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FIRST AID IN THE WORKPLACE URGENCY MANAGEMENT

D AT E


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

CARDIAC ARREST Arresto cardiaco BSL

Posizione di sicurezza

Sudden Cardiac Death BRUSH AND UNEXPECTED CESSATION OF CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY ACTIVITIES WITH OR WITHOUT PREVIOUS PREMONITORY SIGNS IN SUBJECTS WITH OR WITHOUT KNOWN CARDIC DISEASE CLINICAL PICTURE REPRESENTED BY THE SUDDEN CESSATION OF THE CIRCLE IN A PATIENT WHO DOES NOT EXPECT TO DIE AT THAT TIME


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

ABOUT 1 EVENT / 1000 INHABITANTS / YEAR NO response NO breathing NO circulation

CA


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Diagnosis Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

Diagnosis of cardiac arrest is clinical: •no response •no breathing •no circulation


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Causes

Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• PRIMARY Arrhythmias during ischemia or infarction Primitive arrhythmias • SECONDARY Hypoxia Bleeding Respiratory arrest is followed in a few minutes by cardiac arrest


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Causes Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

PRIMARY CARDIOGENIC VF, VT, asistoly

SECONDARY

SLOW ONSET RAPID ONSET

Asphixia

Hypoxia Hypovolemia

Respiratory Coma Failure Shock


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest INDIRECT CAUSES OF CARDIAC ARREST Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

ASPHIXIA - non-respirable atmosphere - airway obstruction

- hypoventilation / apnea - drowning TRAUMAS OR OTHER DISEASES may directly cause CA


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest WHEN THE HEART STOPS Arresto cardiaco

• no oxygen reaches the tissues BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• cells pass to anaerobic metabolism (they do not use oxygen)

• they accumulate harmful acid metabolites • energy reserves are used up • organic damage begins until cell death


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

HYPOXIC CEREBRAL DAMAGE

4 - 6 MINUTES WITHOUT CIRCLE: CEREBRAL DAMAGE STARTS AFTER 10 MINUTES: CERTAIN CEREBRAL DAMAGE ( (EXCEPT PARTICULAR SITUATIONS)


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

SURVIVAL TIME OF THE CNS IN CASE OF ANOXIA Brain (cortex) 4-5 min Encephalic trunk 15 min

Spinal cord 45 min


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

The rhythm most frequently causes cardiac arrest (80-85%) is the VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

THE ONLY EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR FV AND TV WITHOUT A WRIST IS ELECTRIC DEFIBRILLATION


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest Arresto cardiaco

CA – Avoidable Deaths? VF – Ventricular Fibrillation

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

 85 %

VT – Ventricular tachycardia


TITLE: ARRESTO CARDIACO

Cardiac arrest % surivival

The probability of successful defibrillation decreases rapidly over time

Arresto cardiaco 100

BSL

90 80

Posizione di sicurezza

70 60 50

About 10% per minute (without CPR)

40 30 20 10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

time

7

8

9

10

11


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco

VITAL FUNCTION SUPPORT

BSL

BLS

Posizione di sicurezza

(BASIC LIFE SUPPORT)


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

THE PURPOSE OF THE BLS IS TO MAINTAIN A VENTILATION AND A SUITABLE CIRCULATION UNTIL AVAILABLE MEANS ARE MADE TO TREAT THE CAUSE OF ARREST


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco

MAIN PURPOSE OF BLS

BSL

Posizione di sicurezza

TO PROVIDE AN EMERGENCY OXYGENATION TO DELAY BRAIN DAMAGES


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

CPR CAN SLOW DOWN THE EVOLUTION CLINICAL DEATH (ABSENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MOVEMENTS, RESPIRATORY ACTIVITY AND CIRCULATORY)

BIOLOGICAL DEATH (CELL DEATH)


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support DEATH Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

CLINICAL DEATH -termination of vital functions still reversible -absence of consciousness, circle, breath -evolution within minutes to irreversible lesion of the central nervous system cells BIOLOGICAL DEATH - irreversible destruction of the subcellular structures, of the cells and of the parenchyma - irreversibility of cellular and sub-cellular changes


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco

SURVIVAL CHAIN the tightness of each individual ring determines the overall hold of the chain

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

118

CPR


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support LIMITS OF THE BLS Arresto cardiaco BSL

Posizione di sicurezza

• it is not usually able to resume an absent cardiac or respiratory function • it must quickly achieve advanced treatment (ACLS) • it slows down but does not prevent the natural evolution towards biological death


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support WHAT A CORRECT CPR CAN DO? Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• generate a cardiac output no higher than 2030% of normal • transport oxygen to tissues in limited quantities WHAT A CORRECT CPR CANNOT DO? • Make the heart start beating again


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

OPENING OF THE AIRWAYS


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco

CONSCIOUSNESS BSL Posizione di sicurezza

Evaluate response to call Responsive → conscious

not conscious

Call 112


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco

AIRWAYS

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

Evaluation of airways breathing: Recovery position

Re-evaluate peiodically

no breathing: start CPR


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• EVALUATE CONSCIOUSNESS • ALERT 112 • OPEN AIRWAYS ((WATCH-LISTEN-HEAR FOR 5-10 SECONDS IF THERE IS BREATHING))


TITLE: BSL

BLS - Basic Life Support Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• ((FIND THE POSITION FOR THE MASSAGE)) PRESS STRONG AND RAPIDLY AT THE CENTER OF THE CHEST - DEPTH AT LEAST 5 cm. in adults • START WITH 30 COMPRESSIONS MINIMUM FREQUENCY 100 compressions / MINUTE • ALTERNATE 2 VENTILATIONS OF THE DURATION OF A SECOND WITH 30 COMPRESSIONS • DO NOT STOP


TITLE: POSIZIONE DI SICUREZZA

Recovery position Arresto cardiaco BSL Posizione di sicurezza


TITLE: POSIZIONE DI SICUREZZA

Recovery position Arresto cardiaco

BSL Posizione di sicurezza

• Unconscious pt • Breathing position present • No trauma


THANK YOU!

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