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Architecture as a discourse WEEK 2 Computing in architecture WEEK 3 Parametric architecture WEEK 4 Parametric research - Biomimicry WEEK 5 Rebuilding the Mangal City Building WEEK 6 Technique matrix WEEK 7 Technique research WEEK 8 Design proces & Model design

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Personal Information Hi there, my name is Pim Kleintjes and I’m a Dutch exchange student. Back home I’m a fourth year architecture student at the technical university of Delft and this adventure is the last thing I have to finish for my bachelor degree. I’m here because I want to expand my knowledge and because I wanted to know what it’s like to study architecture in a different country with a different language and culture. I have always been interested in architecture and especially in the construction part. That’s why I choose some construction subjects for this semester, but I also wanted to do a challenging subject, therefore I choose the design studio air. Besides architecture I’m also interested in kite surfing, soccer and hanging out with my friends. That’s one of the reasons why I choose Melbourne, the city offers some architecture which I think is beautiful and the beaches in St Kilda are perfect to go kite surfing in summer time. Besides that I heard a lot of great stories about Australia so I’m really keen visiting Australia. I hope this will be an interesting and challenging semester which I will successfully complete.

Week 1: Architecture as a discourse

Previous Works Back in Holland we got 5 design studios during your bachelor. It’s all a bit different but also has some similarity. I will show you 2 design projects I did back home. The first one is a second year project where I had to design a new library and a new lecture room for the faculty of architecture in Delft. I started doing a lot of research on the site, the possibilities, the strengths and weaknesses and pretty much everything I could think of. After that I made my decisions based on the previous research. First I picked the location within the existing building, after that I did some more research on the location and came up with a really passive design which merged in with the existing building. The results are on the left. The second design is my most recent design. I had to come up with a fascination and then design a small pavilion within a big harbour building. Since I’m a big fan of soccer and constructions the Olympic Stadium in Beijing really fascinates me. After I picked my fascination I did some research and came up with a small version of the bird’s nest construction. I had to pick a different function so the only thing that was remaining was the structure. The results are on the left.

Week 1: Architecture as a discourse

Architecture I love Olympic Stadium, Herzog & de Meuron Beijing The first buidling I really like is the olympic stadium in Beijing, I like it so much because of the complex steel structure. The architects, Herzog & de Meuron, make it look like a big mess from a lot of steel. But actually it is a very logical and well thought structure. They designed several layers which are working together and make it one steel frame. They did a lot of research after de right angle of the diagonals which are crossing from one side to the other. By using the computer they found the best angle and managed to create a massive and impressive stadium. Palau de las Artes, Santiago Calatrava Valencia The second building, la Palau de las Artes, made a big impact on me when I visited the science centre in Valencia. The two symmetrical dubble curved concrete shells make it look like an historical helmet and make it a unique building. Besides that I really like the way Calatrava illustrates the symbiosis between arts and science in Valencia. But what I liked the most was the way he created the complex concrete structure which on such a big scale.

Digital Experience For me this subject is a challenge because I have no experience working with 3D modelling programs except for sketchup. But when I see some digital architecture comming out of a 3D modelling program I really like it and I want to be able to do that too. Before I started this subject I had no connection with digital architecture, but when I see buildings like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao I’m really into that and want to learn how to work with programs like rhino and grasshopper. At first I thought architects use the computer just to draw faster or draw more difficult things, but when I realized architects are really designing with a computer I was really interested. The only 3D modelling program I used was google sketchup, besides that I know how to work with 2D modelling programs like autoCAD. Other programs I’m familiar with are adobe photoshop, indesign and illustrator. I once worked with autodesk revit but I only know some basic things and I’m not able to design a complete building with that program.

Week 2: Computing in architecture Benefits of using computer’s While reading ‘Architecture’s New Media’ it became verry clear that the way of designing developped itself during the past centuries. When the first computer’s were introduced in architecture their main function was supporting the architect. De drawing programs on the computer made it a lote easier for architects to draw floor plans, sections, etc because it was easy to change lines or add new things. I think this is a great benefit because it saves you a lot of time which u can use to develop the design to a next level. When the computer was correctly installed it does its work whenever you want without making mistakes, the computer never get’s tired as humans do so the productivity increases and the architects can work more effectively. The computer was great at following his instructions, but it was incapable of making up new instructions. Therefore communication between the computer and a human became verry important, it’s easy to communicate from the computer to a human but the other way around is verry difficult. After doing a lot of research it became possible to communicate from a human to the computer which made it possible that the computer will assist a human designer during his design process. This was a great benefit of using the computer because from that point the computer didn’t only had a supporting function but also an assisting function.

Dynamic Tower in Dubai

David Fisher

I think the dynamic tower by David Fisher is a very important building towards future architecture, before this most of the buildings were static but this tower is dynamic and has a few futuristic aspects that will explain why this building is so special. In my opinion the most important aspect is the shape of the building that is constantly changing. The shape continues changing because the building adapts to the sun, the wind, the view and other requirements. Because every floor separately is able to change/rotate the building shape is always different. The residents of each floor can decide if they want the morning sun at breakfast, or the sunset at diner and that’s the first reason this building is so innovative. Not only the building his changes are special, but also the construction method. Prefabrication has been done before but this skyscraper is totally prefabricated what gives it a new industrial approach. The building consists of a concrete core with the prefabricated elements around it, this type of construction makes a very fast building time possible what saves a lot of money but needs a lot of investments. Besides the changes and the construction David Fisher has also thought about the environment. I think the environment is one of the most important things in architecture at the moment what makes this building special to me. Wind- and solar energy are making this building a self-supporting skyscraper that even produces power for the city. I think it’s a great achievement when you don’t use any energy but provide yourself of energy en produce it for the city. That’s why I think this building is of great value for future architecture.

Week 2: Computing in architecture The role of computation After human and computer knew how communicate together there are many ways to work together and develop buildings nobody has ever done before. Before applying computation in architecture it has been used in several other fields. After it became possible to manufacture and construct really complex forms it was possible to build the computer design. The digital technology is still developping but there are verry few architects using this technology to design their buildings. But I think that in a few years the computer aided design will supplant the technological architecture. In my opinion the role of computation in architecture will just get bigger and bigger because humans always want something new. When something has been done before people get bored and they want something new. That’s why I think the buildings in the future will be bigger and more complex just to come up with something new. To achieve that I am sure architects will need the computer. At the moment forms are allready to difficult to draw by hand, therefore architects will need the computer to design even more complex buildings. Maybe we even get to a certain phase in architecture where everything is done by the computer, I think there are no limits to the role of computation in architecture because all the different elements will develop even further which makes it possible to come up with something new every time.

Kiefer Technic Showroom

Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner (AT) The Kiefer Technic Showroom is totally different from the rotating tower that I have analysed before. The tower is completely dynamic because the total building shape is constantly changing. This building is not completely dynamic but has a very interesting dynamic facade system. I think this facade system is special because of the folding elements on the facade that are made of perforated aluminium. These elements are changing continuously what shows a new facade every hour, but the elements can also individually adept to changing conditions and needs. I think this dynamic facade represents a modern character because the facade can be completely transparent or closed. A few years back these type of building had a clear structure and the number of windows where indicating what type of room there would be. Now the facade systems are going one step further by making it possible to change the facade manually or let it adept changing conditions. As you can see on the pictures opposite the changing facade system has a great influence on the looks of the building, when the foldable elements are open you get a totally different feeling then when the elements are completely closed. Not only the feeling humans get but also its capability to adept to changing condition are making this dynamic facade system in my opinion very interesting and attractive.

Investigating parametric modelling “Parametric design is all about designing architectural objects based on relationships and rules using the computer”

BMW Welt

Coop & Himmelblau The BMW Welt building in Munich is a very impressive building with a lot state of the art techniques integrated in the building system. The first thing you notice when you see the building is the great double cone at the front of the building, the beautiful thing about the cone is the combination of functions. It’s not only a great eye-catcher but it also represents the state of the art techniques and supports the floating roof. Besides the design techniques I think this is a building that represents the branding concept very well, because state of the art technique’s that are applied in the cars are reflected in the building technology. Besides the branding concept the building also combines a few of the big BMW buildings what makes the BMW Welt building the centre of the company. But I think the most impressive thing about the building is the double cone with the ‘floating’ roof. It looks like the roof is floating because of a very small amount of hinged columns; these columns are very well constructed and combined with the glass construction under the roof in looks like the roof is floating. So far I’m laudatory about this building, all the things seem to work together and well considered and I think it’s impossible to build this building without parametric software. Because of the complex shapes, the optimal use of hinged columns and the smooth construction it seems unrealistic to design this as a human without the computer. Parametric software is able to tell you what shape is optimal and what type of construction should be applied. I think it’s hard to come up with something negative about this building, all of it seems to be well considered during the design stage but also very well constructed while building it.

Week 3: Parametric architecture It’s hard to come up with an exact definition of parametric modelling, it’s not only designing with a computer instead of a drawing board but you also have to think different. Since computers are the best with algorithms you have to use this possibility and combine it with the architect his knowledge.

Week 3: Parametric architecture Parametric has a few great advantages but there are also a few disadvantages that shouldn’t be underestimated. When you are working with ratios for the number of windows or size it’s easy to change them because they all come down to an algorithm that the computer can handle easily. Besides changing things it’s also easy to make models out of a rhino model. When you designed an organic form is easy to slice it up into a lot of horizontal slices that can be laser cut. Another great advantage of parametric design is the whole new range of different forms that can be created. I think that’s why parametric modelling is going to be very big, people are able to create new things nobody has ever seen before. In short, it’s easy to manipulate and quickly generate multiple iterations of the design in 3D with parametric software. The software is making it possible to create new things and change the design very effectively and quick.

Sigmund Freud Pavilion

Christoph Hermann

The Sigmund Freud pavilion by Christoph Hermann is a very interesting pavilion because of its relationship with the surrounding. This relationship is so strong because the pavilion is a totally open and permeable object; using a dynamic system instead of a conventional figure creates this permeable object. Frank O. Gehry inspires this dynamic figuration; Christoph Hermann is a parametric architect that is inspired by his work. I think the best thing about this pavilion is the way they used parametric software to find the best shape for the building and how to site the pavilion. After doing a lot of research on the dynamic system I think the architect found a great solution to create a permeable object that get’s well absorbed by its surrounding. Besides the way the pavilion gets absorbed by the surrounding I think the pavilion fulfilling his function very good. I think the pavilion looks good and gets people’s interest. The function of the pavilion is a recreational area and I think the architect created a very pleasant environment for this function because of the looks of the building but also the way the pavilion is absorbed in his site. The only negative thing I can think of in this design the way it operates, I can imagine the routing through the building is a bit unorganised because the architect chose to optimize the building in relationship to its environment and make it a permeable pavilion. Hereby the way the pavilion operates is less good I think, but I still think this is a great example of a pavilion that is perfectly designed permeable by using parametric software.

But parametric modelling also has some disadvantages. After introducing parametric software the possibilities became unlimited, that means architects can design whatever they want. But sometimes the designer forgets a very important thing, buildability. The shapes designers are creating are getting so complex that engineers have to come up with new construction techniques to build the building. No matter what, it’s going to be very expensive because it’s never done before. When you are building something new you have to invest in research, testing and the development of the new technique. All these things cost a lot of money what means that when a client wants to design a parametric building he has to invest a lot of money. Besides the money it’s also a risk because one mistake can cause a disaster. When the new technique is not working as it should be working, when building or when the building is finished, this problem has to be solved what means more money is required. It could even get worse when you are to late and the building collapses.

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

So far

Before I started this subject I didn’t really knew what to expect, I wasn’t interested in digital architecture. But after starting doing research on different kinds of computer-aided designs my interest in digital architecture was growing because I saw the possibilities that digital architecture is offering. To be honest at first I had the idea the readings where worthless and I didn’t really understand what the value of the readings was. But after a couple of weeks I understood the meaning of the readings because it’s important to know something about the history of architecture and computing in architecture. I’m starting to see the great value of digital architecture because it’s important the technology keeps on innovating, people always want something new because if it’s done before it gets boring. Digital architecture is going to be the new way of designing because we want to create extreme shapes and complex structure; therefore you need the help of the computer. So far my first real experience with digital architecture is pretty good. I like to discover new things, most of the programs I have used before are 2D and I have been designing straight compositions that are not so hard to draw. That’s why I like this new experience, it’s a challenging design studio that teaches me a lot of new things and for the first time I have started my study architecture back in Holland I will be designing parametric architecture.

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

Why biomimicry?

Biomimicry is a very interesting discipline within parametric architecture because of its relationship to nature. The different kinds of vegetation and animals all have there own special aspects that are making it possible to function very well in his environment. All different species have something special and the way they adapt to their environment can be used in architecture. When a building has to perform well under extreme conditions or special properties are required people can analyse the nature to come up with some ideas to solve these design problems. When we take a look at the Wyndham City Gateway we can apply biomimicry in a very interesting way, at this moment Wyndham is a small suburb outside Werribee where you can find the Werribee zoo and park. It’s a pretty unknown suburb and it can be put on the map by creating a visual interesting image that will be marking the start of the Great Ocean Road. Along the Great Ocean Road you can find a lot of beautiful nature that can be represented in the Wyndham City Gateway. This way the start of the great ocean road gets an eye catcher and Wyndham will be more famous and known as the start of the Great Ocean Road. In short, biomimicry is the perfect discipline within parametric architecture to apply for a freeway art project because of its relationship to nature, the possibility to represent the Great Ocean Road and make it an eye catching project.

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture Building Aesthetics Architects Go Group The Minister of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture building in Qatar, better known as the ‘cactus’ building, is famous for its ability to adept to the dessert climate just like a cactus. The building has a few interesting aspects that we will explain, after that we will explain how we should build this model in Grasshopper. The cactus building is a great example of biomimicry in architecture because of its facade system. The hundreds of smart shades on the outside that open and close depending on the strength and direction of the sun are really fascinating and well considered. We think this is a great example of biomimicry because the designers have learned from the local nature on the site. Qatar has a very strong dessert climate and by observing and learning from it you’re able to apply its advantages in a building. The cactus is a great example of vegetation that is able to adept really well to the hot climate. The designers used its advantages very well and created a building that has similar properties as a cactus. If we have to design a building like this in Grasshopper we have to start with the basic shape of the building. We think you have to start with a basic circle surface, after this you copy these circles and place them above each other, the space between the circles will be the storey height. After that you can change the size of the circles separately, when we have done that we can loft the several circles into the building shape. When the basic shape is build we have to design the shading elements and attach them to the shape its surface.

create circle

copy and scale [loft] [divide surface] circles

attach sunsreen to points

Mangal City Building Design Team Chimera

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

Mangal City harnesses biomimetic principles borrowed from a range of sources. The characteristics for this design are flexibility and adaptability. The spiraling skyscrapers structure are modeled after the complex ecosystems created by Mangrove trees. The project is an urban ecological system composed of modular pod capsules that shift to adapt to environmental and contextual conditions. The space is being divided following a logic of cellular aggregation, embedding neighboring relationships at different scales, and is also the ground reference of the urban housing massing negotiation. Models from nature such as branching and phyllotaxis have been the driving paradigms to create a parametric machine which is able to create a responsive urban ecology. The technology makes it possible to generate a complex geometry and surfaces whose organizing principles are borrowed from nature. In Grasshopper, one could perhaps start with a curve to create the central ‘stem’ and use commands like pipe and offset to give it volume and thickness. Next the surface can be divided to create points which can be used to cut the shapes from the ‘stem’ and as starting points for the ‘branches’. Using one of the rotate commands these branches can than be aligned according parameters like the angle of the sun.

create curves [divide surface] connect points create modules [pipe] [edge surface] [line] [loft] curves [loft]

attach random use attraction for direction

Shadow Pavilion PLY Architecture

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

The Shadow Pavilion, which is placed in the Botanical Gardens of the University of Michigan, is a very interesting biomimicry project because in first instance you don’t really recognize biomimicry in the design. The pavilion consists of a lot of metal cones that are all working together to make it a self supporting structure. The reason why this pavilion is a biomimicry project is because of this self-supporting system, the structure is based on the arrangement of flowers and leaves that are using the same principle to be self-supporting. This phenomenon is called phyllotaxis; phyllotaxis is the arrangement of leaves along the plant stem. This phenomenon is not very common, that’s why in first instance people won’t recognize this as a biomimicry project. We think this design is very well considered and put together because all the cones are working together in the same way as the leaves of some plants are working together. Besides the self-supporting system this pavilion is special because of the second function of the cones. The cones are not only structural but they are also exaggerating the different natural elements as sunlight, wind, sound and moisture. The sunlight gets exaggerated because of the reflecting properties of the material it is made of, when the wind is going through the cones it makes a noise what implicates a stronger wind then it actually is, the same thing goes for sound as the outside sounds seem to be louder then they really are and last but not least the moisture is exaggerated because of the sound it makes when it falls on all the different cones.

create curves [divide surface] [loft]

create circles [attach to points]

connect big circles to smaller circles

Week 4: Parametric research - Biomimicry

Research Pavilion 2011 Uni Stuttgart ICD/ITKE

The research pavilion at the University of Stuttgart is a special example of biomimicry because it has a very special structure. By doing a lot of research on different structure in nature the people from the University of Stuttgart came up with a really special and effective structure based on the Sand Dollar. The sand dollar refers to an extremely flattened surface, therefore they are better known as sea biscuits. By using a structure based on this sand dollar it became possible to create a really thin but still a very strong structure, by using this structure the people of the University of Melbourne have saved a lot of money on material. Besides the low construction costs the lightweight material also makes it really easy to assemble the building, disassemble the building and transport it. All different elements the pavilion consists of are created based on the transmission of mechanical stress, by optimizing this transmission it became possible to create the very thin but still effective and strong structure. The elements are all produced by a robotic system that made it possible to create the perfect elements. In short, this is a great building that has used a natural element very well to construct a very effective construction. The thin material, the great transmission of mechanical stress and effective use of the computer made this a very successful project that the student of the University of Stuttgart can be proud of.

Week 5: Rebuilding the Mangal City Building

Why the Mangal City Building?

The first reason why we chose the Mangal City Building is because the building is totally different and more difficult then the options that were given. That made it a bigger challenge for us to rebuild this building in grasshopper. Besides the difficulty of the building the other reason for picking this building was its character. It’s a very flexibele and adaptabele building that is based on the complex ecosystem of a mangrove tree. There were two different elements that were interesting to us, the first one is the organisation of the building and the second one is the complexity of the structure and design. The organisation was a challenge because of the three different elements, the trunk, the surface and the penetrating elements, that are connected to eachother and are working together. The surface is the most important element because it’s connected to the trunk and the elements, this made it an exciting building for us to rebuild. But the complexity was maybe a bigger challenge because of the double curved surface, the trunk and the elements that are penetrating through the surface. The process and troubles we have been through are shown on the upper part of the right page, the final results are shown below the process. We rebuild the basic elements globally to get an impression of the building.

Rebuilding Process

Week 5: Rebuilding the Mangal City Building Final Outcome

Week 6: Technique Matrix SURFACE VARIATIONS >

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Week 6: Technique Matrix F


6. MATRIX Starting from the grasshopper model of the Mangal City building, we varied the shape and size of the surfaces and modules to come to our own design. We began with simplifying the original, double-curved shape of the mangal surfaces [column A] so the modules would no longer interfere with eachother (problem we encountered in modelling). After that, we explored some more random variations of the surfaces like differentiating each [B], creating one surface all around [C] and playing around with scale using simple number sliders [D]. Soon after that we started shifting away from the dominant vertical direction of the Mangal City design to a horizontal direction [E-G}. The idea was that our sculpture could overhang the roadso drivers could not only enjoy the design as an object from afar but that it would actually influence their experience of driving the road. For the modules we tried out shapes ranging from organic [1-2] to angular [3-6], from smaller [1, 3, 5] to larger [2, 4, 6]. We found that we liked the original shape we modelled for the Mangal City Building best [1] because we think its fluent shape compliments the surface shape and it has enough ‘length’ to define itself but not control the overall design. From stage [F] onwards we skipped the modules on top of the surfaces as they can’t be seen well from the road anyway.

Week 7: Technique research The Technique

The technique we chose was based on the Mangrove City Building and consists of a surface with elements attached to it. These two elements have two different functions, the structure of the surface can be related to the structure of different plants or leefs and make it as efficient as possible. The elements are derived from the Mangal City Building but they have to make sense. The surface is related to the tangible nature, that’s why we thought it is a great possibility to link the elements to the intangable nature. This way we have the two different sides of biomimicry combined in our design.

Opening Elements ‘Flare’ Facade System

Flare is a modular system that creates a dynamic hull for the facade and it’s acting like a living skin. This way it allows the facade to express, communicate and interact with its environment. The flare units are made of metal flake bodies that are all individually controllable by pneumatic cylinders. Normally this system reflects the bright sky or sunlight by turning in the right direction, this way each element can either reflect the sunlight or its face is shaded. Because all these movements are controlled by a computer responding to the sunlight it’s also possible to let the elements respond to the wind and the pressure its creating. For example when cars are passing by and creating a wind flow, or natural airflow, wind pressure sensors can give a signal to the pneumatic cylinders. Then the cylinders make it possible to press the elements open, this way the wind is opening the elements. We think this system has a lot of opportunities for our freeway art project because we can use it in the original way and create a changing facade by reflecting the sun or providing shade, or we can adjust the system and let it respond to the wind in different ways.

The Elements

After deciding to associate the elements to the intangible nature there were a few options we thought are interesting. The options that are most likely are wind and sun, we want to continue with the wind because this way it is possible to use the wind cars are creating in our design and consequently relate the design to the cars that are passing the art project. We find this interesting because the project supposed to be attractive for the cars that are passing it. Because wind is i ntangible is most likely to switch to a kinetic design for the elements to make the wind visible by movement. We found three different options to integrate wind in the elements; these options are an opening, rotating or a suspended system. For each system we found a few references.

Week 7: Technique research

Rotating Elements Kinetic facade - Rendal Museum

This facade system is especially designed because wind is an invisible element, by creating a wind-driven kinetic facade the wind gets visible. The system consists of 612 freely rotating directional arrows; each arrow shows the wind direction at that point. This way it reveals the complex and ever-changing ways the wind interacts with the building and its surrounding environment. In the example before we have seen that the elements were opening, now the elements are just rotating what needs less installations and is easier to design. The rotation of the elements is caused by the natural airflow and the wind cars are creating. It’s important the shape of the elements is optimised to adjust easily to the wind direction, this way the elements will also rotate with less wind, which is important because we want a constantly changing pattern on the surface. The shape of the elements relies on the properties we are demanding, there are a lot of different options that are suitable for the rotating elements so we have to research what the best option is related to the wind but also to its environment and the properties we are demanding.

Suspended Elements Fragmented Sea - Ned Kahn

The last example is a suspended system that is composed of thousands of blue-anodized, 3-inch square, aluminium flaps that move in the wind and create the illusion that the building has been submerged in a vertical sheet of rippling blue water. This illusion is created because the flaps move in and out with the passing breezes, this way they reflect different amounts of light from the sky. This is also an ever-changing system that maybe suits best for our design because of its relationship with the sea. Earlier we have said that the Wyndham City Gateway can represent the beginning of the great ocean road, by creating the illusion of the sea it will have a very good relationship to the great ocean road. Again their are a lot of possibilities for the shape of the elements but the material should be similar when we want to create the illusion of the sea. However, the shape of the elements can vary from the original facade system, by changing the shape of the elements we can create another link to elements of the great ocean road or Wyndham City. This way this facade system gives us a lot of possibilities to integrate the freeway art project with its environment.

Week 8: Design Proces

Week 8: Design Proces

Week 8: Model Design

Week 8: Model Design

BIBLIOGRAPHY WEEK 1 Architecture as a discourse

Text: General text: html#s256708&title=Walt_Disney_Concert BMW Welt, Munich: Sigmund Freud Pavilion, Vienna:

WEEK 2 Computing in architecture

WEEK 4 Parametric research - Biomimicry

Images: Palau de las Artes Reina Sofia, Valencia: Birds Nest Stadium, Beijing: Images: Rotating Tower, Dubai: temid=10&lang=eng Kiefer Technis Showroom, Austria: Text: Rotating Tower, Dubai: temid=10&lang=eng Kiefer Technic Showroom, Austria:

WEEK 3 Parametric architecture

Images: BMW Welt, Munich: Sigmund Freud Pavilion, Vienna:

Images: Cactus Building: Mangal City Building: Shadow Pavilion: Text: Cactus Building: Mangal City Building: Shadow Pavilion:

WEEK 7 Technique research

Text: Element research:

Journal Week 1 - Week 8 Mid Semester  

Journal Week 1 - Week 8