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THE MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES THE DISEASES


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Consciousness can be defined as the insight on himself/herself and on the environment around. Alteration of consciousness

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

• Fainting • Syncope • Coma


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Fainting Short-lasting malaise with ear buzzing, lowering of vision, sweating, coldness, feeling of next loss of feeling, nausea and / or vomiting

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Recovery position Check respiration and circulation

DO NOT GIVE LIQUIDS TO DRINK DO NOT GIVE ALCOHOL


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche

Syncope • Sudden loss of consciousness, of short duration, with spontaneous resolution. Generalized muscle weakness with inability to stand still upon awakening

• Patient evaluation • Call 112

Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

• Recovery position (even if patient is awaken)


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Syncope

DO NOT TRY TO AWAKEN PATIENTS WITH «SALI» OR BY SHACKING THEM DO NOT GIVE FLUIDS TO DRINK DO NOT GIVE ALCOHOL


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico

Coma Prolonged loss of consciousness with a lack of response to verbal, tactile and pain stimuli

Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

CAUSE • Head trauma • Cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage • Metabolic alterations • Intoxications • Other


TITLE: DISTURBI DI COSCIENZA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Alteration of consciousness

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Coma

Patient evaluation Call 112 immediately Head-to-toe examination Recovery position

Close surveillance of the patient until the arrival of the health specialists


TITLE: ACCIDENTI C.V.

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Acute cerebrovascular events

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Deficit of vascularization that involves an anoxic suffering of the brain cells involved Transitory ischemic attack (TIA) Ictus cerebri


TITLE: ACCIDENTI C.V.

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Acute cerebrovascular events

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

The formation of a thrombus or presence of an embolus determines a sudden block of brain vessel, with blood flow arrest towards an area of ​the brain. If the sudden block spontaneously resolves within a few minutes, there is no cell death, that occurs instead in the case of cerebral infarction.


TITLE: ACCIDENTI C.V.

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Acute cerebrovascular events

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Transitory ischemic attack (TIA) temporary and limited brain dysfunction with rapid onset and rapid resolution

Ictus cerebri Severe acute and sudden alteration of brain function due to death or persistent and / or permanent neurological deficits


TITLE: ACCIDENTI C.V.

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Acute cerebrovascular events

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

General neurological signs & symptoms • • • • • • •

Sudden severe headache Fainting/syncope Alteration of the consciousness Convulsions Breathing alterations Amnesia, sweating Loss of sphincters’ control


TITLE: ACCIDENTI C.V.

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Acute cerebrovascular events

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

General neurological signs & symptoms • • • • • •

changes in the motility of a body district alterations in sensitivity to a body district visual and language disorders balance disorders ear buzzers difficulty swallowing


TITLE: INSUFF. RESPIRATORIA

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti Accidenti C.V. C.V.

Respiratory Failure

Insuff. respiratoria

Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore

Lesioni da freddo

Respiratory failure or dyspnea is secondary to the impossibility of the lung to ensure adequate oxygenation of the blood


TITLE: INSUFF. RESPIRATORIA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Respiratory Failure

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico

- Medical causes: pulmonary, bronchial, cardiac and high-airways diseases -

Traumatic causes: inhaled foreign bodies, chest trauma, drowning, electrocution

-

Toxic causes: intoxication from environmental gases, from smoking, drugs

-

Pulmonary (asthma, infections): hissing breath

Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Cardiac (oulmonary edema): “Bolle d’Acqua” breathing


TITLE: INSUFF. RESPIRATORIA

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Respiratory Failure

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Reassure the person Sitting or semi-sitting position Eliminate environmental impediments (smoke, irritant powders) or personal (loosen belt, tie) Quiet environment waiting for help Personal pharmacological therapy if prescribed (asthma)


TITLE: ASMA

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Asthma

Insuff. respiratoria

Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock

Asthma is a disease characterized by an inflammation of the airways and a hyperreactivity of the bronchial muscles to different stimuli.

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

The asthmatic attack is characterized by a different degree of airway obstruction and can lead to respiratory arrest


TITLE: ASMA 2/3

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Asthma

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Acute crisis Sudden respiratory difficulty with bronchial muscle spasm and consequent reduction in the size of the bronchi

Triggering causes • infections, allergies • inhalation of irritant substances (solvents, gases, etc) • stress, physical activity, emotions


TITLE: ASMA

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Asthma

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Crisi acuta Difficulty mainly expiratory Exhaustive noises (whistles) audible even by those close to the patient Dry cough Use of the respiratory muscles of the thorax agitation Tendency to maintain sitting position


TITLE: OSTRUZIONI VIE AEREE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Airways obstruction

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Partial obstruction - dyspnea, cough, possible inspiratory hisses Complete obstruction - impossibility to speak, breathe, cough - universal choking signal (hands in the throat) - rapid cyanosis - possible loss of consciousness


TITLE: OSTRUZIONI VIE AEREE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Airways obstruction

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Conscious person If the obstruction is partial, encourage the victim to cough If the victim becomes weak and he stops coughing or breathing, give up to 5 backbones between the shoulder blades if the shots do not have Heimlich maneuvers (abdominal compressions) standing - continue alternating 5 backbone strokes and 5 abdominal compressions


TITLE: OSTRUZIONI VIE AEREE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Airways obstruction

Insuff. respiratoria Asma

Conscious person

Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico

Dorsal hit

Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Abdominal compression (HEIMLICH maneuver)


TITLE: OSTRUZIONI VIE AEREE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Airways obstruction

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico

Unconscious person 1. Try up to 5 insufflation

Shock

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

2. Even if not efficacious, start with 30 external thoracic compressions 3. Check the oral cavity 4. Keep going with the BLS 30/2


TITLE: OSTRUZIONI VIE AEREE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Airways obstruction

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Unconscious subjects Removal of foreign bodies Do not blindly scan with your fingers to try to remove foreign bodies Open the mouth by lifting the jaw and tongue, using one or two fingers View the oral cavity and any foreign body and remove it


TITLE: DOLORE TORACICO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Chest pain

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Cardiac LOCATION retrosternal, infrascapular, stomach

IRRADIATION shoulder and / or left arm, throat, jaw SYMPTOMS sense of "Weight", intense sweating, nausea and / or vomiting, agitation, distress


TITLE: DOLORE TORACICO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Chest pain

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Signs of heart attack alarm Chest pain irradiated to the jaw, throat, upper limbs or epigastralgia

Epistassi

Dyspnea

Diabete

Asthenia

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Nausea, vomiting, sweating Following stress, emotional stress, at rest


TITLE: DOLORE TORACICO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Chest pain

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Cardiac •Reassure the person •Sitting or semi-sitting position •Prevent efforts and movements •Check pulse and breath •Eliminate personal impediments •Quiet environment waiting for help •Collect clinical history •Personal pharmacological therapy if prescribed


TITLE: DOLORE TORACICO

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Chest pain

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico

Pulmonary It can get worse with deep breathing

Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

May get worse after coughing (pinching pain)


TITLE: SHOCK

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Shock

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

It is a complex and dangerous syndrome; it can start with a lipothymia or a syncope Causes • Heart attack • Hemorrhage • Burns • Allergic reaction • Other


TITLE: SHOCK

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Shock

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

SIMPTOMS • • • • • • •

Confusion Torpor Hypothermia Pallor Tachypnea and shallow breathing Tachycardia Radial pulse weak


TITLE: SHOCK

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Shock

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

First Aid Patient evaluation Call 112 Recovery position Cover the patient to avoid hypothermia Treat the external hemorrage if present

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

DO NOT GIVE FOOD OR BEVERAGES


TITLE: CONVULSIONI

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Convulsions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Epilepsy

Dolore toracico

Febrile convulsions (children)

Shock

Brain tumor

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Localized or generalized

Reazioni allergiche

tonic phase

Punture d’insetto

clonic phase

Patologie da calore

post-critical phase

Lesioni da freddo


TITLE: CONVULSIONI

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Convulsions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

TONIC PHASE (up to 30’) Sudden loss of consciousness, fall to the ground, rigidity, possible apnea CLONIC PHASE(1-2’ up to 5’) Violent and rhythmic contractions, cyanosis, foaming at the mouth, feces and urine loss

POST-CRITICAL PHASE (from few mins up to 30-60’) Period of unconsciousness (variable duration), confusional state, sometimes headache


TITLE: CONVULSIONI 3/4

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Convulsions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Call 112 Protect the patient from accidental trauma by removing dangerous objects

Do not use force to immobilize the patient Place a soft object between your teeth and under your head Eliminate personal constraints (belt, tie, etc.)


TITLE: CONVULSIONI 4/4

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Convulsions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

DO NOT FORCE THE PATIENT DURING THE CONVULSION ATTACK • Recovery position after the attack, if breathing


TITLE: EPISTASSI

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Nose bleeding

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock

1. Patient sitting with head forward (sniffing position) 2. Compress bleeding nostril on the septum 3. Ice at the root of the nose

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Trauma Hypertensive crisis Coagulation disorders / anticoagulant therapy Local vascular alterations


TITLE: EPISTASSI

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Epistassi

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

DO NOT TAKE BACK HEAD DO NOT PLUG


TITLE: DIABETE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Diabetes

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Dolore toracico

The body's inability to maintain blood sugar (blood sugar) at normal levels

Shock Convulsioni

HYPOGLYCEMIA = low blood sugar level

Epistassi

Hypoglycemia symptoms:

Diabete

• Sudden onset behavior anomalies

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

• Profuse sweating


TITLE: DIABETE 2/2

Disturbi della coscienza

Diabetes Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Give glucose orally when

Dolore toracico

Known diabetic patient (in insulin therapy)

Shock

Patient presents altered sensory

Convulsioni

Conscious patient able to swallow (present airway protection)

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo


TITLE: REAZIONI ALLERGICHE 1/2

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Allergic reactions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma

Abnormal immune response

Ostruzioni vie Aeree

Insect bites

Dolore toracico

Foods (peanuts)

Plants

Epistassi

Drugs

Diabete

Other (powders, soaps, makeup, etc)

Shock Convulsioni

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

The course of the allergic reaction is NOT predictable An allergic reaction can develop from a few seconds to tens of minutes


TITLE: REAZIONI ALLERGICHE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Allergic reactions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Skin: itching, urticaria (ponfi), erythema, swelling, sense of heat, tingling Respiratory system: sense of constriction in the throat or thorax, cough, tachypnea, respiratory fatigue, hoarse voice, wheezing Cardiovascular system: tachycardia, hypotension Shock: alteration of mental state, dry reddened treatment, pale sweaty cold, nausea and vomiting, alterations of vital signs General symptoms: lacrimation, headache, rhinorrhea, deep distress


TITLE: PUNTURE D’INSETTO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Insect bites

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete

• Erythematous, itchy pomphus •Pain in puncture •Generalized malaise •Generalized urticaria •Nausea and vomit •Dyspnea •Allergic reaction up to anaphylactic shock

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Remove the sting (bee)


TITLE: PATOLOGIE DA CALORE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Heat pathologies

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

The prolonged stay in overheated environments can cause different pathologies: heat syncope the heat cramps heat exhaustion the heat stroke


TITLE: PATOLOGIE DA CALORE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Patologie da calore

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Collapse

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Fainting Cute cold, pale and very sweaty Intense thirst Generalized weakness Normal body temperature


TITLE: PATOLOGIE DA CALORE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Heat pathologies

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock

Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Collapse SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Generalized weaknesses • Intense thirst • Hot and dry skin • Increased body temperature • Headache, dizziness • Alteration of consciousness • Possible convulsions


TITLE: PATOLOGIE DA CALORE

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Heat patologies

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

First aid Move the patient to a cool place Cool with wet and cold compresses NO ICE Recovery position


TITLE: LESIONI DA FREDDO

Disturbi della coscienza

Accidenti C.V.

Cold lesions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni

Lower body temperature below 34°C Mortality is directly related to the temperature and duration of exposure.

Epistassi Diabete

Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

Between 35 ° and 32 ° mortality is 30% Between 32 and 26, mortality is 45% Under 26 ° the mortality is 65-80%


TITLE: LESIONI DA FREDDO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Cold lesions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • • • • • •

Cold and reddened skin Chills Alteration of the state of consciousness Skin sensitization disorders Slow breath bradycardia


TITLE: LESIONI DA FREDDO

Disturbi della coscienza Accidenti C.V.

Cold lesions

Insuff. respiratoria Asma Ostruzioni vie Aeree Dolore toracico Shock Convulsioni Epistassi Diabete Reazioni allergiche Punture d’insetto

Patologie da calore Lesioni da freddo

First aid •Prevent the patient from cooling off further (wind protection, warm / dry clothing, insulating blankets) •Protect and heat the frozen area properly •Heat the patient's trunk, armpits and groin slowly •Absolute rest


THANK YOU!

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