Hochschule Luzern Design & Kunst Master of Arts in Fine Arts – Art in Public Spheres
THE CONCEPT OF EXPANDED DRAWING. ON THE LINE AS COLLECTIVE KNOWLEDGE. Helena Hernández Tapia
Mentor: Julie Harboe
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernández. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
Index 1. Introduction. 2. Expanded drawing. 2.1 Theoretical position. Rosalind Krauss’s concept of Sculpture in the Expanded Field and Suzanne Lacy’s collaborative works 2.2 Amor Muñoz (Mexico City) 2.3 Linienscharen. Katrin Ströbel (Stuttgart) 3. The digital-online aspect 3.1 Ai Weiwei and Oliafur Eliasson (Beijing/Berlin) 4. Other cartographies 4.1 Jorge Macchi (Buenos Aires) 4.2 Francis Alÿs (Mexico) 5. Different types of public: Other audiences 6. My work: Two cartographical projects based on drawings and their outcomes 6.1 Could you help me? (Istanbul and Vienna) 6.2 Lead me to the place (Basel) Conclusions Analysis Learning, Teaching and Knowledge On the collective made visible by drawing Bibliography sources Links Image Credit
“The line is a visible action”, Roland Barthes writes discussing Cy Twombly’s work: “the line however supple, light, or uncertain it might be, always refers to a force to a direction; it is an energon, a labor which reveals –which makes legible – the trace of its pulsion and its expenditure." Roland Barthes (1985), Cy Twombly: works on paper
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernández. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
The Concept of Expanded Drawing Interest: The expanded sense of drawing. Hypothesis: Collective-practical drawing brings new and useful information beyond drawing itself. Plastic Proposal: Through inputs, to promote the practice of drawing and create temporary communities. Goal: To create active publics and the sense of acting the project itself and developing a sensitive intelligence: participatory drawing.
1. Introduction. The will to make art related to people’s daily lives or to translate their lives into the context of the museum is common in the contemporary world of art, but a theorisation about these practices is lacking. In response to this, I started to write about what I do and about art practices in my native country Mexico. The need to learn about other cultural approaches brought me to Europe. The task of bringing together different contexts and worlds is a difficult one but not impossible. One positive result of the technology driven globalisation is to be able to connect with people all over the world within seconds and share information and resources. My motivation as an artist is towards art: planning actions in public space. This space provokes communication in a broader sense and touches people not necessarily related to the art scene. Drawing has so far been the discipline I have practiced the most. First I was interested in the formal aspects, that is the reason I found my way to the understanding of the ‘expanded drawing’ which artist and art historians have started to research on; it implies a hybridisation of disciplines or elements1. The concern toward a non-traditional drawing (marks, scribbles on walls or monuments, scratches, names) lead me to look for theories concerned with expansion and transgression of traditional art practices such as Rosalind Krauss’ writings on the Sculpture in the Expanded Field. I position my research in this framework.
One example is http://sladesummerschool2013.wordpress.com/tag/the-expandedfield-of-drawing/page/3/, however as will be shown here my main point of departure comes from the theories of Rosalind Krauss, see below.
Fig. 1 Collective marking on a table in Oaxaca de JuĂĄrex, Mexico
The practice of communicating through collaborative works and creating them triggered my research into collective activities within the arts. Different types of collectives and their diversity brought my attention to what Suzanne Lacy is doing in her artistic projects. The questions of how to be involved in an amplified setting, with co-workers, in a team or with intervention of other people activated my wish to go into the arts as a career, now studying the ways and methodologies of other artists gives me the opportunity to develop my own work in this area. The artists I selected are related to my daily-life practice2 as an artist. As part of my research I met some of the artists and were able to discuss with them personally, Amor MuĂąoz in Mexico, Katrin StrĂśbel in Stuttgart, Jorge Macchi in Lucerne. The conversations with them are part of this enquiry. Their works are used as examples to depict my interests and to analyse in which way they are convincing proposals about going beyond the defined art space and actvating public spaces. The studies of the cities and how the complex structures of the urban spaces interviene in the activation of creative and artistic practices is also one of the main interestes in my research. I believe knowledge can be an outcome of drawing exercises, both with people involved in projects actively engaging in drawing and people using the information as audience.
My term to describe my activities in the arts
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernández. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
Theoreticians such a Gayatri Spivak enabled me to formulate critical questions regarding education in general and applied to art, considering how we conceive artists, institutions, teachers and students as part of established hierarchical structures. This text is also inspired by the theoretical position of the artist, curator and art critic Pablo Helguera, who writes about what pedagogy in arts can be and how educational tactics can lead to emancipation. Drawing presents through various materials a direct representation of reality and imagination, as Michel Kerner describes it: “It’s to put down an idea before it floats away, materialise it” 3. The pictorial work springs from movement. It is itself fixated movement, and it is grasped in movement. Arguably, drawing’s main goal is to leave traces of our existence, for we depend on daily self-representation. As Marc Valli writes: “Drawing is the shortest route between the physical and the semantic”4. Drawing encapsulates the thinking process through traces, where incautions and indecisions can also be found. In this process of action, drawing questions and may even change the values of social space, developing an adventure as part of an event within different contexts and sociable variables, allowing a system of relationships to be reinvented. In this sense drawing as a common and democratic practice can also be part of an amplified concept of art. The impact of scientific advances and new technologies is very present in contemporary life, more and more people are getting accustomed to using these new tools where the pen is no longer the sole tool, still, the enthusiasm for digital imagery is being augmented and drawing once more becomes a treasured skill 5. However, countering this apparent contradiction, Swiss artist Sabina Baumann states, “Drawing changes the material. It would be very different if I used photographic material directly into a collage. Drawing is somehow the most subjective thing you can do” 6. John Berger in my opinion was very concious about analysing the way we see our surroundings through his writings and rather than making research narrow, he started putting into words concerns about the contemporary way of seeing things with a critical view and regarding drawing he writes about three stages in how drawing can function: as study and questioning the visible, as recorging and communication ideas and as depicting memory. Taking his ideas of drawing as way of communication, he narrates an encounter with Turkish writer Latife Tekin. Both could communicate through drawing while not being able to speak the same language, they found in drawing a lingua franca 7.
3 Kidner, Michael in an interview with Angela Eames (2012) in Writing on Drawing, p. 126 4 Valli Marc & Ana Ibarra (2013) Walk The Line. The Art of Drawing, p. 7. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Berger, John, (1987) To Take Paper, To Draw, in Harper’s Magazine.
But how can this forms of research be continued, when the object of study is so complex and broad? Steve Garner writes that drawing research is very young 8. The simplification and representation of ideas on drawing can also endanger its fullness â€œbecause to locate it is to impoverish itâ€? 9 . One could also regard drawing practice as producing drawing knowledge and, as such, there is a need for it to be analysed. This thesis focusses on the concept of non-traditional platforms for the visibility of groups of people who are not artists, and who have often unwittingly practised drawing. These groups can be temporary or constant creating a space through the act of making collective work. Through collective linear practices such as drawings, visibility is generated. The participants manifest themselves by adding personal lines. The collection of drawings becomes a work that emphasizes the presence of people, which can then become knowledge depending on the proposals run by artist or facilitators. In my experience as artist and observer, the field of contemporary art in the U.S., Europe and Latinamerica have developed an interest in creating works of art within a specific community or group of people. The collaborative pieces have variables: some seek the integration of the work of art in a given community actively and participants perform the work; as an audience in which participants act as receiver of the work. In art, social interaction and collective process have no guarantee of a physical outcome they can also promote temporary communities. In all the cases, although the goals are different, the practice of doing or being part of the audience, engage people as part of the creative process of art.
Garner, Steve, (2012)Towards a Critical Discourse in Drawing. Research in Writing on Drawing, p.15. Ibid, p.24.
2. Expanded drawing “Space is a doubt: I have constantly to mark it, designate it. It’s never mine, never given to me, I have to conquer it.” Georges Perec (1976) , Species of Spaces Nowadays, we can see changes taking place concerning, the relationship of us as individuals to the environment and objectivity. New questions about the foundations of sciences and arts are made and with this the necessity to work and interconnect various disciplines, which as a consequence leads to a moving away from dogmatisms 10. Deconstructing some concepts and building others help describe the approach, a postmodernist filter, some thinkers such as Gayatri Spivak 11, have towards the world. But how much of the deconstructing can actually make a difference in a daily life where modernity is still taking place? Perhaps, in their activity of questioning more than answering, people who make art channel thought and knowledge, thus representing a gaze on the other that dialogues with different shades. This contributes questioning also scientific fields. As Christian Boltanski points out, perhaps the key is the combination: “The artist is one who asks questions and provokes emotions 12. “ These are not only issues and feelings about oneself and one’s surroundings, but also about life and disappearance, on being and non-being. Both the arts and sciences question, discuss and ponder but they also look through time: they tend to speak of the unsaid and unwritten. In my case, having the background of a scientist family and working in the arts the two worlds have never been separated. Antagonism between opposing concepts, elements or disciplines can be expanded to include another pair of opposing or contradictory elements, thus negating them. For instance, we would have a black and white pair, and while the second pair would be non-black and non-white, they would maintain a connection with the first two elements permitting the development of charts and potential relationships. Krauss describes this as: “a quaternary field which both mirrors the original opposition and at the same time opens it.”13 Expanded fields of the arts can be understood as: a) a result of the tendency of avant-garde art and life to come together and / or b) a backlash against the modern trend that sought autonomy of the arts. 10 See Gianneti, C, (2002) Estética digital, sintopía del arte, la ciencia y la tecnología.. 11 See Spivak, Gayatri C, (1996) The Spivak Reader, Donna Landry/Gerald Maclean, New York/London, Routledge. 12 See Interview between Christian Boltanski and Alexia Fabre, Tuesday, July 21 2009 http://www.macval.fr/IMG/pdf/Interview_between_Christian_Boltanski_and_Alexia_ Fabre.pdf 13 See Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, vol. 8, Spring.
I will refer to it as did Rosalind Krauss, in her 1979 text The Sculpture in the Expanded Field. In this she explains the phenomenon that occurred in the arts of the second half of the twentieth century, stating that “The critical operations that have accompanied postwar American art have largely worked in the service of this manipulation. In the hands of this criticism categories like sculpture and painting have been kneaded and stretched and twisted in an extraordinary demonstration of rlasticity, a display of the way a cultural term can be extended to include just about anything.” 14 In this “manipulation”, the role of art discourse, like building a makeshift genealogy of these new manifestations, is crucial. Krauss adds: “The historian/ critic limited the more extended game and began to build his genealogies with the millennia data rather than decade data. ” 15 If we go from the idea that artistic knowledge is a process of expanded intellectual construction with limitless possibilities and numerous interrelated subjectivities, we ought to stay open to what we know as drawing. Art can be seen as a was open concept. It can involve visibility, critical ideas, political approaches, multilayers, multidisciplinary proposals, research, and all this in just one work, which nonetheless may not be worth a lot more in a complex and diverse society, where the artist not only shuffles elements, aesthetic and formal, but is immersed in many other interrelated issues and intellectual interrogatives, be they philosophical, social, political, technological, communication, etc. Artists today can be compared to business people. With their need to write about their work, to travel, to work based on projects, to work to a tight schedule and be international, artists lives reflect the era in which we live and as John Baldesarri suggested in three steps for young artists: “talent is cheap, you have to be possessed, which you can’t will and being at the right place at the right time”16 so we might work very hard to succeed or have the right combination of elements. Regarding drawing, the curator Pilar Ribal from the curatorial Artactiva organisation, sees the conception of drawing as an “expanded” possibility of analysing the world and the artistic languages. Some drawing projects incorporate sound compositions specifically created for video installation and engravings, giving the artist the possibility to rethink the act of representing and building sensorial images. Some also explore spatial presence and the entity of drawing and its relation with the viewer, making them an active part of the artist’s? own practice. A substance, a trace, simply words or a gesture - drawing can also be the mental representation of the brain’s activity, always in process. 17
14 15 16 17
Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, vol. 8, Spring p. 30. Ibid, p.33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eU7V4GyEuXA&feature=youtu.be Ribal Pilar talks about the concept for the 3rd. curatorial project from the “Expanded Drawing” exhibitions (Berlin, Malaga and Palma de Mallorca).
The risk of defining drawing nowadays is that we could have the impression of drawing being everything but nothing special. In this case we hope that drawing as creation is supported by thorough research and complete commitment. And although skills and substance might be required in some cases, as Steve Garner writes, “…drawing has the potential for a deliberate vagueness or incompleteness and this has been shown to support creative thinking”.18 Through the act of drawing with people (in bars, parties, with kids at school, etc.) I realized that the idea of intervention could encourage people to participate by taking part in something collectively, thus expanding their sense of authorship. Even when many of the same actions are involved different results can occur, so how can we develop collective pieces that do not belong to an art context within an art context? Can certain types of practices be inserted within a drawing terminology? What is drawing and why has it become a beloved activity for some and a major task for others who consider themselves as non-drawers although they might practice it everyday without being conscious of doing so? In John Berger’s words: “drawing is discovery” 19 and as such it may be that drawing practice is also creating knowledge, the next step is to document and analyse it. My main interest is the idea of drawing as instant communication, but this is not often discussed in expert circles in contemporary art. 20 The drawing when understood as a form of instant communication can go beyond spoken language. In the case of an investigation for the journal Building Research & Information, sociologist Kathryn Henderson described the sketches in CAD (Computer-Aided Design) tools and ideas to work collaboratively, designing objects first and then the part of the production. 21 On paper, the drawings become immediate communication, tools for working on and working out ideas with others. Furthermore, portable tools such as i-pads, computer and smartphones have done their part in aiding us to generate drawings and helping us make records. Henderson observes that hand-sketching (she calls it messy practice) operates as significant moments of exchange, negotiation and power and powerbrokering in a ‘mixed practice’ of computer graphics and hand drawing. 22 I inscribe myself in her ideas of how sketches can work as practical information to guide others. 18 Garner, Steve (2012) in Writing on Drawing, Essays on Drawing Practice and Research, p.23. 19 Berger, John (2005) Berger on Drawing, Aghabullogue, Co Cork, Occasional Press, p.3. 20 Deanna Petherbridge (2012) in Writing on Drawing p.33. 21 Henderson, K (2007 Jan/Feb). Achieving legitimacy: visual discourses in engeneering design and Green building code development in Building Research & Information, Special issue on Visual Practices: images of knowledge work, Vol.35, No. 1, p.8. 22 Henderson, K (1999). On Line on Paper. Visual Representations, Visual Culture, and Computer Graphic Design Engineering, Cambridge Mass. & London: MIT Press.
2.1 Theoretical position. Rosalind Krauss’s concept os Sculpture in the Expanded Field and Suzanne Lacy’s collective works Rosalind Krauss’s concept of Scultpture in the Expanded Field I have positioned this research towards the concept of the expanded in art. The theorist, art critic and professor Rosalind Krauss wrote possibly the first text on this subject called Sculpture in the Expanded Field. Krauss stated that in the early sixties, sculpture entered a categorical “no-man’s-land”. 23 Sculpture became an ontological absence, a collection of exclusions. It was not architecture or landscape, and was no longer sculpture without its context or surroundings. The outer limits24 of all the exclusion aspects were the main topic of interest, what sculpure was not. If drawing is characterised by variety and multiplicity, there is a need for this to be documented, a need to distinguish the borders between drawing and other fields, taking into account that some issues cannot be mapped or described while recognising that discussing other practices would require more time and space than permitted here (it could be the subject of a larger research). Rephrasing theoretician Deanna Petherbridge25, there is weakness in post-modern pluralism, its wideness limiting a clear map/idea of what drawing is. As stated in Krauss’s text, contemporary art practice is focused on the content of the message and organized “through the universe of terms that are felt to be in opposition within a cultural situation” 26 and not on a particular medium anymore. The outcome can be seen as a cohabitation of media, where the organization of the work is not ruled by the characteristics of a specific material or discipline. Still we use a discipline/s in a particular space. In an expanded field we can have more that one discipline where pair (for example: architecture/landscape) and opposite (uniqueness/reproducibility) elements intervene. 27 But this in not only working in a binary form, it can integrate two more elements turning it (when represented as an image) 28 into a field, a terrain. Sculpture is no longer the privileged middle term between two things that it isn’t. Sculpture is rather only one term on the periphery of a field in which there are other, differently structured possibilities. 29
23 Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, Vol. 8, 24 Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, Vol. 8, 25 Petherbridge, Deanna (2012) in Writing on Drawing, p. 28. 26 Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, Vol. 8, 27 Ibid. 28 Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, Vol. 8, 29 Krauss, Rosalind (1979) Sculpture in the Expanded Field in October, Vol. 8,
p. 36. p. 37. p. 43. p. 37. p. 38.
Fig. 2 Scheme of the Sculpture in the Expanded Field by Rosalind Krauss.
The multidisciplinary methods and elements involved in the artworks lead to the difficulty of describing the work itself but at the same time it provides the opportunity to increase the understanding/effect/target of the content. Contrary to what we expected, technology and computer developments have not inhibited people’s desire to develop drawing skills. In the era of digital works, the Internet as a platform for sharing also expands the diffusion of these works: we have online exhibitions in real time between more places via webcams, and also in some cases, the participation of more people in certain projects. In terms of expansion, the collective or group as multiplier of people’s visibility in a project is one of the factors studied also in this dissertation. The following chapters will shed some light on the possibilities to expand works though new technologies, as well as expanding knowledge through groups and collective associations, in the form of temporal gatherings and groups of work. If we as draughtsmen and draughtswomen, artists and theoreticians have questions, then we could hope to make some progress in answering them via research, gatherings and writings.
Suzanne Lacy’s collaborative works For Suzanne Lacy, art was a way to address subjects such as women’s problems, minority issues and activism. She lived in an era when taking the word and using it for emancipatory motives was a new option. The slow privatisation of art during the the time was the cause for the boost in performance art. Public art was, of course, only one of a number of new movements that began to erode the boundaries between high art and popular culture or to move outside the gallery space. The structure of the artworks she has made are intrinsically related to her collaborators. The principal factors in Suzanne Lacy’s creations are social relationships and their visual forms and that she assumes the personal to be political. We can see from her very early works that she started with personal experiences and turned them into a political statement: “One of the major contributions of feminist thought in the past two decades is that individual experience has profound social implications”.30 So feminism was not only a movement in the sense of wanting women’s recognition within society, but also a tool to get to know who women are, and their gathering and sharing of experiences was a trigger to developing a new way of conceiving art. In 1989 Suzanne Lacy labelled her multimedia approach “New Genre Public Art”. She expanded the methods of creating art, multiplied the venues for displaying art, and included more people in the creative process. She describes it as “Visual art that uses both traditional and non-traditional media to communicate and interact with a broad and diversified audience about issues directly relevant to their lives”. 31 Suzanne Lacy pushes us to move beyond traditional art spaces and conversations and in her work we can find her very strong commitment to society and emancipation. She says that both in art and life, people acting for a just cause, at times, have significant impacts on public policies that nurture the common good. She affirms in her work that the body harbours wisdom that each of us can tap into. Following this criterion it is possible to understand that the space between life and lifelike art promises the opportunity to heal and to change. Her works follow this path in relation to the use of spatial strategies to question power relationships and also inform us about urban and architectural spaces. In Lacy’s experience, art practitioners sometimes seem to possess an internal compass that is not always overtly articulated, but which leads them to feel that this is an art practice. It is a belief that is very strongly held, but it is not articulated. In this case the feeling is the engine which keeps art practitioners doing their projects but what do the art spaces expect from all that feeling? 30 31
Lacy, Suzanne (1995) Mapping the Terrain. New Genre Public Art, Bay Press, Seattle, p. 174 Kwon, Miwon (2002) One Place After Another. Site-specific art and locational identity, MIT, 2004, Page 105, Chapter 4.
I believe that the search for articulation is crucial in the path of becoming an artist. It might be appropriate to try and integrate the bits and pieces of a project and to seek for intentions and goals, and as modernist models of experiencing art are not longer viable in a multicultural interconnected world, artists have the responsibility to find new roles which are more appropriate to our needs. Maybe we need to find mechanisms which enable us to be collectively critical as well. Lacy writes about interaction, intention and effectiveness in new genre public art saying that these concepts are very difficult to describe precisely or to measure because we talk about art. Interaction can incorporate the sense of measurement through the artist’s methodology/media, the audience size, the artist’s intention and the work’s meaning to its constituencies. The intention suggests a real or potential context for the art. It portends criteria for evaluation and establishes the basis of the value within the work, and constructed values are the artist’s meaning. Effectiveness is barely studied because of its measurement instruments. Artist measurements are often assumed rather than stated. The impact of a metaphor must exist as the art work functions simultaneously within both social and aesthetic worlds. There are four types of artist in her analysis: -The artist as experiencer: to make oneself a conduit of expression. -The artist as reporter: as information gatherer to make it available to others. -The artist as analyst: as contributor to intellectual endeavour. -The artist as activist: as catalyst of change. What does community mean? Participatory art involves several people, who for a period of time work together to construct artwork. Sometimes the group is an already formed community and in others, the work creates the community. The range of different backgrounds in participants depends on the nature of the work. To connect with a wide group can be complicated and Lacy talks about this in a seminar: “One person would work with you on one project, then leave and come back again later. When I say ‘we’, I mean collectively a kind of a difficultto-identify, but very known-to-each other group of people. Many of the artists also stay in contact. A lot of us have friendship networks that have continued over time. It is a very complicated ‘we’, but it is always a ‘we’ never an ‘I’. 32 The projects Suzanne Lacy develops are sometimes done in a very slow but steady way because it takes time to build relationships with certain communities and to connect also with institutions and organizations. She conducts research and through her findings and supporting theories she builds a proposal for a final piece. Sometimes the process itself is the piece, which makes documentation very important in order to have an insight into the projects.
32 Kester, Grant and Suzanne Lacy (2010), dialogue. The Oakland Dialogue. Working in Public Seminar Series: Art, Practice and Policy
Project: Three Weeks in May (1977 Los Angeles) The piece exposed the extent of reported rapes in Los Angeles during a three week long performance in May 1977 bringing hidden experiences of rape to the public’s attention. Lacy conceptualized this piece as an “extended” performance, one made up of many different life-like activities: speeches by politicians, radio interviews with hotline activists, news releases, self defence demonstrations, speak-outs, and art performances. It was framed by time and the geography of Los Angeles over a three-week period, and strategically used the mass media to further reach an expanded audience. 33 My interest toward this work is that it addresses issues that people care about, in a way people can understand, with the goal of making change. In this case I would refer to the piece “Three weeks in May” (1977) which was re-enacted in 2012 (Three Weeks in January, 2012 Los Angeles)34 with the goal of raising awareness of the fact that rape is still a huge problem and that the struggle against it must not stop. Here, making a change can’t really be the end of rape (ideally yes) but to refresh the issue in people’s consciousness.
Fig.2 Suzanne Lacy’s Three Weeks in January is a performance of her 1977 piece.
33 http://vimeo.com/31566097 34 http://www.threeweeksinjanuary.org/
2.2 Amor Muñoz Amor Muñoz focuses her work on the concept of expanded graphic. She hybridizes textiles, electronics and drawing. She started her works on formal elements, in her words: “I was interested on the expanded graphic because my work was focused more on the drawing disciplines”. 35 Influenced by her training as a lawyer and her closeness to social sciences, she took social, economic, and anthropological issues as part of her artistic statements and projects such as Maquila Región4 and the still in progress Yuca_tech36 a project combining graphic textiles, functional graphics, solar panels to generate electricity for a Mayan community in Mexico for their own benefit. When she began her involvement and interest in electronics learning what a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) was and how to use it, she started working on projects which involved manual and painstaking labour, reflecting on political, social and economic matters. For Amor, textiles are already in themselves technology and together with electronics, can embody her question about labour, effort, power relationships and even globalization, as well as asking various questions about life today: how does technology affect daily rhythms? Why is the value placed on human activity so different between one place and another? Project Maquila Region 4 (MR4). Amor Muñoz worked on a project in Mexico recreating the situation of maquiladoras (textile factories), clocking working hours, making employees sign a contract and training them if necessary, but in a mobile form, so that this small factory was able to be carried at different points during the project. The essential difference she saw in the working environment was in the salary: she paid Mexican workers six to eight dollars per hour despite the minimum wage in Mexico, which is 10% of what they pay workers in the United States. 37 Today, to generate a coherent artistic discourse, it is necessary to merge languages and export ideas from one field to another to expand the entrenched conceptions of what we know as art. What is also a core in the work of Amor Muñoz is the relationship between the groups of workers formed inside the project and the works of art. In this case the authorship of the artist is known and never challenged.
35 Interview with artist Amor Muñoz via chat, Luzern, Switzerland - Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, 20.05.2014. 36 http://www.amormunoz.net/ 37 http://www.amormunoz.net/index.php?/news/maquila-r4/
Fig. 4 Maquila Regi贸n 4: Vehicle transporting the project to different parts in Mexico City.
Fig. 5 Maquila Regi贸n 4: QR codes reading the piece made by one of the persons involved.
Regarding teamwork, Maquila Region4 functions combining -in a hybrid process- formal drawing with social interactions ending up in graphic products. Maquila Region4 involves many people, from people participating as workers to collectors purchasing the work. The collectors relate then to those people involved in the manufacture. One of my questions concerning the relationship the artist has with their collaborators was, how did people approach the project in the streets? Her answer in an interview we had were what I expected: “…it is interesting to see how they receive the drawing they will embroid and it confuses them. People think they will embroider a common object, a napkin with flowers and butterflies etc., but then, they will associate the schematic or PCB (printed circuit board) drawings I ask to embroider with technological matters”.38 Another concern for me is, how much can we translate works or projects to other contexts? Can we propose similar projects involving people in different parts of the world? The example was again Maquila Región4. It could be used in places such as China, Latin America, but it can not be the same in Japan or in the U.S. Organisers of a symposium on Digital Art in Latin America in Alburqueque asked her for a piece with Maquila Region4. The thing she changed was the wage issue. “If I open a maquila in the U.S. and offer the American minimum wage is not uncommon and it loses impact but, what if we propose the Americans to put themselves in the other’s shoes? They will be invited to work; they will have the experience of receiving the Mexican wage. It is clear that nobody will want to work 3 hours for 3 dollars pay but let’s see”. 39 Currently, her research is focused on the E-Textile, creating works of textile technology to produce interactive pieces that are functional and sensitive to the environment, a variant of electronic art. The electronic and functional drawings combined with the concern for making them reachable for people wanting to get involved in the project (for the money or the interest in the proposal) creates pieces rich in social-aesthetic-collective impact. Analysing her young but rich work, we can see her interest in the idea that a piece of art can have a visible social or political impact and can affect the environment in a real way: not only spatial but also social.
38 Interview with artist Amor Muñoz via chat, Luzern, Switzerland - Sogn og Fjordane, Norway, 20.05.2014. 39 Ibid.
2.3 Linienscharen. Katrin Ströbel (Stuttgart) Linienscharen40 is a group based on the interest in drawing matters, they saw the need for meeting because of the grouth of the drawing scene. It was born in 2012 when the need to connect the research and practice of drawing in the Stuttgart (Germany) area was starting to be more visible. The group Linienscharen started as a platform for dialogue, and this expansion was more in terms of the people who were involved and its flexibility in time and space. The structure of the group was very flexible from the outset and it remained that way throughout the project in order to keep people interested and fit in with their own schedule. This organic structure has been one of the bases of the group because of the interchange in terms of organisation, discussions, and meetings. People gather in order to have a dialogue. The need for non-regular structures emerged to enable flexibility. Such an organisation can involve 30 or 40 people but the their involvement can vary from project to project, in accordance also with the time available. Talking to Katrin Ströbel,41 a founder and member of the project Linienscharen, she was enthusiastic about the idea of this flexible model of organisation because she sees the platform more as a space for debate and talks about drawing and its requirements in the contemporary art world. The above reflects the need for a space in which people can gather and exchange thoughts within the collective. This attitude towards art and drawing also defines the ways the art world can be formed, inclining towards an emancipatory agenda which takes into account the body of the group and changes in its participants. So can temporal activities and the inclusion of people promote responsibility regarding the project? That is it exactly what it does: the members change and can be replaced by others. This can be an opportunity for more artists to learn about decision-making and discussing work. Katrin Ströbel is both a researcher and an artist, she is concerned with the wide range of possibilities it has. In her latest works we can see the hybridization of drawing-video, drawing- projection, drawing-installation. Her work 25 semaines, is a drawing-made-video of trajectories based on a map of Paris, the animation video shows all the daily ways that the artist did during a six months residency in Paris. The growing net of lines is accompanied by recorded sounds of the city. 42
40 http://linienscharen.katrin-stroebel.de/projects/weihnachtsfeier-2012/ 41 Interview with Dr. Katrin Ströbel in the Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart, Germany 24.03.2014 42 http://vimeo.com/44863435
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernรกndez. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
Fig. 6 25 semaines. Video/Animation, 3 min, 2009
3. The digital-online aspect Once upon a time, there were no digital podiums on which artworks could live. Nowadays, digital artworks and virtual pieces are very common in our world, making the possibility of interchange and collective participation faster and sometimes more efficient. The visibility of projects based online is huge and the will to create has influenced the lives of new generation. What does it mean to have access to projects which are internet based from all over the world at the reach of your internet connection? There is a need maybe for more filters and curatorial projects based on organising and promoting the digital-online arts. The platforms combining digital based works and project based works are more and more visible allowing me as a interdisciplinary artist to make proposals engaging in the use of certain digital materials.
3.1 Ai Weiwei (Beijing) and Olafur Eliasson (Berlin). Project Moon In the project’s statement the need for communicating in a collective way through personal choices is clear: “…Through messages and non-verbal communication, in a language unique to each person, the collective work becomes a testament to personal freedom, creativity, and activity”. 43 This collective work called Moon is a cybernetic place where people from anywhere on Earth can join through drawing in virtual connectivity. It questions the traditional art platforms, where skills, authorship and borders are core in the development of the works. Ai Weiwei and Olafur Eliasson trigger, as well known artists, the possibilities of uniting global audiences in participatory artworks. In this particular work, the scale is so much bigger. In the first six weeks alone 35,000 people participated in the project. 44 Eliasson states that there are differences between users: “It’s odd mixture between the really creative, and side by side by something totally non-creative.” In this sense, the artistic hierarchy gap can increase its size or diminish it, on the one hand people from all backgrounds can intervene in the project and on the other side, the tags within the art scene and the non art scene can provoke a different sort of dialogue in which these two sides attack each other though marking virtual space. Most of the people who subscribed only looked around and shared images without drawing. It is also a way of participating, not in an intervening manner but rather a publishing one. The fact that it has something for everybody makes it also reflect the choices one takes in everyday life, as Eliasson remarks: “It’s the idea that the Moon represents something unconscious from society”. 45 43 http://www.moonmoonmoonmoon.com/ 44 See Cembalest, Robin. How Ai Weiwei and Olafur Eliasson Got 35,000 People to Draw on the Moon. Copyright 2014, ARTnews LLC, 48 West 38th Street, New York, N.Y. 10018. 45 Ibid.
In this virtual space, there is room for almost anything and control (because rules are clear) has not been necessary, filters do exist in the disclaimer part in the website 46 against racist or sexist drawings, writings and scribbles are not always updated, so it does take time until the filters on offensive matters get to work. The platform gives the opportunity for people to respond with politically dangerous marks such as swastikas, for example. It also provides a space for making oneself visible by tagging the most popular drawings. People work by trespassing on others’ drawing borders and also by collaborating together on big projects within the project, as in the surrealist Exquisite Corpse.47 Ai Weiwei and Olafur Elliasson are considering making a Moon app for tablets and phones and contemplating an exhibition that would bring some of the Moon project drawings into a physical space. What would it mean to bring the project into an analogue exhibition, and can the connectivity made ex professo for this project function as a physical and visible manifesto? Would it need a curator or moderator?
Fig. 8 Image of the Moon project 46 See “Disclaimer” in http://www.moonmoonmoonmoon.com/ 47 Exquisite Corpse: This concept has its basis on the line as a starter for collective drawing, this is the participants will fold their drawings in order to leave just some lines visible for other to continue the drawing in the same paper without seeing the previous drawing. André Breton comments on it: “These drawings represent total negation of the ridiculous activity of imitation of physical characteristics, to which a large and most questionable part of contemporary art is still anachronistically subservient. If only some salutary precepts of indocility might be opposed to its present array, take offence at the exclusion of all humour, and bring it around to a less larval sense of its means. http://exquisitecorpse.com/definition/Bretons_Remembrances. html
An interesting example of what the Moon project can trigger is making fellow artists and designer I know recognised. The strategy is easy: there is a â€œPopularâ€? button and it will display the most popular drawings, then the artist can place their drawings next to the popular ones and the audience on the moon will see them definitely. I believe in this case the transition to an analogue environment such as an exhibition would lose the interaction between the participants and their works. Would they be in the same position as in the virtual space? Which works will be selected and why? This approach can be part of the project but it would have another meaning. I followed this platform since its beginnings and I can see that the project functions more than just a game for some in the case of selfpromotion, communicating between people or having a marc next to Ai Weiweiâ€™s drawings. It is expanding the possibilities of each person to establish the way he/her want to explore drawing.
4. Drawing the city. Elements of the public space ¿Qué es la calle sino un espacio peculiar, con sus velocidades e intensidades dibujadas en una ley secreta que dormita entre los objetos y en el mutismo plastic-motriz de los viandantes? (What is the street but a peculiar space, with its’ speeds and intensities drawn inside a secret law which sleeps between the objects and the plasticmobile mutism of the pedestrians?) José Luis Pardo in the book Las formas de la exterioridad This chapter presents an analysis on the elements of public space and urban environment and how they can activate/inspire artistic activities. It introduces two artists working through drawing in public spaces as I also do in my projects (chapter 5). The city (any city) is not only a necessity, it can also work as an instrument of transformation, but under what conditions? How should we “use” a city? It is not enough to think, analyse, theorize the city we need to invent new uses for it. In this sense, contemporary art practices have tested ways and methods to help us start to shape the answers. Space is a crossing of mobilities and it is triggered by the displacements produced in it - these elements make it temporal and define its borders. The human collective (the mass) when taken as the protagonist of cities is not an established community structure but rather a proliferation of interconnections, rectifications and adaptations being produced at any given moment. These polymorphic gatherings can be studied only in the instant they exist because they dissolve immediately. The urban space occurs when something takes place and only in this precise moment. This is a having space48 from the bodies living and acting in it. The urban status is not immobile or stoppable. The inhabitants of the cities push themselves into ephemeral appropriations and to living in the plasticity of possibilities within it. Furthermore, in the urban space, people define their power relationships, whether these are subordinate, insubordinate or denying roles. Urban space is a result, work or production or, as Isaac Joseph proposes, a coproduction. 49 Each one of the participants in the interconnectivity of the space has an understanding of the unwritten code in which things can be read. The outside refers to the unconstructed space and therefore is not inhabited in this terrain. Indeterminacy and mobility play a crucial role in it because they can be the headquarters of anything. The inside has limits but by contrast the outside has no boundaries and is inhabitable.50 48 49 50
Delgado, Manuel (2007) Sociedades movedizas. Pasos hacia una antropología de las calles, p. 13. Ibid, p.16. Delgado, Manuel (2007) Sociedades movedizas. Pasos hacia una antropología de las calles, p. 33.
The exploration of a fixed spatial field thus involves establishing bases and calculating directions of infiltration. It is here that the study of maps is involved. When narrating or describing ways to get to places, one oscillates between the itinerary and the map, between an anthropological and a symbolic language of space. It seems that in passing from “ordinary” culture to scientific discourse, one passes from one pole to the other. An itinerary is a discursive series of operations and a map is a plane projection totalizing observations.51 The artist working in public spheres is released from privacy to join impersonality in an unprotected space with its own language. This gives him/her the opportunity of disrupting daily life. The public status of the works and its insertion into the public space lead the artists to transcend individual expression to analyse and modify their role in society. In the best cases artists assume a cultural critique which responds to the complex fabric of society. If the saturation of images in the postmodern city is such that public art should be noted and emphasized to question the city, I think also that local, subtle or temporal artworks, properly integrated in a spatial and conceptual discourse can be given space, and although the viewer suffers a devaluation of perception due to the enormous amount of visual art production, what is required is the facilitation of an open discourse to try to involve the public in the artists’ proposals. Artistic expressions constantly change and it is necessary to question them both as artist and audience.
4.1 Jorge Macchi Jorge Macchi came to Lucerne, Switzerland, to exhibit his work in the Kunstmuseum Luzern. One of the first question I asked when I had the opportunity to talk to him was: “What do you think about drawing?” He answered “drawing is the best way in materialising your imagination, everything is possible in drawing”. 52 The work Buenos Aires Tour was exhibited at the Istanbul Biennial in 2003 and is part of the Malba collection. He proposes in this work alternative interactive views of analogue modes of movement. How to see and do, proposals for the construction of an early twenty-first century flâneur via poetic ways of deregulating the senses and diverting attention - a good approach of psychogeographical situationists and practices. The Buenos Aires Tour project consists of 8 tours based on a broken glass (with a crack made by Jorge Macchi as a starting point) on a map of the City of Buenos Aires. Along the 8 lines 46 points of interest were chosen, on which the guide provides written, photographic and audio information.53 51 See De Certeau, Michel (1988)Tours and Maps in The Practice of Everyday Life. 52 Informal talk with Jorge Macchi at the vernissage of his solo exhibition in the Kunstmuseum Luzern Container on the 22.02.2013. 53 http://www.jorgemacchi.com/es/obras/30/buenos-aires-tour
The project outcome is a book in the form of a tourist guide, but a useless one because the point is to not inform, to not illustrate and to emphasize the provisional. So the guide becomes a guide to multi-layered aspects of the city. Furthermore, the guide integrates elements such as photography, sound and text, and through this combination a guided tour is created within. There is then no use for the guided tour but the experience itself that has value. Jorge Macchi had participated in a number of artists’ residencies that took him to Paris, Rotterdam, London, San Antonio (Texas) and small towns in Germany and Italy. The time away was difficult but liberating. “All these experiences abroad, they gave me a kind of feeling of lightness,” he says. 54 This influenced his map works, one of them being Buenos Aires Tour, in which the accidental action of breaking a glass defines the audience’s route through the city of Buenos Aires. What I find crucial here is the expansion of the project beyond the guided tour. The book itself has a life of its own, being sold via online shops such as amazon.com, which is one of the largest retail platforms on the planet. Here we can analyse the scope of the work and how the distribution of art can be made on a different scale or at a different price.
Fig 9. Buenos Aires Tour, 2003. Piece exhibited at the Istanbul Biennial.
4.2 Francis Alÿs Francis Alÿs was an architect in Belgium when he decided to go to Mexico. Once he arrived there, he began to see the possibilities of becoming an urban researcher so he stayed on to work as an artist. For him, walks are more a critical question, concerning observations about the city and its connections. For him, the city becomes the centre of operations, relationships and interconnections: the city is the protagonist in Alÿs’ walks. But it is the city that we travel through every day that is hardly perturbed. Most of us start our day without an absolute path; the automatism of our consciousness leads us to a destination. Tube stations, plazas and outside locations have become central articulation points of our daily needs. In the flow of daily life, places are repeated and we barely pay attention to the details of the everyday: symbols, footprints, urban trails that form a set of signs, encrypted messages, invisible remnants of the urban fabric are hardly noticed. However, Francis Alÿs, among other artists, writers and theorists see the city as a possibility for study and experimentation. Artists are responsible for bestowing a new meaning and a reinterpretation which can question the scripts in which we operate. There is an urge to “weave the world around him” 55 circumscribe that takes over the urban environment. One strategy is to absorb the everyday realities, breathe in the fumes that occur in our daily routine. Current urban wanderings respond to a kind of critical strategy, which overcomes the observation, a passive attitude, a primitive nineteenth century flâneur, supporting a critical questioning of the matrices and daily codes daily. However, the choice of the walking is a sociological reflection and encloses a poetic approach: when the city becomes a laboratory for experimentation, it also becomes a sort of maze that forces the homo ludens to visit and to become lost, as if the mere fact of turning left or right constitutes an essentially poetic act”. 56 Francis Alÿs is aware that his wanderings are an urban observation, and definitely an empirical, observation of the city, with traces of the everyday, everyday prints and existentiality becoming lost. From his first works consisting of walks in Mexico City, Alÿs creates situations of rupture in the practical use of the city, rethinking current approaches to modes of existence. These interventions usually have in mind everyday realities, with the street as inspiration. In cities like Mexico City, there are still loopholes away from urban control, less-travelled places, suburbs and blind spots where there is room and art forms that take over and reshape urban space. In these scenarios, promenading and walking is configured as one of the ways of questioning that allows flexible reflection. For Francis Alÿs, the walk approaches a form of subjectivity and artistic creation.
Ardenne, Paul (2008) Un arte contextual, p. 16. See Benjamin, Walter (2005) Los Pasajes.
One of the works, which fits perfectly as an example of his search also for a political statement through art, is Green Line made in Jerusalem in 2004. While walking Alÿs pours paint from a tin leaving a green line as a drawing, marking where he has been and leaving a visible trace. Art in this case is responding to a social and political agenda, in the manner of the Situationists, by creating a relational urbanism. Inevitably, this piece reminds us of Situationist creations promoting the use of spaces outside state control.57 In The Green Line, “Sometimes doing something poetic can become political and sometimes doing something political can become poetic.”58 This was a piece that made old wounds visible again: Alÿs walked along the armistice border, known as ‘the green line’, pencilled on a map by Moshe Dayan at the end of the war between Israel and Jordan in 1948. This remained as the border until the Six Day War in 1967, after which Israel occupied the Palestinianinhabited territories east of the line.59 Alÿs’s trajectory was a cartographic mark made in situ of his walks in the space, but it was not a neutral space: there are no neutral spaces; they all have specific contexts and history which make them understandable.
Fig.10 Francis Alÿs, The Green Line, Jerusalem (2004).
57 See Debord, Guy (1984) La sociedad del espectáculo. 58 http://francisalys.com/greenline/rima.html 59 http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/exhibition/francis-alys/francis-alys- story-deception-room-guide/francis-alys-4
5. My work: Two cartographical projects based on drawings and its outcome I work with the drawing itself as a method of research. Michel de Certeau60 refered to the place as a activated space. Its’ activation has different stages: asking, drawing and sound recording (from people questioned), analoguedigital information and the possibility of publishing this information. Starting with an immediate and personal attitude, the project was a simple intention to collect knowledge by asking people to help me get to places and drawing the way on an analogue-digital sketchbook (Livescribe sketchbooks and smartpen61 ), which also records sound. The narrations of the people describing the parcour are recorded. The sound as important as the image plays a smaller role in my research. Even though without the sound, the maps don’t have the same effect, the impossibility of running the audios here on the thesis (printed space), makes the description of the content more significant. Some of the audios are available on a websites which has my project Lead me to the place.62 On sound I can add the answer the artist Andreas Bick gave the team from Everyday Listening, when they asked: could we make sound improve our lives? This is a social and political question and also addresses the freedom to acoustically express oneself and the constraints we find in public spaces where many individual sound sources may come into conflict with each other. We can even expand the question into the area of public attention that everybody seeks through digital means in form of tweets, status updates and blog posts. The “din” of our global conversation has a self-amplifying effect: in order to get heard we have to speak, perhaps even speak louder than everybody else.63 The modular interest in the projects came when I identified my own drawings as sectional; the pages in the sketchbook function as space for each and one of the people participating in the projects. I encountered and stored the information of the people for my use. Later on I passed on this information as pencast files and PDF’s to others so they could also benefit from this knowledge. Ideally people would activate the maps and in turn the maps activate the people, allowing them to follow the advice of others. For me, there was not only a need to generate models of interpretation, but also practical models to modify unequal structures, such as capitalist ones, in which knowledge has a high cost. Knowledge in this mode of thinking can be generated by us and shared through technologies such as digital files and the internet.
60 Michel de Certeau (1996) La invención de lo cotidiano. I Artes de hacer, p. 129. 61 http://www.livescribe.com/ 62 https://soundcloud.com/raumforschung/sets/hernandez 63 http://www.everydaylistening.com/articles/2010/6/9/five-sound-questions-to-andreas- bick.html
5.1 Could you help me? (Istanbul and Vienna) The project is an analogue-digital proposal about finding one’s way in unknown cities, as part of the event “The Future of the Book” in San Francisco, California .64 The urban space is a setting where the minimum of social competence is required to make us as a momentary part of it or for us to address each of the social contingencies that appear to be momentarily compromised.65 These social competences include helping people with their problems if they ask for help. Adaptation and re-adaptation are strategies of patterns of behaviour that make the urban space understandable and predictable for others and therefore acceptable. Such behaviours have a goal: they interrelate individuals who know each other or total strangers translated in a social automatism in which the event is more important than the structural stability. For three days I used no map to get around in Istanbul. I had a smartpen and my sketchbook and I asked people, to draw the routes to several locations in Istanbul where I needed to go. The results are a collection of maps by different people. The drawings in the sketchbook and in the pen store their instructions with the sounds of the place mixing Turkish and English. They become practical non-standardized forms of information. Following the first mapping in Istanbul I continued the project in Vienna, but took the sketchbook and pen with me for ten days. Again, I am in a city unknown to me where I will be living for the next few months. Instead of using maps, I ask people to draw the way to the different places I need to go: bank, food, university, art supplies and entertainment venues. The drawings with the sound recording create a collection of both information and human connections, forming a relationship between the time and space in which the drawings were done and how these pieces of information helped me get around. Asking people to lead me to a specific place triggers behaviour and rules that we might not always be aware of, such as helping the other. These strategies are the basis for building on-going social situations which we all are involved in. Most of the people we relate to in the streets everyday are an enigma to us; they are people if we consider the etymology of the word meaning masks. 66We don’t know their backgrounds, tastes or moods, etc. We might have insights but they are not always right. As a tactic we assess certain aspects of people’s physical appearance, their dress code, objects they carry, phrases they use, to forecast how they might react. These ways of behaving can also cultivate the need to communicate accordingly to the diversity of people. 64 http://swissnexsanfrancisco.org/Ourwork/events/thebooklab 65 Delgado, Manual (2007) Sociedades Movedizas, p. 38. 66 Delgado, Manual (2007)Sociedades Movedizas, p. 183.
Communicative competence is a linguistic interchange known as diversity organisation. Linguistic interactionism bases its thesis on three essential notions: code communication, basic social competence used by participants from different group backgrounds who participate in the same encounters and put into action their common communicative competences; contextualisation indexes, which place the participants in an encounter to define situations in which they participate and establish strategies and provisional consensus allowing them to move within them adequately; and conversational inferences, practical logic of a congruent event which allows a mutual intelligibility of the people involved and the negotiation and compromise between them.67 We all depend on and need other people, sometimes total strangers, and we can have the ability to communicate with them even if we are far from relating to their cultural setting. Following on from the above, the interchange between the people I questioned and myself was one to one as in conversational interferences. The information was what I needed and they helped me out, which might leave them with something, whether itâ€™s a sense of moral satisfaction or a stressful moment. Some people didnâ€™t even know the way but they wanted still to provide a positive input. Storytelling by drawing pictures is about delivering emotions; visceral, emphatic, or voyeuristic. Drawing as storytelling can act as a crucial interface between the visual and the verbal. Such drawings evoke personal experience in the mind of the viewer through received and perceived information. Thus the viewer becomes the cocreator of art.68 The search for a common language or lingua franca is acknowledged as a cooperative pursuit, which is activated by a people. When the settings in a community of users of a language are not culturally homogeneous, then the need for personal stories and traditional multiplicity are desired to communicate in a short period. This constructs cultural cosmoses in which there is potential for collaboration and understanding. More than a map: Having the drawings, I then integrated these spontaneous notes with Google Maps69 and tried to establish a relationship with the scale of the drawings made by participants. The drawings of my movements in the areas and the geographic experience were augmented by the narrative descriptions of the people who helped me: for example they would tell me how difficult it is to cross a street or the distance by metro/subway in terms of time and quality of travel. These details or remarks are neither shown on Google Maps or geographically correct maps.
67 Ibid, p.185. 68 Ursyn, Anna (2012) in Writing on Drawing p.171. 69 https://www.google.com/maps/
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernรกndez. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
My sketchbook, the information in the pen and the overlaying of the drawings with the Google Maps are traces of the days and the encounters with people. The single black lines store experiences and enable tapping into the personal mapping of those who live in the city space and know it by heart. The line is used here as a language and to show the sameness and difference between the drawings and google maps. Their similarities are fascinating.
Fig 12-13. The sketchbook.
Fig 14. The maps and sketches of the people
Fig 15. The maps and sketches of the people
Fig 16-17. Overlapping of maps sketches with google maps
5.2 Lead me to the place (Basel) The proliferation of applied participatory mapping and image production platforms creates new possibilities of seeing and exploring the world. I suggest these could be artistic platforms and ones which actively investigate on site the new reality that is constituted via the integration of human perceptions. For a day I used no map to get from point A to point B. My tools: a smartpen and a digital sketchbook. I asked people to draw the way from Allschwil in Switzerland to Hégenheim in France as part of a project for Weg–Das Trinationale Festival des Spazierens. 70 I first asked people if they could draw in my analogue-digital sketchbook the way from Allschwil to Hegenheim. This multimedia collection of subjective considerations and personal knowledge resources were made available to visitors on their way to the same destination in the form of a digital file for download on their smart phones or I- pads.
Fig. 18. Maps from the drawing-oral descriptions from Allschwil to Hégenheim for the WEG Festival.
The graphic descriptions of the sites are enriched by the stories of the people who help me: geographical difficulties, time and quality of travel are some of the elements that everyone seems to be conscious of?. This information or comments are recorded either on official or geographically correct maps. Through the participation of people from the area, which leads visitors to the festival, the local population is made visible through their narrations. The results is a collection of maps by different people. The drawings in the sketchbook and in the pen their instructions with the sounds (the pen records sound) rendered in material form. The drawings with the sound recording create a collection of both information and human connections, creating a relationship between the time and space in which the drawings were done and how these pieces of information can help people get around. As I didnâ€™t know the place to begin with, I visited a week before the event so I could have the materials ready in the form of digital information that people can follow: the ways described by other people. The language of the project was in German and French; this is the language of the people who drew the maps. The day the tours at the festival were held, I had feedback saying that some of the audio recordings led people to other places but when they saw the sketches, they could follow the paths. People were curious also about the tools I used and how I contacted people on the streets to get to the destination I required. The interesting thing I found out was that some of the people I know and sent the information online were actually following the tour virtually: does this means they took part in the tour? The experience grew in terms of audience but is it the same experience? I think nowadays with technology and digital information one can experience life in an extended way, with this I am referring not to a better or richer way but one that is full of new possibilities.
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena Hernรกndez. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
Fig. 19. Printed information for the tours from Switzerland to France, as part of the WEG Festival.
Conclusions Art as an aesthetic phenomenon needs a place, a creative media and an audience. The creator can not be simply locked in his creation. The contact with others through my practice as an artist needs the audienceâ€™s complicity. The audience watches, perceives, feeds, abets and participates in the work that resonates in their previous experiences. The work of art creates fissures within the meaning of things and events. In general there is indeed a remodelling of the concept of public or audience. But is that audience still an informed public? Do you still have evidence of the elements of pleasure? I doubt it. When you go to these great exhibits in a gallery or museum, outside the small circle of initiates, we see people move in an attitude that is not merely passive but self-absorbed. It is necessary to distinguish between art that responds to an already established market, and that which is aimed at a specific segment of the population in which a seed for social dialogue is planted. The implementation of artistic practices in public spaces seeks to reactivate these same spaces. So for a pedestrian passing through the streets to acquire the status of an audience, an event is required. Art is an event. The public is permanent or temporary. The first being the public as a constant flow appreciating a work in a museum or gallery, and the second being a specific audience experiencing an event or having the opportunity to experience a more participatory and active reaction to a piece of art. It is necessary to consider the notion of the public as a changing rather than a static entity. Audiences such as people involved in my projects are built on the process of aesthetic interaction, this begins as a way to talk about a social exchange. It is interesting to realise that through bodily experience we get to the idea of something that brings us together in the aesthetic. This brings us to the idea of community that is not externally imposed, but felt at the individual level. The possibilities of perceiving the world outside an interested and possessive self are part of art proposals and aesthetic models. These perceptions and experiences enable us to examine the manoeuvres of human cognition. The change in our perception from a world to be possessed to a world to be known is something that we all should share; but what is it to be the audience? Traditionally being part of the audience is considered as being a passive spectator. New Genre Public Art 71 has diverse concepts of audience according to the art pieces and their context. Art can be a two-way communication or the space between the artist and the audience. 71 See Lacy, Suzanne (1995) Mapping the Terrain: New Genre Public Art, Seattle: Bay Press.
Fig. 11. Image from the book “Mapping the Terrain. New Genre Public Art” edited by Suzanne Lacy.
The relationship audience-work is not clearly defined and in order to have some transparency in the levels of connections between the various elements making up the artwork and the audience, Suzanne Lacy came up with a model: The centre is the artwork and its responsibility; sometimes they are not clearly defined. The best way to see participatory art is by regarding all the circles as mobile. Elements could come closer to the centre and by doing so they become more attached and have more responsibility to the creative part. This model could give us a paradigm for the levels, the sense and the relation between elements only when considering the notion of interaction. The educational aspect of new genre public art is also a matter to discuss as sometimes the information to participate is given in a pedagogical way, so there must be a learning process, and we need to discover the results of that process. The development of an art piece in a participatory art context does not end when the final piece is exhibited or put into the public sphere; it can also continue its life though documentation, reports or representation, enabling it to reach a wider audience.
In the analysis of my practices I found not a finished product but a process, my aim is to follow the process and learn. Being experienced witnesses allows us to build a narrative and document it through different disciplines. Due to the requirements of the multidisciplinarity account I take on art, I work with artists, experts and people outside the art context in the realization of projects. I have seen how collective making changes in the structure of a hegemonic system, therefore, this work is also an invitation to ‘displace’ artistic practices to other spaces and through the practice create a public.
The Expanded Field as a Place: Learning, Teaching and Knowledge There, in public and semi-public spaces where in principle, nobody should apply admission to enter, hallmarks of symmetric reciprocity dominate most of the time, here, what is interchanged can be perfectly the distance, indifference and reserve, but also the mutual aid or spontaneous cooperation in case of emergency. Manuel Delgado, Sociedades Movedizas When I started my projects combining drawing, people and digital tools I was not aware of the extent to which other information was also delivered through conversations or narrations and how truth and insight are garnered in combination with the drawing process. Often research protocols are extremely formal, and, in the name of a (dogmatic) methodology, do not permit the consideration of certain aspects of the information gathered. In the arts, this research can be flexible and the output as an art piece could be the research itself. Art works focussing on dialogue between participants have the personal approach at its core. The artist takes responsability and finds herself in the middle of the expanded field. Several great theorists of postcolonial studies have shown and described learning and education, a form with an understanding close to the way i have used “expansion” here. In his book Location of Culture, Homi Bhabha approaches the practice of cultural transformations and allows us to depart from the habitual past-present reference axis. This would disrupt the process of othering and attempt to overcome the established “cultural differences”, creating new ground for negotiations on representations, where thinking can be free from “narratives of originary and initial subjectivities”. 72 In the eyes of theorist Gayatri Spivak,73 education is the foundation of social transformation. She refers to education with a post-colonial filter because of the need to have an analysis of what these educational structures mean and how they are far from an emancipatory path. 72 73
Castro Varela, María do Mar (2010) Failure as success. Education in the learning from the process of decolonization in Migrationsskizzen. Postkoloniale Verstrickungen antirassistische Baustellen p. 232. See Spivak, Gayatri C (1996) The Spivak Reader..
Post-colonialism is about “critiquing a structure that you cannot not wish to inhabit”74 and because each situation is unique, scientists should not only focus on theories but also share the idea that knowledge can never be universal. Spivak states that, one needs to decolonise the spirit and know how to use it so it can be productive. In this direction, the aim of education would be to develop the procedural instruments to understand our world today; Spivak calls this process: “invisible mending”. As practice, it needs time to cultivate, as the institutional violence in which we centre education today has been ruling for centuries. What does it mean to have a position towards education that implies breaking the rules? The target of post-colonialism is not to help but rather learn from those who, at first glance, seem to have no learning material,75 and in order to be part of this educational approach, as Paulo Freire76 has stated, educators need to see themselves as students too. Pablo Helguera’s concept of Transpedagogy refers to projects by artists and collectives where the centre of the artwork is the pedagogical process. This establishes an intersection between education as accumulation of knowledge and the practice of education as a form of art itself: “In art, the awareness of others’ perceptions is valuable in that it gives the artist tools to upset expectations either in positive or negative ways”.77 This concept of pedagogy moves and intersects with other perceptions. The goal of post-colonial educational systems is to encourage individuals to critical thinking and not to convert them into acquiring certain ways of thinking. In his book Education for Socially Engaged Art, Pablo Helguera states that in critical and curatorial discourses on contemporary art little attention is given to dialogue or debates, and that essays and public events are favoured. 78 There is also sometimes a lack of understanding when there are barriers such as language, thinking processes, presentation methods and assuming roles in education. In the book Touching Feeling,79 the anthropologist Elizabeth Marshall Thomas has the idea that cats are not just presenting gifts to their owners by bringing them dead or half-dead animals, but rather they might be assuming the role of educators and teaching us how to hunt. Humans don’t get the message because they don’t regard their role as being educated; instead they assume only the role of an educator. What if we changed positions once in a while?
74 75 76 77 78 79
Spivak, Gatatri C (1993) Outside in the Teaching Machine, p. 284. Castro Varela, María do Mar (2010) Failure as success. Education in the learning from the process of decolonization in Migrationsskizzen. Postkoloniale Verstrickungen antirassistische Baustellen, p. 240 See Freire, Paulo (1997) Mentoring the mentor: a critical dialogue with Paulo Freire. Ibid, p. 37. Helguera, Pablo (2011) Education for Socially Engaged Art. A Materials and Techniques Handbook, p.65. See Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve (2003)Touching Feeling. Affect, Pedagogy.
Ivan Illich had the idea of demolishing the school system in all its institutionalised forms,80 because he thought of it as an oppressive regime. But without other structures to replace the previous ones, there is no possibility of going beyond criticism: we cannot reach the stage of proposals. In Pablo Helguera’s words, “an alternative to an old model is in dialogue with the past and not with the future.”81 The teachings and methods from indigenous peoples in Mexico such as decision-making, debating and listening, are forms of looking at the past and how these behaviours can help to create new possible models for looking at the world and living in it. Talks and debates on topics of aesthetics are rare. For Paulo Freire, the act of discussion is a process of emancipation. An organic discussion (without protocol)82 between people is necessary to build a pedagogical structure, which will be the basis for working together. And here the drawing seems to be a unique tool. On the collective made visible by drawing I started with my attention focused on drawing in a formal and functional way, in the meantime I see the expansion not limited to the field of art but as an expression of interdisciplinarity.83 Nowadays many artists are interacting with other fields of knowledge and media. When I started doing art, I was concerned with the formal practice: the drawing could become multidimensional, it could be digital or moving images. However, integrating digital elements in my work, the possibilities of working and sharing the outcomes, expandes also the possibilities reaching audiences. I always defined the collective as a generator of the projects, people didn’t decide to take part in the collective itself, but were integrated during the working process, some were concious of being part of a project, some weren’t. In my first project Could you help me? people were visible through the sketchbook as they participated by sharing their knowledge. Participation was created along the needs I had during my stay in the places. The people’s knowledge and presence was exhibited in the form of their maps (and voices) in San Francisco integrated into the work. In the second project, the individual knowledge was now distributed to help other people go from one place to another. The collective then was made visible three times, initially with the collection of maps in the sketchbook, then with the presence of people following the maps physically or virtually. 80 81 82 83
See Illich Ivan (1971) Deschooling Society. Helguera, Pablo (2011) Education for Socially Engaged Art. A Materials and Techniques Handbook, p.80. See Freire Paulo, (1997) Mentoring the mentor: a critical dialogue with Paulo Freire.. Interdiscipliarity: working between different academic disciplines. Is the use of multiple disciplines in the study of a specific topic. In my case that of the arts. In the eyes of Prof Ken Robinson: “Creativity depends on interactions between feeling and thinking, and across different disciplinary boundaries and fields of ideas” (Robinson, Ken,  Out of Our Minds, Capstone).
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena HernĂĄndez. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
In this era of quick exchange of information, the art world is also changing fast and issues such as copyright on the internet, plagiarism, hacking, virtual live etc., are part of both daily lives and of the world of art. What is our responsibility, as creators, towards society? I would say that learning how to collaborate and propose projects with the goal of getting to know our neighbours is a start, as well as choosing places to work which have meaning to a larger audience The art world is removed from a majority of people. The intention in my work is to translate certain collective practices into art and develop activities to engage in getting to know people around me. Art existing in all itsâ€™ possibilities is important in todayâ€™s society and making proposals toward emancipation and inclusion is my main goal. In art there is an interest in creating works within a specific community or group of people. The collaborative pieces may vary, some seek the integration of the work of art in a given community, in which participants performed the work; some address a larger public, in which participants act as receivers of the artworks and some have a conceptual orientation in which the priority is social interaction and collective process with no guarantee of a material result - this sort of collaborative work can also create temporary communities. In all cases, the practice of doing or being part of the audience enables the development of the creative process of art although goals and the priority of the involved elements are different. Urban space is a responsive, sensitive shell. The street is a social institution of interaction and relationships. The opportunity to deal with other issues that take place in public spheres is an incentive to consider one of the main engines of the artist: the confrontation with the other in the sense of exhibiting-organising-provoking in a complex and expanded space of continued learning.
Bibliography Ed. Achola, Agnes, Carla Bobadilla, Petja Dimitrova, Nilbar Güreş, Stefania Del Sordo. Migrationsskizzen. Postkoloniale Verstrikungen antirassistische Baustellen, Löcker, Vienna, 2010. Ardenne, Paul. Un arte contextual, Cendeac, Murica, 2008. Arent Safir, M. Conectando Creaciones. Ciencia-Tecnología-Literatura-Arte, CGAC, Santiago de Compostela, 2000. Bennett, Rick. Drawing on the virtual collective: exploring online collaborative creativity, Sydney College of the Arts, 2009. Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, Penguin UK, 2008, 128 pages. Benjamin, Walter. Los Pasajes, Madrid, Akal. 2005. Berger, John. Berger on Drawing, Aghabullogue, Co Cork, Occasional Press, Ireland, 2005. Berger, John. To Take Paper, To Draw, in Harper’s Magazine, p. 57-60, 1987. Berger, John. Ways of seing John Berger, Ways of seeing. British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, London, (1972) Bishop, Claire (ed.), Participation (Documents of Contemporary Art Series), MIT Press, 2006. Brine, Daniel (ed.), The Live Art Almanac, Live Art Development Agency, 2008. Burckhardt, Lucius. Warum ist Landschaft schön?, Die Spaziergangswissenschaft Herausgegeben von Markus Ritter und Martin Schmitz Anstelle eines Vorwortes: Hans Ulrich Obrist im Gespräch mit Annemarie & Lucius Burckhardt. Burg, Tobias. Zeichnung Als Prozess / Drawing As Process. Current Trends in Graphic Art, Kehrer Verlag, 2008 Cembalest, Robin. How Ai Weiwei and Olafur Eliasson Got 35,000 People to Draw on the Moon. Copyright 2014, ARTnews LLC, 48 West 38th Street, New York, N.Y. 10018. Butler, Cornelia. Afterimage: Drawing Through Process, The MIT Press, 1999. De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life, University of California Press, California, 1988. De Certeau, Michel. La invención de lo cotidiano. Artes de hacer. Translated by Alejandro Pescador, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico, 1996 Deleuze, Gilles. Postscript on the Societies of Control, OCTOBER 59, Winter 1992, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 3-7.
Delgado, Manuel. Sociendades movedizas. Pasos hacia una antropología de las calles. Anagrama. Colleción Argumentos, Barcelona, 2007. Dillon, Bryan. The End of the Line: Attitudes in Drawing, Hayward Gallery Publishing, 2009. Flick, Uwe, Ernst von Kardorff, Ines Steinke (Hg.), Qualitative Forschung. Ein Handbuch, Rowohlts Enzyklopädie, Hamburg, 2013. Freire, Paulo. Mentoring the mentor: a critical dialogue with Paulo Freire. P. Lang. New York, 1997. Frieling, Rudolf and Boris Groys. The Art of Participation: 1950 to Now, Thames & Hudson, 2008. Garner, Steve. Writing on Drawing. Essays on Drawing Practice and Research, Intellect Books, Bristol, 2012. Gysin, Béatrice. Wozu zeichnen?: Qualität und Wirkung der materialisierten Geste durch die Hand, Niggli, Sulgen, 2013. Havranek, Vit, Schaschi-Cooper, Sabine & Bettina Steinbrügg. The Need to Document, JRP Ringier, Kunsthaus Baselland, Halle für Kunst Lüneburg und Tranzit, Prag, 2005, 276 pages. Helguera, Pablo. Education for Socially Engaged Art. A Materials and Techniques Handbook. Jorge Pinto Books, New York, 2011. Holge Kube Ventura. Politische Kunst Begriffe in den 1990er Jahren in deutschsprachigen Raum, Vienna 2002. Holmes, Brian. La personalidad flexible. Por una nueva crítica cultural. Brumaria 7. Madrid, Diciembre 2006. Illich, Ivan. Deschooling Society, New York, Harper & Row, 1971. Kaye, Nick. Site-specific Art: performance, place and documentation, Routledge, 2000. Kaprow, Allan. Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life, University of California Press, 2003. Kester, Grant H. Conversation Pieces: Community and Communication in Modern Art, University of California Press, 2004. Krauss, Rosalind. Sculpture in the Expanded Field, October, Vol. 8. MIT Press. (Spring, 1979), pp. 30-44. Krauss, Rosalind. The cultural logic of the late Capitalism Museum. In Richard Hertz, Theories of Contemporary Art, Englewood: Prentice Hall. 1985. Kwon, Miwon. One Place After Another: Site-Specific Art And Locational Identity, MIT Press, 2002.
Lacy, Suzanne. Leaving Art: Writings on Performance, Politics and Publics, 19742007, Duke University Press, 2010. Lacy, Suzanne (ed.). Mapping the Terrain: New Genre Public Art, Seattle: Bay Press, 1995. Lammert, Angela. Räume der Zeichnung, Akademie der Kunst Berlin, 2005. Maslen Mick and Jack Southern. Drawingprojects. An Exploration of the Language of Drawing, Black Dog Publishing, London, 2011. Pardo, José Luis. Las formas de la exterioridad, Pre-Textos, Valencia, 1992. Robinson, Ken. Out of Our Minds, Capstone, Chichester, 2011. Schubert, Karsten & Daniel McClean (eds.). Dear Images: Art, Copyright and Culture, Ridinghouse, 2002. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Touching Feeling. Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Duke University Press, London, 2003. Spivak, Gayatri C. The Spivak Reader, Donna Landry/Gerald Maclean, New York/ London, Routledge, 1996. Spivak Gatatri C. Outside in the Teaching Machine, NewYork/London, Routledge,1993. Thompson, Nato. The Interventionists: Users’ Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life, MASS MoCA, 2006. Tönnies, Ferdinand. Communicat i associació, Edicions 62/La Caixa, Barcelona, 1994. Valli Marc & Ana Ibarra. Walk The Line. The Art of Drawing, Laurence King, London, 2013. Wittman, Barbara. Spuren erzeugen: Zeichnen und Schreiben als Verfahren der Selbstaufzeichnung, Diaphanes Verlag, 2009.
Links Anonyme Zeichner (Anonym Drawer) http://www.anonyme-zeichner.de/konzept/ Ai Wei Weiâ€™s collective drawing project http://www.moonmoonmoonmoon.com/#sphere Casas Humberto in Juxtapoz magazine http://www.juxtapoz.com/current/humberto-casas-juncas-school-desk-drawings Collection of sound projects and pieces http://www.everydaylistening.com Collective Drawing http://www.thefutureissocial.co.uk/index.php/2011/04/06/day-6-collective-drawing/ Doodling, a theory of everything http://teawithmcnair.typepad.com/tea_with_mcnair/2010/08/-doodling-a-theory-ofeverything.html Drawing as a collective activity http://www.furtherfield.org/features/articles/drawing-collective-activity Group studies http://www.area3.org.es/htmlsite/productdetails.asp?id=152 Sketchbook travelling project http://vamosdibujandoelcamino.com/ Socially Engaged Art, Critics and Discontents: An Interview with Claire Bishop www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2006/07/socially_engage.php Swarm sketch http://digitalistas.blogspot.ch/2006/04/swarmsketch-dibujo-colectivo.html http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/04/arts/design/04boxe.html?ex=1291352400&en=5b450f28782ae4c6&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=0 The Drawer http://www.thedrawer.net/index.php The Sketchbook Project http://www.sketchbookproject.com/sketchbookproject
The Concept of Expanded Drawing. On the Line as Collective Knowledge. Helena HernĂĄndez. Thesis. Master of Arts in Arts. Major Art in Public Spheres | Hochschule Luzern D & K
Additional Literature Adams, Don and Goldbard, Arlene. Crossroads: Reflections on the Politics of Culture, Talmage, CA: DNA Press, 1990. Augaitis, Daina; Falk, Lorna; Gilbert, Sylvie; Mosser, Mary Anne. Questions of Community: Artists, Audiences, Coalition; Banff Center Press, 1998. Baird, George and Mark Lewis, (eds.) Queues, Rendezvous, Riots: Questioning The Public In Art and Architecture, Walter Phillips Gallery, Banff Centre for the Arts: 1994. Cohen-Cruz, Jan (ed.) Radical Street Performance: An International Anthology, London: Routledge, 1998. Coutts, Glen and Jokela, Timo. Art, Community and Environment: Educational Perspectives, Intellect Ltd, 2008. Edelson, Bob. New American Street Art, Soho Books, 1999. Finkelpearl, Tom. Dialogues in Public Art, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. Goldbard, Arlene. New Creative Community: The Art of Cultural Development, New Village Press, 2006. Harding, Anna. Magic Moments: Collaboration Between Artists and Young People, Black Dog, 2005. Knight, Keith. Schwarzman, Mat. Beginnerâ€™s Guide to Community-Based Arts, Oakland, CA: New Village Press, 2005. Raven, Arlene (ed). Art in the Public Interest, NY: De Capo Press, 1993. Senie and Webster (eds.). Critical Issues in Public Art: Context and Controversy, Harper, 1992. Sommer, Robert. Street Art, NY: Links, 1975.
Image Credits Fig. 1. Photography taken by Helena Hernรกndez, 2013. Fig. 2. Taken from the article Sculpture in the Expanded Field by Rosalind Krauss. Fig. 3. http://foryourart.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/lacy_1threeweeksinmay.jpg Fig.4. http://arttattler.com/Images/NorthAmerica/Illinois/Chicago/Smart%20Museum/ Feast/Lacy_IntlDinner.jpg Fig. 5. http://www.amormunoz.net/index.php?/news/maquila-r4/ Fig. 6. http://www.amormunoz.net/index.php?/news/maquila-r4/ Fig. 7. http://www.katrin-stroebel.de/selected-works/videos-neu/ Fig. 8. http://www.designboom.com/art/ai-weiwei-olafur-eliasson-give-rise-to-mooninteractive-artwork-11-26-2013/ Fig. 9. http://universes-in-universe.de/car/istanbul/2003/antrepo1/img/macchi-01.jpg Fig. 10. http://www.antiatlas.net/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/08/FRANCISALYS_Sometimes-Doing-Something-Poetic-Can-Become-Political-and-SometimesDoing-Something-Political-Can-Become-Poetic.jpg Fig. 11. Scan from the book Mapping the Terrain: New Genre Public Art, Seattle: Bay Press, 1995 Fig. 12-15. Photography taken by Helena Hernรกndez, 2013. Fig. 16-17. Screenshots from Google Maps taken by Helena Hernรกndez, 2013. Fig. 18. Screenshots from Helena Hernรกndez projects, 2014. Fig. 19. Photography taken by Helena Hernรกndez, 2014.