out

as this negative,

the appearance in finished,

reference

as

its

lighter tones that

described

should be

and when the

previously

made

to

the

it

for

to print at the

silver print has

should have when preliminary

trials,

actinometer and

the


CARBON PRINTING.

247

highest square visible registered as the printing

number

for

that negative.

Several

prints

test

may be exposed

actinometer being examined as each

When printing

in carbon, the tissue is put in the frames,

number

the reference

for

each negative noted, and the

nometer put out with them, and by examining

may be brought

to time each print

square corresponding to

it

becomes

be the correct one

for

from time

visible.

brown

tissue

less,

and red

one number

it

acti-

as the actinometer

in

The exposure number obtained from printed

the

together,

is finished.

;

the test print will

black prints should be or

warm brown one

more.

Although

method

this

will give

results, the difference in character will

approximately correct

between

silver

and carbon

sometimes make a different number desirable to obtain

the best effect, but

obtained trial,

will

and

it

difference

in almost all cases the exposure

enable a

fair print

be obtained at the

so

first

should be so near the best exposure that the

can be gauged from the

number noted

for

all

future

marked on the negative or later prints

to

work

print,

first

and the

This number being

in a notebook, will ensure

all

from that negative being correctly exposed.

Should any negative require shielding during part of the exposure, to hold back the printing of any portion, the

number on

the actinometer at which the shield should be

placed in position can be noted in the same manner.

Any number

of frames

may be put out

aid of the one actinometer, provided that together.

all

it

in duplicate.

is

The

object of this

that apiece of P.O.P. the full size of the glass

and a

thin

by the

are put out

be seen by referring to the diagram of the

It will

actinometer that

to print

opaque paper inserted

P.O.P. to prevent

it

from

in

printing.

one half

may be

is

used,

in front of the

If the actinometer

is

being used for several prints and some are printing very


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

248

may be commenced,

slowly, a second set of prints

opaque paper withdrawn

the actinometer read from the second

the thin

put out, and

at the time these are half.

DRAWING AND ETCHING PAPERS FOR SINGLE TRANSFER. and

White

toned

drawing

and

etching

papers

of

smooth and rough surfaces are obtainable prepared for receiving prints by single transfer, in the same manner as previously described for the thin ordinary single

transfer

paper.

There are

slight differences

in working,

and

extra pre-

cautions are necessary to avoid failures and defects, their use involves

no

special difficulty.

In order to retain the

effect of the surface of the

in the finished print, the gelatine coating

kept so

much on

Should any is

the surface as in the

difficulty

but

is

thin,

paper

and not

ordinary paper.

be experienced in determining which

the prepared surface, the paper should be held obliquely

to the light,

and the prepared

glossy, while the

back

will

face will appear very slightly

be absolutely

dull.

Prints finished on these papers will have just sufficient

glaze in the all

shadows

to assist detail

and give depth, while

the lighter tones remain perfectly matt

;

and they

retain

the texture of the paper admirably.

Much

longer soaking of these papers

is

necessary before

squeegeeing the exposed prints into contact, from forty-five

fifteen to

minutes according to the thickness and roughness

of the paper, but longer will not injure

them nor

affect the

after working.

In squeegeeing, greater pressure must be used than

is

necessary with the thin smooth papers in order to ensure that the tissue shall be

throughout.

in

good contact with the paper


GULLS. By

JOHN

C.

DOUGLAS.


CARBON PRINTING. In developing, the operation

care

to

is

and

blisters

more probable

are

if

prolonged, and, speaking generally, greater

required.

is

In the alum bath

much

remove the yellow

stain

allowed

it

;

will

single

with

transfer

necessary in order

is

With very

not injure the prints.

Any worker may

prepare drawing or similar paper for very

A

trouble.

little

solution

of

be made, containing an ounce of good

should

gelatine

longer time

from the bichromate.

twenty to thirty minutes should be

from

papers

thick

frilling

249

The

colourless hard gelatine in a pint of water.

gelatine

should be soaked in cold water for about an hour, the water drained

off,

and

sufficient

of solution.

pint

added

boiling water

operation of coating the paper.

As soon

perfectly dissolved, twenty grains of

a

during the

as the gelatine

is

chrome alum dissolved

in two ounces of hot water should be added, a

Only

time, with frequent stirring or shaking.

coating to the paper, the addition being

at a

little

sufficient of

chrome alum added

the gelatine should have

make

to

This should be kept hot

to give

made

one

for subse-

A

quent coatings when they are to be applied.

pint of

solution should be sufficient for one coating for five sheets

of drawing paper, Imperial

The

size.

solution should be applied with a sponge or

flat

camel-hair brush, and care taken to give a thin and even the

coating,

direction

across

at

sponge

or

brush being

right

angles.

When

second should be given, keeping free is

taken in one

the it

first

like the

coating first,

from streaks or uneven patches as possible.

thinner,

and as

If difficulty it

may be

and three coatings given instead of two.

an alternative method, the

same manner with plain

chrome alum

dry a

is

thin,

experienced in applying this gelatine solution,

made as

first

over the entire surface of the paper, and then

;

paper may be prepared

gelatine, without the

Or, in the

addition of

and, after drying and cutting up, the pieces J


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

250

chrome alum, ten

in a solution of

may be immersed

grains

to each ounce of water, and rinsed in three or four changes

This paper

of water and dried.

will

keep

indefinitely.

DOUBLE TRANSFER. So

far the

method of working considered has been

that

called single transfer, from the fact that the film of gelatine

forming the picture

is

transferred from the paper

it is

support of the

disadvantage that the picture

importance in many

in

For those subjects a second transfer

For

this

is

transfer paper while

is

little

its

which

it

essential

is

correct relation of right

that

the

and

left,

necessary.

it

it is

permanent basis

in the

same manner

wet, but allow

after

it

as the single

to be re-transferred

development and drying.

simple method of working

The most what

reversed, a matter of

purpose the print must be developed on a

support that shall hold

its

is

subjects, but very serious in others.

picture should appear in

to

on which

new paper basis which forms the final This method of working involves the print.

prepared to a

is

by means of

called " flexible temporary support," a paper very

similar in general character to ordinary single transfer, but

very

much

thicker

and more heavily coated.

two or three hours before using, the surface by rubbing over some waxing solution prepared must be

At

least

specially

the

made

for this purpose.

temporary

supports,

It is readily

procured with

most

photographic

and,

like

preparations that are only used in small quantities,

troublesome and costly to prepare than to buy. A poured on the face of the temporary support the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

glossy surface

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

more

little is

slightly

rubbed over the entire surface with a

small piece of soft non-fluffy fabric.

A

second piece should

be used to take off any excess, and ensure that the preparation is even and uniform, each piece being rubbed gently


CARBON PRINTING.

25

over the surface with a circular movement. the solution should be sufficient to

application.

render It

it

Very

of

little

on the temporary support, but

left

slightly

more

glossy than before the

should be freely exposed to the

air for

two

or three hours to enable the solvents of the wax to evaporate

and leave an exceedingly After waxing

surface.

thin coating of

may be kept

it

wax only on the

indefinitely before

using.

In working,

this

temporary support

same manner as ordinary has no tendency to leave

it

is

used in exactly the

transfer paper

single

be handled with the same freedom.

it

may

Considerably longer

time should be allowed in the alum bath than

is

necessary

temporary support holds

for ordinary single transfer, as the

the bichromate stain rather tenaciously.

minutes should be

the print

:

during development, and

Twenty

to thirty

sufficient.

After taking the prints from the alum bath they should

be rinsed in three or four changes of water and allowed to dry before the second transfer

on no account be

hurried,

is

and

attempted. if

Drying should

the prints are not to be

transferred as soon as dry, the drying should be as slow as If the prints are dried rapidly in a

possible.

there

is

warm room,

considerable risk of their leaving the temporary

support spontaneously.

For the second transfer a specially-prepared paper required, sold as " final support."

It is

is

a fine white paper

of smooth surface with a thick coating of soft gelatine.

When

it is

required to finally transfer the prints, pieces

of final support are taken slightly larger than the prints but

smaller than the temporary supports,

water for about half an hour.

The

supports are then soaked in water

warm

with advantage

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

minutes, and then one

until

is

the squeegeeing board, as

and soaked

prints

in cold

on the temporary

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which

may be

slightly

thoroughly limp, about

five

taken and laid face upwards on

much

water as practicable being


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

252 drained

A

off.

eighty degrees

and

soft

piece of final support

for a

yielding.

and

print

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

It

hung up

taken from the

about

few seconds, until the surface becomes is

then laid face downwards on the

firmly, but without

contact and

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;temperature

warm

water and immersed in

cold

much

squeegeed into

force,

When

to dry.

perfectly dry

may be

it

readily stripped from the temporary support, bringing the

image firmly attached to

and pulling the two

knife

by raising one corner with a

it,

No

apart.

part of the image

should remain on the temporary support, which should be

The temporary

quite clean.

and

is

support should be re-waxed,

A

ready for use again.

large

number

may be

of prints

developed in succession on one piece of temporary support. It

must be re-waxed every time.

The

on

surface of a print developed

support

is

very

similar

that

to

of

flexible

an

temporary

ordinary

single

transfer.

DEFECTS IN DOUBLE TRANSFER. During development the mentioned

failures

and defects previously

connection with single transfer

in

probable when the tissue

is

are

more

on the temporary support, as

in

addition to the causes given there are others.

The most probable in

good

frequently

will

carefully fail

it

is

that the temporary support

is

not

After using several times the surface

condition.

become more

may have been

or less dirty, and,

however

treated with the waxing solution,

to hold the print sufficiently.

The temporary

support

must never be washed, the remedy would be worse than the state

it

was intended to

rectify.

It

should be carefully

cleaned with turpentine and re-waxed.

work

satisfactorily,

substituted.

may

it

If

it

still

fails

to

should be discarded and a new piece

After using

a

number

of times, the coating

frequently be injured, and then satisfactory working


CARBON PRINTING. is

to

impossible.

If the cleaning

occasionally

before

may be kept

in

with turpentine

good condition

Using a support too soon

for a

after

out.

It is

much

support

longer time.

waxing

will inevitably

though the support were

a good plan to wax

prints are taken off

resorted

is

temporary

re-waxing, the

result in blistering or frilling, as

worn

253

all

and put them away

supports

box

in a

when

the

for future

use.

Failure of the print to strip from the temporary support

may have been may hold the film too tenaciously. Or the final support may have been soaked too long in warm water and lost too much of its soft coating, and insufficient may remain to hold the film. If it is not allowed to remain in the warm water sufficiently long it may be due

to several causes.

The

support

imperfectly waxed, and, consequently,

fails

it

by bright

to adhere, but this is generally seen

lines

appearing on the print where a deep shade abruptly changes

The

to a light tone.

gelatine coating of the final support

must be thoroughly softened, but not so much as

come

to

away on being touched. Rigid temporary supports are sometimes used for double consisting

transfer,

produce prints with gloss resulting

They

are

supports

of a"

finely -ground

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; waxing,

They

glass.

matt surface in place of the slight

from the use of the

used in

opal

all

respects

flexible

similarly

paper supports. the

to

developing, aluming, and

flexible

drying

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but

they are rather more troublesome, as they do not hold the film so well, especially in

prolonged development.

Recently two new papers have been introduced for

final

supports for double transfer, a fine grain white and a similar

paper toned. final

These are used

in the

support previously described,

same manner excepting

that

as the it

is

absolutely essential that the flexible temporary support be

employed.

The

fine grain of the

paper

the final appearance of the print, and

is

well preserved in

it

is

an agreeable


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

254

change from the perfect smoothness of the usual

The toned

support.

variety

is

final

some

specially useful for

colours.

PRINTS ON OPAL, SINGLE TRANSFER. may be developed on

Prints

the

method being

transfer

on

exactly the

no

paper,

by single

opal

same as

preparation

transfer,

for ordinary single

of

the

being

opal

necessary.

Very finely-ground opal

must be used, a

glass

suitable

kind being supplied by the manufacturers of carbon tissue

and

As

materials.

in using opal glass for

double

transfer,

the ground surface must be used.

DOUBLE TRANSFER PRINTS ON DRAWINGPAPER. As

many

there are

subjects for which double transfer

is

a necessity on account of the reversal of the picture being inadmissible,

it

has been

felt

an objection that so

to be

little

choice of paper as a permanent support existed in the case of double transfer

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; until recently only plain smooth white

in contrast to the variety of tone

and texture available

for

single.

The

fine grain white

and toned

final

supports previously

mentioned form a considerable improvement, and workers

will

desire the

probably

same

for

many

For those who

variety as in single transfer, however,

are prepared to take a

method

requirements.

fulfil all

little

extra trouble, the following

of obtaining prints by double transfer

of paper, which has been

and

successfully

on any kind

employed

in

the

author's practice during the last three or four years, will

probably appeal, as

it

gives the opportunity of obtaining a

much greater variety than by using commercial supports. The paper must be prepared by giving it three or four


CARBON PRINTING.

25$

coatings of a solution of gelatine, one ounce in thirty ounces

of water, in a similar manner to that described for preparing

paper for single transfer

but a thicker preparation

;

is

neces-

sary, and no chrome alum or other hardening substance

should be used.

No.

Nelson's

gelatine

1

most

the

is

The

though other kinds may be substituted.

suitable,

prepared paper

keep

will

A

indefinitely.

pint of gelatine

solution should be sufficient for giving one coating to five or six sheets of imperial size drawing-paper.

The

prints

support,

must be developed on

and dried before

transferring, the

temporary

flexible

whole working up

to the time of transferring being exactly similar to the ordinary

double

transfer.

When be made

ready for transferring, a solution of gelatine must

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;half an ounce

seven or eight of water

to

the prints thoroughly re-wetted

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

and the drawing-paper

final

The warm water

support also soaked in cold water for a few minutes. prints

may

for a

few minutes, but only cold must be used for the

with advantage be immersed in

drawing-paper, tine.

on account of the

Nelson's No.

gelatine

1

transferring solution,

quantity of gelatine

the best to use for the

is

may be adopted

and the

heat in the water that

it

its

is

gelatine dissolved

mixing.

original volume.

It

drained off as

by the aid of

The

has absorbed only.

measured and diluted by adding hot water three times

for

taken and soaked in cold water for

ten minutes or more, and then the water closely as possible,

of the gela-

and instead of weighing out small

quantities the following plan

A

is

solubility

until

solution

it

is

measures

must be kept as hot as

possible.

A

print

on the temporary support

carefully blotted to

as possible,

and

remove

laid

as

taken from the water,

of the adherent water

on the squeegeeing board, a piece of

the prepared drawing-paper taken

some

is

much

and

similarly blotted off,

of the hot gelatine solution poured

on

to the centre of


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

256

the print and rapidly spread over

its

entire surface, care

being taken to avoid air-bubbles or uncovered patches, the

drawing-paper laid face

At

contact.

least half

down and

firmly squeegeed into

an ounce of gelatine solution must be

allowed for a whole -plate print.

When

dry the print

may be

stripped from the temporary

support in the usual manner, and retains the texture of the

paper admirably. tion of the paper

It is necessary that the gelatine prepara-

and

that uniting the print with the paper

should be hardened, and for this purpose the prints should

be immersed

in a solution of formaline

twelve of water

The

dried.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; rinsed

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one

part to ten or

and

several changes of water

in

slight gloss left

by the temporary support may

be entirely removed by immersing the print

in hot water for

a few seconds, at any time after the formaline bath.

The temporary used, but this

on immersion

is

support acquires the texture of the paper

unimportant, as this grain entirely disappears

in water.

SENSITISING In order to derive the colour, etc., possessed

full

TISSUE. advantage of the variety ot

by the carbon process,

it

really

is

necessary that the worker should sensitise tissue for

own

his

use just as required.

Many

small workers recognise that they are at a con-

siderable disadvantage

compared with those who

print

on a

large scale, as using four or five different colours involves the

purchase of four or either

The is

five

dozen pieces of

tissue that

must

be used very quickly or wasted. ordinary methods of sensitising produce tissue that

distinctly inferior in all respects to that sensitised

by the

addition of the bichromate in the course of manufacture, and in addition, special precautions

The

author

sensitising

has

recently

by means of which

have to be taken introduced a

tissue

may be

in drying.

method

of

prepared, when-


CARBON PRINTING.

257

ever required, fully equal in both ease of working and in the

made

gradation and quality of the resulting prints to freshly

In regard to drying, no special precautions

sensitive tissue.

need be taken beyond darkening the room

;

unlike tissue

sensitised in the usual manner, gas in the drying practically

The

no

effect at

sensitising bath

is

:

Potassium bichromate Citric

.

acid

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Water

4 dr.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Ammonia

The after

approximate,

1

dr.

25

oz.

about 3 dr.

made

solution should be

The

cooling.

room has

all.

quantity of

sufficient

with hot water, and used

ammonia given

should be added

to

only

is

change

the

colour of the solution from deep orange to a distinct lemon yellow.

The

quantity of water

may be

varied

weaker the bath the greater the contrast strength will be best for ordinary work.

keep

well,

To

and may be used

if

desired

The

solution will

and immerse

it

in the

which must be as cold as possible, face downwards,

taking care to avoid air-bells on both face and back. the tissue over in the solution to see that there are bells in the face

well

tissue for a is

This

several times in succession.

sensitise, take a piece of tissue

solution,

always

the

;

in the prints.

and again turn

covered

with

Always

solution.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a minute and a half â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and as soon as the time has elapsed

lift it

from the solution, lay

it

face

glass

and gently squeegee

to

remove as much solution

to a lath

it

immerse

uniform time in sensitising

a good standard time

practicable.

air-

down, keeping

face

it

Turn no

downwards on a sheet of from the

Lift the tissue carefully

by two corners, and hang

ventilated room.

Sensitising

it

up

may be done

glass, pin

as it

to dry in a well in full daylight,

but the tissue must be dried in a darkened room

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not the

ordinary dark room, but one in which the light would not


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

258

on ordinary

produce the

slightest effect

should dry in

five or six hours.

Tissue sensitised in this bath in sensitiveness to

method

is

will

silver paper.

It

be approximately equal

Barnet ready sensitised

tissue.

The

to sensitise at night for using the following

best

day

but the keeping qualities are about equal to ready sensitised tissue.

Insensitive tissue will keep indefinitely

damp

;

and one or more pieces of the

if

not exposed to

consequently a stock of all colours required may be kept

moment.

By

this

sensitised to suit the requirements

means the small worker can

himself of the advantages of the process as fully as those

avail

who

use carbon printing largely, as by the method of sensitising given

it

can always be ensured that the tissue

possible condition

when

used, however

little is

is

in the best

required.

Henry W.

Bennett.


259

Ozotype*

ZOTYPE the

is

carbon

a modification of process

designed

with the object of dispensing

with the actinometer and the transfer

which

carbon

printing

pictures

as

tion

There

The

image.

forms

No

picture

produce

to

the correct

posi-

and

left.

to

is

necessary in

a

right

distinctly

visible

produced upon the paper which

is

support in the correct position as to right and

its

edge

safe

is

The pigment

required.

a modification of carbon tissue) to light,

in

is

and therefore keeps

The hands do salt as in

not

come

is

left.

plaster (which

is

not rendered sensitive

indefinitely.

into contact with a bichromate

carbon printing, and the materials are not affected

by extremes of temperature.

No

blisters are

formed.

Although ready sensitised papers are supplied by the inventor of Ozotype for the convenience of tinental consumers,

and Indian workers

it

to

is

home and

con-

advisable in the case of colonial

sensitise the sized

papers specially

prepared for Ozotype.

SENSITISING This operation but

it is

THE

PAPER.

may be performed

in diffused daylight,

absolutely necessary that the drying be carried out

in the dark.

The

tools required are very simple.

A

yard


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

260

of fine flannel,

some cotton

wool, a few yards of soft muslin,

drawing or dark-room pins, sensitising solution,

gum

solu-

tion (one part to three of water) or fish glue solution (one in four).

A

sheet of sized paper supplied by the Ozotype

pany measures 30

drachms of the larger sheet of

in.

by 15

in.

Lay the paper on a

sensitising solution.

any

and pin the four corners

'clean paper,

down with drawing or dark-room pins. Take about a square foot of the flannel and

Wrap

hand.

much

as

wool as can be conveniently grasped

cotton

the

Com-

This area requires two

of

in the

the flannel round the cotton wool so as to

form a rubbing-pad.

Pour into a graduated measure exactly 120 minims or two drachms of the

Add

sensitising solution.

four to eight drops of

gum

to this

and

glass of sensitising solution in your left hand, right

hand have the coating pad

Throw

in

the

your

ready.

the contents of the measure on to the middle

of the paper, all

about

Hold

or fish glue solution.

and without

losing any time spread the pool

over the surface of the paper by means of the coating

pad with a

Then

circular

motion

with vertical and

lightness the paper

until the

paper

should be evenly

take about fifteen minutes.

increasing

to dry,

Cut the paper

When

dry the paper

is

in re-

passing a the coated

which

will

into the required

sizes in gaslight (not diffused daylight), with a scissors.

Any

lightly

Hang

muslin across them.

paper in a well ventilated dark-room

quite covered.

coated.

maining streaks can be obliterated by piece of the soft

is

horizontal strokes

long pair of

ready for printing.

PRINTING THE INITIAL IMAGE. Any good

negative

is

suitable.

Expose

to daylight until

the details in the high lights are very faintly visible.

The


OZOTYPE. duration of the printing that

about

is,

same

the

is

one-third

26l as for platinotype

time required for P.O. P.

the

printing.

WASHING THE INITIAL IMAGE. The

print should be

washed as soon as possible

after

exposure.

The

point.

should be carried out in cold running water,

It

extent

of washing

and should not be continued

is

very important

a

margins covered

after the

by the rebate of the printing frame are quite clean and

The temperature

white.

important

summer when 75

Fahr.,

of

upon

influence

the

margins

to twenty-five

minutes

of

of the

will

print

is

In

washing.

from 65

should

to

be quite

In winter time, however, with

Fahr. the washing will probably take

water at 35 ° to 40

to ten

washing water has an extent

the temperature of water

clean in four to six minutes.

fifteen

the

the

In spring and autumn

minutes.

probably be

six

sufficient.

PIGMENTING THE INITIAL PRINT. This operation can be carried out while the print

is

wet

from the washing water, or the print may be dried and the pigmenting operation deferred to any convenient time

within a fortnight or three weeks

if

the dried print

served in a dark place free from damp.

is

pre-

The pigmenting

operation consists in soaking a piece of pigment plaster for

a short time in a very dilute

reducing agent, and bringing

Make up a

keep

and a

:â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

.....

Pure sulphuric acid will

solution of an acid

in contact with the print.

stock solution as under

Water Powdered alum

This

it

.

20 ounces 1 ounce 3 drachms or 180 minims

indefinitely,

labelled S.A. (stock acid).

and the

bottle should be


262

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY. For use make up one of the following solutions

:-


020TYPE.

263

corners and holding the print by the thumbs bring the two

and squeegee them

pieces, clinging together, out of the bath

gently together, plaster uppermost,

upon some smooth non-

absorbent surface such as a papier-mache board or sheet of

Then

glass.

insert the plastered print

blotting-pad.

be kept

It is

in the acid

The

necessary.

between clean blotting-

hand heavily over the outside of the

passing the

paper,

most important that the print should not bath a

moment

longer than

is

absolutely

operation of bringing the print into contact

with the plaster can be easily performed in 10 seconds, and

should not occupy a is

much

The

longer time.

plastered print

ready for development in 30 to 40 minutes.

DEVELOPMENT. When

the ferrous sulphate bath

is

used the development

should take place in 30 to 45 minutes after squeegeeing.

This operation

An

printing.

is

carried out in a similar

used, or hot water from a kettle

The temperature

no째 Place

manner

may be poured

of the development water should be from

the plastered

finger at the four corners

until

necessary.

if

the gelatine

is

this

is

the case, leave

a steady unbroken pull, always keeping

still

for

sufficiently soft to

it

Do a

Strip the plaster backing off from

of the water.

and wait

print in the hot water

Try by a sliding movement of the thumb and

allow of the easy separation of the paper. strip

may be

into a dish.

Fahr. for the removal of the plaster backing.

to 115

about a minute.

to

to carbon

iron tank with gas or spirit burner

it

not begin

little

longer

if

one corner with

under the surface

After the removal of the plaster the print

is

covered over with pigmented gelatine, and with further

treatment with hot water the picture develops more clearly,

and can be allowed bath, or the

to remain floating

on the surface of the

development can be accelerated by holding

against a sheet of zinc (the size of the paper)

up and down under

and moving

the surface of the water.

A

it

it

small tin


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

264

mug

will

be found useful for clearing high

pouring the

warm

by gently

lights

Of course

water over the plaster.

the tem-

perature of the water can be raised for overprinted pictures.

Should the development be

still difficult it is

a good plan to

place the picture for a few minutes in a bath consisting of

Warm

water

40 oz. drachm,

Hydrochloric acid

1

and continuing the development

warm

in the

The Ozotype picture is softer than the

water.

ordinary carbon print

during development, and sticks more firmly to the support, so that retouching with a brush

be easily made and

lights

is

an easy matter.

Clouds can

emphasised with a touch of a

camel-hair brush during development.

Shadows can

accentuated by painting them over with methylated in the early stage of

An

acid

be

spirit

development.

reducing-bath

containing

hydroquinone has proved very successful For bold

Water

effects

40 OZ. 80 minims.

Glacial Acetic Acid

acid

acetic in

Hydroquinone

15 grains. of Copper

and

some hands. Softness and delicacy

Medium 40 oz. 60 minims. [

10% Sulphate

soft

also

40 OZ. 40 minims.

15 grains.

15 grains.

60 minims.

90 minims.

In using the hydroquinone bath the following points

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

should be attended to

:

carried quite so far as

when

(1)

The

printing out should not be

the iron bath

is

squeegeeing, the plaster and print should

used.

(2) After

be kept a longer

time in contact, say 1^ hour or any time after the print dry.

(3)

immersed

is

Before development the plastered print must be in cold water for half to

one hour.

Thomas Manly.


265

Some

Useful Formulae*

DEVELOPERS FOR BARNET PLATES

AND

PAPERS. Pyro-Soda Developer for Plates or Films. Solution A, Pyro stock Potassium metabisulphite Dissolve in water, then add pyro Potassium bromide :

.

.100 grains

.

....

Shake

till

dissolved, and

make up

1 ounce 60 grains

.

measure eight ounces with

to

water.

No. 1 Solution. Developer Pyro stock, Solution A :

Water

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

.

.

... ... .

.

2 ounces 18

.

,,

No. 2 Solution.

Sodium carbonate Sodium sulphite Water to make

crystals

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

2 ounces

z\ 20

,, ,,

For use take equal parts Nos. I and 2. If preferred, the potassium bromide can be omitted.

Metol Developer, Single Solution. Metol

Water

When

...... .

.

.

.

.

.

.

75 grains 20 ounces

dissolved add

Sodium sulphite Sodium carbonate Potassium bromide

The

.

-if ounces

....

.

.

.

quantity of water in the above

.

if

6

may be

,,

grains

increased to 30

ounces should the developer act too rapidly.

Other developers especially suitable will

be found in the

article

for

Barnet plates

on Negative-making.


266

BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY, Metol Developer for Barnet


SOME USEFUL FORMULAE.

B

Solution.

267


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

268

TONING-BATH FOR

AND BROMIDE

P.O.P.

PAPERS. In addition to the usual toning-baths issued with each packet

following

of paper, the

recommended

:

a

is

bath very strongly

......16 .....

Sodium acetate Water Gold chloride

i

.

.

.

.

.

ounce ounces

2 grains

This will tone about thirty cabinet prints.

Copper Toning- bath for Bromide or Gaslight Paper.

A

.... Solution.

Copper sulphate

Potassium citrate (neutral)

30 grains

.120

.

.

Water

B

Solution.

Potassium ferricyanide

25 grains 120 â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

....

Potassium

citrate (neutral)

Water

A

,,

10 ounces

.

For use immerse the well -washed and and B.

10 ounces fixed print in equal parts of

Blake Smith's Method.

A Potassium iodide

Water

.

Dissolve,

.....10 Solution.

1

.

... .

and add iodine

.

10 grains

ounces 45 grains

B ..... Solution.

Sodium Water

sulphite

C

ounce

Solution.

....

Pure sodium sulphide

Water

1

4 ounces

.

1

5 ounces

10

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

Boil in a glass flask for five minutes, stirring all the time with a glass rod,

and when cold

filter.

For use soak a fixed solution

for

five

back

blue-black

both

solution

dram, water

1

and well-washed

minutes or until

and 1

it

Then

front.

ounce,

till

print

in

A

changes to a dark

all

soak

in

B

the colour has


SOME USEFUL FORMULA.

C

disappeared, then place in

when

ounces,

the print

(The

minute

after all action

print

in

ounce, water 20

i

fixed

solution for one

this

has ceased.)

method should be

this

solution

develop out to a very rich

must remain

sepia.

by

will

269

Prints

be toned

to

hypo and alum

the

in

fixing-bath given below.

Hypo and Alum Method. Immerse a

rather dark print in an

....

Hot water

Hypo

.

Dissolve, and add

powdered alum

Stand to cool, but do not this

130

alum hardening-bath

then place in the following solution

for ten minutes,

70 ounces

.

filter.

:

10

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

2

,,

Leave the

print in

bath for ten minutes, then heat the solution to 120 Fahr.,

and maintain

temperature

at this

till

print

or is

toned.

LIGHT FILTER. Yellow Screens for Ortkochromatic Plates. For general landscape work

wash and dry

it,

and then soak

Rinse

it

.

.

.

in clean water,

an ordinary lantern

one minute

for

.....10

Napthol yellow dye

Water

fix it

.

in

plate,

â&#x20AC;˘

30 grains ounces

.

and dry.

A STRIPPING FILM. To Strip the Film from a Negative for Carbon Printing.

A Methylated

Solution.

spirit

.

.

.

.

1

ounce

Water

.

.

.

.

.

.

1

,,

Formalin

.

.

.

.

.

.

|

,,

B A

solution

Hydrofluoric acid

Solution.

....

8 drachms

J drachm


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

270

ÂŁ

Cut through the film of the negative all round about inch and place on a flat bench, and pour on to it just

enough of B

to cover

letting

it,

it

remain

quite loose; remove the strips

all

A solution and

about \ ounce of

until the film appears

round.

Now

gently spread

pour on over

all

;

lay

a piece of clean white paper on negative and gently squeeze

The paper can now be

down.

Now

carefully

removed;

place the paper film side

the film with

it.

piece of glass

and pour on another | ounce of

carry

up on

A

to a

solution,

and squeeze another piece of paper on to it. Now remove the first paper by gently pulling it, when the film will be left

Now

on the second paper.

A

another \ ounce of

down on

solution,

Now

pull

leaving the film

off,

carbon

and place the

to a piece of clean glass,

carefully. it

pour again on to the film

raise

and squeeze

film

side

well

and

one corner of the paper and gently

on the

glass,

but reversed for

printing.

The

following approved formulae, gathered from various

sources, are here given, that the reader for reference

may have them ready

:

ACID FIXING-BATH FOR PLATES.

...

Sodium hyposulphite Sodium sulphite Water

......

When

4 ounces I ounce 16 ounces

dissolved add 30 drops of sulphuric acid.

ferred, citric acid

may be

case dissolve \ ounce

If pre-

substituted for sulphuric, in which

citric

acid in 4 ounces water and add

the whole to the solution of hypo and sodium sulphite.

For

bromide paper dilute the above with 24 ounces of water.

FIXING AND HARDENING BATH COMBINED FOR PLATES OR FILM. In some circumstances,

as, for instance, in

warm weather,

may be convenient to combine hardening effect The simplest formula is as follows fixing-bath.

it

Common alum Water

.....

:

I

ounce

40 ounces

with the


SOME USEFUL FORMULAE.

When

dissolved,

Sodium

When

add

27

....

sulphite

this is dissolved,

add

1

ounce

Sodium hyposulphite

.

S ounces

.

.

For bromide paper dilute the above with 40 ounces water.

Barnet Alum Hardrning-bath for Plates and Papers.

...... ......

Alum Water

Soak and well wash negative or

1 ounce 20 ounces

print for ten minutes.

NEGATIVE VARNISHES. Varnish for Negatives.

Gum Gum

.... ....

sandarac

benzoin

Oil of lavender

Methylated

When

dissolved,

.

spirit

filter.

The

.

.

negative

.

is

to

2 ounces

f ounce 2

».

20 ounces

be warmed before

applying the varnish and then heated strongly.

Cold Negative Varnish. Orange

shellac

Sandarac Canada balsam Oil of lavender

Methylated

To

..... ..... ..... ..... ....

spirit

2 ounces 2

,,

60 grains 1 ounce 16 ounces

The

be used cold, the plate being also cold.

must dry

The benzine

varnish

naturally without heat.

ordinary " japanner's gold size " diluted with refined

may

also be used as a cold negative varnish.

Matt Varnish.

A

formula giving an exceedingly fine grain Sandarac Mastic

(finest white)

,,

is

as follows

2| ounces

:


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

272 First

mix the ether and benzole and shake

When

two gums.

all is

dissolved, filter

...

Methylated chloroform

The

quantity of the latter

excessively fine matt grain

;

may be

add the

well, next

now add ounce

1

slightly increased if

an

required.

is

Negative Varnish for Celluloid Films. Celluloid being soluble in strong

a varnish for these

spirit,

must be made with strong or undiluted

and must

spirit,

when dry be too brittle, or when the film bends the varnish will crack. The following is recommended and can not

be used equally well

on

for ordinary negatives

.... ......

White hard varnish Liq. ammonia 88o Water

.

.

.

sufficient

precipitate

first

:

(see below)

-

Only

glass

10 ounces

.

5 ounces

ammonia should be added

to just dissolve the

formed.

RESTRAINERS IN DEVELOPMENT. There are two groups of chemical use

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;bromides

and

citrates

;

common

restrainers in

more generally

the former are

employed, potassium bromide being the favourite, and a 10 per cent, solution thereof should

Bromides of potassium, used, but they

all differ

Thus, 98 parts of

be in every dark room.

ammonium,

or sodium

ammonium bromide

effect

of the

bromides

is

to

equal to 119

are

parts of potassium bromide, or 103 parts of

The

sodium bromide.

prevent

density being gained in the high-lights before

developed

The

in the

effect

may be

relatively in their restraining power.

shadows or

less

of the citrates

exposed

is

excessive detail

has

parts.

to check the

of detail, but to allow density to increase,

production

and they are

hence especially valuable in cases of excessive over-exposure.

The

citrate of potassium,

be obtained from the

ammonium,

chemist,

and a

1

or

sodium may

to

10 solution


SOME USEFUL FORMUL/E.

the

added

for use, a small quantity being

made

should be

273 to

requirements, beginning with

developer according to

about two drops to the ounce.

Should a negative develop abundance of

detail

added, and the plate necessary without

its

developer for hours

the

in

left

but

may be

refuse to increase in density, the citrate solution

if

"fogging."

INTENSIFICATION.

A

negative which for any reason

uniform a relief, is

tint,

giving a

too thin and of too

is

print

flat

lacking contrast

and

subjected to one or other of the numerous processes

for intensification.

The

method

usual

that in

is

which the plate

is

first

bleached with mercuiy bichloride, and then treated with a

which reconverts the image, blackening

reagent,

increasing

is

its

of this

only necessary to of

density

and

density.

particulars

Full

it

the

elsewhere,

given

are

and

it

here add that the increased relative

tones

various

according to

differs

the

blackening reagent employed.

According least

to

degree

of

some

published

recently

alteration

is

produced

hydrate and the greatest by Schlippe's

The

having

plate

been

results,

by

the

potassium

salt.

bleached

in

bichloride

of

mercury, the degree of ultimate intensification secured by using the undermentioned reagents following

list,

commencing with

is

in the order of the

the least powerful

:

1.

Potassium hydrate (caustic potash), 2 per cent, solution.

2. 3.

Lime water. Sodium sulphate, 10 per

4.

Ammonia

5.

Silver cyanide (silver nitrate

6.

Ammonium

7.

Schlippe's

This

last

-88o,

cent, solution.

20 drops to

sulphide

(1

1

ounce water. and potassium cyanide).

part strong solution in 10 parts water).

salt.

named giving the maximum degree

of intensification,


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

274 it

may be useful in The formula is

of exceedingly thin nega-

the case

tives.

:

Water

ioo parts

Schlippes

(sodium

salt

sulph.-anti-

moniate)

3

Liquid ammonia

The bleached immersed

in the

.

.

negative,

above and

.

.

thorough

alter

finally

I

.

iÂť

part

washing,

is

washed.

Instead of hydrochloric acid in the mercuric chloride

many workers

solution

prefer

Ammonium

ammonium

chloride

....

Mercuric chloride chloride

.

.

.

Immersion

,, ,,

few minutes in a bath composed of

for a

common table ammonium chloride in i

5

ioo

.

Water

:

5 parts

ounce

salt in

ounces water, or

2

more

brilliant results.

CLEARING-BATHS FOR STAINS,

&c.

Clearing-Bath for use after Development,

Alum

1

dissolved,

add :â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Hydrochloric acid 1

<S:c.

ounce

20 ounces

Water

(Or

ounce

10 ounces water, after bleaching and

before blackening, often leads to

When

1

ounce

citric

.

.

50

.

may be substituted

acid

to

100 drops

for the hydrochloric acid)

This should remove the yellow or brown stain or colouration

which

found

often

is

after

fixing

a

dis-

pyro-

developed negative.

Silver Stains. Bright metallic spots and brown or black ones due to silver

may be removed by immersing

of iodine in methylated

added

to

spirits.

the plate in a solution

Just sufficient should be

produce a solution of medium sherry colour.

the following formula

may be

Potassium iodide

..... preferred

:

Iodine (metal) sufficient to tion the colour of

I

part

20 parts

Water

make a

brown sherry

solu-

Or


BA R N E T BROMIDE CARD

CARD

P. O. P.

CARD GASLIGHT SELF-TONING CARD

THE ADVANTAGES TO BE DERIVED IN

USING THESE SEVERAL GRADES

ARE THAT PRINTS MADE

THEM

DO

NOT

UPON

ANY

REQUIRE

MOUNTING, AND ARE SERVICEABLE

FOR

SUCH-LIKE IN

ALL

REQUIREMENTS

SIZES. **

AND

CARDS

CHRISTMAS

**

«*

^

— «*

CUT «*


JOA SENSITIZED

Post Cards *•%*£•&

9

9

BROMIDE GASLIGHT SELF-TONING Glossy and Matt.

THESE

ARE

BEING

COATED

EMULSION

VERY

AS

POPULAR,

SAME

WITH

THE

PAPERS.


some useful formula.

277

Due To Ferricyanide Reducing-Bath.

Stains

such a stain as this the simple alum and may serve, but if not, then wash

To remove

hydrochloric clearing-bath

sulphite

and

10 per cent, solution of sodium

in a

and immerse

well

wash thoroughly.

finally

MOUNTANTS FOR

PRINTS.

Starch.

A

mountant

universal

of fine powdered

ful

is

made

Glenfield starch

is

cold water into a smooth thick batter

little

very fine slow stream of boiling or very hot

whole to

incessantly

kettleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; stirring

a

will

become

gelatinous,

and

used

it is

When

in this

teaspoon-

made

with very

next pour in a

;

waterâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; say, from presently the

in

it

first

thick as

just so

remove the whole

cold, the starch will

form by

:

meanwhile;

and when

admit of the spoon standing up

to a cool place.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;A

as follows

be a thick

jelly,

wetting with cold water the

mounting brush and then applying it to the jelly-like mass, This will as one does with a pan of moist water-colours.

A pinch spread on the back of the print. This stirring. whilst added be may alum powdered of destroyed and fresh, whilst used be only must mountant be

sufficient to

when

it

turns sour.

Gelatine Mountant. 200 grains

Soft gelatine

Soak

ounces

in 6

distilled

water for one hour

;

dissolve

distributed this by means of a water-bath or other evenly heat,

and add, a

spirit, stirring

any

be

constantly.

spirit separate out,

We

shall

at

little

Allow to cool and

remelt and add a

now have a

this

little

set.

more

thick, white, firm jelly,

heated to a condition of solubility

Should

methylated

a time, 2\ ounces

mountant prove too

and

Should water.

which must

so used.

thin,

gelatine may be increased from 200 to 300

the

amount of

grains.


278

Photography*

Pictorial

PHOTOGRAPHIC MEANS APPLIED TO ARTISTIC EXPRESSION.

" This

is

the merit

reality, to be not

and

distinction

Nature, but Nature's

of

Art :

more real than

be

to

It is the artist's function

essence.

not to copy but to synthesise, to eliminate from the confusion of actuality, is his raw material, whatever is accidental, idle, irrelevant, and

which

select for perpetuation that

only which is appropriate

and immortal."

W. E.

UT

a few years

HENLEY.

ago

would

it

have been necessary to apologise

introducing

for

book

like

to

into

a chapter

Photography

Pictorial

day,

this

a

on to-

;

no

handbook intended instruct and interest all of

classes chiefly

photographers,

the

beginner,

but

would

be complete without a section devoted to what has become by far the most popular branch or application of photo-

And

graphy. plete it

yet,

understanding

should

notwithstanding of what

be practised

is

it

not

those whose whole concern in

its

commeans and how

popularity, a

really

common

even

photography

is

amongst with

its

pictorial side.

The

very character of precision and prescription with

which photography becomes identified

during

the

time


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

279

when we are learning the technicalities of the process tend to make the student regard any possible pictorial quality as something to be contributed by observing some formula or rules

a result to be achieved by the addition of certain

;

very expression " picture-making," so com-

The

ingredients.

mon amongst made

We

use

because

have

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

an

is,

artistic

up of so much of

or built

and flavoured

the presence

betrays

us,

though a picture

idea as

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;could be

and so much of

that,

to taste.

term

the

the latter

evades useless

instead

pictorial

of

artistic,

first,

has become so misappropriated as to

proper significance

lost its

this

of this

conception

and, secondly, because

;

controversy as

whether

to

it

photography

applied to the expression of a personal idea or emotion

may be regarded

as an

clamour to be called

We

art.

our work into the picture

photographers need not

nor appeal for the admission of

artists

galleries, for

we may

by the great natural law which secures

that,

shall

survive,

when our productions

rest assured

that the fittest

are worthy they will

receive appropriate recognition, and secure a status which

no

spurious

won

position

by

importunity

and

much

argument could bestow.

The

reader of this chapter of the

should be loth to write

my

converts,

task

I

it.

being

to

am

best I can the I

am

is

I

not concerned in making

endeavour to explain what

constitutes a pictorial photograph,

attained.

Barnet Book

undesirous of argument or discussion as

probably as

means by which a

and then

to describe as

pictorial result

may be

well aware that to the artist the task of

reducing that which with him seems to be purely a matter of feeling, emotion, and personal impression to anything like figures

temptible

;

and formulae nevertheless,

will it

appear vain and even con-

has been by such a road,

first

seeking the help of another until able to find an inde-

pendent way of

their

own, that many of our leading and


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

280

acknowledged workers have

travelled.

do not think

I

the student anything that will mislead

shall tell

him harm, but whether he turns it to good account means to higher things must depend upon himself.

my

in imagination bearing

reader

ask him to consider what

will

camera

level

scene strikes our fancy

we swing

it,

it

side, focus

Now why

more than any other

portray this scene

another point of view

We

up goes the camera. it,

and there

is

have we selected

What determines our

scene?

particular

;

from side to

the view on the ground glass. that

company into the country, we do when we carry the

"take photographs."

into the field to

Some

as a

landscape and general subjects, and,

will turn first to

I

I

him or do

visible

wish

from

to

this or

?

Probably you have never paused to ask yourself that question

you

;

just liked

your camera and miniature, you please

you

Nature

is

;

it,

it

sure

feel

pleased you, and, as you

the reproduction

that

know

you an exact copy of

give

lens will

will

it

in

also

and, as you have always lived in the belief that

beautiful,

truth to Nature a

and

first

principle in

you are confident of securing a perfect picture, and

art,

upon

congratulate yourself

the

fact

with so

that

little

trouble you can accomplish what the poor creature with

and paint-brushes must spend hours

pencils

Wrong

wrong

all

!

We

!

in achieving.

photographers are so apt to

forget that during the years that the art student to use his tools he tivating ideas of

to

tree, a field

The

youthful tree or

single flower, a figure,

mark you

always regard or idea.

acquiring certain principles, and cul-

draw a single

of view,

Even

learning

which the photographer often enough has

never dreamed.

down

is

is

;

sets

himself

branch

of the

draughtsman only one

and so

forth

窶馬ot

the whole

and hence he gradually comes

to

Nature as centred round one chief object if

the photographer were of the same frame


BACKED PLATES ARE A DISTINCT ADVANTAGE

IN

MOST KINDS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK.

5

5

5

5

5

5

BARNET PLATES ARE SUPPLIED READY BACKED AT

A SMALL EXTRA CHARGE, AND THE

USER

IS

THEREBY

ALL TROUBLE AND q WITH

DISCOMFORT.

A BARNET PLATE BACKED,

OVER-EXPOSURE IMPOSSIBLE.

OF

REMOVED.

ALMOST

IS

THE BACKING

NOT POWDER AND FILM

SAVED

PLATE.

5

INJURE IT

5

DOES

IS

5

FOR

THE

EASILY

5

5

PRICES,

SEE END OF

THE BOOK.

K


FOR.

TOURISTS GREAT

IN

NO

OR ABROAD

BRITAIN

MORE

SUITABLE

PLATE CAN

ALL-ROUND

BE FOUND THAN THE

BARNET " MEDIUM "

PLATE THIS PLATE HAS

ABLE

A MOST REMARK.

LATITUDE,

MATES

IN

BARNET

SPEED

AND APPROXIBETWEEN

AND THE

"ORDINARY"

BARNET " EXTRA-RAPID." SPLENDID NEGATIVE,

DOUBT

WHAT

THE

IT

GIVES A

AND WHEN

IN

PLATE TO USE, YOU

WILL BE PERFECTLY SAFE

IN USING

BARNET " MEDIUM M


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

283

of mind, the very comprehensiveness of his process

detachment of

realise this

So much the

better, perhaps,

are able to secure so

Now,

much more

we go any

before

further, I

you

nonsense

will

Ah

of Nature's beauty.

may sound

nevertheless, I

;

because you

say,

want you to read patiently

the delivery of two statements which right heretical

fails to

interest.

like

am going to

down-

ask you

and believe them now unquestioned, and anon

to try

I

think you will see the truth and reason of them. First, then,

beautiful

Nature

is

not beautiful

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

mean, of course, from an

I

;

not always

is,

standpoint

artistic

and, secondly, to copy Nature faithfully as a looking-glass does,

and

do with

as the

The all

I will repeat,

Pictorial art

beautiful.

more

camera usually does, has nothing

pictorial art.

first

is

to lay

all,

spots

in

and does not go

down

is

please, attract,

it

must be evident

far

and even repellent

and even become famous

many artistic

is

in

the wood,

or aesthetic sense.

language or poetry

;

it

is

sense

qualities

is

the

music of

not music in the

Ordinary speech

is

not

artistic

there must be definite arrangement

composition, and so trees and flowers and falling just

literal

suitable for pictorial

Admirable and beautiful as

birds singing

kind

for a certain

propose presently to describe,

which are necessary ere that scene treatment.

want

I

which may

There are certain conditions and I

but this

;

enough, for the point

that there are scenes in Nature

in a natural sense, which

to

Nature and aspects and con-

of beauty, which are not in the narrowest or

"picturesque."

at all to

not necessarily

not a copy of Nature.

readily than the latter, because

that there are

not

is

statement the reader will probably endorse

ditions which are uninteresting is

Nature

anyhow, as oftentimes they do

hills

and

and

rivers

in the little bit of

Nature which we can include in our representation, may in a manner delight us, yet they

make any

lasting appeal

will

not when so depicted

to the senses,

and so

it

comes


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

284 about that

necessary to select carefully a point of view

it is

from which the various objects so group themselves as to be in accordance with

requirements of composition,

artistic

and the more so that the photographer can by so very alter

in his

picture the

positions of the

relative

little

various

objects. If,

then, one should

disapprove,

it is

that in Nature, because,

for

you

should have been

moment, or

pitious

"

for

Oh, but," say you, "

Very

that scene."

well,

of topographical value intrinsic

interest

to urge that

was not

do so

;

more complying.

wanted to photograph

but your photograph

is, it

like

suitable, the scene

subject

particularly

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

was

alone until a more pro-

left

some other I

it

time and from

at the particular

if

that particular standpoint Nature in question

your picture and should

criticise

no excuse

will

will

be

depend purely on the

of the objects included or the locality,

whereas the merit of a picture has nothing whatever to do with such particular interest, but tion to

its

general pleasing effect

satisfactory in propor-

is

and

power of appealing

its

to the imagination.

Composition, then, sideration

;

form our

will

but before proceeding

let

subject for con-

first

me

try

and explain the

second statement, that, even though the selected scene be well composed, a

good

constitute a

To

mere copy of Nature does not necessarily picture.

begin with, Nature

is

one thing and Art the expression

of the way in which Nature affects us

from

same

the

pictures differing

strongly

by

different

in

bringing

than others.

stamp of personality, feel just as is

he

felt

men,

get

alike in

out

some

is

it.

all

A

quite

different

form perhaps, yet each particular

his autograph,

like

about

Hence

another.

several

Hence each man's

not just an inventory of

at the time,

we

subject

feature

more

picture bears a

and makes you

picture in the proper sense

the things in the field of view

but using those things in a particular way so as


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

up your imagination, so

to stir

that

285

you hear the

trees or the bubbling of the

the breeze in the

warm sunshine and

rustling of

brook

imagination you

feel the

well as see the

mere representation of the one or the

mark you,

fluence of the other; and, is

soft winds, as

this hearing

and

in-

feeling

not conjured up by mental effort; you do not say to

wind must have

yourself, the trees are bent, therefore the

been blowing, or there

a light patch showing where the

is

sun was shining, therefore instantly,

and

must have been warm

thrill

one without

we

So, then, after Compositon,

And

Imagination.

if

you ask how

would remind you that

methods and

Anon you

rules

rules for yourself just as

but

just as

his seeking or asking

have to consider

shall

possible to

is it

art is artificial

which by observing

will resort to

;

responds to

and the emotions are quickened

music may suddenly why.

it

without reflection, the imagination

the representation,

I

in

;

do

this,

there are certain

;

at first will help you.

your own methods, and lay down

we

all

learn to write with pot-hooks

and hangers, and when we have mastered the copy-book pattern straightway adopt our

own way

and the pot-hooks and hangers of

may call The

of

general

principles

of pictorial art are as old as

not arbitrarily laid

they are

;

of the experience of

all artists,

down by any

been evolved out

particular set of teachers, rather have they

to

letters,

Construction, and this will form our third heading.

civilisation

means

making

photography we

pictorial

and whatsoever process or

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; pencil, camera, etching-needle or brush â&#x20AC;&#x201D; be applied

pictorial or

artistic

expression,

these

same

principles

obtain.

COMPOSITION OR SELECTION OF SUBJECT. The two terms used above are in photography nearly one thing, because we can to so limited an extent

and the same

compose or build up our because

it

does compose

subject; well,

we

and

therefore select

select

a

it

particular


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

286

view point, because from that

it

composes better than from

another.

Composition may be described as a certain symmetry of design or arrangement which the sesthetic

human

senses

demand

for

laws

of

enjoyment.

we obey

enough,

Curiously

certain

composition in nearly everything we do in

innate

life.

You put your

clock in the middle of the shelf and ornaments on either side to balance.

and the

Placing a chief thing in the middle

others grouped around cases, except

deliberately depart therefrom for the

when we

You

sake of variety.

place your studs in the middle,

fasten your clothes, so following the

on which our

is

the crude

and

same plan of symmetry

and bodies and indeed

faces

planned, and that

most

in orderly fashion prevails in

all

Nature

is

and primitive foundation of

we draw a design or a representation of some particular thing, we instinctively set it in or near the middle of our paper, so much so that if in a picture or design the chief object were not near the centre, we should at once

composition.

If

wonder why and seek

make why

it

gratifying

or

if

the paper were large enough to

new grouping and

the centre of a

;

satisfying

centrality of the chief object,

is

this is the

composition,

such

reason as

the

necessary in an artistic work

namely, that our sense shall be so appeased as to leave the feeling

and imagination

appeal.

Thus, an

entirely undisturbed to respond to its

artist

sketches in a cottage or perhaps

part of a cottage, a tree or a portion of the road, a head

and

shoulders and leaves the rest lest other matters should distract the attention

from the particular item which

it is

intended shall appeal to the emotions and imagination, yet just sufficient other details are put in or suggested as shall

avoid the work possessing an incomplete

The photographer

is

prompted by the same motive, he of view naturally focuses

effect.

not so free as the first

artist,

but,

in selecting his point

his attention

around the chief


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. object,

and so chooses

perforce fully include

us see

how

it

287

which he must

that other items

do not

disturb the chief interest.

this is exemplified in the

Let

accompanying three

sketches, which, let us suppose, represent photographs.

In Fig.

1

so often does.

we have an example of what the photographer

He

finds that his lens will include both the

ruined abbey and the farm-house, and both can be done with

no additional labour, and thus with an extravagance which costs

him nothing he spends the material

for

two pictures on

only one.

Fig.

i.

Notice, however, that the middle of the picture lacks interest

and there

is

no one

principal point of attraction, the

eye passing restlessly from the abbey to the house and back again, so that, should the picture

suggestion of atmosphere,

by

its

the glory

beautiful lighting,

of the

its

flowers, the

whisperings of breezes, and the far-off mystery of the

hills

please us, our senses would not be so completely at rest to

enjoy this appeal to our emotions.

and

There

is

want

of repose

centralisation of design.

In order to prevent

this division of attention

we include

only the farm-house, in order to do which our lens compels


2

barnet'book of "photography.

88

us to include Fig. 2,

|a

great expanse of uninteresting country as in

and the eye

" into one corner?

naturally asks, "

Compare

Fig.

in

Why

this

crowding down

the effect produced by Fig.

2.

which a considerable amount has been cut

more or

the chief object shall be

that

Fig.

shall

3,

off in order

less central,

and

The

gain

3.

have nothing included to detract from

it.

centralisation

and predominance has been

attained by sacrifice of area.

But the same may be some-

in

point

of


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. times

won by

Thus

a different means.

289

in Fig.

4 we have

an unpromising subject, in which several trees, all nearly equally important, give the eye no opportunity of centring on one

Fig.

central spot ; but

if

4.

we move away

the trees so that one

to the right

comes behind the

Fig.

other,

and look

and the

at

lane,

5.

instead of cutting across, leads as

we may get a pleasing group, for a moment what would be

as

it

were into the subject, in

Fig.

the effect

5.

Consider

on the senses

K*


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

290

which these two

different

arrangements would respectively

exert.

And now

notice that in Fig.

graceful flourish at the

arrangement

;

principle that in

itself

and

winding lane,

5 the

end of a

letter,

in this connection I

seems to help the

may

an object of comparatively

may become

like a

enunciate the

little

importance

the chief point of interest in pro-

portion as the principal lines in the composition converge

Thus

thereto.

in Fig. 6 the

convergence of lines on a tiny

gateway in middle distance make

it

a point on which the

attention focuses, to the ignoring of the big tree

Fig.

left.

one

6.

So powerful indeed are such feels the eye,

and therefore the

lines,

that in Fig.

is

nothing to interest

Evidently, then, the disposition of the chief lines

in a picture are of great importance in securing

position

;

7

attention, involuntarily

led to a central point, although there

us there.

on the

and

it

is

good com-

usually the course in such a treatise as

this to dwell primarily

and

composition of

I

lines.

beginner in pictorial

at considerable length

believe,

however,

that

photography has experienced

on the

many

a

difficulty

in reconciling the scenes he encounters with these diagrams,

because, of course, there are no real lines present in Nature


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. but continuous series of masses

and

tufts of grass

which

;

291

hummocks

like the

of

turf,

in Fig. 7 suggest lines, as outlines

(such as hedgerows and

one plane against

indicate

hills)

another.

Take, for instance, the example of a moorland scene

reproduced facing the

page

Hills" (though, here

294 and

convenient object-lesson).

Fig.

brightly lighted

and dark, as well

I

am

"Rain from aware of it

now

Notice that on looking at

on the

attention at once rests

light

say,

and merely choose

pictorial shortcomings,

and the

me

let

entitled

central

it

a

the

mass of dark rock

7.

ground below

as the

its

as

it.

This contrast of

happy arrangement of forms,

secures concentration of interest, although the rocks to the left

and the remote

hills

above and to the

admit of one's feeling any incompleteness. resolve the composition into

seen in Fig. of lines,

We

8.

and

position of lines

it

is

Next

do not let

composition, which

us is

have already spoken of convergence

whilst

present example,

its line

right

is

this

is

sufficiently

observed in the

also equally noteworthy that the dis-

of a mutually compensating character.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

292

Suppose, for instance, a different point of view were to give

an arrangement of change as the it

lines as

shown

in Figs. 9

and

10, not at

an impossible supposition, seeing how shapes seem to

all

light shifts

and changes.

Surely in this case

must be apparent that the one-sidedness of the

shade arrangement, and the lines

all

light

sloping one way,

is

and not

so satisfying to the eye as in the former example.

But the

limits of the present article forbid

longer on these points, nor

do

so, lest

seeming to

insist

am

Fig.

or arrangement of lines.

I

The

dwelling

sure that I should wish to

much on

too

my

a definite scheme

8.

beginner follows a code of rules

too closely, and in so doing defeats the end which those rules

seek to achieve, which

is

merely to suggest in a general way

certain principles, compliance with which, whilst far from

securing pictorial success, mitting obvious blunders.

may prevent

the beginner from com-

To follow

any prescribed plan of

composition so closely as to betray the fact that the work has

been so done, or arrange objects or so depict them that the lines of the composition are at once evident,

is

perhaps

worse than to err on the side of unsatisfactory composition.


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

The of

lines are to

293

be only the elementary scheme or skeleton

the composition, which the tones and masses of light

Fig.

and shade,

as

well

as

9.

the ideas

embodied, clothe with

beauty.

Fig. 10.

If the disposition of lines constitutes

symmetrical design that

it

is

at

such a perfectly

once recognised as being


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

294

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and â&#x20AC;&#x201D; then

symmetrical

Nature

wrong,

pleasing composition

the thing to be so as to

fall

and wish

sometimes occurs even

this

is

it

is

because the

attained

artificial.

make

artifice

and we

betrayed,

is

wild

in

by which

on the other hand, the

If,

feel

lines

the beholder conscious of their presence,

they were otherwise, then again they are

that

In neither case should lines or the arrangement of

wrong.

them be

sought

for,

whether they are accidental or deliberately introduced.

In

objects suggesting

art it is

until

at all

felt

a maxim that the means by which the thing

should not proclaim

A

itself.

is

done

composition should please

without our quite knowing why, and without our being able to see the machinery, as

it

were, by which our pleasurable

sensations are set in motion.

As has

already been suggested, the term lines

is

merely

a convenient form of speech, no lines existing in Nature

nor in the picture, a photograph consisting of tones

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

masses of light and shade.

is,

If,

when standing

before a

picture

and then suddenly open them, our from colour,

that

is

moniously arranged

and

first

;

our

attention

on the highest

chiefly

usually the former.

we

If

the objects constituting

light

and

shade

certain to rest

is

light

or deepest shadow,

retreat to

such a distance that

those lights and

recognisable, the general balance

of

close the eyes

impression, apart

of light and shade har-

of masses

but

we

first

should

shades are un-

and pleasing arrangement

still

remain.

This

quality of breadth, which the photographer often

understanding.

Now,

find

difficulty

light

and deepest dark possess the power of

attention,

it

in

follows that these should be

as

is

the

seems to

the

highest

riveting the

somewhere

in the

neighbourhood of the principal object, which, as already pointed out, will be near the centre of the composition.

With

respect

to

breadth,

let

it

be said that

if

the

various shadow masses are filled with innumerable details,


CO


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

295

so as to break them up into tiny lights and darks, they no longer exist as broad masses of shadow;

other hand,

on the

whilst,

they are of such uniform depth, and so

if

devoid of detail as to be mere empty dark spaces, we immediately feel that something has been with regard to the difficult question as to

and how sharp the picture should sufficient detail

and

sufficient

be,

sharpness should be admitted

as to avoid giving the idea that detail

been

Never

sacrificed.

to the facts of

Nature

;

it

Thus,

left out.

how much detail may be said that

forget,

it is

and

definition have

not a question of truth

the treatment of the subject must be

such that the pleasing effects of a good arrangement of parts is

secured without any obvious or flagrant

The

of truth.

sacrifice

delineation of sharp outlines, the redundance of sharp

detail, is

pedient

not wrong in

but both are usually inex-

itself,

when considered with

respect to the effect to be

produced. Similarly, the suppression of sharp focus, so often

condemned because misunderstood, has no itself

except as

it

with the general

The in

its

fact

is,

assists the picture to effect.

our photography

delineation, that

it

is

gives us

so faultlessly complete

more than the

A

worker needs for the expression of his idea.

may be

irreproachable as

an exposition of

process can achieve, and the subject even beautiful,

and

yet merely be a

thing beautiful which just as

merit of

artistic

impress the beholder

we may have a

is

photograph that the

all

may be

of

itself

good photograph of some-

not the same as being

fine

pictorial

picture which

is

pictorial,

but a poor

specimen of photography. Before leaving the subject of light and shade masses serious reference

must be made

to the subject of tone

and

the differentiation of planes, because in these two matters the beginner

is

commonly found

to

fail.

They may be

discussed simultaneously, being in fact inseparable.

ask the reader to remember a general

rule,

which

is

I

must

that the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

296

further off a dark object

the less dark

is

further off a white object

it

appears, and the

the less white

is

it

becomes, so

suppose we had objects in the foreground of the picture

that,

which were black and white, theoretically

at least,

a point somewhere in the distance at which,

if

there

the black

is

and

white objects were retired thither, they would be one and

same tone of middle

the it,

" half-tone."

The

relative " tone "

and darkness of objects

lightness

we commonly express

grey, or, as

—that

— depends

is,

the relative

on

their dis-

tance from the observer, this alteration of tone being due to the greater or less

volume of intervening atmosphere

;

but,

as white or very light objects are comparatively rare in average

landscape, the effect of atmosphere

upon dark

most commonly seen

is

objects, with the result that, generally speaking,

we may say

that

or greyer

becomes.

it

more

the

It

distant is

an object the

lighter

the atmospheric greying of

objects which contributes the valuable quality of suggesting

a standing out of nearer objects.

relief or

Look

at

an average photographic print and see how each

plane seems to stick to the other

the nearest tree seems

;

no nearer than the ones a hundred yards behind in turn

trees

which form the skyline.

walk round the various objects

move

space where figures might

and those more remote.

which

belt of

Study an average landscape

photograph and notice how rarely you

objects

it,

do not seem half a mile nearer than the

;

feel that

there freely

This

is

you could

no impression of

between the nearer

is

because the various

planes are not sufficiently differentiated by a difference of tone. in

On

Nature.

a clear day

seems, which tells

does sometimes actually happen

this

You know how near it

the distance sometimes

ought not to do, but in Nature mere colour

us something besides

;

we know

the distance

is

distant,

but the picture-maker must avail himself of this difference of tone

— must make every

effort to secure

it

in order to help the


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

which

of his picture,

eftect

Perhaps

affair.

after

is,

may be made a

this

297 only an

all,

artificial

clearer by another

little

reference to the reproduction of the picture " Rain from the Hills," in

middle

which the furthermost

and

distance,

of

in

boulders,

three planes are

all

rocks and heather, or the

but in the middle distance the light-coloured fern

like

;

or

grass

become lighter

still.

intervenes,

the

is

" is

more

Of if

its

have

rocks

similar

and

distant hills behind being greyer

course, in this case a considerable space

half a

must obtain

as

and so they form one mass of

lighter, tint,

objects

become toned down

have

middle

from

material,

similar

ridge

hill

group

each stand away from each other, yet

composed of

the

hills,

nearer

the

mile perhaps, but

the space between

The

but a few yards.

same

the

more

or

principle

remote

less

" standing-away-

effect of

not to be confused with stereoscopic effect

;

we do

not aim at counterfeiting solidity, but merely so to render the relative tones of objects that each appears to into

its

back

fall

proper place.

Photograph any scene on a clear east-wind day, and

when

again on a hazy day,

the distance

vening mist, and note the difference landscape

will

appear to go back

seems inextricably mixed up. by

this that

;

I

blue with inter-

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in

the

the

latter

in the former, everything

do

not,

of course,

we must only photograph on misty

mean

days, but

take the comparison merely as a lesson and endeavour to

import mist

is

much

of that quality which mist gives even

present,

and thus compensate

proneness to eliminate the

effect of

omission of atmosphere and all

photography's fault

adopted to secure

it

I

;

false

for

when no

photography's

atmosphere.

But

rendering to tone

this

is

not

but the practical means to be

had better touch on under the

third

heading of Construction.

Much

has

now been

said as to the picture conveying the


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

29S

and

ideas

artist's

emotions, and

complex and propose to

appeal to the spectator's feelings and

its

time

is

it

now

to turn to the rather

more

understood quality of a picture, which

less

I

under the heading

briefly deal with

IMAGINATION. The

who

recruit

as yet has hardly realised that a picture

can be aught but a simple copy of a well-chosen scene in

Nature may,

if

he

pass to the next

and give

a

it

leave this section for the present

like,

but anon

;

I will

patient

little

study,

imaginative quality of his picture plates

and paper he uses

We

to

him

assuring

that the

as essential as the very

is

make

and

ask him to return to this

it

with.

have already spoken of the desirability of the scene

possessing but one

more or

less central

chief object, the

subordination of other objects, lights, and shades thereto, the

convergence and balance of lines and masses, the absence of excess of

irritating

detail, the differentiation

by intervening atmosphere

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

all

essential qualities for the picture

reader to say in the

same

remember

how

but

Precisely, that is

that the picture ;

;

occur to the

will

it

rarely indeed will all these things

scene.

natural scene

of planes

equally important, indeed

that

is,

is

why

is

it

happen

consoling to

not necessarily a replica of the

we may,

if

we can, omit

or

add if by so

doing we can the more convincingly convey our idea.

what of

this idea ?

say that the idea it

is

Well, probably in

to be rather than as

In photography to

it

will

most cases the scene as we imagine it

it is

actually

not so

is.

difficult as

produce imaginative work

if

might be supposed

only

possess and will exercise his imagination. natural scene, let him, after

it

the

photographer

Looking

at the

having chosen the point of

view which seems most satisfactory, think

way

But

be simplest to

how and

might have been better, more attractive

in

what

in

its


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. arrangement,

in

softer

To

near contrasts.

its

bolder

grey distance,

in

its

the naturally artistic temperament this

some

glorification of the scene which, for it is

299

reason, attracts

instructive.

Notice that composition

but the rearrangement of

is

parts within or up'to the limitations of the process, circum-

or individual ability

stances,

imagined scene

of the

the representation

;

but the truthful rendering of the individual

is

impression, the scene as the individual thought he saw it

must be remembered

that

it;

for

an imaginative work must not

be confused with a mere fancy picture, which may be an

But a good imaginative work

extravaganza.

tinguishable from a transcript from Nature

looking at to

it it

what Nature ought

The make

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;that

to be, that it is

none without

positive

artifices

which

than would

dry bones of the noble picture

the

when we confront

thrill, this

know-

fact.

Fine selection or composition, accurate

delineation, are but

is

on

world only pretend to copy

finest pictures in the

us see and feel the original more vividly

which,

to say,

is

not true to incident and

reminding us of Nature by certain

an actual copy.

which

always indis-

appears so reasonable, so like Nature, so true

ledge could assert that

Nature

is

it,

thrills

us by reason of something

from the actual objects portrayed.

apart

stirring

of our emotions,

is,

think

I

This

may be

it

shown, due to the imagination of the producer, who takes in the whole

beauty of a scene at once

lighting, the form, or

his imagination

mind a more before

him

;

is

some character

at the

if

he

is

and because the

of a kind to which

time attuned, he sees in his heart and

beautiful, a

and

is

;

more

perfect scene than

a picture this glorified impression, then he the proper function of the for others,

is

successful in conveying by

artist,

which

is

is

but

actually

means of fulfilling

to interpret Nature

and make others see beauties and receive ideas

which they would never find in Nature

for themselves.

This, I think, accounts for the selection of

some

particular


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

300

may seem to have nothing Some detail, some form, some

subject which to another person

recommend

especially to

shadow or

or

light

it.

and

contrast, attracts,

a halo of glory around actually

is

it

imagines

;

another person,

to

it

much

it

So the painter might depict

it.

he

facts are

reproducing, and then anon,

disappointing

more

much

less beautiful

likely

!

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; he

is

when

the print

is

than

it

been said that the photograph

soul in the trees

Is not

for its inefficiency.

sentation with the soul of Nature

more

made, how

rudely awakened from his dream, or

blames the process

How

the story of thousands of photographs?

this

that

and enhance

and give us Nature as seen

it

thinking them to be, he goes through his process of

is

has

and

But what of the photographer ?

through his temperament.

Unconscious that the dry

it

it

all

it,

surrounding factors in the scene are subordinated to are robbed by imagination in order to emphasise

were

than

fairer

as he studies

and,

and

instantly

quite unconsciously the person attracted weaves as

left

is

out

?

But there

and flowers and swelling

sun-made image; the "soul" was

often

but a dead repre-

hills

is

no

than in

that which the man's

imagination created and which he has taken no care to

Hence

imprison.

these remarks on imagination to warn the

photographer that unless he take such steps, or so control

and unimaginative as

his process, all unsympathetic

how can

he hope that his picture will contain

actually there I

how

warned the

this

reader

that I

he

am

might pass over

It is

this

not prepared to say just

imaginative quality can be imparted, nor,

anyone.

is,

?

chapter and go to the next, for

is

it

what was not

I think,

not a thing of grains and ounces, but in

the next section, after giving with the brevity which circum-

stances compel such outline of

think the beginner

apply them as best little

use unless he

means and methods

as

I

may find useful, I shall leave him he may but means and methods are

to

;

is

also

awakened as

to

what end he

is

of to


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. apply them. of a picture

The photographer must

301

realise that the essence

the personal interpretation of Nature, and,

is

having certain means placed at his disposal, he

more

likely to

know

to

be successful

in their use than

if

at least

is

he did not

what end to employ them.

CONSTRUCTION, MEANS, AND METHODS. I

have devoted more space to motive, and shall give

less to actual

methods than perhaps the beginner would

wish, yet the apportionment which to be best,

and

have adopted

I

at least agrees with

what

The methods which

their relative importance.

I believe

I believe

to

the photo-

grapher bent on expressing his impressions of Nature

adopt

attaining

in

his

end are

be

may

and are limited

elastic,

perhaps only by his own resourcefulness in contriving to

modify and apply the technics of the process, as he has learnt

them through chapters devoted

ment, and the

like.

of technicalities is

is

That a more

to exposure, develop-

or less complete mastery

essential goes without saying.

born a genius (and the

Barnet Book

is

Unless one

not intended for

Beethoven or Mendelssohn

such), one cannot render

until

long after mastering the elements of music, or paint without learning

how

grammar; and graphy

is

to mix colours, or speak

and

for that reason this article

on

placed

the camera

last in

the book.

So now,

and looking on the focusing

write without

pictorial photo-

in setting

screen, or

it

up

may

be looking into the finder of the hand-camera, we see the scene which for some reason or other we have selected.

Now,

to use a

be used

hand-camera

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;implies

for pictorial

work

previous training with

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and

which the image can be seen and focused whilst

Having thereby learnt roughly the distance and best suited

for

typical occasions,

focusing scale and guess-work

;

it

may so

an instrument in it is seen.

lens aperture

one may work with a

but there must ever be a


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

302

The

degree of uncertainty. not, nor

size of

camera matters

the

we can

pattern, nor the lens used, so long as

its

see the image precisely as

will

it

come on

the plate and

place the sharpest degree of definition precisely where

we

desire.

Supposing, then, we have racked out the camera so that the view

"What So

far

reasonably sharp

is

may

the diffident one

;

focus sharpest, or what stop shall I

shall I

stop influences

as the lens

the exposure,

ask,

use?" this

dealt with in the article on Negative-making, which

is

comes

first in the present volume ; but, so far as the effect which any particular stop produces, and the appearance attained

by focusing sharply on one particular plane, or securing sharp definition throughout the picture,

or, as it is termed, " depth of focus," the reader should have perceived by this

time that taste

is

it

a purely personal matter, one for individual

and judgment

The

to decide.

sharp focus, the fuzzy picture,

one

that

in

which everything

such suppression an

effect

is

is

general suppression of

not more artistically right

is

critically sharp, unless

by

obtained which could not be

as well rendered by any other means. It is veritably

and, whilst there in the

a case of the end justifying the means, is

no

expedient

avoid

to

object of the scene

no question of

rule,

matter of focusing,

will

it

either

perhaps at

extreme.

naturally placed

is

right or

As

wrong

first

be found

the

principal

more or

less in the

centre of the picture, and light and shade, as well as other objects,

and the chief

lines in

the composition are, as far

as possible, so arranged as to concentrate attention principal object,

upon

focus sharply

Do

this,

will

will it.

all

be

recognisable,

;

on that

probably be but natural to

We

then, with the lens at

any stop at to

it

thus give

open aperture

first

chief attention.

it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that

is,

without

probably objects beyond and those close

so confused and

and

if

the

blurred

picture were

as

to

made

be like

hardly that

it


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

303

would be unpleasing, and the spectator would be made conscious of

imperfection

or

this

Next

incompleteness.

Suppose

the effect of the largest stop.

it

to

be/

8,

ground

try/n,

closely studying the altered effect

and

precise copy of all the facts

No, certainly

but

not,

promises

to suggest in the finished original

more

produced

may sound

?

view

?

of sharpness which print the impression

your imagination.

in

impossible until you begin to consider

For instance, suppose that

closely.

— what

in the

details

that degree

which the This

on the

and determining thereby the precise degree

glass,

of sharpness and depth best calculated to produce

it

if

does not sufficiently clear away the regions of blur and

confusion

A

try

and

one

tree

amongst the many which form a beautiful grove by reason of

its

form,

attracts

its

light

and shade, or some other character,

your notice and pleases you

;

instantly,

the

for

time being, this occupies a central position in your thoughts indeed, the entire universe

Other

trees,

mentally grouped around

is

thoughts quite subordinated

you are conscious of

;

presence, but only in a vague sort of fashion.

you to focus

all

their

Hence, were

equally sharply, so that on looking at the

print the spectator feels this will

it.

although as large and as distinct, are in your

them

all

to be equally pronounced,

not give particular prominence to the one object

which was chief in your imagination. rather crude example, but

it

may

This

but one

is

show what

suffice to

is

here meant by making the picture realise the mental impression or imaginative idea. as has been said, there can be best to focus most sharply principal

theme

— the raison

As a general no

d'etre

— of

other objects, other plants, be just so shall cause

to

make

them

to

rule,

although,

be found on whatever object forms the fixed rule,

it

will

the picture,

much

less

and

let

sharp as

be subordinate, yet not so unsharp as

the want of definition immediately noticeable.

In landscape subjects, when we have perhaps an

attrac-


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

304

foreground very close at hand which we wish to render

tive

do so and

defined, but to

well

moderate sharpness sitate the

same time secure

at the

in the rest of the picture

use of a small stop, which possibly

would neces-

movement due

wind prohibits because of the consequent long exposure

to

in such case the swing

may

back of the camera

By swinging

accessory.

is

a most valuable

the top of the back outwards

we

get the foreground quite sharp, as well as the distance,

with even the largest stop. useful

when on one

Similarly, a side swing

bank or bed of reeds which come very In

all

is

we have a

side of the picture

often

flowery

close to the camera.

these matters of focusing the student must ever

keep in mind that as the view appears on the focusing screen so

will

it

be on the plate when developed.

The

character of the picture, the accuracy or otherwise of the rendering,

is

irrevocably decided when, having selected the

front of view and focused

it,

the lens

is

capped preparatory

The beginner

to placing the plate in the camera.

too often

appears to perform the necessary acts for the production of negative according to set rules, possessed of a blind

his

confidence that

which

do

more there

will all

come

right in the end, instead of

should

screen

be thoughtfully

and the questions asked of one's

studied, that

it

ground-glass

the

?

central ? "

self,

"

How

will

Should the view be higher in the plate or lower or less so, sharper here

Then,

if

or

more

diffused

the result be right or wrong, good or

bad, you will at least feel that you have been personally responsible

instead

of having

left

the

matter

to

blind

chance and the accident of an unsympathetic machine.

In the matter of exposure you

by such knowledge of the perusal of if

craft as

some of the preceding

will

be mainly guided

may be

acquired by the

articles in this

book

;

but

a wrong exposure will give you the effect you want better

than what an exposure table

wrong exposure by

all

tells

means.

you

is

correct, then give a

Experience goes to show


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. that a long or full exposure

the darkest shadows

is

305

by which means even

best,

and blackest objects have time

produce some impression on the plate

;

Nature there

for in

hardly any such thing as an entirely empty space,

be so dark as to possess

shadow

no

detail at

all,

for, if

yet there

to is

a is

always a play of light reflected from the surroundings.

Quite apart from the actual objects which go to make up the scene, the composition often depends mainly on the contrast of light and dark colours ; it is hence of utmost

importance that the plate used should be of such a kind that it

will

render the relative lightness and darkness of these

colours precisely as

suitable sine

or light

screen

filter

in

conjunction with a

should be regarded as a

qua non.

Remember

that the part of the scene

namely, the sky and is

Nature, and on this

they appear in

account an orthochromatic plate

its

above the sky

cloudsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; is as important as

between the foreground and horizon, and

sensible to photograph the sky

and leave

it

all

line

that which

were just as

the rest blank

white as to photograph the landscape and leave out the sky supposing, of course, that the sky

view is,

;

is

included in the

field of

and here we see how essential an orthochromatic plate

for, if

used with a suitable screen, the clouds,

or, if

there

are none, then the clear sky, can always be correctly rendered on the same plate as the view ; and yet one hears of " sky

and landscape on one plate " as though it were a great But if a landscape be rendered passably achievement. and the sky comes quite white, it follows that everything in the landscape of the same colour or tone as the sky well,

has also been falsely rendered,though perhaps our perceptions are not sufficiently trained to notice

Again, because in

it.

the brighter objects the intensity of light obliterate the

more

delicate tones

exposure the backing of the plate

mere precaution

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it is all

and is

may be such

detail,

as to

during a long

something more than a

but essential.


BARNET BOOK OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

306

For

a backed

pictorial work, then,

all

rapid

ortho-

chromatic plate should be employed.

Develop

and avoid any great degree of

for gradation

Just as a

density.

full

exposure was given in order to

prevent empty solid blacks, so one should in development

keep the high

The

whites.

print, the

lights thin

to escape rendering solid hard

printing process to be used, the colour of the

shape and even the

must all be determined by

size,

the effect desired and the capability of any particular process to give that effect.

The

pictorialist is

using just so

him

;

an autocrat, acknowledging no laws,

of the possibilities of a process as suits

he must also be something of an experimentalist,

and

trying this

His

much

field

that to see

of operations

is

unlimited

subjects from anywhere, and,

pleases it

him or

will yield

if it

;

what he

desires.

he may choose

his

remembering that whatsoever

strikes his fancy, his

The

appealed to him, and why.

purpose

show others

that his representation shall

is

so to render

precisely

what

actual concrete objects

included are to be merely the vehicles of his abstract ideas,

and are not depicted on account of any to their existence.

An

artist

a pure invention, having no yet

it

will

be not the

less

grapher must depend in the picture

may

real existence

good first

and not a mere record

and the pleasure

it

interest attaching

paint a picture which

artistically.

aimed

at,

then

if it

;

but, if a

its

value,

should give, are not dependent on the

fact that a real place or subject is represented.

follows that

The photo-

place on realities

is

is

anywhere, and

Hence,

it

were possible to introduce into the picture

something that was not present, but seemed likely more fully to express the idea, or if

which so

;

is

and

erasing,

not desirable, to

it

some extent

it

were possible to omit that

would be perfectly legitimate this

may be

to

do

achieved, not actually

but by so printing that such parts shall be less

obtrusive.


PICTORIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

Having produced the negative

in

307

a manner calculated

as far as possible to convey the impression desired, a very large

from

amount of control can be exercised it.

whilst printing

Screening the light for such parts as

should print

lighter,

and

either

not, letting the light operate

which by toning down

will

it

seems

fit

removing the negative or

on those parts of the print become almost obliterated

such methods for dodging or faking would of themselves

form a subject for an entire chapter, and space in these pages

is

insufficient

;

and hence the student

books wherein these matters are treated of

is

referred to

at length.

A. Horsky Hinton.


INDEX. Aberration, Chromatic

.


3io

INDEX.


312


BaLinet Roll Films Orthochromatic and Non-curling.

Cameras.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;very

rich

exposure.

For

all

daylight loading

Perfectly coated with an extremely rapid emulsion in

Silver

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; giving

an enormous latitude

in


Harriet Plates APPROXIMATE SPEEDS: H.&D.

Speeds and Qualifications.

1


Ill

Burnet Plates ORTHO. atncl NON-ORTHO.


V

Barnet Self-Toning Peeper

^

*^^V>i

GLOSSY AND MATT. aM^*^

fc

*

1

GsiiOligD i

'"THE

Toning

usual

Bath

dispensed

is

with and permanency is

by reason amount

assured

the liberal

of

Q

This

others of

Paper

ahead

quite 1

^ ^

itself.

stands of

— whole

all

batches

uniformly

prints

^

toned.

28 pieces

3i ., 2\ 3i „ 3| 3J „ 3i 4i „ 3J 4J ., 3i

20 16

5

„ 4

6

..

„ .,

12

28

7

„ „ „ „ „ „ „

4

,,

6

,.

19 15

6i „ 4f 7 „ 5

12

7i ,. 5 8* „ 6J 10 ,, 8

10

11

„10

d.

6 6 6 6 6

,.

14

12

^

s.

2| by 2\

of

gold contained in the

Paper

PACKETS. Inches

1 1 1

1

GROSS BOXES ^1

Has proved

versal 1

a

uni-

3£ by 2i 3§ „ 2g 5£ „ 4 5| ., 4 8 „ 6

favourite with

Professional

Photo-

graphers and

Amateurs

^

alike.

^

9 6 8

16

6

TUBES. 24J by 17

PS!!®|§SD

...

* i

L 1+

•)*

>

A.lso

made

in the fine

2 sheets.

.

1

11

D

pi

.

5

8

12

.11

card grade.

POST CARDS. 12 in Packet and 2 Masks, 5^

in.

by 3£

in.,

1,'-


Burnet

Bromide Papers.

LUSTRA MATT PLATINO MATT PLATINO MATT CARD ORDINARY (Special

Smooth.

Smooth and Rough. Cream Crayon. Matt and Glossy.

Smooth and Rough. Extra Brilliant.

Enlarging)

ENAMEL SURFACE

Pink and White.

AND

" ——

TIfwFIR 1U1>IUVIL< * *V»*^*V TOMfwIJET. —— — — ^— 2A

n. n.

U

by \% ,, 2J 2^ 2*

—m

A

specially rough paper of the grade for EXHIBI-

Whatman

TI0N

pi CTURES

in.

24 sheets 6d. 24 „ 6d. 24 61. 16 61.

in. in.

in.

4*

2J

in.

12

3J

31

in.

12 6

SHEETS. in

Packet. s.

4i

d.

61. 61. 12

SHEETS

in

Packet.


Burnet Gaslight Pampers ^

AND ORDINARY.

GLOSSY

THE MOST PERFECT QUALITY.

PRICES. Inches

s.

2Aby

If

2J 3i

24 2£

n 3i 4£ 5

,. ,.

..

^\ 3i 4 ,. ,. 4i „ 42 „ „

6* 7J 8

,,

8J

10 12

h

5

,.

6 6J 8 10

12J

..10J

15

„12

151 18

,.121

23 25

„15 „I7 „2I

d.

3

18 pieces

26 20

6

18 15 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

6 6 6

Gaslight V» Post Cards.

6

In Packets of 12,

9 10

with

1

3

1

9

2 2

4 4 6 6 9 12 18

2

Masks.

ONE SHILLING.

i

9 2 6

S.

6 6 6 6 6 6 6

3

9 6 6

sheets

2 2

if.

2

3 3 5

6 9

ROLLS. 10 feet by 24J

25 25 25 25 25 25

I

1

..

in.

wide

15

20 22 25 30 40 Gross Box (144 (72 .,

s.

d.

8

6

13 17

3

20 22 26 35

sheets), .,

)

5|

in.

by 4

in.

10

5

6


Barnet Carbon Tissue STOCK COLOURS. 1

2 3

4 5

Red Chalk Terra Cotta Barnet Brown Sepia Warm Sepia

Any

CD

in

Doz. 0/5

Carbon Tissue

evj

2

oo

<

X

-a

Green

•TISSUE.

TISSUES.

MM*

CO

Grey

Brown Marine Blue Brown *14 Sea Green 15 Italian

INSENSITIVE

INSENSITIVE TISSUES.

Blue Black

11 12 13

6 St'dard 7 Purple

SENSITIVE OR

8 Purple 9 Warm Black 10 Eng. Black

Doz 0/8

to

oo

Doz. Doz. Doz. Doz 0/10 1/6 2/0 3/0

Doz. 4/0

OS

X

6/6

«

3/6

0/7

I/O

1/3

2/0

3/0

4/0

5/6

in

2/0

ft. in,

ft. in.

12X24 6X24 3*24 8/6 4/6 2/6

'FINAL SUPPORTS. BAND

For Single Transfei

ft.

Medium Thick .

Tinted Rives'. Toned Etching

0/2 0/2 0/3 0/3 0/3

0/3 0/3 0/4 0/4 0/4

0/4 0/8 0/4 0/8 0/5 0/10 0/5 0/10 0/5 0/10

1/0 1/0 1/4 1/4 1/4

2/0 2/0 2/0

2/0 2/0 2/8 3/0 2/8

0/6

0/9

1/0

2/0

3/6

4/6

6/0

0/6 0/6

0/9 0/9

1/0 1/0

2/0 2/0

3/6 3/6

4/6 4/6

6/0 6/0

0/3 0/3 0/3

0/4 0/4 0/4

0/5 0/9 0/6 0/10 0/6 0/10

1/2 1/4 1/4

1/9

2/6 3/0 3/0

0/7 1/0

0/9

1/0

1/8

1/6

2/6

4/6

2/4 3/3 4/6 8/6 15/0 24/0

1/6 1/6

in.

12*30 2/9 3/0 3/6 4/0 3/9

Drawing Papers Whatman Hand-made (rough)

1/0

Joynson's Hollingsworth's

per

sheet,

30 by 22.

For Double TransferMedium Thin .

2/0 2/0

BAND 3/0 3/6 4/0

•TEMPORARY SUPPORTS Flexible

£•

"I

colour.

Transparency Tissue Black only.

Tinted

o

K« O

•".

w

ft.

Thin

.5

a.. ">

-a in

Temporary Support

Rigid Temporary Support (ground opal)

Waxing Solution. Collodion. Squeegees. Thermometers Actinometers, .

Sets of Trays. SZgLc, *3Zc, stocked. Sensitive Tissues are supplied. Per band, 7/6. Sensitive Transparency Tissue—

Per J band.

9/6.

,,

Per \ band.

4/0. 5/0.

,,

0ZenS SUpplied from 8i by 6i upwards if required, but below that * Mri(4 NOTE.—Both Final and Temporary Supports are cut with a sufficient

2/6. 3/0.

sire, dors. only.

margin

to

admit

of proper Transfer.

SAMPLE PACKET

supplied Post free against Cash remittance containing 1 doz. assorted Tissue 3 pieces Temporary Support 3 pieces Single lec s Toned Etchin e Paper 6 pieces Final Support •-••— and Pamphlet ti^.1 all ii ? 5 giving instructions ... fin (half-plate)

;

;

:

;

-

;

...

Sample Packet

(ditto quarter-plate size)

...

...

Retouching Medium, 6d. per

ELLIOTT & SONS.

1/3

...

bottle.

Ltd.. Barnet. Herts.

ENGLAND.


IX

Barnet Sensitised Post Cards

Size 5| in.

by 3i in.


ELLIOTT

<S

SONS. LTD.,BAKNET


Profile for Cezar Popescu

The Barnet Book of Photography  

8th ed, 1905 by Herts Barnet

The Barnet Book of Photography  

8th ed, 1905 by Herts Barnet

Profile for piticu
Advertisement